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Sample records for animal suffering differ

  1. The brain functional networks associated to human and animal suffering differ among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A

    2010-05-26

    Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs.

  2. Skepticism, empathy, and animal suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltola, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. Resting on Wittgenstein and Husserl, it is argued that skepticism relies on a misguided epistemology and, thus, that key questions posed by it face the risk of absurdity. In the second part of the paper it is suggested that, instead of skepticism, empathy together with intersubjectivity be adopted. Edith Stein's take on empathy, along with contemporary findings, are explored, and the claim is made that it is only via these two methods of understanding that the suffering of nonhuman animals can be perceived.

  3. Silence and Denial in Everyday Life-The Case of Animal Suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Deidre

    2011-02-21

    How can we make sense of the fact that we live in a world where good people co-exist in silence about widespread animal suffering. How is it that sites of suffering such as laboratories, factory farms, abattoirs and animal transportation are all around us and yet we 'do not, in a certain sense, know about them' [1]. This 'not knowing' is one of the most difficult barriers for animal activists who must constantly develop new strategies in an attempt to catch public attention and translate it into action. Recent contributions from the 'sociology of denial' have elucidated many of the mechanisms involved in 'not knowing' in relation to human atrocities and genocide. In this context, 'denial' refers to the maintenance of social worlds in which an undesirable situation is unrecognized, ignored or made to seem normal [2]. These include different types of denial: personal, official and cultural, as well as the process of normalization whereby suffering becomes invisible through routinization, tolerance, accommodation, collusion and cover up. Denial and normalization reflect both personal and collective states where suffering is not acknowledged [3]. In this paper, I will examine insights from the sociology of denial and apply them to human denial and normalization of animal suffering. This will include an examination of denial which is both individual and social and the implications of these insights for theory and practice in the human/animal relationship.

  4. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Animal Therapy in Treating Children Suffering from Forms of Dysontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia V.

    2012-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of animal therapy using are discussed. Research of 30 case studies is displayed that pet therapy is a good therapeutic tool in approximately 60% of cases. To diagnose possible problems in families which have got a dog as a "therapist" for the child suffering from some or other form of dysontogenesis, the…

  5. Posthuman Ethics, Violence, Creaturely Suffering and the (Other Animal: Schnurre’s Postwar Animal Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kleinhans

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The othering of whole groups of people in a biopolitical discourse during the Third Reich has caused many to re-assess ethics that is based on specific categories. Adorno and Horkheimer reckoned with both Enlightenment as well as classical “humanist” discourses to question whether they imply structures that lead to fascism. In the wake of these arguments, classical humanist (or sometimes also called anthropocentric ethics have also been criticized by philosophers such as Agamben, Derrida, and Wolfe. It is thus time to work on posthuman(ist ethics that avoids the traps of a narrow human ethics and that is inclusive rather than exclusive. The short stories by postwar German author Wolfdietrich Schnurre, written in the wake of the Holocaust, reckon with a purely human-centered worldview and draw a bleak picture of an anthropocentrically structured and valued world. Under the surface that portrays a speciesist world, Schnurre employs a network of sub-discourses to “cave out” carno-phallogocentric discourses and point towards a different, post-human ethics. This paper examines how anthropocentric discourses of power lead to inhumane violence and how a different approach to the Other, based on empathy and shared vulnerability, might just move us beyond it.

  6. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days.

  7. Minimalizacja cierpienia zwierząt a wegetarianizm [Minimisation of animal suffering and vegetarianism

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    Krzysztof Saja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is a reductio ad absurdum of assumptions which are shared by a largenumber of followers of the animal welfare movement and utilitarianism. I arguethat even if we accept the main ethical arguments for a negative moral assessmentof eating meat we should not promote vegetarianism but rather beefism (eating onlymeat from beef cattle. I also argue that some forms of vegetarianism, i.e. ichtivegetarianism,can be much more morally worse than normal meat diet. In order to justifythese thesis I show that there are significant moral differences in the consumptionof animal products from different species.

  8. How long must they suffer? success and failure of our efforts to end the animal tragedy in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2015-05-01

    Scientific findings have revealed how much we have dramatically underestimated the intellectual, social and emotional capabilities of non-human animals, including their levels of self-consciousness and ability to suffer from psychological stress. In the 21st century, the field of animal ethics has evolved as a serious scientific discipline, and nowadays largely advocates that the way we treat animals, both legally and in practice, is morally wrong. Politics and legislation have reacted to these facts, to some extent, but neither current legislation nor current practice reflect the scientific and moral state-of-the-art. Too often, the will to change things is watered down in the decision-making process, e.g. in the drafting of legislation. In the field of animal experimentation there have been many genuine efforts by various players, to advance and apply the principles behind the Three Rs. However, the fundamental problem, i.e. the overall number of animals sacrificed for scientific purposes, has increased. Clearly, if we are serious about our will to regard animal experimentation as an ethical and societal problem, we have to put much more emphasis on addressing the question of how to avoid the use of animals in science. To achieve this goal, certain issues need to be considered: a) the present system of ethical evaluation of animal experiments, including testing for regulatory purposes, needs to be reformed and applied effectively to meet the legal and moral requirements; b) animal testing must be avoided in future legislation, and existing legislation has to be revised in that regard; c) resources from animal-based research have to re-allocated toward alternatives; and d) the academic curricula must be reformed to foster and integrate ethical and animal welfare issues.

  9. The difference between animal and plant (single)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    2012-03-01

    The plants have the cell walls, but the animal cells have not. This means the animals eat the other cells, but the plants make the cells by making the carbons into the oxygen. So the animals cells are the sword that kill the other cells. So the animal cells are together, but the cell walls mean they are making the same kinds from nothing to something. So plants' cells are the feeling that includes the sword of animals' cells. The feeling is from nothing. And this means the single is better than the dualism, as it has the arrow from the origin and this has the start and the end. So the animal and the plant are different from each other.

  10. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.

  11. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Frans W A

    2002-01-01

    The use of live animals for experiments plays an important role in many forms of research. This gives rise to an ethical dilemma. On the one hand, most of the animals used are sentient beings who may be harmed by the experiments. The research, on the other hand, may be vital for preventing, curing or alleviating human diseases. There is no consensus on how to tackle this dilemma. One extreme is the view taken by adherents of the so-called animal rights view. According to this view, we are never justified in harming animals for human purposes - however vital these purposes may be. The other extreme is the ruthless view, according to which animals are there to be used at our discretion. However, most people have a view situated somewhere between these two extremes. It is accepted that animals may be used for research - contrary to the animal rights view. However, contrary to the ruthless view, that is only accepted under certain conditions. The aim of this presentation is to present different ethical views which may serve as a foundation for specifying the circumstances under which it is acceptable to use animals for research. Three views serving this role are contractarianism, utilitarianism and a deontological approach. According to contractarianism, the key ethical issue is concern for the sentiments of other human beings in society, on whose co-operation those responsible for research depend. Thus it is acceptable to use animals as long as most people can see the point of the experiment and are not offended by the way it is done. According to utilitarianism, the key ethical issue is about the consequences for humans and animals. Thus it is justified to use animals for research if enough good comes out of it in terms of preventing suffering and creating happiness, and if there is no better alternative. In the deontological approach the prima facie duty of beneficence towards human beings has to be weighed against the prima facie duties not to harm animals and to

  12. Gender differences in sex life issues – A population-based study of migraine sufferers

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    Ojanlatva Ansa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is considered to have a negative influence on sex life. The present study was to analyse the perceptions of importance of and satisfaction with sex life as well as the expression of interest in sex among people having migraines in a prospective follow-up mail survey in 1998 and 2003. Methods The random sample was stratified according to gender and age in four age groups (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years. Altogether 25 898 individuals responded to the baseline and 19 626 to the follow-up questionnaire (75.8% response rate. We examined as to how the perceptions of sex life of those suffering from migraine changed during a 5-year follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the data of the responses on self-reported migraine in the baseline and follow-up surveys (N = 2 977, 79.2% women. Each person with migraine was assigned a gender- and age-matched control in the analysis. Results All three outcome variables tended to decrease in value. Importance of sex life was higher among men with migraine than among their controls. Among women migraine lessened interest in sex life. Conclusion Our findings suggested that migraine has a different impact on sex life among women from that among men.

  13. Differences in urinary trichloroethylene metabolites of animals.

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    Ogata,Masana

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in urinary excretion of trichloroethylene were studied in rabbits, rats and mice. Trichloretylene (1 m mole/kg was injected intra-peritoneally, then urinary trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol glucuronide were measured. The results were: 1. The ratio of total excretion of trichloroethylene metabolites to the administered trichloroethylene decreased in the order of mice, rats and rabbits. 2. The ratio of total trichloroethanol to trichloroacetic acid in urine decreased in the order of rabbits (69.2, mice (12.8 and rats (2.3. The high ratio in rabbits was due to the extremely small amount of trichloroacetic acid in the urine. 3. Differences in these two urinary metabolites in the three kinds of animals and in human subjects were discussed.

  14. Attention "Blinks" Differently for Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as "plant blindness," a term that is meant to encapsulate both the…

  15. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

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    Samantha J Ward

    Full Text Available Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI. The aims of this study were to (1 investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2 determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3 explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii, and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93. A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated

  16. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  17. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT.

  18. Aesthetic Consensus and Aesthetic Difference in Anime Art Creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that anime art has been existed as far back as the 1920s. While along with the continued development of china’s economy since the reform and opening up, anime art went into its rapid development stage. As we all know, aesthetic feeling differs from one person to another because of the differences of age, gender, geography, etc. Therefore, artistic value can only be demonstrated in the anime art when anime art can satisfy all different aesthetic feelings. The present thesis gives an analysis into the anime art creation from the perspective of aesthetic consensus and aesthetic difference, which can stimulate the sustainable development of anime art and inspire anime creators to become better and better in the field of anime and create more better works.

  19. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models

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    Amin Al-awar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans.

  20. Different Connotative Meanings of Animals in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文霞

    2009-01-01

    Connotative meanings of animals in Chinese and in English are usually different. These differences are the result of various cultural backgrounds, especially the cognition models, in shaping and developing Chinese and English. This paper illustrates the different connotative meanings of animals on the basis of classifying animals into two general categories: the Chinese culturally-loaded ones and common ones both in Chinese and in English.

  1. [Long-term evacuation after the nuclear accident in Fukushima ~Different daily living under low-dose radioactive suffering~].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    One year has passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident. Even currently, more than 150,000 evacuees in Fukushima Prefecture are forced to leave their home and to move throughout Japan. Because of the limited space of temporary housing and the weakening of personal ties in local communities, many families need to move and have separate lives. As a consequence, Fukushima has a serious shortage of caregivers for the elderly. There have been more than 1,300 disaster-related deaths due to shock and stress after long-distance drifts from town to town. Most of the victims were the elderly, who collapsed, caught pneumonia, suffered stroke and heart attack. Concerns about the safety of low-dose radiation exposure deprived the elderly of important contact with playing outside with their grandchildren in Fukushima. Fear of invisible radioactive contamination inactivated outdoor activities such as farming, dairy, fishing, gardening, hiking and wild-vegetable/mushroom hunting, although most of these activities have been traditionally supported by the wisdom of the elderly. Several recent questionnaire investigations revealed that older evacuees wish to go home even if the environment has significant contamination. In contrast, more than half of younger generation with small children have a different attitude. Nuclear accident brought serious social pains although it did not acutely hurt our bodies.

  2. The multifaceted phenomenon of animation: Analysing the background and aims of different types of animations

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    Anna Dudová

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The word animation is used in different contexts (film, theatre, computers,culture. The object of this study is animation in the context of social pedagogy, socialwork and pastoral care. The importance of animation in education lies in nondirectiveeducational influence, which is enabled by the use of the animation approach. Theessence of animation is derived not only from the etymology of the word animation(imparting life, but also from its understanding in the particular historical development.The authors analysed in detail the development of animation in France andthen in other countries (Italy, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Czech Republic,Slovakia. They drew on foundational works of renowned authors in the field (Gillet,Opaschowski, Pollo as well as on the comparison of the individual – often fragmented– bits of information that can be found on animation in educational literature. Theresult is an attempt to summarise common and different attributes of various typesof animation in the social science fields in Europe. It seems that all current types ofanimation are created on foundations of at least two of the four social variables: thesociety – education – culture – art.

  3. Integration of animal behaviors under stresses with different time courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun Zheng; Xigeng Zheng

    2014-01-01

    We used animal models of“forced swim stress”and“chronic unpredictable stress”, and tried to reveal whether a passive coping style of high lfotation behavior in forced swim stress predicts an-hedonia behavior after chronic unpredictable stress, and whether the dopamine system regulates lfoating and anhedonia behaviors. Our results conifrmed that depression-prone rats use“lfoating behavior”as a coping strategy in forced swim stress and more readily suffer from anhedonia during chronic unpredictable stress. Intraperitoneal injection or nucleus accumbens microin-jection of the dopamine 2/3 receptor subtype agonist ropinirole reduced lfoating behaviors in depression-prone animals, but increased sucrose preference in rats showing anhedonia. These data indicate that lfoating behavior is a defensive mode that is preferred by susceptible individ-uals under conditions of acute stress. Simultaneously, these animals more readily experienced anhedonia under long-term stress;that is, they were more readily affected by depression. Our results suggest that dopamine 2/3 receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens play an important role in lfoating behaviors and anhedonia.

  4. Do plants and animals differ in phenotypic plasticity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renee M Borges

    2005-02-01

    This paper compares the flexibility in the nexus between phenotype and genotype in plants and animals. These taxa although considered to be fundamentally different are found to be surprisingly similar in the mechanisms used to achieve plasticity. Although non-cognitive behaviour occurs in plants, its range is limited, while morphological and developmental plasticity also occur to a considerable extent in animals. Yet both plants and animals are subject to unique constraints and thus need to find unique solutions to functional problems. A true comparison between the plant and animal phenotype would be a comparison between plants and sessile photo-synthesizing colonial invertebrates. Such comparisons are lacking. However, they would provide important insights into the adaptive significance of plasticity in these groups. It is also suggested that a comparison of inflexible traits in these groups would provide an understanding of the constraints, as well as the costs and benefits, of a plastic versus non-plastic phenotype in plants and animals.

  5. Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, Simon M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of

  6. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Koob, George F

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of "craving") show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences.

  7. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

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    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  8. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  9. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.

  10. [The essence of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba, F

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the essence of suffering on the basis of the philosophy of Saint Thomas of Aquinas. The author sets out the definition of suffering and, subsequently, the types and forms of suffering that the human being can undergo.

  11. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  12. The domestic cat representation in different socio-cultural settings and the connections with animal ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Clemente Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat has been symbolically represented over time in a very different way, with connotations sometimes positive and sometimes negative. It is also paradoxical the way that society historically interacts with this feline so, its symbolic representation and its direct interaction with the human seem to go together. In the present, the cat suffers a lot with cruelty acts, abandonment and death, including reduced rate of adoption. Thus, this paper aims to briefly describe the beliefs and ritual uses of cats in different cultures, reflecting on how the symbolism of this feline relates to ethical issues. Education programs and the proper implementation of the laws are identified as important factors to modify this anthropocentric and speciesist paradigm inconsistent with the animal ethics perspectives. 

  13. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction.

  14. 'If you are empathetic you care about both animals and people. I am a nurse and I don't like to see suffering anywhere': Findings from 103 healthcare professionals on attitudes to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-11-28

    This report presents qualitative and quantitative data from 103 UK healthcare professionals describing attitudes to the current system of animal testing (to produce medicines and health interventions). To gather qualitative testimony, these healthcare professionals were organised into six separate focus groups (of 18, 17, 17, 15, 17 and 19 participants) where they were asked 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focussed on attitudes to the current system rather than attitudes to animal testing in general. The healthcare professionals also completed a quantitative attitude scale questionnaire consisting of 20 statements (all favourable) towards the system of animal testing as currently practised. Statements such as 'Testing agencies abide by legislation to safeguard animal welfare' were displayed and the healthcare professionals were invited to agree or disagree with these statements. The results from both the quantitative and qualitative data suggest that healthcare professionals were opposed to the current system of animal experimentation.

  15. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  16. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  17. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present.

  18. Plant and animal stem cells: similar yet different

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Sabatini, S.

    2014-01-01

    The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into n

  19. Plant and animal stem cells: similar yet different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidstra, Renze; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2014-05-01

    The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into new tissues. Plant stem cell niches are located within the meristems, which are organized structures that are responsible for most post-embryonic development. The continuous organ production that is characteristic of plant growth requires a robust regulatory network to keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating progeny. Components of this network have now been elucidated and provide a unique opportunity for comparing strategies that were developed in the animal and plant kingdoms, which underlie the logic of stem cell behaviour.

  20. On the Differences and Similarities of Animal Words in Chinese and English Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶雨夏

    2011-01-01

    In both Chinese and English, there are many idioms which have something to do with animals. Some animal words in the idioms of both languages have the similar meanings, cultural connotations and the range of usage because animals in the world have the same attributes and features. However, owing to the different history, social backgrounds, customs and religions, differences are bound to appear in the idioms with animals words in both languages. This paper mainly discusses the similarities and differences of animal words in Chinese and English idioms. It also focuses on the ana/ysis of the causes of the differences from the following aspects: history, religion, and geography environment.

  1. Colostrum from Different Animal Species – A Product for Health Status Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Ahmadi; Oana Boldura; Cornelia Milovanov; Dorel Dronca; Călin Mircu; Ioan Hutu; Sorina Popescu; Ioan Padeanu; Camelia Tulcan

    2016-01-01

    The first milk after birth is also known as colostrum. The composition of animal and human colostrum depends very much on different factors such as: animal species, animal breed and genetical characteristics, feeding program, diet. Bovine colostrum is used in different therapies due to its composition in nutraceuticals, but also because the cow gives high quantity colostrum compared to other animal species (goats or ewes). The immunological properties of colostrum are acknowledged in various ...

  2. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  3. High hydrostatic pressure tolerance of four different anhydrobiotic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Daiki D; Iwata, Ken-Ichi; Kawai, Kiyoshi; Koseki, Shigenobu; Okuda, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2009-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can induce physical changes in DNA, proteins, and lipids, causing lethal or sublethal damage to organisms. However, HHP tolerance of animals has not been studied sufficiently. In this study, HHP tolerance of four species of invertebrate anhydrobiotes (the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum, a nematode species in the family Plectidae, larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki, and cysts of Artemia franciscana), which have the potential to enter anhydrobiosis upon desiccation, were investigated by exposing them to 1.2 GPa for 20 minutes. This exposure killed the anhydrobiotes in their ordinary hydrated state, but did not affect their survival in the anhydrobiotic state. The results indicated that the hydrated anhydrobiotes were vulnerable to HHP, but that HHP of 1.2 GPa was not sufficient to kill them in anhyrdobiosis.

  4. Intrinsic material property differences in bone tissue from patients suffering low-trauma osteoporotic fractures, compared to matched non-fracturing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennin, S; Desyatova, A; Turner, J A; Watson, P A; Lappe, J M; Recker, R R; Akhter, M P

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporotic (low-trauma) fractures are a significant public health problem. Over 50% of women over 50yrs. of age will suffer an osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetimes. While current therapies reduce skeletal fracture risk by maintaining or increasing bone density, additional information is needed that includes the intrinsic material strength properties of bone tissue to help develop better treatments, since measurements of bone density account for no more than ~50% of fracture risk. The hypothesis tested here is that postmenopausal women who have sustained osteoporotic fractures have reduced bone quality, as indicated with measures of intrinsic material properties compared to those who have not fractured. Transiliac biopsies (N=120) were collected from fracturing (N=60, Cases) and non-fracturing postmenopausal women (N=60, age- and BMD-matched Controls) to measure intrinsic material properties using the nano-indentation technique. Each biopsy specimen was embedded in epoxy resin and then ground, polished and used for the nano-indentation testing. After calibration, multiple indentations were made using quasi-static (hardness, modulus) and dynamic (storage and loss moduli) testing protocols. Multiple indentations allowed the median and variance to be computed for each type of measurement for each specimen. Cases were found to have significantly lower median values for cortical hardness and indentation modulus. In addition, cases showed significantly less within-specimen variability in cortical modulus, cortical hardness, cortical storage modulus and trabecular hardness, and more within-specimen variability in trabecular loss modulus. Multivariate modeling indicated the presence of significant independent mechanical effects of cortical loss modulus, along with variability of cortical storage modulus, cortical loss modulus, and trabecular hardness. These results suggest mechanical heterogeneity of bone tissue may contribute to fracture resistance

  5. Trauma, suffering and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casas Soberón, Elena; Berliner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the challenge of using a conceptual framework to understand traumatic stress and still be open to listening to the stories of suffering, of lamentation, grief, hope, and values of people being oppressed by organised violence. The complexity of responses to the losses caused ...

  6. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Different Animal Hosts and Different Geographic Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidaric, V.; Janezic, S.; Indra, A.

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic sporogenic bacterium traditionally associated with human nosocomial infections, and animals have been recognized as an important potential reservoir for human infections (Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2013). Ribotype 078 is often reported in animals but accordin...... was to establish an international C. difficile animal collection with one PCR ribotype per species per country/laboratory and to compare PCR ribotypes across animal hosts and countries....... to recent studies the overlap between PCR ribotypes found in humans and animals seems to be increasing (Bakker et al., 2010; Gould and Limbago, 2010; Janezic et al., 2012; Keel et al., 2007; Koene et al., 2011). However, genetic diversity among animal strains remains poorly understood. The aim of our work...

  7. The Translation of Idioms of Animals and Plants in Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永智

    2016-01-01

    We all know that idioms which contain plants and animals play an essential role in our daily life, an idiom full of cul-tural connotation can polish one's words and make it more lively. There are a large number of animals and plants both in Chi-nese and English idioms, and the similarities and dissimilarities of figurative images between English and Chinese idioms con-taining with animals and plants can reflect different characteristics of Chinese and Western cultures. This thesis introduces the re-lation between culture and translation, and then gives some examples to illustrate the same animals and plants'similarity and dis-similarity in idioms between Chinese and English. The thesis also enumerates a lot of idioms of animals and plants which gives reader a deeper understanding to idioms and have a clear definition about the connotation of animals and plants in different cul-ture and introduces the main methods of translation.

  8. Distance and Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    This thesis explores the history of humanitarian organizations as agents in public life. When taking on the role as mediators between Western publics and distant sufferers, what conception of social responsibility do humanitarian organizations promote? What are the consequences of the institutional...... context of these organizations on the form of social responsibility that they are able to promote? In a historical perspective, what changes in these conceptualizations can we observe and to what extent can we understand them as resulting from institutional changes? These questions are asked...... with the assumption that the discourse of humanitarian organizations is at once a reflection of and a force in the configuration of dispositions in target publics. Enquiring about the history of humanitarian organizations as agents in public life, thus, means enquiring about the ways in which over the past 40 years...

  9. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals.

  10. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  11. The Bioenergetics of Isolated Mitochondria from Different Animal Models for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Dairo A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic alteration characterized by a higher than normal blood glucose level. For the experimental study of the metabolic changes that occur during this illness, various animal models have been introduced: alloxan- and streptozotocin-injected animals, as well as depancreatized animals, as models for type 1 diabetes, and high-fat fed diabetic animals and laboratory animals with genetic diabetes as models for type 2 diabetes. All these models have been used to investigate specific events on the cellular and organ levels that occur as a consequence of diabetes. In particular, mitochondrial energy metabolism has been extensively studied using these experimental models for diabetes. The experimental results for the bioenergetics of isolated mitochondria harvested from different animal models for diabetes, with the exception of those obtained with high-fat fed diabetic animals, are conflicting; nevertheless, many researchers now consider mitochondrial energy dysfunction as one of the direct causes of the serious complications, in various organs and tissues, that are exhibited as a result of this illness. For this reason, it is important that future research clarify the true energy functional state of these organelles isolated from diabetic animals. In the present paper, the published data on this controversial but important issue of the energetic functioning of the mitochondria isolated from diabetic animals is reviewed. This paper also includes commentary on the status of current research and makes useful suggestions for the future direction of research on this topic.

  12. Animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences in novelty-seeking and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Cornelius R; Ho, Ying-Jui; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2008-10-01

    The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences. This overview will be focused on animal models of unselected subjects (i.e. natural variance of a specific behaviour within a given population) and selected breeding for a specific behaviour. Accordingly, an outline of the personality model from Gray and McNaughton of individual behaviour in animals is given first. Then, a comprehensive overview of past and current animal models in novelty-seeking (i.e. psychomotor activation and exploration behaviour) based on systematic individual differences and its relationship to addiction is presented. Third, this will be followed by a comprehensive overview of individual differences in previous and present animal models for anxiety. Finally, critical aspects of such approaches in animal research are discussed, and suggestions are given where to go from here.

  13. Producing patient-avatar identification in animation video information on spinal anesthesia by different narrative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Vesterby, Martin; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup

    2016-06-01

    Visual approaches to health information reduce complexity and may bridge challenges in health literacy. But the mechanisms and meanings of using animated video in communication with patients undergoing surgery are not well described. By comparing two versions of a two-dimensional animated video on spinal anesthesia, this study tested the patient-avatar identification within two different narrative models. To explore the perspectives of total hip arthroplasty, we employed qualitative methods of interviews and ethnographic observation. The animated presentation of the spinal anesthesia procedure was immediately recognized by all participants as reflecting their experience of the procedure independent of the narrative form. The avatar gender did not affect this identification. We found no preference for either narrative form. This study supports the potential of animation video in health informatics as a didactic model for qualifying patient behavior. Animation video creates a high degree of identification that may work to reduce pre-surgical anxiety.

  14. The Paradox of Modern Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    . According to Buddhism, existence is suffering, and each persons desire to reach a state of nothingness (Nirvana) causes them to return over and over through reincarnation, in order to work out their karma. In Christianity suffering is inseparable from man's earthly existence, and it must serve to overcome...... evil and strengthen goodness in the person who is able to recognize the divine mercy in its call. Through faith man can discover the redemptive suffering of Christ and rediscover his own sufferings enriched with a new meaning. The more one suffers in this life in the service of God, the more prepared...... one is to achieve salvation in an existence after death....

  15. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, M

    2009-04-01

    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.

  16. [Distribution of the different patterns of aging over the system of animal world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Since the system of animal world reflects evolutionary trends, an analysis of distribution of patterns of aging over this system provides information on the causes of the formation of differences among them. In this paper the system of the main animal groups in form of a table is presented, and the distribution of patterns demonstrating minimum and maximum of aging is discussed. Meanwhile the colonial animals are considered as a "minimum of aging", the animals demonstrating drastic self-liquidation after reproduction are considered as a "maximum of aging" (the most well-known example is the pink salmon). It is shown, that as far as the degree of difference from the simplest ancestor increases in process of evolution, the increase of the manifestations of aging takes place. Slow aging of relatively simple organisms cannot be a direct source of measures to prevent aging of complex ones.

  17. Transnational Organizational Considerations for Sociocultural Differences in Ethics and Virtual Team Functioning in Laboratory Animal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working wit...

  18. Suffering bodies in 2 Maccabees 3

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the role that bodies play in different narratives implied in 2 Maccabees 3. In order to do this, a possible dominant narrative was constructed in which the motif of suffering bodies is shown. In the same way, a challenging narrative wherein the alleviation of suffering bodies is portrayed is also revealed. Furthermore the dynamics behind these two narratives, e.g. when the Jewish deity was willing to relieve this suffering, is also investigated. It was found that ...

  19. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  20. Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the effectiv

  1. [On the colonization of brackish water by marine animals of different ecological origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, Hermann

    1968-11-01

    Since animals of the marine littoral and supralitoral zones tolerate greater salinity-fluctuations than those of deep water layers they are far better adapted to colonize estuaries and brackish waters.This is why there live only few animals from the seabottom in brackish water even if it is very deep. Only animals from the littoral invade water with low or fluctuationg salinities.Those which are not restricted to surface regions (by their food - many depend on green plants) extend their range in brackish waters into deep layers since there is almost no competition.Therefore the bottom communities of the sea differ very much from the bottom communities of deep brackish waters.The extension of the range of marine littoral animals in deep brackish basins ("Brackwassersubmergenz") therefore is characteristic for deep brackish-water-zones and no special case of the Baltic Sea.

  2. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  3. Do Romanian Farmers and Consumers Have Different Views on Farm Animal Welfare Issues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on farmers and consumers from the Western Romania, using the questionnaires developed within the framework of WELANIMAL project in year 2009. The aim of this paper was to identify if there are any differences between the two social categories regarding the issues of farm animal welfare. A number of seven common questions were indentified in the questionnaires of farmers and consumers, and a comparative study between these categories was conducted. Farmers considered that dairy cows (70.1%, laying hens (46.8% and pigs (24.7% need their current welfare level to be improved, while consumers considered that the welfare status of all the farm animal species mentioned in the questionnaire needed to improved. Both farmers and consumers considered that sometimes or very rarely could find information about the rearing system on the labels of animal products. Farmers believed that EU legislation exists mostly for farm animal transportation (34.8% and slaughtering (30.5%, while consumers considered that EU legislation exists for slaughtering (34.8% and rearing conditions (32.8%. Both farmers and consumers considered that in Romania the animal welfare/protection receives not enough importance (61.3% and 77.4%, respectively, while in the EU this is better than in other parts of the world (46.7% and 50%, respectively. It was concluded that farmers and consumers have either similar of divergent views on specific issues of farm animal welfare.

  4. Influence of Species Differences on the Neuropathology of Transgenic Huntington's Disease Animal Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Li; Shihua Li

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have revealed much about the pathogenesis of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases and proved to be a useful tool for uncovering therapeutic targets.Huntington's disease is a well-characterized neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat,which results in expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (HTT).Similar CAG/glutamine expansions are also found to cause eight other neurodegenerative diseases that affect distinct brain regions in an agedependent manner.Identification of this CAG/glutamine expansion has led to the generation of a variety of transgenic animal models.Of these different animal models,transgenic mice have been investigated extensively,and they show similar neuropathology and phenotypes as seen in their respective diseases.The common pathological hallmark of age-dependent neurodegeneration is the formation of aggregates or inclusions consisting of misfolded proteins in the affected brain regions; however,overt or striking neurodegeneration and apoptosis have not been reported in most transgenic mouse models for age-dependent diseases,including HD.By comparing the neuropathology of transgenic HD mouse,pig,and monkey models,we found that mutant HTT is more toxic to larger animals than mice,and larger animals also show neuropathology that has not been uncovered by transgenic mouse models.This review will discuss the importancc of transgenic large animal models for analyzing the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and developing effective treatments.

  5. Underlying differences between conscientious omnivores and vegetarians in the evaluation of meat and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-04-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important options for those reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism/veganism (i.e., veg*nism), the avoidance of animal flesh/all animal products; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has recently received much attention in the social science literature, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as COs have been virtually nonexistent. The present research sought to investigate possible underlying attitudinal differences between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to veg*ns, COs evaluated animals less favorably, meat more favorably, and were lower in idealism, misanthropy, and ingroup identification. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences between COs and veg*ns in the perceived acceptability of killing animals for food were mediated by beliefs about animals and meat. The discussion largely speculates on the causal direction of these effects.

  6. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  7. Prevalent serotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolated from different animal and avian species in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A A; Shivachandra, S B; Biswas, A; Singh, V P; Singh, Vijendra P; Srivastava, S K

    2004-11-01

    Identification and estimation of the prevalence of Pasteurella multocida organisms in different animal and avian species in India during November 2000 to July 2003 was carried out. Out of 418 samples collected from different outbreaks suspected to be caused by P. multocida, a total of 206 bacterial cultures were identified as P. multocida on the basis of cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. All the 206 cultures were isolated from different domestic animal species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit), avian species (chicken, duck, quail, turkey, goose) and wild animals such as leopard and deer. Serotyping of P. multocida cultures revealed the presence of various serotypes (A:1, A:3, A:1,3, A:4, B:2, D:1 and -:1) among the livestock population. P. multocida polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay applied on different forms of bacterial cultures (bacterial culture lysate, direct bacterial colony and mixed bacterial culture lysate) yielded an amplified product of approximately 460 bp specific for P. multocida. The results of PCR assay correlated well with conventional methods of identification. The present investigation revealed the presence of varied serotypes among livestock and PCR assay was found to be useful for rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of pasteurellosis in animals and avian species.

  8. Mercury Pollution in Cricket in Different Biotopes Suffering from Pollution by Zinc Smelting%锌冶炼不同群落生境蟋蟀汞污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冬梅; 李昕馨; 罗庆

    2012-01-01

    Total mercury contents in cricket bodies were studied in different biotopes in the surrounding of Huludao Zinc Plant to discuss the mercury distribution characteristics in cricket and to reveal the effects of environmental mercury accumulation in the short life-cycle insects through comparing cricket with other insect species.The average mercury content in cricket was 0.081 mg·kg-1 and much higher than those in the control sites(0.012 mg·kg-1 in average) in different biotopes.Mercury contents were found in the order of cricket headwingthorax ≈ abdomenleg.Mercury contents in cricket bodies varied greatly with sample sites.Significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in cricket and the distance from the pollution source as well as the mercury contents in plant stems.No significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in soil and in cricket bodies.Mercury contents in cricket were lower than those in cicadae,similar to those in other insects with shorter life-cycle periods.%研究了葫芦岛锌厂周围不同群落生境蟋蟀汞含量,比较了蟋蟀与其它昆虫汞含量的差异,探讨了汞在不同群落蟋蟀体内的分布特征.结果表明,蟋蟀汞含量很高,平均值为0.081 mg.kg-1,远高于对照点群落汞含量(0.012 mg.kg-1);蟋蟀体内汞的分布特征为头〉翅膀〉胸≈腹〉足.不同群落生境中蟋蟀汞含量差异明显,蟋蟀汞含量与距离污染源的远近、植物茎汞存在显著的相关关系.与土壤汞之间无明显的相关关系.蟋蟀汞含量低于生命周期较长的蝉汞含量,与生命周期较短的其它昆虫相近.

  9. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Zheng-juan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(Pin animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manureswere 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manuresand the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29, compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P, NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P, NaOH(NaOH-Pand HCl(HCl-P. The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pin total P(>60%, but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in

  10. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M Concepción; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Sánchez, Sergio; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Navarro-Gonzalez, Nora; Serrano, Emmanuel; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Marco, Ignasi; Fernández-Garayzabal, José-Francisco; Mateos, Ana; Vidal, Dolors; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). Genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (tetracycline resistance in ST398 and clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistance in ST1) suggest that the MRSA found probably originated in livestock (ST398) or humans (ST1). This is the first report of MRSA carriers in free-living wild animals in Europe. Although our data showed that MRSA prevalence is currently low, free-living wild animals might act as reservoir and represent a potential risk for human health.

  11. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France)]. E-mail: Visvikis.Dimitris@univ-brest.fr; Lefevre, T. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Lamare, F. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, University Hospital Medical School, F-29609 Brest (France); Kontaxakis, G. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Santos, A. [ETSI Telecomunicacion Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n 28040, Madrid (Spain); Darambara, D. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-20

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems.

  12. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EBVs obtained with alternative recording schemes showed different degrees of Spearman correlation with EBVs obtained using the monthly recording scheme. These correlations ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. A reduction in accuracy and intensity of selection could be anticipated if these alternative schemes are used; more research in this area is needed to reduce the costs of test-day recording.

  13. Colostrum from Different Animal Species – A Product for Health Status Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The first milk after birth is also known as colostrum. The composition of animal and human colostrum depends very much on different factors such as: animal species, animal breed and genetical characteristics, feeding program, diet. Bovine colostrum is used in different therapies due to its composition in nutraceuticals, but also because the cow gives high quantity colostrum compared to other animal species (goats or ewes. The immunological properties of colostrum are acknowledged in various studies. Due to its immunoglobiline content, it is an alternative therapy in immunity enhancement. Colostrum is also used in athletes’ supplementation plan with very good results in their competition performance. Dry matter composition of cow, goat and ewe’s colostrum can give very good information about the nutritional composition, especially proteins. Thus, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins are significantly higher in colostrum right after parturition and decrease very much in time in mature milk. Lactose – in most of the studies – presents an increase in concentration from colostrum to milk. Our study reflects the highest content of dry matter in ewe colostrum, with significant decrease in goat and cow. Total lipid content was highest also in ewe’s colostrum, lower in cow’s, and the lowest in goat colostrum. In most samples, minerals (copper, manganese, zinc had – the highest concentration in colostrum milking with a decrese from the 6 hour colostrum to the 48 hour colostrum collected after parturition. Iron composition increases in ewe colostrum from the 6 hours to 48 hours.

  14. Sex differences in animal models of schizophrenia shed light on the underlying pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel Anne

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia are apparent in almost all features of the illness, from incidence and mean age of onset to symptomatology, course of illness and response to pharmacological treatments. Understanding how men and women with schizophrenia differ provides significant clues into the pathophysiology of the disorder. Animal models are powerful tools when dissecting the molecular biology which underlies behavioural disturbances, and allow structured comparisons of biological sex differences without the social environmental gender influence that so often confounds human sex comparison studies. This review will provide a summary of sex differences described in developmental, genetic and drug-induced animal models of schizophrenia and will link sex-specific molecular and behavioural phenotypes of these models in an attempt to unravel the role that sex plays in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Both sex and stress hormones interact to shape the developing brain and behaviour and animal models of schizophrenia that include both sexes provide significant insight into the complexities of these interactions and can direct toward novel therapeutic strategies.

  15. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development.

  16. [Preparation of reactants for the detection of proteins from different animal species by immunodiffusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordal de Bobbi, M E; Petracca, A; Moro, A A

    1985-01-01

    Qualitative identification of fresh ground meat samples of beef, sheep, pork, horse and rabbit has been made by the double agar gel diffusion test (method of Ouchterlony) and by immunoelectrophoresis. The reagents used were: 1) Antigens: saline meat extracts from different animal species, saline meat mixture extracts and whole sera from the different animal species. Meat extracts and sera were controlled by electrophoresis and the amounts of protein were estimated by the method of Lowry; 2) Antibodies: multivalent antisera anti-bovine, anti-ovine, anti-porcine and anti-equine, were obtained by immunization of rabbits with an emulsion of 1 vol of whole serum and 1 vol of Freund complete adjuvant; anti-rabbit serum was obtained by immunization of rats; antisera were controlled by the double agar gel diffusion test and by immunoelectrophoresis. To remove cross-reacting antibodies, when it was necessary, antisera were adsorbed.

  17. ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN CASE OF POLYTRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Pidruchna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background.  Associated injury is a worldwide social and economic problem. Age related aspects of endogenous intoxication are not studied comprehensively. Annually, from 44 000 to 65 000 citizens die because of traumatic injuries. As a result, this number increased by 32.6% for the last 10 years.     The detoxification system, as a component of the functional systems of the organism, experiences significant changes in case of polytrauma. Objective. The study was aimed to discover pathogenetic peculiarities of the multiple trauma in age aspect in different disease periods and to explore the level of endogenous intoxication in this condition. Methods. The experiments were performed on 72 white male rats aged 3, 6 and 12 months, which underwent simulation of severe skeletal trauma and examination of the contents of middle mass molecules and endogenous intoxication index (markers of endogenous intoxication in 1, 4 and 24 hours after the associated injury. Results. The most significant increase of the middle mass molecules was fixed in 24 hours after modeling of severe skeletal injuries in all groups of animals, especially it was the most pronounced in 12-month-old animals. The erythrocyte intoxication index reached the highest level in 4 hours after the injury, its increase was most significant in sexually mature adult animals. Conclusion. A significant increasing of endogenous intoxication markers in 12-month-old rats, if compared to 3- and 6-month-old animals, can be caused by the decrease in compensatory protection mechanisms.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING GRAPHIC ANIMATION COURSEWARE FOR STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT COGNITIVE STYLES AND SPATIAL VISUAL ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rizal Madar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to examine the effectiveness of using graphic animation courseware on pre and post test performance achievement in Electronic System 1 subject among students undergoing Certificate of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education Polytechnics. These students have different Cognitive Styles (Field Independent & Field Dependent and Spatial Visual Abilities (High Visual and Low Visual. The achievement performance of this pre and post test was obtained from students who apply graphic animation courseware (experimental group and conventional (control group as their learning styles. The research samples comprised of 138 semester 1 students undergoing Certificate of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in the Department of Electrical Engineering, MOHE polytechnics. Two MOHE polytechnics were involved in this research, which are Central and Southern Zone. The experimental group consisted of students from Southern Zone, while the control group recruited students from Central Zone. Quasi-experimental with 2 x 2 factorial (Cognitive style x spatial visual ability design was applied using quantitative data. Data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics which are mean, standard deviation, and independent samples T-test. A significant value of 0.05 was set for data reporting. Overall research finding shows that ; there was a significant difference in students achievement with Cognitive Styles of FI, FD, VT and VR where the experimental group were found better than the control group ; there was significant differences in the achievement of students with the characteristics of FIVT, FIVR, FDVT and FDVR where the experimental group showed a better result compared to the control group and ; the elements (Interface Design, Interaction Design, Motivation and User Friendliness in the Electronic System 1 graphic animation courseware assist in students learning achievement

  19. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  20. Suffering bodies in 2 Maccabees 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre J. Jordaan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the role that bodies play in different narratives implied in 2 Maccabees 3. In order to do this, a possible dominant narrative was constructed in which the motif of suffering bodies is shown. In the same way, a challenging narrative wherein the alleviation of suffering bodies is portrayed is also revealed. Furthermore the dynamics behind these two narratives, e.g. when the Jewish deity was willing to relieve this suffering, is also investigated. It was found that the Jewish deity responds positively when his high priest and his nation are in unison apropos their worship, and are willing to counter foreign invaders of the temple and their ideologies. To come to this conclusion the narrative therapeutic approach, as used by Epston and White, was applied to 2 Maccabees 3. This approach to interpretation is quite unique.

  1. STUDY ON LUNG DOSE FOR DIFFERENT ANIMALS BY INHALATION OF SHORT—LIVED RADON DAUGHTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素云; 张升慧; 等

    1994-01-01

    The dose distribution in the lung is inhomogeneous.The dose to the basal cell layer of trachea and main bronchi is much higher than the dose to total lung both for rabbits at different ages and for different animals.A maximum value of the dose to lung tissue for rabbits at ages of 20-40d is observed.The dose decreases with increasing body weight.The relationship between the dose and body weight can be descreibed by a power function.The dose to total lung increases exponentially with the minute breathing volume per unit of lung weight.

  2. Polar delivery in plants; commonalities and differences to animal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Urszula; Fendrych, Matyaš; Friml, Jiři

    2014-04-16

    Although plant and animal cells use a similar core mechanism to deliver proteins to the plasma membrane, their different lifestyle, body organization and specific cell structures resulted in the acquisition of regulatory mechanisms that vary in the two kingdoms. In particular, cell polarity regulators do not seem to be conserved, because genes encoding key components are absent in plant genomes. In plants, the broad knowledge on polarity derives from the study of auxin transporters, the PIN-FORMED proteins, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In animals, much information is provided from the study of polarity in epithelial cells that exhibit basolateral and luminal apical polarities, separated by tight junctions. In this review, we summarize the similarities and differences of the polarization mechanisms between plants and animals and survey the main genetic approaches that have been used to characterize new genes involved in polarity establishment in plants, including the frequently used forward and reverse genetics screens as well as a novel chemical genetics approach that is expected to overcome the limitation of classical genetics methods.

  3. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Milan; Lazetic, Bogosav; Poljacki, Mirjana; Djuran, Verica; Matic, Aleksandra; Gajinov, Zorica

    2009-05-01

    Wound healing is a very complex process, some phases of which have only recently been explained. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields can modulate this process in a non-thermal way. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of constant and pulsed electromagnetic fields and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in experimental animals. The experiment was conducted on 120 laboratory rats divided into four groups of 30 animals each (constant electromagnetic field, pulsed electromagnetic field, LLLT and control group). It lasted for 21 days. Under the influence of the constant electromagnetic field the healing of the skin defect was accelerated in comparison with the control group. The difference was statistically significant in all the weeks of the experiment at the P electromagnetic field (P electromagnetic fields have a promoting effect on the wound healing process.

  4. [Comparative study on hepatic and intestinal pathological changes in different animals with schistosomiasis japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Cheng, R; Zeng, X; Yi, X; Luo, X; Wang, L

    1995-01-01

    The pathological changes of livers and intestines were compared among cats, dogs and rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae for three months. The resuults showed that the most serious lesions were seen in rabbits while the slightest were in cats. The granulomatous response was more distinct in livers than in intestines in all the three animals. The increment ratio of egg granuloma in livers was 3.52, 2.64 and 1.81 in rabbits, dogs and cats, respectively. The eggs were deposited singly or in strings, few granuloma formation was observed in the intestines. In addition to inflammatory infiltration, swelling and/or dropping of mucosa the gland destruction and ulcer were also observed in the mucosa. The investigation demonstrated that pathological lesions varied in different animal species.

  5. Age-Related Differences in Susceptibility to Carcinogenesis: A Quantitative Analysis of Empirical Animal Bioassay Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, Dale; Goble, Robert; Russ, Abel; Chu, Margaret; Ericson, Jen

    2004-01-01

    In revising cancer risk assessment guidelines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analyzed animal cancer bioassay data over different periods of life. In this article, we report an improved analysis of these data (supplemented with some chemical carcinogenesis observations not included in the U.S. EPA’s original analysis) and animal bioassay studies of ionizing radiation. We use likelihood methods to avoid excluding cases where no tumors were observed in specific groups. We express dosage for animals of different weights on a metabolically consistent basis (concentration in air or food, or per unit body weight to the three-quarters power). Finally, we use a system of dummy variables to represent exposures during fetal, preweaning, and weaning–60-day postnatal periods, yielding separate estimates of relative sensitivity per day of dosing in these intervals. Central estimate results indicate a 5- to 60-fold increased carcinogenic sensitivity in the birth–weaning period per dose ÷ (body weight0.75-day) for mutagenic carcinogens and a somewhat smaller increase—centered about 5-fold—for radiation carcinogenesis per gray. Effects were greater in males than in females. We found a similar increased sensitivity in the fetal period for direct-acting nitrosoureas, but no such increased fetal sensitivity was detected for carcinogens requiring metabolic activation. For the birth–weaning period, we found an increased sensitivity for direct administration to the pups similar to that found for indirect exposure via lactation. Radiation experiments indicated that carcinogenic sensitivity is not constant through the “adult” period, but the dosage delivered in 12- to 21-month-old animals appears a few-fold less effective than the comparable dosage delivered in young adults (90–105 days of age). PMID:15289159

  6. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies.

  7. Visualization of amino acid composition differences between processed protein from different animal species by self-organizing feature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfan ZHOU,Zengling YANG,Longjian CHEN,Lujia HAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are the dominant organic components of processed animal proteins, however there has been limited investigation of differences in their composition between various protein sources. Information on these differences will not only be helpful for their further utilization but also provide fundamental information for developing species-specific identification methods. In this study, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM were used to visualize amino acid composition of fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM produced from poultry, ruminants and swine. SOFM display the similarities and differences in amino acid composition between protein sources and effectively improve data transparency. Amino acid composition was shown to be useful for distinguishing fish meal from MBM due to their large concentration differences between glycine, lysine and proline. However, the amino acid composition of the three MBMs was quite similar. The SOFM results were consistent with those obtained by analysis of variance and principal component analysis but more straightforward. SOFM was shown to have a robust sample linkage capacity and to be able to act as a powerful means to link different sample for further data mining.

  8. Evaluation of anti-parkinson’s activity of gentisic acid in different animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kabra MP; Bhandari SS; Sharma A; Gupta RB

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the neuroprotective activity ofGentisic acid inPD.The study was conducted on swiss albinFo mice(20-25 g) & wistar rats(200-250 g).Methods:Three behavioural models namely,Haloperidol induced catalepsy,Reserpine antagonism andHaloperidol induce orofacial dyskinesia were employed in this study,SwissAlbino mice(20-25 g) were used in first two models whileWistar rats(200-250 g) used in last one model.There are five group(n=6) in each animal model.Various behavior activity/parameter(cataleptic behavior, horizontal movements, rearing & grooming frequencies andDyskinesia activity like vacuous chewing & tongue protrusion) in different animal models were used to evaluate the anti-Parkinson’s activity ofGentisic acid.Results:Gentisic acid showed a significant(P<0.01) reduction in the duration of cataleptic behavior dose dependently when compared to haloperidol control group.Gentisic acid shows dose dependant increase in the frequency of horizontal movement and rearing behavior when compared to theReserpine control group.But, the effect ofGentisic acid on the frequency of grooming behavior was found to be insignificant.Gentisic acid(80 mg/kg) showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the frequency of vacuous chewing & tongue protrusion but the other dose tested were found to be insignificant in this respect.Conclusions:Results shows that the Gentisic acid produced dose dependent neuroprotective activity in different animal models ofPD.

  9. The Experimental Study on Implantation of Intraocular Lens in Different Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGui-qin; PENGXiu-jun; GUHan-qing

    2004-01-01

    To prevent the complications in cataract surgeries, the eyes of rabbits and monkeys were implanted with intraocular lens for 360 days. Methods: The eyes of the rabbits were performed with phacoemulsification and soft intraocular lens implantation. The eyes of the monkeys were performed with extracapsular cataract extraction and hard intraocular lens implantation. Results: The postoperative reactions included corneal edema, anterior chamber exudation, posterior capsule opacification and so on. The complications in the eyes of the rabbits were more than that in the eyes of the monkeys. Conclusion: The different postoperative reactions happened in different animals. In clinical the choice of the operative method and intraocular lens depended on the case in order to acquire the best sight.

  10. Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehui Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug addiction. The studies we consider span various animal models and use multiple types of exercise to examine the effectiveness of exercise on the neurobiological mechanism of exercise rehabilitation. We believe that exercise as an adjuvant intervention strategy can be applied better in drug addiction prevention and recovery.

  11. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  12. DiffAni: visualizing dynamic graphs with a hybrid of difference maps and animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufiange, Sébastien; McGuffin, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Visualization of dynamically changing networks (graphs) is a significant challenge for researchers. Previous work has experimentally compared animation, small multiples, and other techniques, and found trade-offs between these. One potential way to avoid such trade-offs is to combine previous techniques in a hybrid visualization. We present two taxonomies of visualizations of dynamic graphs: one of non-hybrid techniques, and one of hybrid techniques. We also describe a prototype, called DiffAni, that allows a graph to be visualized as a sequence of three kinds of tiles: diff tiles that show difference maps over some time interval, animation tiles that show the evolution of the graph over some time interval, and small multiple tiles that show the graph state at an individual time slice. This sequence of tiles is ordered by time and covers all time slices in the data. An experimental evaluation of DiffAni shows that our hybrid approach has advantages over non-hybrid techniques in certain cases.

  13. A comparative review of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and functionality in different animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eVAURE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR family, a key component of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens and initiate an immediate immune response to them, followed by a long-lasting adaptive immune response. Activation of TLRs leads to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. TLR4 specifically recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, along with several other components of pathogens and endogenous molecules produced during abnormal situations, such as tissue damage. Evolution across species can lead to substantial diversity in the TLR4’s affinity and specificity to its ligands, the TLR4 gene and cellular expression patterns and tissue distribution. Consequently, TLR4 functions vary across different species. In recent years, the use of synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants has emerged as a realistic therapeutic goal, notably for the development of vaccines against poorly immunogenic targets. Given that an adjuvanted vaccine must be assessed in pre-clinical animal models before being tested in humans, the extent to which an animal model represents and predicts the human condition is of particular importance. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the critical points of divergence between human and the mammalian species commonly used in vaccine research and development (non-human primate, mouse, rat, rabbit, swine and dog, in terms of molecular, cellular and functional properties of TLR4.

  14. Differences in Preschoolers' and Adults' Use of Generics about Novel Animals and Artifacts: A Window onto a Conceptual Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults commonly produce more generic noun phrases (e.g., birds fly) about animals than artifacts. This may reflect differences in participants' generic knowledge about specific animals/artifacts (e.g., dogs/chairs), or it may reflect a more general distinction. To test this, the current experiments asked adults and preschoolers to…

  15. An Investigation of the Effects of Different Types of Activities during Pauses in a Segmented Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Chung, Sungwon; Crooks, Steven M.; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Jeakyeong

    2014-01-01

    Since the complex and transient information in instructional animations requires more cognitive resources, the segmenting principle has been proposed to reduce cognitive overload by providing smaller chunks with pauses between segments. This study examined the effects of different types of activities during pauses in a segmented animation. Four…

  16. Bonding Strength Comparison of the Epoxy Bonded Hollow Porcelain Insulators Suffered Different Artificial Environments%瓷套环氧粘接试棒人工环境条件影响下的粘接强度对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 吴雪峰; 洪国耀; 董晓荣; 汤华龙

    2011-01-01

    对人工模拟环境条件下作用过的有机环氧粘接瓷套随炉试棒开展抗弯对比试验,应用方差分析统计手段对试验结果进行检验,判别人工模拟环境因素是否对瓷套粘接面强度会造成显著性影响.试验和分析结果表明,高低温、水浸泡、紫外线辐射、臭氧及1%氢氟酸浸蚀对试棒粘接面无显著性影响,只有5%氢氟酸浸蚀试验会对粘接强度构成显著性影响.%The epoxy bonded hollow insulator samples suffered different artificial environments were tested to compare their bonding strength in terms of bending strength. The samples were made of the same material as the 550 kV hollow insulator. The test data were processed with variance analysis. The results show that the artificial environments of high/low temperature, water immersion, ultraviolet radiation, ozone and 1% hydrofluoric acid solution impose no significant effect on the surface of the samples, however, 5% hydrofluoric acid solution imposes significant effect on the bonding strength of the samples.

  17. Investigation of different sparsity transforms for the PICCS algorithm in small-animal respiratory gated CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F P J Abascal

    Full Text Available Respiratory gating helps to overcome the problem of breathing motion in cardiothoracic small-animal imaging by acquiring multiple images for each projection angle and then assigning projections to different phases. When this approach is used with a dose similar to that of a static acquisition, a low number of noisy projections are available for the reconstruction of each respiratory phase, thus leading to streak artifacts in the reconstructed images. This problem can be alleviated using a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS algorithm, which enables accurate reconstruction of highly undersampled data when a prior image is available. We compared variants of the PICCS algorithm with different transforms in the prior penalty function: gradient, unitary, and wavelet transform. In all cases the problem was solved using the Split Bregman approach, which is efficient for convex constrained optimization. The algorithms were evaluated using simulations generated from data previously acquired on a micro-CT scanner following a high-dose protocol (four times the dose of a standard static protocol. The resulting data were used to simulate scenarios with different dose levels and numbers of projections. All compressed sensing methods performed very similarly in terms of noise, spatiotemporal resolution, and streak reduction, and filtered back-projection was greatly improved. Nevertheless, the wavelet domain was found to be less prone to patchy cartoon-like artifacts than the commonly used gradient domain.

  18. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  19. Different tissue reaction of oesophagus and diaphragm after mesh hiatoplasty. Results of an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosch Raphael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopic mesh-reinforcement of the hiatal region in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and paraesophageal hernia (PEH reduces the risk of recurrence. However, there are still controversies about the technique of mesh placement, shape, structure and material. We therefore compared tissue integration and scar formation after implantation of two different polypropylene-meshes in a rabbit model. Methods A total of 20 female chinchilla rabbits were included in this study. Two different meshes (Polypropylene PP, Polyglecaprone 25 Composite PP-PG were implanted on the abdominal diaphragm around the oesophagus. After 3 months the implanted meshes were excised en-bloc. Histological and morphological analyses were carried out accordingly proliferation rate, apoptosis and collagen type I/III ratio. Results Regarding proliferation rate of oesophagus PP (9.31 ± 3.4% and PP-PG (13.26 ± 2.54% differ in a significant (p = 0.0097 way. In the diaphragm we found a significant (p = 0.00066 difference between PP (9.43 ± 1.45% and PP-PG (18.73 ± 5.92% respectively. Comparing oesophagus and diaphragm we could prove a significant difference within PP-PG-group (p = 0.0195. Within PP-group the difference reached no statistical significance (p = 0.88. We found analogous results regarding apoptosis. Furthermore, there is a significant (p = 0.00013 difference of collagen type I/III ratio in PP-PG (12.28 ± 0.8 compared to PP (8.44 ± 1,63 in case of oesophageal tissue. Concerning diaphragm we found a significant difference (p = 0.000099 between PP-PG (8.85 ± 0.81 and PP (6.32 ± 1.07 as well. Conclusion The histologic and morphologic characteristics after prosthetic enforcement of the hiatus in this animal model show a more distinct tissue integration using PP-PG compared to PP. Additionally, different wound healing and remodelling capability influence tissue integration of the mesh in diaphragm and oesophagus.

  20. Sex differences in visual realism in drawings of animate and inanimate objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Sex differences in a visually realistic drawing style were examined using the model of a curvy cup as an inanimate object, and the Draw-A-Person test (DAP) as a task involving animate objects, with 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 60; 30 boys). Accurately drawing the internal detail of the cup--indicating interest in a depth feature--was not dependent on age in boys, but only in girls, as 7-year-old boys were already engaging with this cup feature. However, the age effect of the correct omission of an occluded handle--indicating a transition from realism in terms of function (intellectual realism) to one of appearance (visual realism)--was the same for both sexes. The correct omission of the occluded handle was correlated with bilingualism and drawing the internal cup detail in girls, but with drawing the silhouette contour of the cup in boys. Because a figure's silhouette enables object identification from a distance, while perception of detail and language occurs in nearer space, it was concluded that boys and girls may differ in the way they conceptualize depth in pictorial space, rather than in visual realism as such.

  1. Basket and basal-duct cells in domestic animals: different cytokeratin expression and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedda, M; Farina, V

    1996-12-01

    Cytokeratins (CKs) are a multigenic family of proteins constituting intermediate filaments in epithelia, indicated in humans by the numbers 1-20. Different cell-types can be immunocytochemically identified on the grounds of their CK expression. This investigation was designed to study CK expression of basket cells (BCs) and basal-duct cells (BDCs) in some domestic animals. Frozen sections of mammary and major salivary glands from cows, sheep, pigs and rabbits were treated using the immunofluorescent method, using as monoclonal antibodies clones CK-E3, CKB1, KS-1A3, and LDS-68, respectively, revealing the human CKs 17, 14, 13, 7. BCs surrounding acini and BDCs were stained by CK 17 antibody only in the rabbit. CK 14 was detectable in both cell types in cows, sheep and pigs, except in the case of bovine salivary BCs. CK 13 was revealed in BCs and BDCs of all mammary glands and also rabbit salivary glands. In the salivary glands of the other species, only BDCs were stained. CK 7 gave unreliable results in all the species and cell types examined. Interestingly, in the rabbit, also BDCs are basket-like in shape. The antibodies employed showed different staining depending on species and gland. On the grounds of immunoreactivity and shape, BCs and BDCs can be considered the same cell type in the rabbit. In the other species, they appear to be different, since BDCs may express additional CKs and are triangular-shaped, whereas BCs are truly basket-like. It is worth noting that clone KS-1A3 in the rabbit and CKB1 in the sheep and pig can be considered markers of the basket/ basal system.

  2. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  4. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  5. [Suicide crisis, psychological suffering and advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Bordage, Catherine; Cornec, Gwenole; Berrouiguet, Sofian; Walter, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Bound to the idea of a crisis and the brutal intrusion of psychological suffering, the suicide drama rarely lends itself to a direct analysis which can highlight the different stages of its process. Taking into account increasing quantities of scientific data from current research and the spirit of crisis interventions is fundamental for allowing hopes of effective prevention. Speaking the same language by using the same conceptual basis, that of the suicide crisis, is a prerequisite in pedagogical terms for the current care management of suicidal patients.

  6. Conservation Station and Beyond: Experiences at Disney's Animal Kingdom That Make a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jackie; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Mellen, Jill; Dierking, Lynn; Adelman, Leslie; Burks, Kyle; Miller, Lance

    2001-01-01

    Describes a five-year plan for educational research and evaluation at the Disney Animal Kingdom. Focuses on conservation-related issues and presents some of the preliminary results from the study of visitor attitudes. (DDR)

  7. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  8. A conceptual and moral analysis of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Franco A

    2009-03-01

    This analysis presents an epistemological and moral examination of suffering. It addresses the specific questions: (1) What is suffering? (2) Can one's suffering be assessed by another? and (3) What is the moral significance of suffering? The epistemological analysis is orientated by Peter Hacker's framework for the investigation of emotions, demonstrating that suffering is an emotion. This leads to a discussion of whether suffering is a phenomenon that can be evaluated objectively by another person who is not experiencing the suffering, questioning the validity of some decisional models for limiting life-sustaining therapies with the aim of preventing suffering. This analysis highlights that understandings of suffering are value laden. It is conventionally implied that suffering is ;bad' and that it should be eliminated. Suffering is commonly regarded as a moral wrong that needs to be made right by health care. This article concludes with a recommendation for a paradigm shift in how suffering can be better understood, through the practice of empathic attunement.

  9. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Amaral,1 Nathalia EA Lima,1 Elisabete Ornelas,1 Lucila Simardi,2 Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca,2,3 Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino1,4 1Laboratório de Estudos Morfoquantitativo e Imunohistoquímico, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. Methods: In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C, metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise, metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk, and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun. The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv of the studied structures. Results: Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (–54%, triglyceride levels (–40%, Vv[islet] (–62%, Vv[islet.cells] (–22%, Vv[islet.insterstitial] (–44%, and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (–24% and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%. Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (–34% and triglyceride levels (–27%, an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%, and a decrease of Vv

  10. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  11. 3-D Computer Animation vs. Live-Action Video: Differences in Viewers' Response to Instructional Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dennie; McLaughlin, Tim; Brown, Irving

    2012-01-01

    This study explored computer animation vignettes as a replacement for live-action video scenarios of classroom behavior situations previously used as an instructional resource in teacher education courses in classroom management strategies. The focus of the research was to determine if the embedded behavioral information perceived in a live-action…

  12. Reducing Sex Differences in Children's Empathy for Animals through a Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angantyr, Malin; Hansen, Eric M.; Eklund, Jakob Håkansson; Malm, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Humane education programs designed to increase children's empathy for animals are becoming more common. A quasi-experiment tested the effectiveness of one such program by comparing 80 children who had completed the program with a control group of 57 children who had not. The children read a story involving an injured dog and rated the degree of…

  13. Sex Differences in Physiological Acclimatization after Transfer in Wistar Rats Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.W.M.; Kramer, K.; Arndt, Saskia; Ohl, Frauke

    2014-01-01

    Most laboratory animals used in research are vendor-bred and transferred to research facilities. Transfer procedures might have considerable and unintended effects on research results. In the present study we compared physiological and behavioral parameters before and after external and internal tra

  14. Animal performance and fatty acid composition of lambs fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, T; Bodas, R; Castro, T; Jimeno, V; Mantecon, A R

    2009-11-01

    Twenty-seven lambs were used to investigate the effects of the inclusion of 4% hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) or sunflower oil (SFO) in the concentrate on animal performance, carcass and meat quality and fat characteristics and fatty acid composition. Animals (16.2±0.27kg initial weight) were fed concentrate (Control, HPO or SFO) and barley straw ad libitum and slaughtered at 25kg. SFO lambs tended to eat less concentrate than HPO animals (Pcharacteristics studied, meat pH and meat and fat colour (P>0.05). SFO decreased proportions of C16:0, C18:1 cis-11 and C18:3 (P<0.05) and increased C18:1 trans (P<0.001) and C18:2/C18:3 ratio (P<0.05). Atherogenicity index was lower (P<0.05) when SFO was included in the concentrate. HPO did not affected and SFO improved fatty acid composition of fattening lambs without affecting animal performance.

  15. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelle...

  16. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  17. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  18. A Review of Different Stunning Methods for Poultry—Animal Welfare Aspects (Stunning Methods for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Berg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical water bath stunning is the most commonly used method for poultry stunning prior to slaughter, but has been questioned on animal welfare and product quality grounds. Controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS methods, involving a variety of gas mixtures, have become increasingly common, at least in Europe. CAS methods have been perceived as an improvement from an animal welfare perspective, partly because birds can be stunned without prior shackling, and are generally considered to result in improved product quality compared to water bath stunning. However, there would still be an interest in alternative stunning methods especially for small to medium size poultry slaughterhouses. This review presents an overview of the modes of action and the technical aspects of poultry stunning methods, including novel and emerging stunning technologies.

  19. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Remo Ostini; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was co...

  20. Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy Show Different Patterns of Sarcolemmal Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Genetic defects in a number of components of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC) lead to distinct forms of muscular dystrophy. However, little is known about how alterations in the DGC are manifested in the pathophysiology present in dystrophic muscle tissue. One hypothesis is that the DGC protects the sarcolemma from contraction-induced damage. Using tracer molecules, we compared sarcolemmal integrity in animal models for muscular dystrophy and in muscular dystrophy patient samples. Ev...

  1. Immunological comparison of scrapie-associated fibrils isolated from animals infected with four different scrapie strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Kascsak, R J; Rubenstein, R; Merz, P A; Carp, R I; Robakis, N. K.; Wisniewski, H M; Diringer, H

    1986-01-01

    Scrapie-associated fibrils (SAFs) are abnormal filamentous structures that are uniquely associated with unconventional slow virus diseases. The antigenic relationships of SAFs from animals infected with four biologically distinct scrapie strains were investigated by using antisera raised to purified SAF proteins. Rabbit antisera were raised to SAFs isolated from mice infected with the ME7 scrapie strain and to SAFs isolated from hamsters infected with the 263K scrapie strain. A strong antigen...

  2. [Sensitivity of different morphological variants of Leptospira to the leptospirocidal activity of normal animal sera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'ina, Iu V; Chernukha, Iu G

    1984-10-01

    The leptospirocidal activity of normal animal sera with respect to 23 Leptospira strains was experimentally studied in vitro. 91.3% of the strains under study proved to be sensitive to the lytic action of cattle serum and 86.9%, to sheep serum. The uncinate variants of the pathogenic strains showed resistance to the action of the above sera, and their nonuncinate analogs were subject to agglutination with subsequent lysis, similarly to saprophytes.

  3. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  4. Significantly different proliferative potential of oral mucosal epithelial cells between six animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yamato, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Murakami, Daisuke; Namiki, Hideo; Okano, Teruo

    2014-06-01

    There has been an upsurge in regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, because oral mucosal epithelial cells can be obtained noninvasively, cultured epithelial cell sheets have been used in a number of ectopic transplantations. Additionally, the verification of the properties of experimental animals' cultured cells has accelerated the application of regenerative medicine. In the present study, the properties of oral mucosal epithelial cells were compared between six animal species. The human and pig epithelia were relatively thicker than the epithelia of the other species. The colony-forming efficiency of the rat was the highest, followed by those of the dog, human, rabbit, and pig, whereas the colonies of the mouse cells were all paraclone and uncountable in the colony-forming assay. We also found that the rabbit and pig cells proliferated poorly and were unable to form cell sheets without feeder layers. In contrast, even in the absence of feeder layers and cholera toxin, cultured dog and mouse cells formed contiguous sheets, when the cell seeding density was high. These results indicate that interspecies variation is considerable in oral mucosal epithelial cells and that specific experimental animal or human cells must be chosen according to the intended use.

  5. Collectivism and the meaning of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel; Landau, Mark J; Kay, Aaron C; Rothschild, Zachary K

    2012-12-01

    People need to understand why an instance of suffering occurred and what purpose it might have. One widespread account of suffering is a repressive suffering construal (RSC): interpreting suffering as occurring because people deviate from social norms and as having the purpose of reinforcing the social order. Based on the theorizing of Emile Durkheim and others, we propose that RSC is associated with social morality-the belief that society dictates morality-and is encouraged by collectivist (as opposed to individualist) sentiments. Study 1 showed that dispositional collectivism predicts both social morality and RSC. Studies 2-4 showed that priming collectivist (vs. individualist) self-construal increases RSC of various types of suffering and that this effect is mediated by increased social morality (Study 4). Study 5 examined behavioral intentions, demonstrating that parents primed with a collectivist self-construal interpreted children's suffering more repressively and showed greater support for corporal punishment of children.

  6. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  7. Sensitivity of Borrelia genospecies to serum complement from different animals and human: a host-pathogen relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Mangesh R; Travnicek, Milan; Levkutova, Maria; Curlik, Jan; Revajova, Viera; Levkut, Mikulas

    2005-02-01

    Different Borrelia species and serotypes were tested for their sensitivity to serum complement from various animals and human. Complement-mediated Borrelia killing in cattle, European bison and deer was higher irrespective of the Borrelia species whereas in other animals and human it was intermediate and Borrelia species-dependent. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by particular Borrelia strain was in correlation with its sensitivity or resistance. These results support the incompetent reservoir nature of cattle, European bison, red, roe and fallow deer, at the same time present the probable reservoir nature of mouflon, dog, wolf, cat and lynx. In short, this study reviews Borrelia-host relationship and its relevance in reservoir competence nature of animals.

  8. A comparison of the different animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and their use in studying complex behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Patten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE has been linked to widespread impairments in brain structure and function. There are a number of animal models that are used to study the structural and functional deficits caused by prenatal ethanol exposure, including, but not limited to: invertebrates, fish, rodents and non-human primates. Animal models enable a researcher to control important variables such as the route of ethanol administration, as well as the timing, frequency and amount of ethanol exposure. Each animal model and system of exposure has its place, depending on the research question being undertaken. In this review we will examine the different routes of ethanol administration and the various animal models of FASD that are commonly used in research, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. We will also present an up-to-date summary on the effects of prenatal/neonatal ethanol exposure on behavior across the lifespan, focusing on learning and memory, olfaction, social, executive and motor functions. Special emphasis will be placed where the various animal models best represent deficits observed in the human condition and offer a viable test bed to examine potential therapeutics for humans with FASD.

  9. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  10. Nietzsche and the dilemma of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J S; Johnston, C

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to view a long-held assumption in nursing as mistaken. That is, that patient suffering is something to be overcome. Utilizing Nietzsche's statements on Amor Fati, we carefully examine the cultural assumptions behind our denigration of suffering, look at specific nursing examples of this situation, and attempt the beginnings of a discourse on what it would take for nurses to overcome their own predetermined views of suffering in order to better help their patients "own" their own suffering.

  11. Who Will Suffer From Overpopulation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The population problem is not totally about quantity,although quantity is the top concern in this regard.But to what extent is quantity a contributing factor to population problems in all countries?It differs from one country to another.Wang Yiwei, a professor with the Center for American Studies at Fudan University,argues that the population problem will be one of the decisive factors in all countries’ strength and prosperity.

  12. Distribution of toxin genes among different spa types and phage types of animal Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Katarzyna; Piechowicz, Lidia; Mroczkowska, Aneta

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed distribution of toxin genes (sea-seo, eta, etb, tst, lukS/lukF-PV) among spa types and phage types of 39 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from healthy and diseased animals. All isolates turned out to be mecA negative (MSSA). Nine spa types were identified: t144 and t723 (dogs), t084 (dogs and pigs), t5447 (cat), t1491 and t008 (pigs), t002, t127 and t3478 (poultry). Seven phage types were detected, enclosed within four phage groups: I (cat), II (dogs), III (pigs) and mixed group (dogs and pigs). Three poultry spa types proved to be non-typeable by phages. Toxin genes were detected in 33 out of the 39 animal isolates. Our analysis revealed that the incidence of some toxin genes in S. aureus is host specific. Canine isolates t144 of phage group II harbored exfoliative toxin gene (eta), and porcine isolates type t1491 representing phage group III showed enterotoxin A gene (sea). The enterotoxin gene cluster (egc1) and enterotoxin gene seh were found in non-typeable isolates from chicken and in one feline isolate type t5447.

  13. Sex differences in PTSD resilience and susceptibility: Challenges for animal models of fear learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Shansky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PTSD occurs in only a small fraction of trauma-exposed individuals, but risk is twice as high in women as in men. The neurobiological basis for this discrepancy is not known, but the identification of biological determinants of resilience and susceptibility in each sex could lead to more targeted preventions and treatments. Animal models are a useful tool for dissecting the circuits and mechanisms that underlie the brain's response to stress, but the vast majority of this work has been developed and conducted in males. The limited work that does incorporate female animals is often inconsistent across labs and does not broadly reflect human populations in terms of female susceptibility to PTSD-like behaviors. In this review, we suggest that interpreting male vs. female comparisons in these models be approached carefully, since common behavioral outcome measures may in fact reflect distinct neural processes. Moreover, since the factors that determine resilience and susceptibility are likely at least in part distinct in men and women, models that take a within-sex approach to response variability may be more useful in identifying critical mechanisms for manipulation.

  14. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  15. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  16. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of buffalo meat from animals fed with a diet containing different amounts of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Graziani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study is the sensory characterisation of buffalo meat from animals fed with different diets. The sensory evaluation was carried out on frozen rump meat samples from 12 animals. Control group (N=4 received a normal diet, a low vitamin E diet group (LVE (N=4 and a high vitamin E diet group (HVE (N=4. The sensory profiles of the different samples were obtained by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Sensory evaluation was initially carried out on the raw meat. The samples were cooked using an electrical oven reaching an inner temperature of 80°C. The slices were cut into squared pieces of 2x2 cm for tasting. A detailed analysis of the profiles for each attribute shows that the “tenderness”, “juiciness” and “visible fat” of the LVE group are significantly greater when compared to the Control and HVE groups. While HVE animal rump has a higher “cohesivity” and “colour uniformity” values compared to the LVE animal rump.

  17. Small-animal CT: Its difference from, and impact on, clinical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2007-10-01

    For whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of small rodents, a voxel resolution of at least 10 -3 mm 3 is needed for scale-equivalence to that currently achieved in clinical CT scanners (˜1 mm 3) in adult humans. These "mini-CT" images generally require minutes rather than seconds to complete a scan. The radiation exposure resulting from these mini-CT scans, while higher than clinical CT scans, is below the level resulting in acute tissue damage. Hence, these scans are useful for performing clinical-type diagnostic and monitoring scans for animal models of disease and their response to treatment. "Micro-CT", with voxel size pathological accumulations of metals such as Fe and Ca, which occur in the arterial wall following hemorrhage or tissue damage. Micro-CT can also be used as a test bed for exploring the utility of several modes of X-ray image formation, such as the use of dual-energy X-ray subtraction, X-ray scatter, phase delay and refraction-based imaging for increasing the contrast amongst soft tissue components. With the recent commercial availability of high speed, multi-slice CT scanners which can be operated in dual-energy mode, some of these micro-CT scanner capabilities and insights are becoming implementable in those CT scanners. As a result, the potential diagnostic spectrum that can be addressed with those scanners is broadened considerably.

  18. Suffering, justice, and the politics of becoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, W E

    1996-09-01

    To suffer is to undergo, to bear, to endure. Suffering exists on the underside of agency; it is as important to ethics as agency. The experience of suffering is never entirely captured by the ethical, political, medical and spiritual categories in which it is represented. Perhaps an engagement with suffering can open up hidden connections between these domains. After examining John Caputo and Friedrich Nietzsche comparatively on the relation between suffering and ethics, this essay explores the relation of the "politics of becoming" to suffering. The politics of becoming is a paradoxical process by which a new cultural identity is drawn into being and yet is irreducible to the energies and motives that spurred its initiators to action. To exemplify and think the politics of becoming is to call into question the sufficiency of existing paradigms of morality. A critical examination of the Rawlsian model of justice brings out, for example, the insufficiency of justice to the politics of becoming. It suggests the need, first, to pursue an "ethics of engagement" between several parties drawing upon a variety of sources of ethical inspiration and, second, to cultivate "critical responsiveness" to new social movements that struggle to place new identities onto the cultural register. If the latter movements sometimes modify general understandings of suffering, identity, justice and medical practice they also indicate the role cultural thinkers can play in re-examining periodically established codes of interaction between these domains.

  19. Measuring animal welfare within a reintroduction: an assessment of different indices of stress in water voles Arvicola amphibius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available Reintroductions are an increasingly common conservation restoration tool; however, little attention has hitherto been given to different methods for monitoring the stress encountered by reintroduced individuals. We compared ten potential measures of stress within four different categories (neuroendocrine, cell function, body condition and immune system function as proxies for animal welfare in water voles being reintroduced to the Upper Thames region, Oxfordshire, UK. Captive-bred voles were assessed pre-release, and each month post-release for up to five months. Wild-born voles were captured in the field and assessed from two months post-release. Plasma corticosteroid, hydration and body condition of captive-bred voles differed between their pre-release measures and both their first ("short-term" recapture, and their final recapture ("long-term" release, however only body condition and immunocompetence measured using the Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT test were significantly different post-release between the first and last recaptures. Captive-bred animals had lower fat reserves, higher weight/length ratios and better immunocompetence (NBT than did wild-born voles. Captive-bred males had higher ectoparasite burdens compared to wild-born males and, as reintroduction site quality decreased, became less hydrated. These observations indicate that some methods can identify changes in the stress response in individuals, highlighting areas of risk in a reintroduction programme. In addition, a single measure may not provide a full picture of the stress experienced; instead, a combination of measures of different physiological systems may give a more complete indication of stress during the reintroduction process. We highlight the need to monitor stress in reintroductions using measures from different physiological systems to inform on possible animal welfare improvements and thus the overall success rate of reintroductions.

  20. Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuehui Zhou; Chenglin Zhou; Rena Li

    2014-01-01

    Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug ...

  1. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  2. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the

  3. Individual differences and the characterization of animal models of psychopathology: a strong challenge and a good opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eArmario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of valuable new techniques (i.e. genetics, neuroimage for the study of the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric diseases, there are strong limitations in the information that can be gathered from human studies. It is thus critical to develop appropriate animal models of psychiatric diseases to characterize their putative biological bases and the development of new therapeutic strategies. The present review tries to offer a general perspective and several examples of how individual differences in animals can contribute to explain differential susceptibility to develop behavioural alterations, but also emphasizes methodological problems that can lead to inappropriate or over-simplistic interpretations. A critical analysis of the approaches currently used could contribute to obtain more reliable data and allow taking full advantage of new and sophisticated technologies. The discussion is mainly focused on anxiety-like and to a lower extent on depression-like behaviour in rodents.

  4. Differences in brain 5-HT transporter dissociation rates among animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erreboe, I.; Plenge, P.; Mellerup, E.T. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Pharmacology, Lab. of Neuropsychiatry, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    The potential of using receptor-ligand dissociation rates as a model for investigating molecular changes in receptors was tested using the dissociation of [{sup 3}H]citalopram, [{sup 3}H]paroxetine and [{sup 3}H]imipramine from the brain 5-HT transporter of four different species (mouse, rat, pig and man). Since the dissociation rates of each of the three ligands differed in most of the species investigated, receptor-ligand dissociation rate constants would seem to be a sensitive measure of receptor conformation. The model could be useful in the search of structural variation in receptors whether attributable to genetic factors or to posttranslational modification. (au) (12 refs.).

  5. Designing an Interactive Activity to Integrate Animal Physiology in the Context of Different Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Begona M.; Aguera, Estrella I.; Tovar, Pura

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an activity which revolves around three elements (interactivity, team learning, and peer-to-peer instruction) and consists of the drafting of a "newspaper." The different characteristics of each of its sections permits the approach to the teaching/learning process, in the context of physiological…

  6. Designing an Interactive Activity to Integrate Animal Physiology in the Context of Different Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Begona M.; Aguera, Estrella I.; Tovar, Pura

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an activity which revolves around three elements (interactivity, team learning, and peer-to-peer instruction) and consists of the drafting of a "newspaper." The different characteristics of each of its sections permits the approach to the teaching/learning process, in the context of physiological adaptations,…

  7. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  8. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  9. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Morgante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess good and bad welfare in animals. Evidence from psychology is described which demonstrate that many complex actions in humans can be carried out quite unconsciously and that human patients with certain sorts of brain damage can behave and manipulate objects properly while at the same time o consciously denying experience of them. The relevance of these findings with respect to the issue of animal consciousness is discussed. Evidence from animal cognition is described concerning the possibility that animals monitor the state of their own memories, show episodic-like knowledge and exhibit self-medication. Evidence from neuroscience concerning brain lateralization in non-human animals and its relevance to animal welfare is described. It is argued that in animals raised for economic purposes (milk and meat production differences in cognitive abilities and brain lateralization can affect adaptive behavioural, physiological and immune responses to environmental stressors.

  10. Anxiety from a Phylogenetic Perspective: Is there a Qualitative Difference between Human and Animal Anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Belzung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems. The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  11. Using the animal to the last bit: Consumer preferences for different beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Corsi, Armando Maria; Casini, Leonardo; Contini, Caterina; Loose, Simone Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Meat is expensive to produce, making it is essential to understand the importance consumers pay to different meat cuts. Previous research on consumers' meat choices has mainly focused on meat species, while consumer preferences for meat cuts has so far only received limited interest. The aim of this study is to shed some light into this relatively unexplored area by answering four research questions. First, this study intends to show the relative importance meat cuts play in relation to other extrinsic product attributes. Secondly, this paper looks into differences in choice criteria between regular and special occasions. Third, consumer segments that differ in their preferences and beef purchase are identified, and, finally, the meat purchase portfolios of these segments are revealed. A stated preference methodology of a discrete choice experiment with cut-specific prices covering several meat cuts simultaneously is proposed to answer the research questions. The sample consists of 1500 respondents representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender and geographic location The results shows that meat cut is the most important factor when choosing bovine meat followed by quality certification (origin), production technique, the type of breed and price. In terms of consumption occasions, we observe significantly lower price sensitivity for marbled steaks and cutlets for special occasions compared to normal occasions. Segmentation analysis shows that while the choices of two segments (comprising about 40% of the sample) are mostly driven by extrinsic product attributes, the remaining segments are mostly driven by meat cuts. These varying preferences are also reflected in the purchase portfolios of the different segments, while less variability is detected from a socio-demographic perspective.

  12. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance monitoring projects for zoonotic and indicator bacteria of animal origin: common aspects and differences between EASSA and EFSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Thomas, Valérie

    2014-07-16

    Resistance monitoring programmes are essential to generate data for inclusion in the scientific risk assessment of the potential for transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria or their resistance determinants from food-producing animals to humans. This review compares the technical specifications on monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic Salmonella, Campylobacter and indicator Escherichia coli and Enterococcus as performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with veterinary pharmaceutical industry's European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme. The authors conclude that most of EFSA's recent monitoring recommendations have been covered by EASSA since the start of the latter programme in 1998. The major difference between the two programmes is the classification into 'susceptible' versus 'resistant'. While EFSA categorises all isolates with an MIC value above the epidemiological cut-off value as 'resistant', EASSA differentiates between 'percentage decreased susceptible' and 'percentage clinical resistant' strains by applying both epidemiological cut-off values and clinical breakpoints. Because there is still a need to further improve harmonisation among individual EU Member State activities, Animal Health Industry welcomes EFSA's initiative to further improve the quality of resistance monitoring as it is of utmost importance to apply standardised collection procedures and harmonised susceptibility testing, when monitoring antimicrobial resistance across Europe.

  14. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The twentieth century has witnessed a bewildering array of ethical revolutions, from civil rights to environmentalism to feminism. Often ignored is the rise of massive societal concern across the world regarding animal treatment. Regulation of animal research exists in virtually all western countries, and reform of “factory farming” is regnant in Europe and rapidly emerging in the United States. Opponents of concern for animals often dismiss the phenomenon as rooted in emotion and extremist lack of appreciation of how unrestricted animal use has improved human life. Such a view totally ignores the rational ethical basis for elevating legal protection for animals, as explained in this essay. Abstract Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society's moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. PMID:26486217

  15. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszka, Robert; Barłowska, Joanna; Litwińczuk, Zygmunt

    2016-12-31

    Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis) ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk) and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50%) than cow milk (about 20%), and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%), which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l) gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants). Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk) more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the '0' variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  16. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  17. Damages for pain and suffering in tort law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2008-05-01

    Legislation enacted between 2002 and 2005 by each Australian State and Territory reformed and partially codified the common law of personal injuries. This column examines the nature and history of damages for pain and suffering and analyses the approach taken by different Australian jurisdictions to compensation for non-economic loss. Non-economic loss is generally composed of pain and suffering, loss of amenities of life, and loss of enjoyment of life (some jurisdictions, eg New South Wales, also include disfigurement, and loss of expectation of life). Several jurisdictions have imposed thresholds that a claimant must meet as a prerequisite to suing for damages at common law.

  18. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2011-01-19

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society's moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  19. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard E. Rollin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society’s moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  20. Discrimination of different processed animal proteins (PAPs by FT-IR spectroscopy based on their fat characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to explore the potential of FT-IR technique for discriminating different species of processed animal proteins (PAPs based on their fat characteristics. A total of 47 source-reliable PAPs samples containing fish meal, porcine, bovine, ovine and poultry meat and bone meal (MBM were involved in the present study. The results obtained showed that the FT-IR differentiated quite well between the fat derived from different species of PAPs, especially at the bands of 3,006 cm-1 and 722 cm-1. Results provided evidence that FT-IR differentiated the fat derived from fish meal, terrestrial non-ruminant and ruminant MBM quite well. Fish meal and ruminant MBM samples could be discriminated effectively by both the sensitivity and specificity values which were 1.00 and 1.00, respectively. For non-ruminant MBM samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 1.00 and 0.96, respectively. However, it was hard to distinguish bovine MBM from ovine ones as well as porcine MBM from poultry ones. The result makes it possible to allow FT-IR analytical methodology as a preliminary study for the exploitation of a rapid and reliable way for the identification of the animal origin of PAPs used in feeding stuffs.

  1. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting.

  2. Four different animated sub-particles as the origins of the life and creator of different angular momentums of elementary particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Zeinab

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the internal structure of the proton is crucial challenge for QCD, and one important aspect of this is to understand how the spin of the nucleon is build-up from the angular momentum of its quarks and gluons. In this way, what's the origin of differences between angular momentums of fundamental particles? It may be from their substructures. It seems there are four sub-particles of mater, plant, animal and human in substructure of each fundamental particle (string) as the origins of life and cause of differences between spins of those elementary particles. Material's sub-particle always is on and active. When the environmental conditions became ready for creation of each field of the plant, animal and human, sub-particles of their elementary particles became on and active and then, those elementary particles participated in processes of creation in their own field. God, as the main source of information, has been communicated with their sub-particles and transfers a package (bit) of information and laws (plus standard ethics for human sub-particles) to each of them for process and selection (mutation) of the next step of motion and interaction of their fundamental particles with each other in each Plank's time. This is causality for particles' motion in quantum area.

  3. Efeitos da agressividade infantil para o sofrimento psíquico de professores em diferentes momentos de carreira Effects of children's aggressiveness for the mental suffering of teachers in different moments of career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Eugênia Fernandes de Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O sofrimento de professores tem sido amplamente considerado pela literatura, em associação com diversos fatores. O presente trabalho investiga esse sofrimento sob o aspecto da agressividade vivenciada em sala de aula. Foram entrevistados doze professores de uma escola pública da cidade de São Paulo - onze do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino - distribuídos em função de três momentos na carreira de ensino: inicial (até seis anos, intermediário (entre doze e dezoito anos e final (últimos cinco anos da carreira. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e os dados categorizados conforme a frequência simples de ocorrência. A comparação das respostas revelou diferenças entre os educadores com menor e maior tempo de carreira no ensino: na percepção da agressividade infantil, nos sentimentos despertados e nas estratégias de manejo utilizadas. Frente à constatação dessas diferenças, foi possível refletir e tecer considerações para o delineamento de intervenções preventivas.Teachers' psychological distress has been widely studied in the literature, concerning several factors. This paper investigates the impact of children´s aggression in classroom as a source of teachers' distress. Twelve public school teachers from São Paulo city were interviewed - 11 female and 1 male - distributed according to three different stages of the career: initial (1 to 6 years, intermediate (12 to 18 years and final phase (last 5 years of the career. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and data were categorized considering the simple frequency of occurrence. Data analysis revealed different perceptions of classroom aggression, feelings and management strategies, depending on the phase of the teaching career. From these findings, it was possible to reflect and to present some considerations for outlining preventive interventions.

  4. Personality dimensions of people who suffer from visual stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J; Allen, P M; Fleischmann, D; Aulak, R

    2007-11-01

    Personality dimensions of participants who suffer from visual stress were compared with those of normal participants using the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Extraversion-Introversion scores showed no significant differences between the participants who suffered visual stress and those who were classified as normal. By contrast, significant differences were found between the normal participants and those with visual stress in respect of Neuroticism-Stability. These differences accord with Eysenck's personality theory which states that those who score highly on the neuroticism scale do so because they have a neurological system with a low threshold such that their neurological system is easily activated by external stimuli. The findings also relate directly to the theory of visual stress proposed by Wilkins which postulates that visual stress results from an excess of neural activity. The data may indicate that the excess activity is likely to be localised at particular neurological regions or neural processes.

  5. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-12-01

    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others.

  6. Application of human and animal viral microbial source tracking tools in fresh and marine waters from five different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Vieira, Carmen; Kern, Anita; Eriksson, Irene; Ziros, Panos; Kay, David; Miagostovich, Marize; Vargha, Marta; Allard, Annika; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2014-08-01

    Integrated river basin management planning to mitigate the impacts of economic, demographic and climate change is an important issue for the future protection of water resources. Identifying sources of microbial contamination via the emerging science of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) plays a key role in risk assessment and the design of remediation strategies. Following an 18-month surveillance program within the EU-FP7-funded VIROCLIME project, specific MST tools were used to assess human markers such as adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) and porcine and bovine markers such as porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) via quantification with real-time PCR to analyze surface water collected from five sites within different climatic zones: the Negro River (Brazil), Glafkos River (Greece), Tisza River (Hungary), Llobregat River (Spain) and Umeälven River (Sweden). The utility of the viral MST tools and the prevalence and abundance of specific human and animal viruses in the five river catchments and adjacent seawater, which is impacted by riverine contributions from the upstream catchments, were examined. In areas where no sanitation systems have been implemented, sewage can directly enter surface waters, and river water exhibited high viral loads; HAdV and JCPyV could be detected at mean concentrations of 10(5) and 10(4) Genome Copies/Liter (GC/L), respectively. In general, river water samples upstream of urban discharges presented lower human viral loads than downstream sampling sites, and those differences appeared to increase with urban populations but decrease in response to high river flow, as the elevated river water volume dilutes microbial loads. During dry seasons, river water flow decreases dramatically, and secondary effluents can represent the bulk of the riverine discharge. We also observed that ice cover that formed over the river during the winter in the studied areas in North Europe could preserve viral stability

  7. Effects of different animal manures on attraction and reproductive behaviors of common house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Azhar, Faheem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Walker, William B; Azeem, Muhammad; Binyameen, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Insects rely mainly on their well-developed and highly sophisticated olfactory system to discriminate volatile cues released from host and nonhost substances, mates, oviposition substrates, and food sources. Onset of first mating, mating duration, and onset of first oviposition, oviposition period, fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female), and longevity of freshly emerged Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) adults were observed in the presence of different animal manures: cow, horse, donkey, poultry, and an artificial diet. The M. domestica adults exposed to horse manure showed a delay in onset of first mating and first oviposition, prolonged mating duration, and reduced fecundity compared to the artificial diet (control). Likewise, the fecundity was reduced in the presence of donkey manure as compared to artificial diet. The onset of first mating was delayed and duration of first mating was shortened in the presence of cow manure as compared to artificial diet and no oviposition was observed throughout the duration of the experiment. However, the reproductive behaviors and all fitness measures in adults exposed to poultry manure were similar or even better, compared to the artificial diet. Surprisingly, in a free-choice attraction assay, the highest numbers of adult flies were attracted toward the cow manure as compared to all other manures as well as the artificial diet. However, the numbers of flies captured in all other types of manures were not different than the artificial diet (control). Furthermore, chemical analysis of headspace samples of manures revealed qualitative differences in odor (volatile) profiles of all manures and artificial diet, indicating that behavioral differences could be due to the differences in the volatile chemistry of the adult ovipositional substrates and larval growth mediums. This study may contribute toward both understanding the linkage between ecological adaptations and host selection mechanisms and the development of

  8. Systemic humiliation as daily social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Rothbart, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    and capacities of these people. Drawing upon recent developments in social identity theory, moral philosophy, sociological theory, and clinical psychology, we argue that systemic humiliation generates social pain that is experienced as annulment of one’s inherent value; it is an affront to suffering persons...... the dynamics of systemic humiliation through the use of five instruments: (1) laws that unjustly favor social elites, (2) an ideology of supremacy that rationalizes such laws, (3) a language that essentializes the degraded people, (4) images that reinforce such a status, and (5) means to erase the achievements......’ moral selves. Mitigation of systemic humiliation is particularly challenging, as it operates without easily identifiable agents/humiliators. We conclude with preliminary recommendations regarding the need to adopt multiple perspectives to alleviate suffering caused by such humiliation....

  9. HCC patients suffer less from geographic differences in organ availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, C; Dong, N; Smoot, E; Elias, N; Schoenfeld, D A; Markmann, J F; Yeh, H

    2013-11-01

    It has been suggested that the number of exception model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) points for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) overestimates mortality risk. Average MELD at transplant, a measure of organ availability, correlates with mortality on an intent-to-treat basis and varies by donation service area (DSA). We analyzed Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from 2005 to 2010, comparing transplant and death parameters for patients transplanted with HCC exception points to patients without HCC diagnosis (non-HCC), to determine whether the two groups were impacted differentially by DSA organ availability. HCC candidates are transplanted at higher rates than non-HCC candidates and are less likely to die on the waitlist. Overall risk of death trends downward by 1% per MELD point (p = 0.65) for HCC, but increases by 7% for non-HCC patients (p less than non-HCC candidates and under increased competition for donor organs, HCC candidates' advantage increases.

  10. Comparison of Serum CRP in Migraine Sufferers and Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminianfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CRP (C-reactive protein is one of the known inflammatory markers in the body. Studies claim that the level of this marker in patients with migraine is higher than normal peoples. Despite the result of various studies, even the relation between serum CRP and migraine is not detected thoroughly and is in a halo of ambiguity, therefore in this study, we intended to assess the relation between migraine and serum CRP levels. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed as a case-control on 47 migraine suffers that presented Besat hospital on year 2011, at intervals between their attacks and 50 normal individuals. Serum CRP level was measured at interval between attacks or at least 72 hour after the completion of the last attack and was compared with obtained results from normal population. Results: The comparison of CRP level in two groups, indicated that the median CRP at case group was 16.40 mg/dl and at control group 9.76 mg/dl (p≤0.05. The comparison of CRP median between the sufferers of classic migraine, migraine without aura and individuals without migraine, indicated that the CRP median difference at without aura migraine sufferers and normal population was not meaningful, but classic migraine suffers had higher serum CRP level than the other two groups. Conclusion: Finally, we should stay that the present study demonstrate that CRP inflammatory marker was higher at migraine suffers in comparison with normal general population and could explained the role of inflammation in creation and progression of this type of headache.

  11. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  12. In vitro evaluation of inorganic and methyl mercury mediated cytotoxic effect on neural cells derived from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Wang, Youwei; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-03-01

    To extend the current understanding of the mercury-mediated cytotoxic effect, five neural cell lines established from different animal species were comparatively analyzed using three different endpoint bioassays: thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT), neutral red uptake assay (NRU), and Coomassie blue assay (CB). Following a 24-hr exposure to selected concentrations of mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (II) chloride (MeHgCl), the cytotoxic effect on test cells was characterized by comparing their 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values. Experimental results indicated that both these forms of mercury were toxic to all the neural cells, but at very different degrees. The IC50 values of MeHgCl among these cell lines ranged from 1.15±0.22 to 10.31±0.70μmol/L while the IC50 values for HgCl2 were much higher, ranging from 6.44±0.36 to 160.97±19.63μmol/L, indicating the more toxic nature of MeHgCl. The IC50 ratio between HgCl2 and MeHgCl ranged from 1.75 to 96.0, which confirms that organic mercury is much more toxic to these neural cells than inorganic mercury. Among these cell lines, HGST-BR and TriG44 derived from marine sea turtles showed a significantly high tolerance to HgCl2 as compared to the three mammalian neural cells. Among these neural cells, SK-N-SH represented the most sensitive cells to both chemical forms of mercury.

  13. Effects of simulated microgravity on surfactant and water balance of lung in animals with different resistance to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndina, Irina; Vasilieva, Natalia

    Weightlessness is accompanied by redistribution of blood flow in lung, changes of lung volumes and gas exchange (Prisk et al., 2002; Grigoriev, Baranov, 2003). On the other hand, it is known that microgravity is considered as a kind of moderate stress (Grigoriev et al., 2004). Stress response may differ in animals resistant or vulnerable to stress (Sudakov, 2007). To study the effects of simulated microgravity upon lung, we used 20 male albino rats tested for behavior in the "open field" and than divided into active (stress resistant - SR ) and passive (stress vulnerable - CV) groups. Two mouse lines were used with similar goal - C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice (n=16). According to data obtained earlier, BALB/c mice referred as more stress vulnerable, in contrast to C57BL/6 mice, which are considered to be relatively stress resistant (Flint et al., 2007). We have previously shown that changes in lung surfactant system after psychosocial stress or long-term immobilization are less pronounced in stress resistant rats (Vasilieva, Bryndina, 2012). The aim of this work is to study the properties and biochemical composition of pulmonary surfactant and lung water balance in rats and mice with different stress resistance in antiorthostatic suspension (AOS) of short and long duration. Simulated microgravity was reproduced according to procedure of Ilyin-Novikov in modification of Morey-Holton. The duration of exposure was 10 days for rats and 30 days for mice. The properties of pulmonary surfactant were assessed by the evaluation of surface activity (surface tension - ST), the content of total phospholipids (PL) and their fractions. Simultaneously we calculated the gravimetric water balance indices: lung coefficient, "dry residue" and wet-to-dry ratio. Total and extravascular lung fluid and pulmonary blood supply were estimated as well. The experiments demonstrated that there was a decrease of surface tension of surfactant films after 10-day AOS in both groups of rats (to a greater

  14. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae?

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    Jörg Bohlen

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae and Sinibotia (Botiinae. In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44% and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%, and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from

  15. Soy biodiesel and petrodiesel emissions differ in size, chemical composition and stimulation of inflammatory responses in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Naomi K; Li, Muyao; Poynter, Matthew E; Palmer, Brian C; Parker, Erin; Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the biological effects of biodiesel exhaust emissions exists due to variation in methods of exhaust generation and biological models used to assess responses. Because studies in cells do not necessarily reflect the integrated response of a whole animal, experiments were conducted in two human cell lines representing bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages and female mice using identical particle suspensions of raw exhaust generated by a Volkswagen light-duty diesel engine using petrodiesel (B0) and a biodiesel blend (B20: 20% soy biodiesel/80% B0 by volume). Tailpipe particle emissions measurement showed B0 generated two times more particle mass, larger ultrafine particle number distribution modes, and particles of more nonpolar organic composition than the B20 fuel. Biological assays (inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress biomarkers) demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) generated by combustion of the two fuels induced different responses in in vitro and in vivo models. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; Interferon-gamma-induced Protein 10, IP-10; Granulocyte-stimulating factor, G-CSF) in the medium of B20-treated cells and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice exposed to B20 were ∼20-30% higher than control or B0 PM, suggesting that addition of biodiesel to diesel fuels will reduce PM emissions but not necessarily adverse health outcomes.

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF DIFFERENT HORMONE TREATMENTS IN THE ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF PIKEPERCH (Sander luciopreca REGARDING THE ASPECTS OF ANIMAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. NÉMETH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pikeperch (Sander lucioperca is very important and valuable freshwater fish in Hungary. The quality of lash is very high (white, tasty and boneless thus the gastronomically demand grows year by year. Besides the pikeperch is an attractive game fish and as a top predator, plays an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance in freshwater ecosystems. The success of pond culture of pikeperch depends on the propagation and nursing methods. Recently the technological development of artificial reproduction ensures the production of more fry and fingerlings. Present study investigates the different reproduction methods in consideration of the spawning behaviour of the pikeperch breeders. Between the hormone treatment and spawning there were observed six stagers in the behaviour of pike-perch couples- In addition to the observations on behaviour of spawning, various hormone products were examined in order to stimulate and synchronise the ovulation of pike perch breeders. Best results were recorded in case of using dried carp pituitary as a hormone treatment (170g eggs/stripped females, while the treatment with GnRH analogs resulted 145 g respectively. Moreover the price and biological advances of GnRH analogs require more research in their use in the field of artificial propagation of pikeperch. These hormones do not interfere violently the neuro-humoral regulation of the ovulation, thus contributes to maintain better conditions of animal welfare during the propagation procedure.

  17. Soy Biodiesel and Petrodiesel Emissions Differ in Size, Chemical Composition and Stimulation of Inflammatory Responses in Cells and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Li, Muyao; Poynter, Matthew E.; Palmer, Brian C.; Parker, Erin; Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the biological effects of biodiesel exhaust emissions exists due to variation in methods of exhaust generation and biological models used to assess responses. Because studies in cells do not necessarily reflect the integrated response of a whole animal, experiments were conducted in two human cell lines representing bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages and female mice using identical particle suspensions of raw exhaust generated by a Volkswagen light-duty diesel engine using petrodiesel (B0) and a biodiesel blend (B20: 20% soy biodiesel/80% B0 by volume). Tailpipe particle emissions measurement showed B0 generated two times more particle mass, larger ultrafine particle number distribution modes, and particles of more nonpolar organic composition than the B20 fuel. Biological assays (inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress biomarkers) demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) generated by combustion of the two fuels induced different responses in in vitro and in vivo models. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; Interferon-gamma-induced Protein 10, IP-10; Granulocyte-stimulating factor, G-CSF) in the medium of B20-treated cells and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice exposed to B20 were ~20–30% higher than control or B0 PM, suggesting that addition of biodiesel to diesel fuels will reduce PM emissions but not necessarily adverse health outcomes. PMID:24053625

  18. The mental suffering of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sassolas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with the mental suffering of the social workers means interesting to unpleasant or painful events that affect the daily working practice. The present work illustrates what can be the painful experiences, their nature and origin, and the conditions in which they appear, also highlighting the evolution, or the way in which social workers react to their appearance, if they do them away or if they are charged. The work focuses finally on external factors which influence or determine the way in which these feelings are metabolized by the operators.Keywords: Social workers; Managing negative emotions; Care work

  19. Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J; Stodola, Diane E; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Olson, Matthew C; Rogers, Gregory M; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing.

  20. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  1. Embryonic stem cells and mice expressing different GFP variants for multiple non-invasive reporter usage within a single animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macmaster Suzanne

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive autofluorescent reporters have revolutionized lineage labeling in an array of different organisms. In recent years green fluorescent protein (GFP from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequoria Victoria has gained popularity in mouse transgenic and gene targeting regimes 1. It offers several advantages over conventional gene-based reporters, such as lacZ and alkaline phosphatase, in that its visualization does not require a chromogenic substrate and can be realized in vivo. We have previously demonstrated the utility and developmental neutrality of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP in embryonic stem (ES cells and mice 2. Results In this study we have used embryonic stem (ES cell-mediated transgenesis to test the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP, two mutant and spectrally distinct color variants of wild type (wt GFP. We have also tested DsRed1, the novel red fluorescent protein reporter recently cloned from the Discostoma coral by virtue of its homology to GFP. To this end, we have established lines of ES cells together with viable and fertile mice having widespread expression of either the ECFP or EYFP GFP-variant reporters. However, we were unable to generate equivalent DsRed1 lines, suggesting that DsRed1 is not developmentally neutral or that transgene expression cannot be sustained constitutively. Balanced (diploid diploid and polarized (tetraploid diploid chimeras comprising combinations of the ECFP and EYFP ES cells and/or embryos, demonstrate that populations of cells expressing each individual reporter can be distinguished within a single animal. Conclusions GFP variant reporters are unique in allowing non-invasive multi-spectral visualization in live samples. The ECFP and EYFP-expressing transgenic ES cells and mice that we have generated provide sources of cells and tissues for combinatorial, double-tagged recombination experiments, chimeras or

  2. Effect of different spectral transmittances through tinted animal cages on circadian metabolism and physiology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Melissa A; Dauchy, Robert T; Hanifin, John P; Jablonski, Michael R; Warfield, Benjamin; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M; Ooms, Tara G; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus is synchronized by the light:dark cycle and is the master biologic clock that serves as a pacemaker to regulate circadian rhythms. We explored the hypothesis that spectral transmittance (tint) of light through caging alters circadian rhythms of endocrine and metabolic plasma constituents in nonpigmented Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (Crl:SD; n = 12 per group) were housed in a 12:12-h light:dark environment (300 lx; 123.0 μ W/cm(2); lights on, 0600) in either clear-, amber-, blue-, or red-tinted rodent cages. Blood was collected at 0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 and measured for melatonin, total fatty acids, pH, glucose, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin. As expected, plasma melatonin levels were low during the light phase but higher during the dark phase in all groups; however, when compared with the clear-cage group, rats in amber-, blue-, and red-tinted cages had 29%, 74%, and 48%, respectively, greater total daily melatonin levels due to an increased duration and, in some cases, amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin signal. No differences were found in dietary and water intake, body growth rates, total fatty acids, pH, or glucose among groups. Disruptions in circadian rhythms, manifesting as alterations in phase timing, amplitude, or duration, occurred in the melatonin, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin levels of rats in tinted compared with clear cages. Therefore, the use of variously tinted animal cages significantly alters circadian rhythms in plasma measures of metabolism and physiology in laboratory rats, thus potentially altering the outcomes of scientific investigations.

  3. [Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvenaghel, A

    2000-01-01

    Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain.

  4. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  5. Charting Phelan's 'To Suffer a Sea Change'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Megan; Ng, Jacqueline; Shafer, Audrey

    2015-12-01

    Physicians and healthcare workers usually perceive their medical record entries as documentation rather than construction. In the following article, we extract a medical record from a narrative, Peggy Phelan's pathography of glaucoma, 'To Suffer a Sea Change'. From information about encounters described by Phelan, an ophthalmologist reconstructs progress notes similar to those that would be key to a glaucoma patient's medical record. Rather than condemning the arcane pointilism of the medical record as a poverty of language, or isolating the pathography as an academic text, we hope to instead appreciate what their collaborative dialogue offers the study of disease. While the points of divergence between these texts will demonstrate failures in communication, they will also unearth an enriched dialogue.

  6. [Bilateral acetabulum fracture after suffering sport trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, P; Kollersbeck, C; Pelitz, M; Walcher, T; Genelin, F

    2013-07-01

    This case study describes a 37-year-old male who suffered a bilateral transverse acetabulum fracture with a fracture of the posterior wall and a double-sided dorsal hip dislocation in combination with a left-sided femoral head fracture (Pipkin IV) while skiing in a "fun park". The accurate diagnosis and presurgical planning was made by means of a computed tomography (CT) scan and a subsequent 3D reconstruction. After a primarily executed shielded repositioning of the bilateral hip dislocationearly secondary and anatomical reconstruction of the double-sided acetabulum fracture was possible using the Kocher-Langenbeck approach. A consistent physiotherapy as well as rehabilitation finally led to a positive clinical result for the patient.

  7. 不同畜种的动物标识佩戴试验%Trials on Animal Identiifcation Tag Wearing in Different Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏绍兰; 杨家寿; 陈磊; 叶浩宇

    2016-01-01

    通过对仔猪、野猪、山羊的动物标识佩戴测试,发现不同种类、不同日龄动物佩戴标识需要的时间、动物标识的脱落和损坏情况各不相同。建议根据动物的生活习性科学设计标识,以降低动物标识的脱落率和损坏率,并探索提高动物标识佩戴效率的方法,进一步推进动物标识及疫病可追溯体系的建设。%According to the results of different species animal experiments of wearing identification tags,such as piglets, boars and goats,it was found that the needed time of wearing,abscission and damage of tags were different. In order to reduce the abscission rate and damage rate of animal identification tags,the tags should be designed scientifically based on the animal living habits,and in order to promote the system construction of animal identification and animal disease traceability system,the method of improving the efficiency of animal identification tags wearing should be explored.

  8. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  9. CONCENTRATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFLAMMATORY PROCESS IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE UNDER ACTION OF IMMUNOMODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under physiological conditions a formation and a presence of the CEC in liquids is one of the manifestations of the immune response to receipt of antigens and an important factor, which provides immunity. Circulating immune complexes act as agents involved in the regulation of immune response and maintaining communication between the immune system and other regulatory systems of the body and direction to his defense. The intensity of the formation of the CEC may vary under the influence of infectious antigens and immune preparations. Material and methods. Material for the experiment were white male rats 3 months of age ("young" weighing 100 -140gr. (n = 40 and 22-month ("old" weighing 200 -240 g. (n = 40. And the first (n=10 and second (n=10 groups of rats served as controls. Third (n=15 and fourth (n=15 group of animals was injected intraperitoneal daily agar culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa № 27835 ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml suspension of bacteria, which contained 109 CFU/ml. Fifth (n=15 and sixth (n=15 groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally daily agar culture of Escherichia coli number 25592, ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml of bacteria suspension which contain 109 CFU/ml. Control animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation 3rd day – n=20. Control and infected animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation at 3rd day - n=27, 5th day – n=27 and 7th day – n=26. In the second phase of the experiment Ia (n = 6 and IIa (n = 6 were the control group of rats following administration of the experimental composite preparation consisting amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes, vitamins (MF. In two age groups of animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension treated with MF 20 mсl 3- month rats (IIIa group n = 6 and 40 mсl 22-month rats (IVa group n = 6. Ib (n = 6 and IIb (n = 6 were the control group of rats after the injection of comparison, containing mannitol and natural antioxidant betakaroten (PO. In two age

  10. Valores energéticos de diferentes alimentos de origem animal para aves Energetic values of different feedstuffs of animal origin for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2006-08-01

    -product (PBP, three of feather meal (FM, two of meat and bone meal (MBM, two of swine viscera meal (SVM and one of viscera and feather meal (VFM of different origins. Three hundred and sixty male Ross broiler chickens, with 21 days old, were assigned to a randomized block design with eleven treatments and one control, with two replicates per block and five birds per experimental unit. The feedstuffs replaced 20% of the control. The birds were fed ad libitum during 12 days (last five days for total feces collection. During the collection, 30 poultry were allotted to six cages and fasted for 72 hours (the first 24 hours were for the gastrointestinal emptying and the 48 hours remaining for feces collection, that were quantified and extrapolated for five days. The average values of AME and AMEn expressed in kcal/kg on DM basis were as follows: 1,647 and 1,422 for MBM, 2,143 and 1,875 for FP, 3,062 and 2,844 for PBP, 1,889 and 1,779 for SVM and of 2,497 and 2,209 for VFM. The average values of TME and TMEn expressed in kcal/kg of DM, were: 1,753 and 1,462 for MBM, 2,269 and 1,452 for FM, 3,211 and 2,740 for PBM, 2,002 and 1,562 for SVM and 2,615 and 1,944 for VFM.

  11. Examining the antimicrobial activity and toxicity to animal cells of different types of CO-releasing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Lígia S; Jeremias, Hélia; Romão, Carlos C; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-01-28

    Transition metal carbonyl complexes used as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) for biological and therapeutic applications may exhibit interesting antimicrobial activity. However, understanding the chemical traits and mechanisms of action that rule this activity is required to establish a rationale for the development of CORMs into useful antibiotics. In this work the bactericidal activity, the toxicity to eukaryotic cells, and the ability of CORMs to deliver CO to bacterial and eukaryotic cells were analysed for a set of seven CORMs that differ in the transition metal, ancillary ligands and the CO release profile. Most of these CORMs exhibited bactericidal properties that decrease in the following order: CORM-2 > CORM-3 > ALF062 > ALF850 > ALF186 > ALF153 > [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](BF4)2. A similar yet not entirely coincident decreasing order was found for their induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli. In contrast, studies in model animal cells showed that for any given CORM, the level of intracellular ROS generated was negligible when compared with that measured inside bacteria. Importantly, these CORMs were in general not toxic to eukaryotic cells, namely murine macrophages, kidney LLC-PK1 epithelial cells, and liver cell line HepG2. CORM-2 and CORM-3 delivered CO to the intracellular space of both E. coli and the two types of tested eukaryotic cells, yet toxicity was only elicited in the case of E. coli. CO delivered by ALF186 into the intercellular space did not enter E. coli cells and the compound was not toxic to either bacteria or to eukaryotic cells. The Fe(ii) carbonyl complex [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](2+) had the reverse, undesirable toxicity profile, being unexpectedly toxic to eukaryotic cells and non-toxic to E. coli. ALF153, the most stable complex in the whole set, was essentially devoid of toxicity or ROS induction ability in all cells. These results suggest that CORMs have a relevant therapeutic potential as antimicrobial drugs since (i) they

  12. Measuring Beliefs about Suffering: Development of the Views of Suffering Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale-Smith, Amy; Park, Crystal L.; Edmondson, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to measure religion have intensified, and many specific dimensions have been identified. However, although belief is a core dimension of all world religions, little attention has been given to assessment of religious beliefs. In particular, 1 essential set of religious beliefs, those concerning the reasons for human suffering, has remained…

  13. The Effect of Varied Cueing Strategies in Complementing Animated Visual Imagery in Facilitating Achievement of Different Educational Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Russ; Dwyer, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of varied visual cueing strategies, used to complement animation, on cognitive processing and achievement of specific educational objectives. An instructional heart material was utilized in this study. Four criterion tests were used in this study, namely: (1) Drawing Test; (2)…

  14. Mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas emissions from animal production systems: synergy between measuring and modelling at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Schils, R.L.M.; Velthof, G.L.; Kuikman, P.J.; Oudendag, D.A.; Oenema, O.

    2008-01-01

    Animal production systems are large and complex sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Emissions from these systems are expected to rise over the coming decades due to the increasing global population and shifting diets, unless appropriate mitigation str

  15. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  16. Animal protein intakes during early life and adolescence differ in their relation to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor axis in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslowski, Gesa; Remer, Thomas; Assmann, Karen E; Krupp, Danika; Cheng, Guo; Garnett, Sarah P; Kroke, Anja; Wudy, Stefan A; Günther, Anke L B; Buyken, Anette E

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that insulin-like-growth-factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins (IGFBP) IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 are related to the risk of several common cancers. It remains to be clarified whether their concentrations can be programmed by protein intake from different sources during growth. This study addressed the hypothesis that animal protein intakes during infancy, mid-childhood, and adolescence differ in their relevance for the growth-hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis in young adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with at least 2 plausible 3-d weighed dietary records during adolescence (age: girls, 9-14 y; boys, 10-15 y; n = 213), around the adiposity rebound (age 4-6 y; n = 179) or early life (age 0.5-2 y; n = 130), and one blood sample in young adulthood were included in the study. Mean serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were compared between tertiles of habitual animal protein intake using multivariable regression analysis. Habitually higher animal protein intakes in females during puberty were related to higher IGF-I (P-trend = 0.005) and IGFBP-3 (P-trend = 0.01) and lower IGFBP-2 (P-trend = 0.04), but not to IGFBP-1 in young adulthood. In turn, IGF-I concentrations in young adulthood were inversely related to animal protein intakes in early life among males only (P-trend = 0.03), but not to animal protein intake around adiposity rebound (P-trend > 0.5). Our data suggest that, among females, a habitually higher animal protein intake during puberty may precipitate an upregulation of the GH-IGF-I axis, which is still discernible in young adulthood. By contrast, among males, higher animal protein intakes in early life may exert a long-term programming of the GH-IGF-I axis.

  17. Produção de forrageiras de inverno em diferentes espaçamentos entre drenos superficiais sob pisoteio animal em várzea Lowland winter species production under different distances between superficial drainage channels and animal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    1998-09-01

    micranthus. Drainage leveis were evaluated by coilecting plant dry matter on every metter from the drainage channeis to the piot conter. Grazzing began 75 days after plant emergence (DAE with an adequate animal load, each one weighting between 150 and 200kg. No difference was observed on the development of the species due to dijferent distances between superficial drainage channels. In regard to soil physical properties, fhey were ajfected by the animal stepping. It was observed an increase on the soil superficial density and a decrease in microporosity, macroporosity and total porosity.

  18. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  19. Development, economic viability and attributes of lamb carcass from confined animals fed on different amounts of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to assess the effect from crude glycerin inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21% dry matter in the diet of slaughtered lamb on their development, nutrient consumption, biometrical measures, diet economic viability and carcass features. Thirty two (32 non-castrated male Texel lambs were used in the study, they presented mean initial weight 15.9 ± 4.1 kilos and were distributed in casual outlining. They were fed with four treatments, with 8 repetitions. Animals were slaughtered when they reached approximately 35 kilos. The mean total weight gain was 20.72 kilos and mean daily weight gain was 260 grams. No changes resulted from glycerin use. The carcass performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05 and the cold carcass performance (CCP was 44.68%. There were no effects (P>0.05 on the loin eye area (LEA and on fat thickness (FT; they showed averages of 13.66 cm2 and 0.84 mm, respectively. Nutrition cost per animal during the whole confinement period varied between R$82.60 (eighty-two Reais and forty-eight cents to R$92.48. The smallest nutrition amount consisted of 21% crude glycerin. The gross profit ranged from R$30.75 to R$ 34.01 per animal, for feed without glycerin and 21% glycerin, respectively. Animal development was not impacted by glycerin introduction, even with decrease on dry and organic mass consumption. The result showed that crude glycerin inclusion might be used in lambs’ diet. Whenever there are big amounts of feed involved in the process, the 21% crude glycerin addition may be an interesting cost reduction. Seventy eight percent (78% glycerol crude glycerin to replace corn-based feed in confined lambs’ diet appeared to be nutritionally and economically viable. 

  20. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Beth Ann; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  1. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Ventura

    Full Text Available Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50 before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation. Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  2. Different sequence signatures in the upstream regions of plant and animal tRNA genes shape distinct modes of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong; Lukoszek, Radoslaw; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Ignatova, Zoya

    2011-04-01

    In eukaryotes, the transcription of tRNA genes is initiated by the concerted action of transcription factors IIIC (TFIIIC) and IIIB (TFIIIB) which direct the recruitment of polymerase III. While TFIIIC recognizes highly conserved, intragenic promoter elements, TFIIIB binds to the non-coding 5'-upstream regions of the tRNA genes. Using a systematic bioinformatic analysis of 11 multicellular eukaryotic genomes we identified a highly conserved TATA motif followed by a CAA-motif in the tRNA upstream regions of all plant genomes. Strikingly, the 5'-flanking tRNA regions of the animal genomes are highly heterogeneous and lack a common conserved sequence signature. Interestingly, in the animal genomes the tRNA species that read the same codon share conserved motifs in their upstream regions. Deep-sequencing analysis of 16 human tissues revealed multiple splicing variants of two of the TFIIIB subunits, Bdp1 and Brf1, with tissue-specific expression patterns. These multiple forms most likely modulate the TFIIIB-DNA interactions and explain the lack of a uniform signature motif in the tRNA upstream regions of animal genomes. The anticodon-dependent 5'-flanking motifs provide a possible mechanism for independent regulation of the tRNA transcription in various human tissues.

  3. Noise exposure of immature rats can induce different age-dependent extra-auditory alterations that can be partially restored by rearing animals in an enriched environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S J; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2016-04-01

    It has been previously shown that different extra-auditory alterations can be induced in animals exposed to noise at 15 days. However, data regarding exposure of younger animals, that do not have a functional auditory system, have not been obtained yet. Besides, the possibility to find a helpful strategy to restore these changes has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to test age-related differences in diverse hippocampal-dependent behavioral measurements that might be affected in noise-exposed rats, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential neuroprotective strategy, the enriched environment (EE), on noise-induced behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats of 7 and 15 days were exposed to moderate levels of noise for two hours. At weaning, animals were separated and reared either in standard or in EE cages for one week. At 28 days of age, different hippocampal-dependent behavioral assessments were performed. Results show that rats exposed to noise at 7 and 15 days were differentially affected. Moreover, EE was effective in restoring all altered variables when animals were exposed at 7 days, while a few were restored in rats exposed at 15 days. The present findings suggest that noise exposure was capable to trigger significant hippocampal-related behavioral alterations that were differentially affected, depending on the age of exposure. In addition, it could be proposed that hearing structures did not seem to be necessarily involved in the generation of noise-induced hippocampal-related behaviors, as they were observed even in animals with an immature auditory pathway. Finally, it could be hypothesized that the differential restoration achieved by EE rearing might also depend on the degree of maturation at the time of exposure and the variable evaluated, being younger animals more susceptible to environmental manipulations.

  4. Trace element characteristics of a Gorham-Stout Syndrome sufferer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; CAO XiaoJuan; Loumouamou MAYOUMA; LU XiaoFeng; Jacques YVON; FENG Liu

    2008-01-01

    Gotham-Stout Syndrome (GSS) is an infrequent and mysterious bone disease characterized by massive bone dissolving or even disappearing due to an unknown pathogeny. It is quite different from the Itai-itai disease and osteoporosis. In 2001, an 8-year-old boy from a small town in Xinjiang was found to get GSS disease. Some parts of his bones vanished without any external force. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd and Cu, especially Na and K in his hair were far higher than those of the healthy people, and the concentration of Cd was 2 times that of the reference while those of Cr and Zn were insufficient for health. The ratio of K/Na was also higher than that of healthy group. Four different ratios revealed weak bone growth potential and strong bone breakage occurred simultaneously in the GSS sufferer's skeletal system. It might be the synergistic effect of the trace elements leading to the baffling syndrome. Further investigation demonstrated that the trace elements can cause a series of diseases, including GSS disease and a typical rheumatoid arthritis (ARA). Epidemiological investigation also proved that there were about 25% of the inhabitants in the town suffered from an ALIA. All of these data implied there was significant relationship among Gorham-Stout Syndrome, ARA and prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  5. QnrS1- and Aac(6’-Ib-cr-producing Escherichia coli among isolates from animals of different sources: susceptibility and genomic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eJones-Dias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli can inhabit humans and animals from multiple origins. These bacteria are often associated with gastroenteritis in animals, being a frequent cause of resistant zoonotic infections. In fact, bacteria from animals can be transmitted to humans through the food chain and direct contact. In this study, we aimed to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of a collection of S. enterica and E. coli recovered from animals of different sources, performing a genomic comparison of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR-producing isolates detected.Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high number of non wild-type isolates for fluoroquinolones among S. enterica recovered from poultry isolates. In turn, the frequency of non-wild-type E. coli to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was higher in food-producing animals than in companion or zoo animals. Globally, we detected two qnrS1 and two aac(6’-Ib-cr in E. coli isolates recovered from animals of different origins. The genomic characterization of QnrS1-producing E. coli showed high genomic similarity (O86:H12 and ST2297, although they have been recovered from a healthy turtle dove from a Zoo Park, and from a dog showing symptoms of infection. The qnrS1 gene was encoded in a IncN plasmid, also carrying blaTEM-1-containing Tn3. Isolates harboring aac(6’-Ib-cr were detected in two captive bottlenose dolphins, within a time span of two years. The additional antibiotic resistance genes of the two aac(6’-Ib-cr-positive isolates (blaOXA-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, catB3, aac(3-IIa and tetA were enclosed in IncFIA plasmids that differed in a single transposase and 60 single nucleotide variants. The isolates could be assigned to the same genetic sublineage – ST131 fimH30-Rx (O25:H4, confirming clonal spread. PMQR-producing isolates were associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts, which highlight the aptitude of E. coli to act as silent vehicles, allowing

  6. Isolation of liver aldehyde oxidase containing fractions from different animals and determination of kinetic parameters for benzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde oxidase activity containing fractions from rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse livers were obtained by heat treatment and ammonium sulfate precipitation. Aldehyde oxidase activity was observed in rabbit and guinea pig livers, while aldehyde oxidase activity was absent in rat and mouse liver fractions. Enzyme kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were determined for the oxidation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid by rabbit and guinea pig liver fractions, by spectrophotometric method, with potassium ferricyanide as the electron acceptor. The K m values obtained for both animal liver fractions were in the range of 10.3-19.1 µM.

  7. Entering Into Suffering: Becoming a Transformed and Transforming Healer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Rebecca; Braband, Barbara; Rogers, Anissa

    Learning how to respond to suffering is a significant challenge for healthcare providers. This interdisciplinary paper relays a Pedagogy of Suffering Model, based on research following a suffering interview project with undergraduate nursing students. The model is compared to the Gospel account of an encounter between Jesus and a Syrophoenician woman (Mark 7:24-30), supporting biblical and theological soundness of the model's transformative tasks for learning how to respond to suffering. The model can guide development of learning experiences that deepen understanding of compassionate interventions for those who suffer.

  8. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  9. Perinatal administration of aromatase inhibitors in rodents as animal models of human male homosexuality: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the evidence supporting the existence of biological influences on sexual orientation. We focus on basic research studies that have affected the estrogen synthesis during the critical periods of brain sexual differentiation in male rat offspring with the use of aromatase inhibitors, such as 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17 (ATD) and letrozole. The results after prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with ATD reveal that these animals, when adults, show female sexual responses, such as lordosis or proceptive behaviors, but retain their ability to display male sexual activity with a receptive female. Interestingly, the preference and sexual behavior of these rats vary depending upon the circadian rhythm.Recently, we have established that the treatment with low doses of letrozole during the second half of pregnancy produces male rat offspring, that when adults spend more time in the company of a sexually active male than with a receptive female in a preference test. In addition, they display female sexual behavior when forced to interact with a sexually experienced male and some typical male sexual behavior when faced with a sexually receptive female. Interestingly, these males displayed both sexual behavior patterns spontaneously, i.e., in absence of exogenous steroid hormone treatment. Most of these features correspond with those found in human male homosexuals; however, the "bisexual" behavior shown by the letrozole-treated rats may be related to a particular human population. All these data, taken together, permit to propose letrozole prenatal treatment as a suitable animal model to study human male homosexuality and reinforce the hypothesis that human sexual orientation is underlied by changes in the endocrine milieu during early development.

  10. Reactions of healthy persons and persons suffering from allergic rhinitis when exposed to office dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschildt, Pernille; Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives Reactions to airborne office dust among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis were investigated. Methods Twelve healthy and 11 subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis were exposed to clean air [17 (SD 2) mg/m3] and office dust [439 (SD 68) mg/m3] for 245...... exposure, and some of the indications were in biologically unexplainable directions. No difference in the reactions to dust was observed between the healthy subjects and the subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis. Conclusion Dust does not seem to have objective or subjective effects on humans, as only...

  11. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    that Danish bacterial isolates from livestock so far have not or have only to a limited degree developed resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used for disinfection. Acquired copper resistance was only found in enterococci. There were large differences in the intrinsic susceptibility of the different......A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were...... of susceptibilities to the different antimicrobial agents. Large variations were observed in the susceptibility of the different bacterial species to the different compounds. Staphylococci were in general very susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. The Salmonella isolates were in general less susceptible...

  12. Bad guys suffer less (social pain): Moral status influences judgements of others' social suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Brambilla, Marco; Vaes, Jeroen

    2016-03-01

    Research on pain judgement has shown that several features of a target influence empathy for others' pain. Considering the pivotal role of morality in social judgement, we investigated whether judgements of others' social and physical suffering vary as a function of the target's moral status. Study 1 manipulated the moral characteristics of an unknown other and found that participants ascribed less social (but not physical) suffering to a target depicted as lacking moral status rather than to a target high in morality. Study 2 added a control condition in which no information about the target's moral qualities was provided, and showed that the effect of morality on social pain judgements was driven by the depiction of the target as lacking moral traits. Study 3 revealed the specific role of morality, as information on another evaluative dimension (i.e., competence) had no effects on pain judgements. Study 4 showed that social targets perceived as lacking moral qualities are thought to experience less social pain than highly moral targets because of their perceived lower level of humanity. Overall, our findings suggest that social (but not physical) pain might represent a capacity that is denied to social targets that are perceived low in morality.

  13. Recognition and assessment of pain in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex physiological phenomenon, it is hard to define in a satisfactory manner in human beings, and it is extremely difficult to recognize and interpret in animals. According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP, pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain is an important aspect of life and its prevention and decrease are important as a goal to achieve the well-being of animals. The task of scientists is to recognize the language of pain interpretation which animals use to seek help. For an objective evaluation of pain, it is essential to possess a good knowledge of physiology, etiology and clinical diagnosis. We are obliged to do this also because of the ethic principles to defend the well-being of animals and to eliminate any factor which can cause feelings of pain or suffering. The recognition of pain and its manifestation is especially important in cases of animal abuse, when it could be the only symptom. Animals can be quiet and instinctively hide the presence of pain, which makes the symptoms more subtle, but does not make their injuries any less painful. It is also important to have knowledge of manifestations of pain that appear during different surgical procedures performed by the veterinarinarian in spite of the applied dose of analgetic. Pain significantly contributes to the suffering of animals and in such cases it is important to collect relevant documents, in the form of video recordings or in photodocumentation form, because it is important information in the processing of cases of animal abuse. Veterinary experts have the responsibility to recognize, evaluate, and prevent pain and to relieve animals from the pain, which should be the fourth vital sign, following temperature, pulse and breathing, and participate in the evaluation of the condition of the animal during an examination. Due to all the above mentioned, it is

  14. Using 3D Microscopy to Analyze Experimental Cut Marks on Animal Bones Produced with Different Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Moretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a combination of digital microscopic analysis and experimental archaeology to assess stone tool cut marks on animal bones. We used two un-retouched flint flakes and two burins to inflict cut marks on fresh, boiled, and dry ungulate  bones. The experiment produced three series of three engravings on each bone with each of the experimental tools. The first series involved one single stroke; the second, two strokes in the same direction; and the third, multiple strokes using a to-and-fro movement. We analyzed the striations using a Hirox 3D digital microscope (KH-7700 and collected metric and profile data on the morphology of the cut marks. In order to describe the shape of each cross section, we calculated the ratio between the breadth at the top and the breadth at the floor of cut marks. Preliminary results show that both the tool type and the method of creating the cut mark influence the shape of the resulting groove. In our experiment, morphological parameters can be used to differentiate between marks produced using un-retouched flint flakes and those produced using burins. However, neither morphological nor morphometric analysis allows us to identify the mechanical motion used to produce the cuts, nor the state of the bone (fresh, boiled, or dry at the moment of marking. 

  15. Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Aly, Magdy; Kheader, Afaf; Mabrok, Khaled

    2012-05-01

    Meat commonly contain the same Aeromonas spp. which occur in human diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal faecal samples. Motile Aeromonas were isolated from 5.6% of total 302 samples. The distribution of the isolates were 5.9 and 5.2% in fresh and frozen samples, respectively. Of the 302 samples taken of the four animal meat species investigated, the genus Aeromonas were isolated in 12.3% of the fresh samples collected from buffalo meat, in 6.5% of the samples collected from sheep meat and 14.0% from the samples collected from the cattle frozen meat samples. The camel meat did not reveal any Aeromonas isolates. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated as the most prevalent species with 6.8%, followed by Aeromonas caviae with 2.7% and Aeromonas sobria with 2.1% from the total meat samples. Aerolysin toxin gene (aerA) was detected in 3/17 isolates of A. hydrophila isolated from contaminated meat. Infection due to bacterial pathogen with such virulent factor through contact with contaminated meat while handling them, poses health hazards to humans.

  16. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  17. Subgrouping of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from animal and human sources: an approach to quantify the distribution of ESBL types between different reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Lars; Sharp, Hannah; Hille, Katja; Seibt, Uwe; Fischer, Jennie; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Nickel, Silke; Schmiedel, Judith; Falgenhauer, Linda; Friese, Anika; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Roesler, Uwe; Imirzalioglu, Can; Chakraborty, Trinad; Helmuth, Reiner; Valenza, Giuseppe; Werner, Guido; Schwarz, Stefan; Guerra, Beatriz; Appel, Bernd; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2014-10-01

    Escherichia (E.) coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are an increasing problem for public health. The success of ESBLs may be due to spread of ESBL-producing bacterial clones, transfer of ESBL gene-carrying plasmids or exchange of ESBL encoding genes on mobile elements. This makes it difficult to identify transmission routes and sources for ESBL-producing bacteria. The objectives of this study were to compare the distribution of genotypic and phenotypic properties of E. coli isolates from different animal and human sources collected in studies in the scope of the national research project RESET. ESBL-producing E. coli from two longitudinal and four cross-sectional studies in broiler, swine and cattle farms, a cross-sectional and a case-control study in humans and diagnostic isolates from humans and animals were used. In the RESET consortium, all laboratories followed harmonized methodologies for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, confirmation of the ESBL phenotype, specific PCR assays for the detection of bla(TEM), bla(CTX), and bla(SHV) genes and sequence analysis of the complete ESBL gene as well as a multiplex PCR for the detection of the four major phylogenetic groups of E. coli. Most ESBL genes were found in both, human and non-human populations but quantitative differences for distinct ESBL-types were detectable. The enzymes CTX-M-1 (63.3% of all animal isolates, 29.3% of all human isolates), CTX-M-15 (17.7% vs. 48.0%) and CTX-M-14 (5.3% vs. 8.7%) were the most common ones. More than 70% of the animal isolates and more than 50% of the human isolates contained the broadly distributed ESBL genes bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-15), or the combinations bla(SHV-12)+bla(TEM) or bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM). While the majority of animal isolates carried bla(CTX-M-1) (37.5%) or the combination bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM) (25.8%), this was the case for only 16.7% and 12.6%, respectively, of the human isolates. In contrast, 28.2% of the human isolates carried bla

  18. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. Sedative, Anxiolytic and Anticonvulsant effects of different extracts from the leaves of Ipomoea Carnea in experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Susanta Kumar Rout; Durga Madhab Kar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the sedative, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activities of different leaf extracts of Ipomoea carnea. Materials and methods: The sedative effect of the different leaf extracts at dose level 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg was evaluated in mice and rats using phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and hole board models. Its anxiolytic effect was evaluated using the Evaluated Plus Maze (EPM) and the Y maze (YM) methods. The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated...

  20. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  1. [Abnormal behaviour with a focus on stereotypies--indicators of suffering and impaired welfare?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düpjan, Sandra; Puppe, Birger

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal behaviour is a potential indicator of pain, suffering and injury in captive animals. Especially stereotypies, i. e. repetitive invariant behavioural patterns without obvious function or goal, can be observed as a consequence of inadequate housing conditions. Hence, they are often considered indicators of impaired welfare. In context of the ongoing scientific debate on captive animal welfare, the number of publications on stereotypies has increased, most notably in veterinary and farm animal research. Based on biological principles and definitions, we present several examples of stereotypic behaviour in (mainly) farm animals, and discuss approaches of preventing or reducing them. The occurrence of abnormal behaviour is often, but not necessarily, associated with the fact that modern housing and management precludes various evolutionary emerged highly motivated behaviours, or poses challenges the animals are unable to cope with adequately. Numerous studies show that stereotypies can be indicative of (current or past) suffering and impaired welfare. They can be avoided or at least reduced by increasing the biological relevance of the housing environments through environmental enrichment which stimulates species-specific behaviour.

  2. Emotion and Multimedia Learning: An Investigation of the Effects of Valence and Arousal on Different Modalities in an Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sungwon; Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Previous emotion studies in education have focused mainly on the superiority of positive emotion for learning performance (e.g., enjoyment) over negative emotion (e.g., fear). However, few studies have considered different arousal levels in terms of learners' emotion. For example, the effects of calm positive or negative emotion have not been…

  3. The 3Rs and animal welfare - conflict or the way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusche, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The animal experiment is central to the 3R concept. In European law, animal experiments are classed according to their aims. In the German animal protection law, they are classed, e.g. as interventions and treatments for experimental purposes, for further education and training, or for the production, preparation, storage or multiplication of substances, products or organisms and for the fulfillment of legal requirements, and are thus regulated with varying strictness. In contrast, in Switzerland all such measures performed on live animals underlie the same approval requirements. For animal welfarists, the term "animal experiment" includes every intervention and every treatment which is associated with pain, fear and/or suffering and does not directly benefit the respective animal. In the animal experiment, the animal concerned usually suffers as a human would, independent of the experimental goal. Expecting an animal to suffer a treatment one would not want to undergo oneself cannot be in accord with an ethic of respect for fellow creatures. Animal welfarists aim to save animals such suffering. Consequently, they demand the immediate abolition of all animal experiments. From the perspective of those who allow animal experiments to be performed or who perform them themselves, the goal of the experiment is more important than the animal. Therefore, the following question is central to 3R research: "Can I reach my goal while causing the animal less suffering, using fewer animals or without using animals at all?" The starting point is that the ethical responsibility for man is valued higher than that for the animal. The aim is to protect humans from harm caused by substances and products or from unwanted side effects of medication, to understand diseases and to search for a cure or alleviation of these. When a scientist reaches his goals without using animals, the demand of animal welfarists to abolish the animal experiment is fulfilled. These aspects do of course not

  4. Germline modification of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; González, R; Dobrinski, I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  5. Behavioral differences between late preweanling and adult female Sprague-Dawley rat exploration of animate and inanimate stimuli and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kiersten S; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-03-01

    The late preweanling rat has potential as a preclinical model for disorders initially manifested in early childhood that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism). No reports, however, of specific-stimulus exploration in the late preweanling rat are found in the literature. We examined the behavioral responses of normal late preweanling (PND 18-19) and adult rats when presented with exemplars of categorically-varied stimuli, including inanimate objects systematically varied in size and interactive properties, biological stimuli, and food. Preweanlings were faster to initiate specific stimulus exploration and were more interactive with most specific stimuli than adults; the magnitude of these preweanling-adult quantitative differences ranged from fairly small to very large depending upon the stimulus. In contrast, preweanlings were adult-like in their interaction with food and prey. Preweanling response to some stimuli, for example to live pups, was qualitatively different from that of adults; the preweanling behavioral repertoire was characterized by pup-seeking while the adult response was characterized by pup-avoidance. The specific stimulus interactions of preweanlings were less impacted than those of adults by the time of day of testing and placement of a stimulus in an anxiety-provoking location. The impact of novelty was stimulus dependent. The differences in interactions of preweanlings versus adults with specific stimuli suggests that CNS systems underlying these behavior patterns are at different stages of immaturity at PND 18 such that there may be an array of developmental trajectories for various categories of specific stimuli. These data provide a basis for the use of the preweanling as a preclinical model for understanding and medicating human disorders during development that are characterized by dysfunctional interactions with specific stimuli.

  6. An Analysis of the Sufferings in No-No-Boy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹润霞

    2015-01-01

    During the Second World War,the Japanese Americans suffered physically and spiritually,and there also existed the conflicts between Issei and Nisei towards the American and American society.This thesis will mainly make an analysis of the sufferings in No-No-Boy.

  7. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    Persons suffering from dementia progressively loose language skills, cognitive skills, memory function, perception, etc. Still they seem to respond to music and to interact in the music therapy setting. As part of a Ph.D.-research I have worked with 6 persons suffering from middle to last stages ...

  8. Analyzing Empirical Notions of Suffering: Advancing Youth Dialogue and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Rito V.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of advancing youth dialogue and education among the Filipino youth using empirical notions of students on suffering. Examining empirical data, this analysis exposes uncharted notions of suffering and shows relevant meanings that underscore the plausible trappings of youth dialogue and its benefits on…

  9. An Analysis of the Sufferings in No-No-Boy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹润霞

    2015-01-01

    [During the Second World War,the Japanese Americans suffered physically and spiritually,and there also existed the conflicts between Issei and Nisei towards the American and American society.This thesis will mainly make an analysis of the sufferings in No-No-Boy.

  10. Hearing Recovey in Patients Suffering Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Eslami

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The study included 80 patients treated for sudden deafness over the last 5-7 years. Case history, laboratory findings, pure-tone audiogram and electronystagmography (ENG findings were noted. If any abnormalities had been recorded in ENG studies, the studies were redone. ORL status was redefined and audiograms were obtained in all patients. When becoming ill, the 80 patients had not differed from the normal population in common cardiovascular risk factors. None of them had had signs of viral infection (paired serum samples had been taken at 2-week intervals; routine examinations had been done for common viral antigens. As many as 31 of the 80 patients with acute hearing loss had had abnormalities such as spontaneous nystagmus (PN, hypoexcitability (HE and directional preponderance (DP in the bithermal caloric tests (+44 degrees C, + 30 degrees C of their ENG studies. Twenty of the 31 patients still had abnormal ENG studies after 5-7 years. Only 1 subject had positional nystagmus, and none had subjective vertigo. Patients with an abnormal ENG study showed a poor recovery of the speech reception threshold, whereas those with a normal ENG study showed slightly significant (p less than 0.05 recovery.

  11. Bearing witness to suffering in AIDS: constructing meaning from loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, V P

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of AIDS volunteerism has been described as an act of bearing witness. It has been suggested that bearing witness assists individuals affected by the suffering in HIV/AIDS to heal. The purpose of this research was to explore AIDS volunteerism as a potentially healing phenomenon. Using grounded theory methodology, open-ended interviews were conducted with 17 participants over a 7-month period of time. The constant comparative method was used for data analysis. A substantive theory was generated that identified the basic sociological process as constructing meaning from loss and described the transformative psychosocial and spiritual healing process individuals undergo as they volunteer. Constructing meaning from loss is described within the following three major stages: (a) experiencing suffering, (b) containing suffering, and (c) transforming suffering. Characteristics within each stage are described. Suffering and complex loss are major issues in HIV/AIDS. Interventions are recommended for nurses who care for those affected by HIV disease.

  12. Sequence analysis of morbillivirus CD150 receptor-Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) of different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, J; Balamurugan, V; Sen, A; Saravanan, P; Sahay, B; Rajak, K K; Rasool, T J; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K

    2009-12-01

    Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule-SLAM (CD150) molecule has been reported as a putative receptor for most morbilliviruses for their respective host species. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the morbillivirus receptor-SLAM from the four species, namely, goat (Capra hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), Indian cattle (Bos indicus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). The nucleotide (nt) open reading frame sequence of SLAM gene in all the four species studied was 1017 nucleotides in length encoding a polypeptide of 339 amino acids (aa), similar to Bos taurus, but different from canine, human, marmoset, and mouse SLAM, which were 1029, 1008, 1011, and 1032 nts, respectively, in length, and coding for 343, 336, 337, and 344 aa, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed 96.3-98.5% and 92.9-96.8% identities among the four species at the nt and aa level, respectively. Sequence diversity at aa level between various species revealed that the critical functional region of SLAM protein among different species is relatively conserved, thereby facilitating this molecule to act as a receptor for morbillivirus. Phylogenetic relationship based on the aa sequences of SLAM protein revealed that caprine, ovine, cattle, and buffalo fall under a defined cluster but caprine SLAM is more closely related to ovine, followed by bovine.

  13. Effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) at different wavelengths and doses on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis parameters in an animal model of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; Silva, Luciano A; Freitas, Tiago P; Latini, Alexandra; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2011-01-01

    Gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and helium-neon (HeNe) lasers are the most commonly used low-energy lasers in physiotherapy for promoting wound healing and pain modulation. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) at different wavelengths and doses on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis parameters in an animal model of wound healing. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (n=6): Controls (skin injured animals without local or systemic treatment), skin injury treated with HeNe 1 J/cm(2) (two seg); skin injury treated with HeNe 3 J/cm(2) (six seg); skin injury treated with GaAs 1 J/cm(2) (three seg); skin injury treated with GaAs 3 J/cm(2) (nine seg). A single circular wound measuring 8 mm in diameter was surgically created on the back of the animal. The rats were irradiated at 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after skin injury. The parameters, namely hydroxyproline content, activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and lipid (TBARS) and protein oxidation (carbonyl groups) measurements were assessed. In addition, wound size regression was also analyzed. The results showed an improvement in the wound healing reflected by the reduction in wound size and increased collagen synthesis. Moreover, a significant reduction in TBARS levels, carbonyl content, and SOD and CAT activities were observed after laser irradiation, particularly with the treatments HeNe laser 1 and 3 J/cm(2) dose and GaAs 3 J/cm(2) dose. The data strongly indicate that LPLI therapy is efficient in accelerating the skin wound healing process after wounding, probably by reducing the inflammatory phase and inducing collagen synthesis.

  14. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  15. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  16. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  17. Comparison of different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the following study is to determine and to compare the different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters of rats. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 60 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after predetermined intervals. Rats were sacrificed and ipsilateral kidneys were subjected for analysis of morphological parameters such as renal height, cranio-caudal diameter, antero-posterior diameter, lateral diameter, volume of the pelvis and average cortical thickness: Renal height. Results: Renal height and cranio-caudal diameter of renal pelvis after ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction started rising as early as 7 days of creating obstruction and were affected earlier than antero-posterior and lateral diameter and also were reversed earlier than other parameters after reversal of obstruction. Renal cortical thickness and volume of the pelvis were affected after prolonged obstruction (> 3 weeks and were the late parameters to be reversed after reversal of obstruction. Conclusions: Cranio-caudal diameter and renal height were the early morphological parameters to be affected and reversed after reversal of obstruction in experimentally created ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction.

  18. Proniosomal formulation of curcumin having anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in different experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Rai, A K

    2012-10-01

    Curcumin, the active ingredient of the spice turmeric, has a long history as an herbal remedy for a variety of diseases. Transdermal drug delivery has been recognized as an alternative route to oral delivery. Proniosomes offer a versatile vesicle delivery concept with the potential for drug delivery via the transdermal route. In this study, different proniosomal gel bases were prepared by the ether injection method, using Span 60 and Span 80, Tween 20, cholesterol, and formulation PA2. They were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, revealing vesicular structures, and assessed for stability and effect on in vitro skin permeation using rat skin. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of formulation PA2 and PB1 were compared with a standard market product containing indomethacin. The effect of formulation PA2 and PB1 was evaluated for acute inflammation in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and for chronic inflammation in complete Freud's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Further histopathological and radiographic evaluation was performed. The investigated curcumin loaded proniosomal formula proved to be non-irritant, non-toxic, but had lower anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects than the marketed indomethacin products.

  19. A preliminary identification of insect successive wave in Egypt on control and zinc phosphide-intoxicated animals in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marah Mohammad Abd El-Bar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented study aimed primarily to document a baseline data of the decay process of rabbits and guinea pigs and their associated arthropod fauna, which are placed in an urban city: El Abbassyia, Cairo Governorate, Egypt, during winter and summer seasons, and to compare these data with the corresponding figure for zinc phosphide-intoxicated carrions. Generally, control rabbits and control guinea pigs were faster in their decay comparing the corresponding figure of the zinc phosphide–intoxicated group. A delay in colonization of insects was noticed either in the winter season for both groups, or additionally for the zinc phosphide groups. The associated insect fauna was represented in 6 orders, 20 families, and 36 genera and species. Necrophagous arthropods that supported decomposition of carcasses were mainly of orders Diptera and Coleoptera. Calliphoridae was the first insect family that colonized the different carcasses. The mean numbers of control immature dipterous maggots and similarly, the control coleopteran larvae significantly exceeded the corresponding mean numbers for the zinc phosphide-intoxicated groups in both winter and summer seasons in either rabbits or guinea pig groups. Moreover, the mean numbers of dipterous maggots or coleopteran larvae of rabbits significantly surpassed the corresponding figures for guinea pigs in both seasons. This study may add as a reference for the succession wave arthropod fauna in Cairo Governorate in winter and summer seasons. Moreover, it is the first record of the arthropod successive wave on zinc phosphide–intoxicated remains.

  20. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  1. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zo Young-Gun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx, the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic

  2. 不同剂量强化精氨酸肠内营养对口腔头颈部恶性肿瘤患者营养状态及免疫功能的影响%Effect of different doses of enriched arginine enteral nutrition on nutritional status and immune function of patients who suffer from oral,head and neck malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素芬; 唐晓珍; 程国姣; 易华; 郑慧宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同剂量强化精氨酸肠内营养对口腔头颈部恶性肿瘤患者术后营养状态及免疫功能的影响。方法口腔头颈部恶性肿瘤患者80例按随机数字表法分为实验1组、实验2组,各40例。术后24 h内给予实验1组强化精氨酸(10 g/d),实验2组强化精氨酸[0.3 g/(kg· d)]的等氮、热量肠内营养支持。2组患者分别于术前1 d、术后10 d分别检测血清总蛋白(TP)、白蛋白(ALB)、前白蛋白(PA)及淋巴细胞比值(LY)等指标;观察两组患者术后腹胀、腹泻、恶心呕吐等不良反应。结果术前1 d两组血清TP、ALB、PA、LY水平比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。术后10 d实验1组血清TP、ALB、PA及LY水平与术前1 d比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);术后10 d实验2组血清LY水平较术前1 d有所上升(P<0.05),实验2组其他指标与术前1 d比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。术后10 d实验2组血清LY水平明显高于实验1组(P<0.05)。两组患者鼻饲营养后胃肠道不良反应发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论强化精氨酸0.3 g/(kg· d)较10 g/d剂量的肠内营养更有利于患者免疫功能恢复。%Objective To investigate the effects of different doses of enriched arginine enteral nutrition on postoperative nutritional status and immune function of patients who suffer from oral ,head and neck malignancies .Methods Eighty patients who suffered from oral,head and neck malignancies were randomly divided into experimental group 1 and experimental group 2,with 40 patients in each group.The patients in the experimental group 1 and experimental group 2 were fed with enriched arginine (10 g/day) and enriched arginine (0.3 g/[kg· d])enteral nutrition,respectively,within 24 hours after surgery.Serum indicators of patients including total protein (TP), albumin(ALB),prealbumin(PA),LY and

  3. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  4. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  5. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Animal models for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  7. Suffering caused by care—elderly patients’ experiences in community care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Svanström

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing old involves many changes in life and implies an increased risks of illness and different forms of disabilities. Life may change in a radical way when a person gets a disease like dementia or moves to a nursing home due to disabilities or needs. In both cases, it often leads to an increased dependency on care where the patient becomes exposed and vulnerable and thereby at a higher risk for experiencing different forms of suffering. Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate and gain a deeper understanding of elderly patients’ experiences of suffering in relation to community care in nursing homes and home care services. Materials and methods: A lifeworld hermeneutical approach was used. Phenomenological interviews and conversations with an open approach were conducted and analysed with a focus on meanings. Findings: The findings were presented in four main themes; an absence of the other in care, an absence of dialogues, a sense of alienation and a sense of insecurity. The findings in this study revealed that persons who were cared for in nursing homes and home care services sometimes were exposed to an unnecessary suffering. The suffering sometimes was caused by various caring actions, that is, unnecessary suffering. The suffering caused by care that aroused was due to caregiver's inability to be present, to show their face, and truly meet the patient. Conclusion: Suffering from care increased the elderly patients’ feelings of insecurity, loneliness, and alienation; this seemed to be the foundation for patients’ experiences of being outside a human community. There was a lack of knowledge and understanding about the patient's lifeworld.

  8. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  9. [Evaluation on Ability to Detect the Intracranial Hematoma with Different Density Using C-Arm Cone-beam Computed Tomography Based on Animal Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Zeng, Yongming; Yu, Renqiang; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Rui; Sun, Jingkun; Gao, Zhimei

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ability of C-arm cone-beam CT to detect intracranial hematomas in canine models. Twenty one healthy canines were divided into seven groups and each group had three animals. Autologous blood and contrast agent (3 mL) were slowly injected into the left/right frontal lobes of each animal. Canines in the first group, the control group, were only injected with autologous blood without contrast agent. Each animal in all the 7 groups was scanned with C-arm cone-beam CT and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) after 5 minutes. The attenuation values and their standard deviations of the hematoma and uniformed brain tissues were measured to calculate the image noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A scale with scores 1-3 was used to rate the quality of the reconstructed image of different hematoma as a subjective evaluation, and all the experimental data were processed with statistical treatment. The results revealed that when the density of hematoma was less than 65 HU, hematomata were not very clear on C-arm CT images, and when the density of hematoma was more than 65 HU, hematomata showed clearly on both C-arm CT and MSCT images and the scores of them were close. The coherence between the two physicians was very reliable. The same results were obtained with C-arm cone-beam CT and MSCT grades in measuring SD value, SNR, and CNR. The reasonable choice of density detection range of intracranial hematoma with C-arm cone-beam CT could be effectively applied to monitoring the intracranial hemorrhage during interventional diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  11. The post-transcriptional regulator CsrA plays a central role in the adaptation of bacterial pathogens to different stages of infection in animal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Burrowes, Elizabeth; Baysse, Christine; Ermel, Gwennola

    2008-01-01

    The importance of Csr post-transcriptional systems is gradually emerging; these systems control a variety of virulence-linked physiological traits in many pathogenic bacteria. This review focuses on the central role that Csr systems play in the pathogenesis of certain bacteria and in the establishment of successful infections in animal hosts. Csr systems appear to control the 'switch' between different physiological states in the infection process; for example switching pathogens from a colonization state to a persistence state. Csr systems are controlled by two-component sensor/regulator systems and by non-coding RNAs. In addition, recent findings suggest that the RNA chaperone Hfq may play an integral role in Csr-mediated bacterial adaptation to the host environment.

  12. Seasonal differences in tillage draught on a sandy loam soil with long-term additions of animal manure and mineral fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nyord, T.; Christensen, B.T.;

    2016-01-01

    Energy requirements for soil tillage are closely linked to soil properties, such as clay, water and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. Long-term application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments affects SOC content but little is known about seasonal differences in tillage draught...... requirements of soils subject to contrasting nutrient management regimes. We assessed autumn and spring tillage draught following harvest of early-sown and timely sown winter wheat grown on a sandy loam in the Askov Long-Term Experiment on Animal Manure and Mineral Fertilizers. Draught force was related...... to soil texture, soil water and SOC content, shear strength and bulk density, nutrient management, and yield of the preceding winter wheat. Contents of clay and SOC ranged from 8.9 to 10.6% and from 0.98 to 1.36%, respectively. In the autumn and spring, SOC normalized by clay content explained 38 and 5...

  13. Empathy and the application of the 'unbearable suffering' criterion in Dutch euthanasia practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Donald G; Rietjens, Judith A C; van der Heide, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    A pivotal due care criterion for lawful euthanasia in the Netherlands is that doctors must be convinced that a patient requesting for euthanasia, suffers unbearably. Our study aims to find out how doctors judge if a patient suffers unbearably. How do doctors bridge the gap from 3rd person assessment to 1st person experience? We performed a qualitative interview study among 15 physicians, mainly general practitioners, who participated earlier in a related quantitative survey on the way doctors apply the suffering criterion. Results show that doctors follow different 'cognitive routes' when assessing a patients suffering in the context of a euthanasia request. Sometimes doctors do this imagining how she herself would experience the situation of the patient ('imagine self'). Doctors may also try to adopt the perspective of the patient and imagine what the situation is like for this particular patient ('imagine other'). Besides this we found that the (outcome of the) assessment is influenced by a doctor's private norms, values and emotions considering (the performance of) euthanasia. We conclude by arguing why doctors should be aware of both the 'cognitive route' followed as well as the influence of their own personal norms on the assessment of suffering in the context of euthanasia requests.

  14. Suffering wives: Miller’s Linda and Mahfouz’s Amina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouelmaaty Atef Abdallah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of suffering female characters has been the interest of both the drama and the novel of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Among those who are interested in the matter are the Noble Prize winners Arthur Miller and Naguib Mahfouz in Death of a Salesman (1949 and Palace Walk (1956. Both of Miller’s Linda and Mahfouz’s Amina have greatly suffered at the hands of their tyrannical husbands Willy Loman and Al- Sayyid Ahmad Abd-Elguaad respectively. The main aim of this paper is to study the sources, forms, and consequences of the sufferings of both Miller’s Linda and Mahfouz’s Amina, and to place their sufferings against the current beliefs of the age in which they lived. The reason behind choosing these two characters is that they look like each other in many ways. First, they are reliable, trusted wives and mothers who are dedicated to the welfare of their families. Second, they face the same inherently patriarchal cultures and suffer the same misogyny. Third, they are different from other tragic wives like Shakespeare's Desdemona, who are created to meet Aristotle's tragic requirements.

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  17. Hidden Suffering and the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fulford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand suffering is to understand what it means to be human. Suffering focuses our attention on our vulnerability, which we would rather ignore or deny. As health care professionals (HCP we need to be able to listen, to attune and be empathic to the suffering patient. If we act as an “enlightened witness” we provide a safe place for a suffering patient to grieve their loss and be vulnerable. This is skilled and demanding work, it is also important to tend to our own needs through a practice of self-care and reflection to prevent burn-out and compassion fatigue. The topic of adverse childhood experiences (ACE, which are common in the general population, are addressed in the second part of this paper. Their effects are profound, and increase with the degree of maltreatment. The maltreatment and suffering of these children usually remains hidden into adulthood beneath years of shame and denial. One aspect of our job in health care is to help patients acknowledge, experience, and bear the reality of life with all its pleasures and heartache. In order to do this well, we need to keep in touch with our own humanity, but also continue to take care of ourselves.

  18. Sin, suffering, and the need for the theological virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2006-08-01

    This article examines the account of the relationship between sin and suffering provided by J. L. A. Garcia in "Sin and Suffering in a Catholic Understanding of Medical Ethics," in this issue. Garcia draws on the (Roman) Catholic tradition and particularly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, who remains an important resource for Catholic theology. Nevertheless, his interpretation of Thomas is open to criticism, both in terms of omissions and in terms of positive claims. Garcia includes those elements of Thomas that are purely philosophical, such as natural law and acquired virtue, but neglects the theological and infused virtues, the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the beatitudes. These omissions distort his account of the Christian life so that he underplays both the radical problem posed by sin (and suffering), and the radical character of the ultimate solution: redemption in Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit.

  19. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue.Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  20. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  1. Animal rights and animal experiments: an interest-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Alasdair

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether non-human animals have a moral right not to be experimented upon. It adopts a Razian conception of rights, whereby an individual possesses a right if an interest of that individual is sufficient to impose a duty on another. To ascertain whether animals have a right not to be experimented on, three interests are examined which might found such a right: the interest in not suffering, the interest in staying alive, and the interest in being free. It is argued that whi...

  2. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  3. The impact of commercialisation on public perceptions of stem cell research: exploring differences across the use of induced pluripotent cells, human and animal embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine R; Bruce, Gordana; Farrugia, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The development of pluripotent cells that enable stem cell research (SCR) without destroying human embryos is now a leading priority for science. Public and political controversies associated with human embryonic SCR experienced in the recent past should be alleviated if scientists no longer need to harvest cells from human embryos. This research suggests however additional issues needing attention in order to gain the public's trust and support: the use of mouse embryos and the commercialisation of research. Using a representative sample of 2,800 Australians, and an experimental telephone survey design, this research compared levels and predictors of public support for stem cell research across three cell source conditions: human embryo (HE), mouse embryo (ME) and induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). The results revealed that the public were significantly more likely to support research using iPSCs than HE and ME cells and public compared to private research (regardless of the cell source). There was no significant difference in support for HE compared to ME research, but the former was viewed as more likely to lead to accessible health care benefits and to be associated with more trustworthy scientists. The results of a multimediation structural equation model showed that the primary reason support for SCR significantly dropped in a private compared to public context (i.e., the commercialisation effect) was because public scientists were trusted more than private scientists. This effect was consistent across all three SCR materials, suggesting that the use of mouse embryos or even iPSCs will not reduce the publics' concern with commercialised science. The implications these results have for public acceptance of stem cell and animal research are discussed in relation to possible solutions such as increasing public awareness of the regulation of animal research and benefit sharing.

  4. The mysterious cognitive abilities of bees: why models of visual processing need to consider experience and individual differences in animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adrian G

    2012-02-01

    Vision is one of the most important modalities for the remote perception of biologically important stimuli. Insects like honeybees and bumblebees use their colour and spatial vision to solve tasks, such as navigation, or to recognise rewarding flowers during foraging. Bee vision is one of the most intensively studied animal visual systems, and several models have been developed to describe its function. These models have largely assumed that bee vision is determined by mechanistic hard-wired circuits, with little or no consideration for behavioural plasticity or cognitive factors. However, recent work on both bee colour vision and spatial vision suggests that cognitive factors are indeed a very significant factor in determining what a bee sees. Individual bumblebees trade-off speed for accuracy, and will decide on which criteria to prioritise depending upon contextual information. With continued visual experience, honeybees can learn to use non-elemental processing, including configural mechanisms and rule learning, and can access top-down information to enhance learning of sophisticated, novel visual tasks. Honeybees can learn delayed-matching-to-sample tasks and the rules governing this decision making, and even transfer learned rules between different sensory modalities. Finally, bees can learn complex categorisation tasks and display numerical processing abilities for numbers up to and including four. Taken together, this evidence suggests that bees do have a capacity for sophisticated visual behaviours that fit a definition for cognition, and thus simple elemental models of bee vision need to take account of how a variety of factors may influence the type of results one may gain from animal behaviour experiments.

  5. Alcohol consumption and hangover patterns among migraine sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Zlotnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Alcohol hangover is a poorly understood cluster of symptoms occurring following a heavy consumption of alcohol. The term "delayed alcohol-induced headache" is often used synonymously. Our objective was to compare alcohol hangover symptoms in migraine sufferers and nonsufferers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, university students were asked to fill structured questionnaires assessing headache history, alcoholic consumption, and hangover symptoms (using the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS. Subjects were classified as suffering from migraine with or without aura and nonsufferers according the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2 nd Edition (ICHD-II. The 13 hangover symptoms were divided by the researches into migraine-like and other nonmigraine-like symptoms. Results: Hangover symptoms among 95 migraine sufferers and 597 nonsufferers were compared. Migraine sufferers consumed less alcohol compared with the nonsufferers (mean drinks/week 2.34 ± 4.11 vs. 2.92 ± 3.58, P = 0.038 and suffered from higher tendency to migraine-like symptoms after drinking (mean 2.91 ± 3.43 vs. 1.85 ± 2.35, P = 0.002 but not to other hangover symptoms (mean 5.39 ± 6.31 vs. 4.34 ± 4.56, P = 0.1. Conclusions: Migraine sufferers consume less alcohol, especially beer and liquors, and are more vulnerable to migraine-like hangover symptoms than nonsufferers. The finding that the tendency to develop migraine attacks affects the hangover symptomatology may suggest a similarity in pathophysiology, and possibly in treatment options.

  6. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  7. `So, What Do Men and Women Want? Is It any Different from What Animals Want?' Sex Education in an Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss and problematise notions of femininity and masculinity constructed in teaching situations among 16-year-old upper-secondary students studying science. The empirical examples originate from a teaching session with the theme of `sex and relationships'. The analysis is focused on metaphors inherent in a lesson that has its origins in the animal world. The findings show that the lesson `sex in the animal world' is full of anthropomorphism, metaphors that humanise animal behaviour. Teachers and students compare the animals' sexual behaviour with human behaviour, with the result that the animal world can be perceived as representative of natural sexual behaviour. The survey illustrates problems with how the examples are permeated by cultural values in the presentation of the animal world and how these examples form constructions of femininity and masculinity in the classroom.

  8. `So, What Do Men and Women Want? Is It any Different from What Animals Want?' Sex Education in an Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss and problematise notions of femininity and masculinity constructed in teaching situations among 16-year-old upper-secondary students studying science. The empirical examples originate from a teaching session with the theme of `sex and relationships'. The analysis is focused on metaphors inherent in a lesson that has its origins in the animal world. The findings show that the lesson `sex in the animal world' is full of anthropomorphism, metaphors that humanise animal behaviour. Teachers and students compare the animals' sexual behaviour with human behaviour, with the result that the animal world can be perceived as representative of natural sexual behaviour. The survey illustrates problems with how the examples are permeated by cultural values in the presentation of the animal world and how these examples form constructions of femininity and masculinity in the classroom.

  9. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  10. The Future of Music Therapy with Persons Suffering from Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents important research concerning music therapy with persons suffering from schizophrenia. It further presents the most Applied theories and models concerning clinical practice individual and in Groups with this population. It offers ideas as to why music therapy Works...... with persons suffering from schizophrenia. These ideas are divided into 1) possible positions of the music therapist, 2) the function of the music. Finally a discussion on the questions:´ Should music therapy focus on symptoms, resources - or both?´, is unfodled....

  11. Nonmotor symptoms in patients suffering from motor neuron diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Günther

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis has gained much attention, especially for Parkinson’s disease (PD. The various nonmotor symptoms (NMS in neurodegenerative diseases would be much better explained by this hypothesis than by the degeneration of disease-specific cell populations. Motor neuron disease (MND is primarily known as a group of diseases with a selective loss of motor function. Recent evidence, however, suggests disease spreading into nonmotor brain regions also in MND. The aim of this study was to comprehensively detect NMS in patients suffering from MND.Methods: We used a self-rating questionnaire including 30 different items of gastrointestinal, autonomic, neuropsychiatric and sleep complaints (NMSQuest which is an established tool in PD patients. 90 MND patients were included and compared to 96 controls.Results: In total, MND patients reported significantly higher NMS scores (median: 7 points in comparison to controls (median: 4 points. Dribbling, impaired taste/smelling, impaired swallowing, weight loss, loss of interest, sad/blues, falling and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in MND patients compared to controls. Interestingly excessive sweating was more reported in the MND group. Correlation analysis revealed an increase of total NMS score with disease progression.Conclusions: NMS in MND patients seemed to increase with disease progression which would fit with the recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis. The total NMS score in the MND group significantly exceeded the score for the control group, but only 8 of the 30 single complaints of the NMSQuest were significantly more often reported by MND patients. Dribbling, impaired swallowing, weight loss and falling could primarily be connected to motor neuron degeneration and declared as motor symptoms in MND.

  12. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N. D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  13. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  14. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    (Pcritical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (PResearchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical......A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...

  15. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  16. [Support for children of parents suffering from cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mathias; Morère, Jean-François; Vernois, Sylvie; Casassus, Philippe; Baubet, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Oncologie 93 health network set up support groups for children with a parent suffering from cancer. A psychologist and a health care manager give information to the children and listen to their difficulties. Then, parents and children can open up with each other helping them to overcome the ordeal of the disease.

  17. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  18. Might Avatar-Mediated Interactions Rehabilitate People Suffering from Aphasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Many people suffering from communication disabilities after a brain injury have difficulties coming to terms with their new self as disabled persons. Being unable to deal with these problems verbally exacerbates the condition. As a result they often isolate socially and develop low self-esteem...

  19. Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

  20. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Gavin M; Meiden, Laura Vander

    2016-01-01

    The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius) use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  1. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  2. Attitudes towards treatment among patients suffering from sleep disorders. A Latin American survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloret Santiago

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sleep disorders are common, they frequently remain unnoticed by the general practitioner. Few data are available about the willingness and reasons of patients with sleep disturbances to seek for medical assistance. Methods The results of a cross-sectional community-based multinational survey in three major Latin American urban areas, i.e. Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Sao Paulo, are reported. Two-hundred subjects suffering sleep disturbances and 100 non-sufferers were selected from the general population in each city (total number: 600 sufferers vs. 300 non-sufferers. A structured interview was conducted, sleep characteristics, feelings about sleep disturbances and strategies to cope with those problems being recorded. Data were analyzed by employing either t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA to the Z-transformed proportions. Results 22.7 ± 3.5 % (mean ± SEM of subjects reported to suffer from sleep disturbances every night. About 3 out of 4 (74.2 ± 2.0 % considered their disorder as mild and were not very concerned about it. Only 31 ± 2 % of sufferers reported to have sought for medical help. Although 45 ± 2 % of sufferers reported frequent daily sleepiness, trouble to remember things, irritability and headaches, they did not seek for medical assistance. Among those patients who saw a physician with complaints different from sleep difficulties only 1 out of 3 (33 ± 2 % of patients were asked about quality of their sleep by the incumbent practitioner. Strategies of patients to cope with sleep problems included specific behaviors (taking a warm bath, reading or watching TV (44 ± 1.6 %, taking herbal beverages (17 ± 1.2 % or taking sleeping pills (10 ± 1.1 %. Benzodiazepines were consumed by 3 ± 0.6 % of sufferers. Conclusion Public educational campaigns on the consequences of sleep disorders and an adequate training of physicians in sleep medicine are needed to educate both the public and the general

  3. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  4. Learning by playing, animating words and images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción; Pedersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    of thoughts and emotions. We work from the constructivism of Vygotsky, taking into account student's opinions to enhance the learning experience, by guiding the pupils in finding their own way to express themselves. Furthermore, to regulate emotions and work on human values such as: resilience, tolerance...... writing at schools. "I believe we need to stress visual literacy in our schools. We need to educate (young people) to understand the difference between moving images that engage their humanity and their intelligence, and moving images that are just selling them something" (Scorsese, Martin. 2013....... The persisting vision). We are aware of the resistance that alternative learning tools suffer from the most traditional school systems, as Sir Ken Robinson claims; we need to change the old teachings paradigms. At the Animated Learning Lab, together, with some of the newest results from other schools...

  5. Resistance to antimicrobial agents used for animal therapy in pathogenic , zoonotic and indicator bacteria isolated from different food animals in Denmark: A baseline study for the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (DANMAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bager, Flemming; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    collected from October 1995 through December 1996 were tested for susceptibility to all major classes of antimicrobial agents used for therapy in Denmark. Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Acquired resistance to all antimicrobials...... was found. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. In general, resistance was observed more frequently among isolates from pigs than from cattle and broilers. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed......, as is the occurrence of resistance in other countries. The results of this study show the present level of resistance to antimicrobial agents among a number of bacterial species isolated from food animals in Denmark. Thus, the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies has been established, enabling...

  6. Investigation of the differences between the "COLD" and "HOT" nature of Coptis chinensis Franch and its processed materials based on animal's temperature tropism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU CanPing; WANG JiaBo; ZHANG XueRu; ZHAO YanLing; XIA XinHua; ZHAO HaiPing; REN YongShen; XIAO XiaoHe

    2009-01-01

    The description and differentiation of the so-called "Cold" and "Hot" natures,the primary "Drug Naure" of Chinese medicine,is the focus of theoretical research.In this study,the divergency between the "Cold" and the "Hot" natures was investigated through examining the temperature tropism of mice affected by Coptis chinensis Franch and its processed materials by using a cold/hot plate differentiating technology.After exposure to C.chinensis Franch,the macroscopic behavioral index of the remaining rate (RR)on a warm pad (40℃)significantly increased (P<0.05),suggesting the enhancement of Hot tropism.The internal indexes of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)activity and oxygen consuming volume decreased significantly (P<0.05),suggesting the decapability of energy metabolism.This external behavior of Hot tropism might reflect the internal Cold nature of C.chinensis Franch.However,the processed materials of C.chinensis Franch exhibited a different Cold nature in temperature tropism compared with crude C.chinensis Franch (CC):the Cold nature of bile-processed C.chinensis Franch (BC)enhanced while the ginger-processed C.chinensis Franch (GC)changed inversely.The changing sequence was consistent with the theoretical prognostication.It is indicated that the external Cold & Hot natures of Chinese medicine may possibly reflect in an ethological way for the changes of animal's temperature tropism which might be internally regulated by the body's energy metabolism.

  7. Effect of supplementing different oils: linseed, sunflower and soybean, on animal performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of veal from "Rubia Gallega" calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Bispo, Esperanza; Dugan, Michael E R; Franco, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of longisimus dorsi (LD) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) from Rubia Gallega (RG) calves was compared for three dietary oil sources (linseed, LO; sunflower, SFO or soybean, SYO). Oils were added (4.5%) to a commercial concentrate and no differences on animal performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality among diets were noted. Total n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) increased in LD and SCF when feeding LO diet (P<0.001). The trans(t) FA profiles were dominated by t11-18:1, except when feeding SFO diet, where ∑t6- to t10-18:1 exceeded t11-18:1 leading the highest (∑t6-to t10-18:1)/t11-18:11 ratio in LD (P<0.05). The overall changes in n-3 PUFA and t18:1 when feeding LO and SYO could be viewed as positive for human health, but quantitatively it was apparent that most dietary PUFA were completely biohydrogenated. Inhibiting PUFA biohydrogenation will be an important next step to improve the FA composition of RG cattle.

  8. Canine-DCs using different serum-free methods as an approach to provide an animal-model for immunotherapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bund, Dagmar; Buhmann, Raymund; Gökmen, Füsun; Kremser, Andreas; Dreyssig, Julia; Kolb, Hans Jochem; Schmetzer, Helga Maria

    2010-01-01

    Animal-models are the basis of DC-based human immunotherapies. We describe the standardization of a canine-DC-generation protocol using different cytokines and characterize the quality and functional repertoire of the obtained canine-DCs. DCs were generated from healthy dog-PBMCs under serum-free and serum-containing conditions. DC-quality and -quantity was determined by FACS studying the expression-profiles of DC-/costimulatory- and maturation-antigens before/after culture with canine and human monoclonal-antibodies (cmabs/hmabs). Individual DCAgs-(DC-antigens)-expression-profiles were found before and after culture depending on the agents' mode-of-action. With at least one of three serum-free methods (Ca-Ionophore, Picibanil, Cytokines) sufficient DC-amounts were generated. So, canine-DCs can be regularly generated under serum-free conditions and hmabs additionally to cmabs qualify for staining/quantification of canine-cells/DCs. The canine-DCs were functional, shown by T-cell-activation, -proliferation and antigen-specific CTL-responses. In summary, successful, quantitative DC-generation is possible with serum-free methods. DC-based T-cell-vaccination-strategies evaluated for e.g. AML-patients can be tested in the dog and estimated in clinical studies for DC-vaccination-strategies.

  9. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  10. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  11. Animal Assisted Therapy and Trauma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Debra; Waddell, Rhondda

    2016-01-01

    Animal therapy is making strides in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For years, animals have been used with great benefit in the treatment of the aged and the terminally ill. Now animal assisted therapy is benefitting sufferers of PTSD. The results of animal assisted therapy in the treatment of PTSD patients have seen significant results. In one study of the effect of dogs with patients, psychologists noted an 82% reduction in symptoms. One particular case noted that interacting with the dog for as little as one week, enabled a patient to decrease the amount of anxiety and sleep medications by half.

  12. Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greisse da Silveira Maissiat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST. Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. RESULTS: Organization (91.3% and work conditions (64% received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%, freedom of expression (62.4% and recognition (59.9%. However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The workers evaluated their work context as inappropriate and complained of exhaustion, although they claimed their work affords some satisfaction.

  13. Boundaries inside the body: women's sufferings in southern peasant Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, M

    1990-06-01

    In a village of Southern Italy the secret world of women's emotions is fundamentally expressed through the body. The female body is open to events of the world and absorbs and feels their effect and defines a new identity, a minimal one. This gives rise to a symbolic anatomy, pathology, and physiology that serve to distinguish male and female worlds and to bridge inner and outer experience. These "traces" of external and extraordinary events, which in the past and in daily life have cut the secret and emotional world of women, are inscribed on the body. This body becomes a phenomenological memoir that opens a new way of interpreting distress and suffering and illness. This article represents a bridge from the interpretation of suffering and illness in Southern Italy via Gramsci and De Martino to a metacultural process of creating a polysemic and multilevel sense of self.

  14. [Caregivers of elderly patients suffering from mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbaillets, M; Ebbing, K; Giardini, U; Kohler, M C; Justiniano, I; Mayemba, M; von Gunten, A

    2010-04-14

    Mental disorders in the elderly lead their families to stand in and adopt a variety of roles before institutional care takes over. These pathologies carry a high risk of suffering for families and distress for professional caregivers. Thus, the psychological burden endured by the proxies of an elderly depressed patient, or of one who has committed suicide, or of patient suffering from dementia needs special attention and, in some cases, professional care. The discussion of these paradigmatic situations in this manuscript will be extended by a paragraph on specific stakes raised by alcoholic patients living in nursing homes. It will stress the complexity and requirements of professionalism when approaching the familial and professional circle of the elderly psychiatric patient.

  15. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  16. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  17. Kumbhakarna : Did he suffer from the disorder of the hypothalamus?

    OpenAIRE

    Om J Lakhani; Lakhani, Jitendra D.

    2015-01-01

    Kumbhakarna was brother of the evil Raavana in the mythological tale of Ramayana. According the legend, Kumbhakarna had an insatiable appetite and thirst and used to sleep for great lengths of time. He also had an uncontrollable temper, which was feared by many. It is our assessment that Kumbhakarna possibly suffered from hypothalamic obesity. Hypothalamic obesity can be defined as significant polyphagia and weight gain that occurs because of structural or function involvement of the ventrome...

  18. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Kahlfuss; Robert Rainer Flieger; Annette Mankertz; Kadir Yilmaz; Torsten Kai Roepke

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensi...

  19. Lives rendered invisible: Bearing witness to human suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladjo Ivanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethical challenges involved in the ways public representation structures our experiences of atrocities and facilitates an adequate awareness of and response towards the suffering of others. It points out that such an analysis should not exhaust itself in answering what makes public representations of human suffering ethically suspicious and intolerable, but should rather extend this task by clarifying how the public forms sentiments about their social and political reality by elucidating under which conditions public representation promotes broader political agendas. One of the central tenets of human rights advocacy is the widespread conviction that exposure to images and stories of human rights abuse has a mobilizing effect on western audience(s whose exposure to such knowledge can motivate them to intervene and prevent future atrocities. In order to assess the basic implications of such a conviction we must answer at least three principal clusters of questions. First, how do public representations of atrocities affect individuals and their capacities to conceive and respond to social injustices and the suffering of others? Under what circumstances may agents respond effectively to shocking content? Second, how do social powers operate within the field of perception in order to control how the viewing public is affected? And how do these effects inform and galvanize political support or opposition regarding concrete historical events? Finally, what can be said about the responsibilities of visual representation? Whose agency is it that images inform, and what reforms are necessary to make representations of suffering ethically effective means to encourage better acknowledgment of individual and collective responsibilities that would motivate the public to meet its moral and political obligations? This paper ultimately suggests that in order for politically implicated images to have an immediate critical effect on

  20. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA IN GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Krunal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia, a psychiatric illness is a 4th leading cause of disability among adults. It is estimated to affect 1% of the general population. Aim of the present study was to conduct epidemiological survey of patients suffering of schizophrenia in Gujarat. This retrospective study was conducted on patients visiting Santvan Hospital Nadiad,Gujarat. Data were collected by the case report forms and analyzed for age, sex, symptoms of schizophrenic patients and prescribed drugs. Male and female patients (n=55 with age > 15 years and 50 years were excluded from this study. Analysis of the data revealed that females and males affecting schizophrenia were almost equal. This disease appeared earlier in men usually in early twenties than in women who were affected in the twenties to early thirties. Female patients were suffered from irritable mood more than males. Male patients suffered from apathetic mood more than females. All cases studied were had negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Polypharmacy was observed in drug prescription as on an average drugs prescribed per patient was 3 to 4. Olanzapine (98% was most prescribed drug followed by clozapine (64%, lorazepam (64%, escitalopram (50% and risperidone (32%.

  1. Pain in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  2. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  3. Daytime symptom patterns in insomnia sufferers: is there evidence for subtyping insomnia?

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Ortuño, Maria M.; Edinger, Jack D.; Wyatt, James K.

    2011-01-01

    The type and severity of daytime symptoms reported by insomnia sufferers may vary markedly. Whether distinctive daytime symptom profiles are related to different insomnia diagnoses has not been studied previously. Using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling, we investigated the concurrent validity of ICSD-2 insomnia diagnoses by analysing the relationship of prototypical profiles of daytime symptoms with a subset of ICSD-2 diagnoses, including insomnia associated to a mental disorder,...

  4. Depressive symptomatology and grief in Spanish women who have suffered a perinatal loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ridaura, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal grief differs from other types of mourning. Two goals were set: to describe the progression of the process of grief and the symptoms of depression throughout the year following perinatal loss, and to study its association with socio-economic and obstetric factors. Method: The study involved the participation of 70 women who had suffered a medical termination of pregnancy or a prenatal/postnatal death. Three assessments were made after the loss (after 1 month, 6 months and 1 year) wi...

  5. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  6. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  7. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  8. 从动物词汇看中俄文化差异%On the cultural differences between China and Russia from the view of animal words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爽; 赵婷

    2016-01-01

    动物词的文化意义与动物天性有必然联系,同时又受到持该语言民族的生活环境、风俗习惯、宗教信仰等方面影响。对汉俄动物词语文化意义的研究可尽量减少或避免俄语留学生汉语学习中的语言文化碰撞。%The cultural meaning of animal words is necessarily related to the nature of animals, and it is influenced by the living environment, customs and habits, religious belief and so on. Try to reduce the research on cultural significance of Chinese and Russian animal words, or avoid language and culture col ision of Chinese learning of Russian students.

  9. Effect of different formulations of glucocorticoid on the function of islet β cells of patients suffering from bronchial asthma and diabetes%不同剂型糖皮质激素对支气管哮喘合并糖尿病患者胰岛β细胞功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙法凤; 罗冲

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察2型糖尿病合并支气管哮喘患者运用不同剂型糖皮质激素治疗后,对患者胰岛素敏感性和胰岛β细胞功能的影响情况。方法选择2009年1月至2012年1月枣庄市山亭区人民医院收治的,同时符合2型糖尿病诊断标准和支气管哮喘(慢性持续期)诊断标准的患者86例,随机分为两组,A 组采用吸入性糖皮质激素治疗,B 组采用口服糖皮质激素治疗。3个月后行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)及胰岛素释放试验,计算稳态模型胰岛β细胞功能指标(HOMA-β)和胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)。结果A 组患者治疗前后胰岛素敏感性和胰岛β细胞功能无明显差异(P>0.05),B 组患者治疗前较治疗后胰岛素敏感性降低(P0.05). The function of pancreatic islet β cells and the sensitivity to insulin of patients in group B descended significantly after therapy (P<0.05). Conclusion There were no obvious influences on the function of pancreatic islet β cells and sensitivity to insulin of patients suffering from bronchial asthma and diabetes when treated with inhaled glucocorticoid. While there were obvious adverse effects when treated with oral 10 mg prednisone per day for 3 months.

  10. An Exploration of Mencius' Thoughts of Animal Ethics Also on Similarities and Differences of Animal Ethics Between Chuang Tzu and Mencius%孟子动物伦理思想探微——兼论庄子、孟子动物伦理思想的异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永芳; 胡文娟

    2012-01-01

    探究孟子动物伦理思想,可得出其主要观点有:动物在人类社会中的地位决定于人类生存、发展的需要;是否经过道德教化是动物与人的区别所在;对待动物的态度是爱护,但无需上升到“仁”“德”和“亲”“爱”的高度;宰杀动物需要讲求不忍之心,而君子远庖厨是一种仁术;动物保护和管理对于环境具有经济、美学上的价值等。庄子和孟子的动物伦理思想具有较大的差异性,其中庄子借动物阐述自己的自由理想,可以看做是一种动物伦理的元哲学;而孟子借动物阐述自己的政治理想,可以看做是一种动物政治伦理学。%The main points of Mencius' animal ethics are: the status of animals in human society depends on the needs of human survival and development; differences between human and animal lie in moral cultivation; the attitude towards animals should be to protect, and there is no need to rise to the height of benevolence and love; a man of noble character should keep away from animal killing; protection of animals can bring economic and aesthetic value to the environment; etc. There are great differences in animal ethics between Zhuangzi and Mencius in that Zhuangzi explained his view of freedom through description of animals, which can be thought of as the meta-philosophy of animal ethics while Mencius used description of animals to explain his political view which can be thought of as a kind of animal political ethics.

  11. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  12. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities.

  13. Experiences of well-being and suffering after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    , MEDLINE, PsycInfo and EMBASE. Second, Google Scholar was searched for grey literature. Third, references and cited citations of all retrieved studies were reviewed for additional studies. Studies included were critically appraised and study details were extracted. An analysis inspired by Kvale following...... qualitative studies of lived experiences of well-being and suffering within one year after discharge with hip fracture. Method: Following the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute, a three-step literature search strategy was developed. Initially, a structured search was performed in the databases CINAHL...

  14. Impact of culture on the expression of pain and suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Simon

    2011-10-01

    A primary human challenge is how to alleviate suffering and loss. One way is through culture. The core characteristics of culture are symbols, sharing and groups. These three factors enable society to help the individual cope with loss. In the modern age traditional culture is disintegrating and is being replaced. Often it is outstanding individuals who provide the impetus and tools with which to change the culture and to adapt to new challenges. One lesson to be drawn from the discussion is the idea of using our culture more pro-actively to routinely contemplate loss, ageing and death.

  15. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  16. Resources for hyperhidrosis sufferers, patients, and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Lisa J

    2014-10-01

    The excessive sweating of hyperhidrosis creates profound psychosocial, professional, and financial burdens on the individual sufferer; it contributes to impaired self-worth and self-efficacy, decreased satisfaction in all relationships, avoidance of specific careers, and increased expenditures on everything from clothing to medical treatment. Despite morbidity equal to other well-known dermatologic conditions, hyperhidrosis has historically been underacknowledged and undertreated because of the lack of accessible, scientifically accurate information and dispersal of that information within patient and medical communities. Thankfully, the development of the Internet and the work of the not-for-profit International Hyperhidrosis Society (IHHS) have increased awareness of hyperhidrosis.

  17. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, Robert Rainer; Mankertz, Annette; Yilmaz, Kadir; Roepke, Torsten Kai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  18. Correlates of perceptions of elder’s suffering from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Kane

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated social work students’ perceptions of elders as depressed and suffering (N= 156. Four predictor variables were identified from a standard regression analysis that account for 32% of the model’s adjusted variance: (a perceptions of elders as vulnerable, (b perceptions about elders as oppressed. Overall, respondents perceived elders as being depressed, vulnerable, members of an oppressed group, abusive of substances, and only moderately resilient in response to mental health services. Implications are discussed for social work education.

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    We love movies because we like to jump from our “reality” to live a dream, a parallel universe that inspires us. We long for adventure, excitement and answers to quests… That’s the magic of cinema; it makes you believe what you see and over all, FEEL it. As Antonio Damasio said-“ we´re feeling...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...

  20. Suffering and compassion: The links among adverse life experiences, empathy, compassion, and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daniel; DeSteno, David

    2016-03-01

    Experiencing past adversity traditionally has been linked to negative life outcomes. However, emerging evidence suggests that heterogeneity exists with respect to links between adversity and resilience, with adversity often enhancing cooperation in the face of joint suffering. Here, the authors present 2 studies designed to examine if the severity of past adversity is associated with an enduring propensity for empathy-mediated compassion, and, if so, whether the resulting compassion directly is, in turn, linked to behavior meant to relieve the suffering of others. Using both MTurk and laboratory-based paradigms, the authors find that increasing severity of past adversity predicts increased empathy, which in turn, is linked to a stable tendency to feel compassion for others in need. In addition, they demonstrate that the resulting individual differences in compassion appear to engender behavioral responses meant to assist others (i.e., charitable giving, helping a stranger).

  1. The Effect of Hypoallergenic Diagnostic Diet in Adolescents and Adult Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Celakovská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of a diagnostic hypoallergenic diet on the severity of atopic dermatitis in patients over 14 years of age. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic hypoallergenic diet was recommended to patients suffering from atopic dermatitis for a period of 3 weeks. The severity of atopic dermatitis was evaluated at the beginning and at the end of this diet (SCORAD I, SCORAD II and the difference in the SCORAD over this period was statistically evaluated. Results: One hundred and forty-nine patients suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: 108 women and 41 men. The average age of the subjects was 26.03 (SD: 9.6 years, with the ages ranging from a minimum of 14 years to a maximum of 63 years. The mean SCORAD at the beginning of the study (SCORAD I was 32.9 points (SD: 14.1 and the mean SCORAD at the end of the diet (SCORAD II was 25.2 points (SD: 9.99. The difference between SCORAD I and SCORAD II was evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The average decrease of SCORAD was 7.7 points, which was statistically significant (P=.00000. Conclusion: Introduction of the diagnostic hypoallergenic diet may serve as a temporary medical solution" in patients suffering from moderate or severe forms of atopic dermatitis. It is recommended that this diet be used in the diagnostic workup of food allergy.

  2. The suffering is similar--is the treatment equal? An intervention with Arab Terror injured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Roni; Unger-Arnov, Yael; Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Tessler, Aviva

    2011-01-01

    In the course of the last Intifada and during the Second Lebanon War, all citizens of Israel were exposed to waves of terrorism that claimed many people wounded and killed, unrelated to religious differences, age, gender, or nationality: Jews and Arabs suffered alike. The acts of terror exposed all inhabitants equally to injury, suffering, and the need to adjust. The professional literature attests that minority groups are at a higher risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms as a result of exposure to acts of terror. This article describes the treatment with terror injured, Jews and Arabs, in the frame of the project for terror victims at Rambam Medical Center, in cooperation with Operation Embrace. It also covers the project intervention with casualties of the shooting incident in the Arab town of Shefaram, with the cooperation of Shefaram Social Welfare department. The psycho-social work conducted with the injured, Jews and Arabs, emphasized their similarities, their common fate, and the fact that any of us could be injured in a terror act or a war. The suffering, the loss, and the hurt are common to us all. At the same time, the interventions referred to cultural differences and the diverse ways of coping with the aftermath of the events, based on values, faith, and outlook on life arising from cultural background.

  3. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  4. Quantitative resistance level (MIC) of Escherichia coli isolated from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis: national resistance monitoring by the BVL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, Ulrike; Kaspar, Heike; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    National Resistance Monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), which was put into service in 2001, has made it possible to implement a valid and representative database on the basis of which the resistance situation, development and spread in animal pathogens can be evaluated. Escherichia coil (E. coli) strains originating from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis were first included in the investigations in the 2004/2005 study. A total of 258 bovine and 492 porcine E. coli strains were tested using the broth microdilution method to determine the in vitro susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration) to 23 (fattening pigs) and 28 (calves, piglets, weaners) different antimicrobial substances. Considerable prevalences of resistance were found for some antimicrobials. The strains originating from both animal species displayed high prevalences of resistance for tetracycline, trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline and ampicillin. Reduced susceptibility was detected particularly in the E. coli strains from calves. The data reveal that the resistance level of E. coli strains isolated from cases of enteric disease in calves and pigs is altogether higher than has so far been reported in pathogens causing different diseases and in other food-producing animal species. Based on the results presented, it is possible to assess the current resistance situation for E. coli strains in calves and pigs in Germany. This in turn helps to deduce the necessary management measures that can be taken in order to minimise resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, the data help to decide on adequate therapy of E. coli infections of the intestinal tract in calves and pigs and encourage the responsible use of antibiotics in the interests of animal health and consumer protection.

  5. Initial ground experiments of silkworm cultures living on different feedstock for provision of high quality animal protein for human in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunan; Tang, Liman; Tong, Ling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong; Li, Xiaomin

    2010-09-01

    Silkworm could be an alternative to provide edible animal protein in Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for long-term manned space missions. Silkworms can consume non-edible plant residue and convert plant nutrients to high quality edible animal protein for astronauts. The preliminary investigation of silkworm culture was carried out in earth environment. The silkworms were fed with artificial silkworm diet and the leaves of stem lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. angustana Irish) separately and the nutritional structure of silkworm was investigated and compared, The culture experiments showed that: (1) Stem lettuce leaves could be used as food of silkworm. The protein content of silkworm fed with lettuce leaves can reach 70% of dry mass. (2) The protein content of silkworm powder produced by the fifth instar silkworm larvae was 70%, which was similar to the protein content of silkworm pupae. The powder of the fifth instar silkworm larvae can be utilized by astronaut. (3) The biotransformation rate of silkworm larvae between the third instar and the fifth instar could reach above 70%. The biotransformation cycle of silkworm was determined as 24 days. (4) Using the stem lettuce leaves to raise silkworm, the coarse fiber content of silkworm excrements reached about 33%. The requirements of space silkworm culture equipment, feeding approaches and feeding conditions were also preliminarily designed and calculated. It is estimated that 2.2 m 3 of culture space could satisfy daily animal protein demand for seven astronauts.

  6. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  7. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity.

  8. Daytime symptom patterns in insomnia sufferers: is there evidence for subtyping insomnia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortuño, Maria M; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K

    2011-09-01

    The type and severity of daytime symptoms reported by insomnia sufferers may vary markedly. Whether distinctive daytime symptom profiles are related to different insomnia diagnoses has not been studied previously. Using profile analysis via multidimensional scaling, we investigated the concurrent validity of ICSD-2 insomnia diagnoses by analysing the relationship of prototypical profiles of daytime symptoms with a subset of ICSD-2 diagnoses, such as insomnia associated to a mental disorder, psychophisiological insomnia, paradoxical insomnia, inadequate sleep hygiene, idiopathic insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome. In a sample of 332 individuals meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia (221 women, M(age) =46 years.), the profile analysis identified four prototypical patterns of daytime features. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that the diagnoses of insomnia associated to a mental disorder and idiopathic insomnia were associated with a daytime profile characterized by mood disturbance and low sleepiness; whereas the diagnoses of psychophysiological insomnia and inadequate sleep hygiene were related to a profile marked by poor sleep hygiene, daytime tension and low fatigue. Furthermore, whereas paradoxical insomnia was consistently associated to lower daytime impairment, insomnia associated to a mental disorder appeared as the most severe daytime form of insomnia. This classification of insomnia sufferers along multiple defining dimensions provides initial validation for two basic insomnia subtypes, with a presumably distinct aetiology: insomnia characterized mainly by an 'internal' component, and a 'learned' insomnia. Research to determine which dimensions are critical for inclusion or differential weighting for defining a general typological system for insomnia sufferers is warranted.

  9. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  10. Did Tutankhamun suffer from hypophosphatasia?--A hypothetical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2010 new efforts have been undertaken to shed light on the life and death of Tutankhamun--for the first time with the aid of modern scientific methods like CT scans and DNA analysis. The publication of a paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association in February 2010, that stated the famous pharaoh died of a combination of Malaria and Köhler's disease II, provoked objections from various sides. Based on new and existing findings, the author has developed the theory that Tutankhamun might, instead, have suffered from hypophosphatasia, an inherited metabolic disorder that affects especially the musculo-skeletal system in many ways. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) can be highly variable in its clinical manifestations and can be difficult to diagnose. The author has compiled both medical and archaeological findings to support his theory and suggests that existing DNA samples of Tutankhamun and other members of his family should be tested for defects on the ALPL gene.

  11. Kumbhakarna : Did he suffer from the disorder of the hypothalamus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om J Lakhani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kumbhakarna was brother of the evil Raavana in the mythological tale of Ramayana. According the legend, Kumbhakarna had an insatiable appetite and thirst and used to sleep for great lengths of time. He also had an uncontrollable temper, which was feared by many. It is our assessment that Kumbhakarna possibly suffered from hypothalamic obesity. Hypothalamic obesity can be defined as significant polyphagia and weight gain that occurs because of structural or function involvement of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus bilaterally. The characteristic features are obesity associated with polyphagia. Somnolence is present in 40% of cases. Sham rage is a characteristic behavioral abnormality seen in these patients. All these symptoms are described in the mythological text while describing Kumbhakarna. The episodic nature of Kumbhakarna′s symptoms can also be explained by another hypothalamic syndrome called Klein-Levine syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by with periodic episodes of somnolence, hyperphagia and hypersexuality along with other behavioral and cognitive difficulties.

  12. Cornual pregnancy in a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onilda Labrada Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ectopic pregnancy is a pathological entity of great incidence, which is increased, among other things, by each time earlier sexual relations. Cornual pregnancy is as a result of the implantation of the blastocyte within the segment of the fallopian tube that goes into the uterus wall or between the tubal ostium and the proximal portion of the isthmus. This is a case of a cornual pregnancy in which the use of ultrasonography played an essential role for its diagnosis, since it is about a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia, where it was not possible to clinically eliminate the possibility of an occlusive vessel crisis as the cause of abdominal pain. Subtotal hysterectomy of the right tube was performed. The patient’s evolution is satisfactory.

  13. The Level of Serum immunoglobulins in Children suffering from Sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh, S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paranasal sinuses are the common place for infectionin children and adults. Early and effective antibiotic treatment is necessary toreduce the infection period and mucosal injuries, and to prevent from theInvolvements of orbit or CNS. This article aims to clarify the Serumimmunoglobulins accompanying by Sinusitis in Children.Material and Methods: the Subjects of this Cross-Sectional study were 400patients with paranasal sinusitis confirmed by imaging techniques. The study wasconducted in infectious and ENT Clinics of Rasoul Akram hospital in 2003-2004.We measured the Levels of serum immoglobulins including IgG, IgM, IgA and IgEby standard radio-immunodiffusion test, and Compared with normal range of eachage group. The data was analyzed by SPSS software (11.5Results: The Subjects aged 4.42±2.62 are both male (70.7% and female (29.3%.Maxilla is the most Common Sinus involved. Thirty-eight of them (95% haveincreased IgG Level. Forty-four percent of children suffered from rhinosinusitishave been diagnosed with Immune-humoral disorders: the increase of IgE (N=9,Lack of IgA (N=3, decrease of Isolated IgG (N=2, decrease of both IgG and IgA(N=1 and Hyper IgM syndrome (N=3. There is Significant Correlation betweendifferent Immunoglobulins and duration of Sinusitis (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study show that an increase of IgE is one of themost Common disorders in children suffering from Sinusitis and the incidence ofimmunity disorders is higher than the expected rate. Thus, we recommend theImmunologic assessment for Children Contracting with Sinusitis, esp. forprotracted one.Key words: Rhinosinusitis, Hypogamma Globulinemia, Resistant Rhinosinusitis,Serum Immunoglobulins

  14. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  15. [Biofunctional symmetry of individual values of clinic-laboratory indices in patients, suffering severe forms of an acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipliv'iĭ, V A; Kon', K V; Robak, B I; Evtushenko, A V

    2012-02-01

    Individual values of clinic-laboratory indices were analyzed in 125 patients, suffering severe forms of an acute pancreatitis (AP). In the early postoperative period there were analyzed 65 indices: clinical analysis of the blood, 24 hematological indices, biochemical analysis of the blood, coagulogram, estimates according to the ASSES, APACHE II, SAPS, SAPS II, SAPS III scales. There was established, that in 83.1% of patients in severe forms of an AP the ratio or the values difference of clinic-laboratory indices in dynamics of postoperative period are depicted according to the "Golden section" rule with deviation no more than 10-15%. In the patients, suffering sterile pancreonecrosis, in comparison with those, suffering infected pancreonecrosis and in the patients with infected pancreonecrosis without retroperitoneal space cellular tissue affection in comparison with patients, suffering infected pancreonecrosis and the retroperitoneal space cellular tissue affection there were more signs, the values ratio or difference of which have deviated from the "Golden section" rule no more than by 5%. While estimating the patients state severity in those, suffering severe forms of AP, using special scales, most precisely the coincidence with a "Golden section" rule was noted, according to scales ASSES and SAPS III. Prognostically unfavorable was a progressive increase of the points sum according to ASSES scale in dynamics of postoperative period.

  16. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  17. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values...... and experiences. Meat producers are interested in the stress animals endure because it affects meat quality. Pigs that arrive at slaughterhouses are more sensitive than usual for several reasons. In some cases, pigs are transported for long distances. Not all animals are used to transportation. Upon their arrival......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...

  18. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  19. Sacrifice: an ethical dimension of caring that makes suffering meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Kaija; Lindström, Unni A

    2003-07-01

    transformation to achieve atonement and healing. Atonement then implies finding meaningfulness in one's suffering. The concept of sacrifice, understood in a novel way, opens up a deeper dimension in the understanding of suffering and makes caring in 'the patient's world' possible.

  20. [Comparative characteristic of methods for operative treatment of patients suffering varicocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, M I; Pasiechnikov, S P; Boĭko, O M

    2014-04-01

    Efficacy and security of treatment of varicocele constitute a complex issues in urology, necessitating the additional investigations conduction. The results of surgical treatment of 280 patients, suffering left-sided varicocele and operated using three different methods--retroperitoneal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy and subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (SMV)--were analyzed. The advantages and faults of these methods were estimated, basing on the recurrence rate, complications by hidrocele occurrence and changes in the patients quality of life. SMV was determined as most effective and secure method of varicocele correction. The data obtained may be useful for choice of tactics for the disease treatment.

  1. Bienestar y reproducción animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It can be defined Animal welfare (AW, as the stage of complete physical and mental health of the animals where is in complete harmony with their atmosphere. The correct well-being should fulfill appropriate requirements as: I manage, food and transport, treatment, prevention of illnesses, appropriate facilities for their development and their comfort. The general objective of the BW, is to avoid the pain or unnecessary suffering above all and to force as much to the proprietors as to the caretakers of animals, torespect minimum requirements of welfare. In this work, aspects related with the strss are approached - answer of the animals in the face of any factor of the environment - that rebound with the welfare and reproductive acting of the domestic mammals in the Units of Animal Production (UAP.

  2. On the Similarities and Differences of the Associative Meanings of Animal Words in both English and Chinese Set Words%浅析中英文俗语中动物词汇联想意义的异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王节琴

    2013-01-01

    语言是文化的载体,不同的语言承载着不同的文化。在中、英文俗语中,存在着大量的动物词汇,而且这些词汇在中、英文中有着或相同或不同的联想意义。这里通过对中、英文俗语中动物词汇联想意义的对比分析,明确其异同,以便更好地促进两种文化的跨界交流。%Language is the carrier of culture;different languages bear different cultures.There are a lot of animal words in Chinese and English vocabulary and these animal words have the same or different associative meaning. This article aims to analyze and compare the similarities and differences of the associative meaning of animal words in Chinese and English set words,which will promote the cross-culture exchanges.

  3. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  4. THE SUFFERING OF PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISORDERS DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Lech

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Assumption : Respiratory disorders during sleep involving the occurrence of sleep apnoea leading to a reduction in arterial oxygen saturation are classified as: obstructive sleep apnoea, central sleep apnoea and sleep-related hypoventilation with hypoxaemia. A close correlation has been proved between the occurrence of apnoea and obesity. This problem concerns 2–4% of the population, and is more likely to affect men. Aim : Presentation of the problem of respiratory disorders during sleep as a chronic disease causing much suffering. Its symptoms may lead to sleep fragmentation and somatic consequences (such as dysfunction of the cardiovascular system as well as mental consequences (personality changes. Method : An analysis of literature concerning the subject-matter from the perspective of a doctor conducting ventilation therapy of patients with respiratory sleep disorders. Summary : The problem of sleep apnoea is most often diagnosed and treated too late due to the number of symptoms with a simultaneous absence of pathognomonic symptoms. Despite its commonness, recognition of this disease is still insufficient.

  5. Cranial MRI of neurologically impaired children suffering from neonatal hypoglycaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshihiko; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro [Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan); Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Okudera, Toshio [Department of Neuroradiology, St. Mary`s Hospital, Kurume City, Fukuoka (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeo [Department of Neonatology, St. Mary`s Hospital, Kurume City, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Metabolic disturbances such as anoxia and hypoglycaemia are important in causing maldevelopment of the neonatal brain. While there have been some pathology studies of the effects of neonatal hypoglycaemia on brain development, reports of MRI findings in such infants have been rare. Objectives. To describe the MRI findings in neurologically handicapped children who had suffered from neonatal hypoglycaemia and to evaluate the relationship between the neurological impairment and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Materials and methods. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI findings in eight full-term infants with neonatal symptomatic hypoglycaemia who later exhibited neurological handicap. The age at which the MRI scans were obtained ranged from 9 months to 8 years 10 months (mean 4 years 1 month, median 4 years). Results. The most striking findings were prolonged T1 weighting and T2 weighting in the parieto-occipital periventricular deep white matter in six patients, suggesting abnormal or delayed myelination. Dilatation of the lateral ventricles, especially of the trigones, was observed in five patients in whom the distance between the posterior horns of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent sulci was reduced. The volume of white matter relative to grey matter was reduced in two patients. In addition, four patients exhibited cerebral cortical atrophy, mainly in the occipital lobe. Conclusions. These findings suggest that neonatal hypoglycaemia may cause delayed or abnormal myelination, especially in the parieto-occipital, periventricular, deep white matter, and may cause cerebral cortical atrophy, especially in the occipital lobe. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  6. Emperor Ashoka: Did he suffer from von Recklinghausen's diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, N N; Sharma, Sheetal

    2015-01-01

    Emperor Ashoka is widely regarded as one of the greatest rulers of India. This paper mainly deals with his medical condition as recorded in the Buddhist texts of Sri Lanka as well as in the Buddhist texts of North India and Nepal. These sources mention his skin disorder which is described as very rough and unpleasant to touch. He is also known to have episodes of loss of consciousness at various times in his life. One of the earliest representations of Ashoka, about 100 years after his death at one of the gates of Sanchi Stupa, shows Ashoka fainting when visiting the Bodhi tree and being held by his queens. In this sculpture, Emperor Ashoka is shown as a man of short height, large head and a paunchy abdomen. In this paper, it is speculated that Emperor Ashoka was probably suffering from von Recklinghausen disease (Neurofibromatosis Type 1), which could explain his skin condition, episodes of loss of consciousness (probably epilepsy) and other bodily deformities.

  7. HARMONIZING EFFECT OF MUSIC ON THE PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders refer to a collection of mental syndromes characterized by abnormally high levels of distress and avoidance associated with scenarios perceived as dangerous. Music is an ancient and universal feature across all human societies. The ability to appreciate music requires no special training. In view of above, we were interested to explore the beneficial effects of Music Therapy in managing anxiety. This research project was carried out at Gupta Hospital, Hisar with the kind co-operation of psychiatrist Dr. Narender Kumar Gupta MD. Forty indoor patients suffering from anxiety admitted at Gupta Hospital during the period from 1st January, 2008 to 31st July, 2008 served as research participants. Physiological parameters such as Blood Pressure (systolic/ diastolic, Pulse Rate (Beats/ minute, Body Temperature (0F and EEG were observed before and after Music Therapy sessions. Music Therapy administered for five days evoked fall in blood pressure and heart rate close to normal values in patients, who showed hypertension and tachycardia at the time of admission into the hospital. EEG was found to be normal in all the patients under study before and after Music Therapy. Music allows the patient to refocus upon something more pleasant, diverting his or her attention from monotony of hospitalization. Music Therapy is recommended as a cheap, safe and effective non-pharmacological anxiolytic agent due to its effect on the perception of pain and anxiety.

  8. Zoonoses and poverty - a long road to the alleviation of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarchos

    2012-01-01

    Populations living in poverty in the developing world suffer a heavy burden caused by infectious diseases, most of them zoonoses. The poorer populations also tend to be marginalised from the health sector and so are many of the diseases that affect them. The poor in every society, and particularly in developing countries, bear a disproportionately high share of the disease burden. There is a broad range of viral, bacterial, mycotic, chlamydial, rickettsial and parasitic diseases of global and regional importance given their major impact on the health and socio-economic development of many populations. Endemic infectious diseases, including zoonoses, together with emerging and re-emerging diseases, are mostly shouldered by poor and vulnerable populations. Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor farmers, consumers and traders throughout the developing world. The animals of poor people are particularly vulnerable to disease because of costs, absence or unsuitability of the animal health sector, etc. The impact of endemic animal diseases are mainly felt at the farm level, while a broader economic impact can occur with these diseases through the restriction of trade in livestock and their products. Addressing comprehensive and sustainable solutions to public health problems created by endemic infections cannot be achieved solely by the public health sector alone. Partnerships with other sectors, particularly agriculture, environment, education, local administration, will be necessary to contain and effectively control zoonotic and foodborne diseases that affect mainly the poor. International organisations could support developing countries by coordinating national intersectoral activities, promoting appropriate technology and public health education, community participation and encouraging decision-makers to commit themselves. This is the only perspective for improved quality of life of poor and marginalised populations.

  9. Zoonoses and poverty – a long road to the alleviation of suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarchos Seimenis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations living in poverty in the developing world suffer a heavy burden caused by infectious diseases, most of them zoonoses. The poorer populations also tend to be marginalised from the health sector and so are many of the diseases that affect them. The poor in every society, and particularly in developing countries, bear a disproportionately high share of the disease burden. There is a broad range of viral, bacterial, mycotic, chlamydial, rickettsial and parasitic diseases of global and regional importance given their major impact on the health and socio-economic development of many populations. Endemic infectious diseases, including zoonoses, together with emerging and re-emerging diseases, are mostly shouldered by poor and vulnerable populations. Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor farmers, consumers and traders throughout the developing world. The animals of poor people are particularly vulnerable to disease because of costs, absence or unsuitability of the animal health sector, etc. The impact of endemic animal diseases are mainly felt at the farm level, while a broader economic impact can occur with these diseases through the restriction of trade in livestock and their products. Addressing comprehensive and sustainable solutions to public health problems created by endemic infections cannot be achieved solely by the public health sector alone. Partnerships with other sectors, particularly agriculture, environment, education, local administration, will be necessary to contain and effectively control zoonotic and foodborne diseases that affect mainly the poor. International organisations could support developing countries by coordinating national intersectoral activities, promoting appropriate technology and public health education, community participation and encouraging decision-makers to commit themselves. This is the only perspective for improved quality of life of poor and marginalised populations.

  10. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  11. Support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia: what roles do conditions of suffering and the identity of the terminally ill play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Robert; Chantagul, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia under three conditions of suffering (pain; debilitated nature of the body; burden on the family) experienced by oneself, a significant other, and a person in general. The sample consisted of 1,897 Thai adults (719 males, 1,178 females) who voluntarily filled in the study's questionnaire. Initial multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant group (oneself, significant other, person in general) differences in level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia and under the three conditions of suffering. Multigroup path analysis conducted on the posited euthanasia model showed that the three conditions of suffering exerted differential direct and indirect influences on the support of voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia as a function of the identity of the person for whom euthanasia was being considered. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Forgiveness and Personality Type among Men and Women Suffering from Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Foroozandeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of personality and some components of behaviors, traits and emotions as effective factors on coronary heart diseases (CHD were presented nearly 50 years ago with the concept of “type A” behavior, a compound of hostility, impatience, competitiveness and dominance. Later studies showed crucial role of other traits and behaviors like anger, introversion, depression and forgiveness. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare personality type and forgiveness in the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases based on gender. Materials and method: The cross sectional study was designed and sample was collected from men and women referred to cardiologists (within the age range of 23-75 years old from the patients of Shahid Rajaee Heart Hospital of Tehran, Iran from December 2010 to March 2011. Total 87 subjects were selected using random method. The study subjects were given two questionnaires: personality type A (with two factors: TA1, pathologic behaviors of type A personality and TA2, non pathologic behaviors of type A personality and Interpersonal Forgiveness Inventory (IFI, with three subscales namely reestablishment of relationship, control of revenge and realistic perception. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Mean(±SD age of men was 50.5±11.6 years (n=33 and 55.7±14.4 years in women (n=54. Mean duration of suffering from cardiovascular diseases in men was 7.8 years and in women was 9.10 years. The study found high mean scores of type A pathologic but not non pathologic type A among women compared to men (p<0.038 and no statistically significant differences in forgiveness subscales. Conclusion: The study revealed significant difference between women and men suffering from cardiovascular disease in pathologic type A (TA1 and negative relationship between pathologic type A and forgiveness.

  13. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  14. Physicians' and pharmacists' attitudes toward the use of sedation at the end of life: influence of prognosis and type of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Danielle; Roy, Louis; Dumont, Serge; Godin, Gaston; Martineau, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    End-of-life sedation remains a controversial and ill-defined clinical practice; its applications vary considerably. With this in mind, a study was conducted using a 2 x 2 experimental design. The variables experimented with were prognosis (short- or long-term) and type of suffering (physical or existential). The goal was to study the influence of the two independent variables on attitude toward sedation. Four clinical vignettes were completed by 124 clinicians, doctors, and pharmacists working in different palliative care environments in the Province of Quebec. The results indicate that the type of suffering influences a subject's attitude to end-of-life sedation. Thus, when a patient was suffering physically, the respondents were significantly in favour of sedation, whereas they were not in favour of this practice if the suffering was existential. Lastly, it is clear that health professionals are uncomfortable when confronted with their patients' existential suffering. This is an issue worth exploring in future studies.

  15. Amino acid compositon and microbial contamination of spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga, grown on the effluent of different fermented animal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.F.; Pond, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of various fermented manures were compared. Large differences in the mineral concentration were observed. There were no important differences among the amino acid composition of S. spirulina grown on the different nutrient media. All were low in methionine, but were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine. The crude protein content was 71.8-60.1%. Considerable contamination of the waste-grown algae with yeast, fungi, and sporogenous bacteria was experienced.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  17. The relative magnitude of transgene-specific adaptive immune responses induced by human and chimpanzee adenovirus vectors differs between laboratory animals and a target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Matthew D J; Guzman, Efrain; Spencer, Alexandra J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Charleston, Bryan; Hill, Adrian V S; Cottingham, Matthew G

    2015-02-25

    Adenovirus vaccine vectors generated from new viral serotypes are routinely screened in pre-clinical laboratory animal models to identify the most immunogenic and efficacious candidates for further evaluation in clinical human and veterinary settings. Here, we show that studies in a laboratory species do not necessarily predict the hierarchy of vector performance in other mammals. In mice, after intramuscular immunization, HAdV-5 (Human adenovirus C) based vectors elicited cellular and humoral adaptive responses of higher magnitudes compared to the chimpanzee adenovirus vectors ChAdOx1 and AdC68 from species Human adenovirus E. After HAdV-5 vaccination, transgene specific IFN-γ(+) CD8(+) T cell responses reached peak magnitude later than after ChAdOx1 and AdC68 vaccination, and exhibited a slower contraction to a memory phenotype. In cattle, cellular and humoral immune responses were at least equivalent, if not higher, in magnitude after ChAdOx1 vaccination compared to HAdV-5. Though we have not tested protective efficacy in a disease model, these findings have important implications for the selection of candidate vectors for further evaluation. We propose that vaccines based on ChAdOx1 or other Human adenovirus E serotypes could be at least as immunogenic as current licensed bovine vaccines based on HAdV-5.

  18. Analysis of Individual Mouse Activity in Group Housed Animals of Different Inbred Strains using a Novel Automated Home Cage Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Rasneer S; Cater, Heather L; Sillito, Rowland R; Chartsias, Agisilaos; Sneddon, Duncan; Concas, Danilo; Keskivali-Bond, Piia; Lukins, Timothy C; Wells, Sara; Acevedo Arozena, Abraham; Nolan, Patrick M; Armstrong, J Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system disorders such as autism as well as the range of neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease are commonly investigated using genetically altered mouse models. The current system for characterizing these mice usually involves removing the animals from their home-cage environment and placing them into novel environments where they undergo a battery of tests measuring a range of behavioral and physical phenotypes. These tests are often only conducted for short periods of times in social isolation. However, human manifestations of such disorders are often characterized by multiple phenotypes, presented over long periods of time and leading to significant social impacts. Here, we have developed a system which will allow the automated monitoring of individual mice housed socially in the cage they are reared and housed in, within established social groups and over long periods of time. We demonstrate that the system accurately reports individual locomotor behavior within the group and that the measurements taken can provide unique insights into the effects of genetic background on individual and group behavior not previously recognized.

  19. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  20. Aeroallergen sensitivity among patients suffering from bronchial asthma in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriyanna Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a serious public health problem throughout the world and its prevalence has increased in last 2-3 decades. Allergens are one of the many factors which trigger an attack of asthma. Skin prick test is useful in identifying the offending allergen in bronchial asthma. Aim: To identify the possible offending allergens in patients of bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive study conducted at allergy center, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital and Research Center, Bangalore from January to December 2011. Skin prick test was done in 139 patients suffering from bronchial asthma using 49 allergens extracts. Statistical Analysis: Frequency, proportions, Chi-square test, odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval was used. Results: Out of 139 patients who underwent the skin prick tests, 40% (56 were males and 60% (83 were females. Majority, that is, 60% were in the age group of 21-40 years. Forty-three percent (60 had family history of asthma/atopy, 80% (111 had allergic rhinitis, 24% (34 had chronic urticaria, and 24% (33 had allergic conjunctivitis. Out of 139 patients, 100 (71.94% were sensitive for one or more allergens. The common offending allergens found in the study were dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (DF and DP - 49.28%, dusts - 7.2%, pollens - 6.77%, insects - 6.62%, fungi - 4.53%, and epithelia - 1.92%. Conclusion: The most common allergens in bronchial asthma were dust mites followed by dusts and pollens. Identifying possible allergens in asthma patients help in allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  1. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  2. Judgment of unbearable suffering and willingness to grant a euthanasia request by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Donald; Rietjens, Judith; van der Heide, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    'Unbearable suffering' is a pivotal criterion for lawful euthanasia in the Netherlands. The due-care criterion is not defined in the law and could refer to conditions varying from physical pain to psychological forms of suffering. It is unknown, however, what doctors consider 'unbearable suffering'

  3. 'Unbearable suffering': a qualitative study on the perspectives of patients who request assistance in dying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.K.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Weel, C. van

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the objectives of medicine is to relieve patients' suffering. As a consequence, it is important to understand patients' perspectives of suffering and their ability to cope. However, there is poor insight into what determines their suffering and their ability to bear it. Purpose To

  4. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  5. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.

    1999-01-01

    Constraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equations for f

  6. How We Mistreat the Animals We Eat

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Samantha J.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an enormous transition in the United States from a nation comprised of small-scale, local family farms to one dominated by large-scale, corporate operations, appropriately termed “factory farms.†The farming industry inflicts a virtual holocaust on animals raised for food and food production, forcing them to endure needless suffering and pain. Nothing indicates that such cruelties will subside in the future. As such, we must face the moral dilemma...

  7. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 6. Use of different antibody titration methods for evaluation of immunogenicity in animals during potency assay of diphtheria toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J; Heron, I

    1992-06-01

    Two diphtheria toxoid preparations were compared in potency assays in guinea-pigs using different methods for evaluation of the responses to vaccination. The methods used were the direct skin challenge (Schick test) and ELISA and VERO cell titration of antibodies. The different evaluation methods resulted in the same relative potencies between the toxoids. It was observed that when first-vaccination sera were compared with a second-vaccination serum, the relative antibody concentration depended on whether ELISA or VERO cell titration was used.

  8. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  9. Creating a Computing Programs Package to Aid in the Assessment and Prognosis of Patients Suffering from Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jaime Geroy Gómez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The have an evaluation and prognosis of patients suffering from cerebrovascular diseases in its acute phase is important in order to define the medical management as well as others several aspects. Objective: To create computing programs package to aid in the assessment and prognosis of patients suffering from cerebrovascular diseases. Method: A research and development study to create a package of programs using a C chart computing language (NET language with recognized international scale compendium and the Cuban scale prognosis. Results: A Software which shows in different screens the correspondent variables to the different evaluative scales and the prognosis Cuban scale ¨Stroke¨ is created. It is applicable to every type of patient suffering from cardiovascular diseases and an immediate assessment and prognosis is obtained. It also has a data base. It is applicable in all ictus units of our country and abroad. Conclusions: A unique software was created as a valuable tool to the attention of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases which permit to obtain a better assessment and prognosis of this kind of patient.

  10. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  11. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  12. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF

  13. Effect of 12-Week Pilates Trainning on EDSS in Women Suffering fromMultiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Shanazari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease that strikes the immune system. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease which debilitates the nervous system. The study was evaluated the effects of Pilates exercise on women with physical disabilities suffering from multiple sclerosis for 12 weeks .The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of Pilates trainning on EDSS of women suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS for 12 weeks. Methods: In the present clinical trial study, 38 patients age 20-40 years (mean disease duration of 8±2 years with multiple sclerosis grade 0-4.5 were selected. The Patients were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. The training program for pilates, 12 weeks, three sessions a week, with each session consisting of 60 minutes. Patients' physical disability was measured using Krutzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, before and after exercise. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA test. Results: Physical disability scores before and after the exercise in intervention was 47.1 and 37 and in the control group, was 93.1 and 43.1 respectively, which was significantly different in the intervention group before and after training (p<0.05. Conclusion: Pilates training improves the physical disability of MS patients. Therefore, this exercise can be used as a complementary treatment alongside drug treatments. Key Words: Multiple Sclerosis, Women, Pilates, EDSS

  14. Numerical Simulation of Moisture Movement in Unsaturated Expansive Soil Slope Suffering Permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shanxiong; Yu Song; Liu Zhiguo; Xu Haibin

    2005-01-01

    This study develops a way of analyzing moisture movement in unsaturated expansive soil slope. The basic equations and the integrated finite difference method for moisture movement in unsaturated soils are briefly described, and the calculation code MFUS2 has been developed. The moisture movements in unsaturated expansive soil slopes suffering precipitation were simulated numerically. The simulation results show that expansion or contraction must be taken into account in an analysis model. A simplified equivalent model for calculating rainwater infiltration into expansive soil slopes has been developed. The simplified equivalent model divides the soil slope into two layers according to the extent of weathering of the soil mass at depth. Layer Ⅰ is intensively weathered and moisture can be fully evaporated or rapidly absorbed. The moisture movement parameters take into account the greater soil permeability caused by fissures. Layer Ⅱ is unweathered and the soil is basically undisturbed. The moisture movement parameters of homogeneous soils are applicable. The moisture movements in unsaturated expansive soil slopes suffering precipitation were simulated numerically using the simplified equivalent model. The simulation results show that the moisture movement in the expansive soil slope under rainfall permeation mainly takes place in the extensively weathered layer Ⅰ, which closely simulates the real situation.

  15. [Tattoos and piercings: motives for body modification in women suffering from borderline symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhner, Gesche; Teismann, Tobias; Willutzki, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Do women suffering from borderline symptomatology differ from women without these symptoms regarding their motives for body modifications?A sample of 289 women with body modifications were questioned about their tattoos, piercings and motives for body modifications as well as about symptoms of borderline personality disorder. Women with borderline symptomatology were compared to women without borderline symptomatology concerning the extent of and motives for body modification.The 2 groups showed no differences in regard to amount and extent of body modifications. The "borderline"-group considered individuality, coping and management of negative life-events to be more crucial reasons for body modification than the non-borderline females.The degree of a person's body modification is not a feasible indicator for psychopathological strain. Though, for people with borderline tendency body modification may serve as a coping strategy similar to self-injury.

  16. Rye inhibitors of animal alpha-amylases show different specificities, aggregative properties and IgE-binding capacities than their homologues from wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casado, G; Sánchez-Monge, R; López-Otín, C; Salcedo, G

    1994-09-01

    Three new members of the alpha-amylase/trypsin-inhibitor family of cereal endosperm have been isolated from rye. N-terminal amino acid sequence comparison revealed that two of the purified proteins were the rye homologues of the barley monomeric inhibitor (BMAI-1) previously described, while the other rye protein corresponded to one of the subunits of the barley and wheat heterotetrameric inhibitors. However, the inhibitory specificities (active against human salivary alpha-amylase), aggregative behaviours (mainly as dimeric forms) and IgE-binding capacities (not recognized by sera from allergic patients) of the rye inhibitors were clearly different from those of their wheat and barley counterparts. These results indicate that homologous inhibitors may have distinctive properties in different cereal species.

  17. The potential of tissue engineering for developing alternatives to animal experiments: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de; Leenaars, M.; Tra, J.; Huijbregtse, R.; Bongers, E.; Jansen, J.A.; Gordijn, B.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2015-01-01

    An underexposed ethical issue raised by tissue engineering is the use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research. Even though this research results in suffering and loss of life in animals, tissue engineering also has great potential for the development of alternatives to animal experiment

  18. Perception of mind and dehumanization: Human, animal, or machine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, María D; Quiles, María N; Correa, Ana D; Delgado, Naira; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2016-08-02

    Dehumanization is reached through several approaches, including the attribute-based model of mind perception and the metaphor-based model of dehumanization. We performed two studies to find different (de)humanized images for three targets: Professional people, Evil people, and Lowest of the low. In Study 1, we examined dimensions of mind, expecting the last two categories to be dehumanized through denial of agency (Lowest of the low) or experience (Evil people), compared with humanized targets (Professional people). Study 2 aimed to distinguish these targets using metaphors. We predicted that Evil and Lowest of the low targets would suffer mechanistic and animalistic dehumanization, respectively; our predictions were confirmed, but the metaphor-based model nuanced these results: animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization were shown as overlapping rather than independent. Evil persons were perceived as "killing machines" and "predators." Finally, Lowest of the low were not animalized but considered human beings. We discuss possible interpretations.

  19. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  20. The impact of psychological testing on the patients suffering from stomatopyrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokupec, Josipa Sanja Gruden; Gruden, Zdenka; Gruden, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    Stomatopyrosis is commonly associated with stressful situations, which implies the importance of psychological conditions of the patients with this symptom. Patients suffering from burning mouth syndrome suffered from some psychical disturbances as well. The fact that depression and anxiety are closely connected with stomatopyrosis has been scientifically confirmed. The data which systematically led to this conclusion suggest the possibility of the existence of a psychogenic disturbance as an aetiological factor which leads to stomatopyrosis. Research which might be conducted in order to relate psychogenic disturbances with stomatopyrosis by means of various drugs and procedures, might provide an insight into the relatedness of these factors, which would enable us to treat the cause and not the consequence. This research has been directed towards establishing this "relatedness" by means of psychopharmatics and psychotherapy, and has been confirmed by means of psychological depression and anxiety tests. The research has been conducted on 120 respondents suffering from stomatopyrosis, who were also, as previously diagnosed, suffering from a psychical disturbance. The respondents were divided into 4 groups. Each group contained 30 respondents suffering from stomatopyrosis as the basic symptom, but with different psychogenic disturbances. These groups were: 1) antidepressants, 2) anxiolytics, 3) autogenic training and 4) control group. A detailed clinical and psychiatric check-up was conducted before the treatment started, and was repeated several times in different intervals: after a month, after two months and after four months. Respondents are still undergoing a therapy. Subjective assessment of the intensity of the burning sensation was obtained according to Visual analogue scale and two psychological questionnaires (depression test and anxiety test). Conclusion is: 1) Antidepressants and anxiolytic drugs have a prominent role in the treatment of stomatopyrosis

  1. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  2. An assessment of Toxoplasmosis antibodies seropositivity in children suffering Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Afsharpaiman

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in comparing positive se-rology of toxoplasmosis, between the two groups. However, to obtain a perfect result, a larger sample size are required.

  3. Suffering and mental health among older people living in nursing homes—a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn Drageset

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge about mixed-methods perspectives that examine anxiety, depression, social support, mental health and the phenomenon of suffering among cognitively intact NH residents is scarce. We aimed to explore suffering and mental health among cognitively intact NH residents.Methods. This study used a mixed-methods design to explore different aspects of the same phenomena of interest to gain a more comprehensive understanding. The qualitative core component comprised a qualitative interview from 18 nursing home residents (≥65 years about experiences related to pain, grief and loss. The supplementary component comprised interview from the same respondents using the SF-36 Health Survey subscales, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Social Provisions Scale.Results. The individual descriptions reveal suffering caused by painful experiences during life. The quantitative results indicated that symptoms of anxiety and depression were related to mental health and symptoms of anxiety were related to bodily pain and emotional role limitations. Attachment and social integration were associated with vitality and social functioning.Discussion. To improve the situation, more attention should be paid to the residents’ suffering related to anxiety, depression and psychosocial relations.

  4. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  5. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. [The vegetarian appeal and killing animals. An ethical challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luy, J; Hildebrandt, G; von Mickwitz, G

    2001-01-01

    The demand for renunciation of killing animals has already been discussed by mankind since ancient times. Many arguments for and against this demand have accumulated in the meantime. The reproaches of the vegetarians repeatedly forced the ones who eat meat to justify their diet. Today most of these historical justifications however have to be rejected because of lacking plausibility. Many of the vegetarian arguments on the other hand must be rejected for similar reasons as well. Remaining as morally convincing is the demand for doing the killing absolutely painless and without frightening the animals, which was already formulated for example by Kant and Schopenhauer. Arguments which consider this way of killing as still immoral belong in a broad sense to the "anthropocentric" animal ethics. They do not belong to what is called in Germany "pathocentric" animal ethics, because an animal that is killed without being frightened or tortured, has not suffered, for it hasn't consciously realized anything like danger or harm. We do even argue that these animals are not harmed at all, because it seems senseless to talk about harm without negative conscious phenomena. To push ahead a ban on animal slaughter for moral reasons could be itself morally wrong because it would disturb indirectly many people's conscious well-being without being justified by protecting an animal's conscious well-being. It is however possible to derive from a general duty not to make animals suffer (pathocentric animal ethics) a duty to boycott food of animal origin if these animals had to suffer during their lives.

  7. 不同动物源性链球菌的耐药性分析%Analysis of Drug Resistance to Streptococcus from Different Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晴; 孔令聪; 马红霞; 高云航; 林雁春

    2012-01-01

    28 swine and bovine strains of Streptococcus were isolated and identified with morphology observation, Gram staining and biochemical test. The minimal inhibitory concentration of 7 antibiotics against swine and bovine Streptococcus was detected by agar double dilution method. It can be found that most of the strains were multi - drug resistance. The results fully demonstrated that the various Streptococci showed different antibiogram. Therefore, the research was of great significance to direct clinical treatment.%通过形态观察、革兰氏染色及生化试验分离鉴定共获得28株猪源及牛源链球菌。采用琼脂二倍稀释法测定7种抗菌药物对28株链球菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC),其中绝大多数受试菌株呈多重耐药性。研究结果表明,不同动物源性链球菌对抗菌药物的抗菌谱不同,揭示的耐药规律对指导临床用药具有重要意义。

  8. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  10. Overview of differences between microbial feed additives and probiotics for food regarding regulation, growth promotion effects and health properties and consequences for extrapolation of farm animal results to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J-P

    2013-04-01

    could also be observed in humans, or not, according to species and strains. Determining the significance of farm animal results for extrapolation to humans, especially regarding body weight improvement, was not easy because they do not use the same microbial strains nor always the same species. Furthermore, the framework for the management of microbials added to feed or to food differ, especially with regard to goal, timescale and lifestyle. So no one can exclude the possibility that beneficial microorganisms having probiotic effects may have long-term effects in humans that cannot be seen to date in animals, where short-term use is the rule. A possible link to obesity cannot be excluded in relation to timescale, species and strain specificity. To conclude, beneficial microorganisms added in feed are key factors stringently regulated for short-term improvement of zootechnical performances in animals and their use does not entirely parallel that of human probiotics. So extrapolation of farm animal results to humans is biased and not sufficient to be conclusive regarding the existence or not of a link between probiotics and obesity. From a toxicological and nutritional point of view and considering recent findings on a link between antibiotic use in early life and excessive risk of becoming overweight, one suggestion is to study the at-risk population in Europe, pregnant women and their babies before and after birth and during early childhood, in an epidemiological long-term cohort survey.

  11. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  12. The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs. With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis

  13. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  14. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri S Kurdi; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit differ...

  15. XEROSTOMIA IS MORE SEVERE IN DISLIPIDEMIA DIABETIC SUFFERER THAN WITHOUT DISLIPIDEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintarti, Sumintarti; Erni Marlina, Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : dislipidemia is a triage abnormality of lipid profil in diabetes mellitus sufferer. The small dense of Low-Density-Lipoprotein (LDL) intrinsically caused more atherogenic risk rather than the buoyant LDL particles. Using viscosity and volume of saliva as indicator for xerostomia, we conducted study of measured association of xerostomia in DM sufferer with and without dislipidemia. Aim : to compare xerostomia incidence in DM sufferer with and without dislipidemia. Meth...

  16. HLA B27 as Predisposition Factor to Suffer Age Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Enrique Villegas; Fernández, Rafael González; Torres, Luis Pérula; Lacomba, Manuel Santos; Galera, José María Gallardo

    2009-01-01

    To research whether specific alleles HLA class I (HLA-A and HLA-B) and class II (HLA-DR) are risk factors for the development of exudative type of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD), HLA antigens are expressed both in normal and affected eyes with ARMD. We designed a prospective case-controlled study. We recruited 75 patients with choroidal neovascularization predominantly classic or occult, secondary to ARMD, and treated with photodynamic therapy. Two hundred and fifty patients over 55 years old, without ophthalmologic pathology who went to hospital for an analytical routine check were used as control. The analysis of the data shows a significant difference between two groups. Allele HLA-B27 correlated positively with ARMD (p < 0.0113). However, we didn't find alleles negatively associated. Thus HLA-B27 is an allele predisposed to suffer ARMD. PMID:19728932

  17. Sexual function of women suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Kravvariti, Vasilliki; Varsou, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    The cross-sectional study aimed at examining the sexual function of young adult women suffering from eating disorders. The authors interviewed 53 women (26 with anorexia nervosa and 27 with bulimia nervosa) and 58 female students. Each participant was administered the Female Sexual Function Index, the Eating Attitudes Test, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Comparisons among the 3 groups showed that patients with anorexia nervosa scored lower in each Female Sexual Function Index subscale than did healthy controls. There was no significant difference between bulimia nervosa and healthy controls. Sexual functionality of patients with anorexia nervosa was correlated only with body mass index (r = 0.5, p =.01). Sexual functionality of patients with bulimia nervosa was correlated only with the Beck Depression Inventory (r = -0.4, p =.03) Patients with anorexia nervosa had more disturbed sexual function than did controls. Sexual function can be related to the level of starvation and symptoms of depression.

  18. [Young urban adults suffering from psychosis: the importance of close team work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Plamondon, Clairélaine; Abdel-Baki, Amal

    2011-01-01

    Untreated psychosis causes a lot of suffering and its impact echoes on different aspects of the affected individual's functioning. In city centers, youths presenting early psychosis face additional challenges because many of them live in precarious, unstable conditions and are isolated. Reorganisation of mental health care access and delivery is necessary to avoid delay for psychosis identification and treatment initiation. This article describes possible solutions which have been applied at Clinique JAP, a specialized early psychosis intervention clinic at the CHUM, which offers integrated services to optimize outcome. To increase engagement and adherence to treatment, treatment setting must include a welcoming and youth-friendly atmosphere, individualized and flexible interventions, and nourishing optimistic but realistic hope. Intensive interventions by a specialized interdisciplinary team, in collaboration with community organizations, must be offered in a proactive way to reduce delay in treatment and therefore avoid disastrous consequences of psychosis.

  19. Comparison of electron microscopy, ELISA, real time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR for the detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA) in feces of different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    There is no gold standard for detection of Rotavirus Group A (RVA), one of the main causes of diarrhea in neonatal animals. Sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays are available for RVA but require submission of the clinical samples to diagnostic laboratories. Patient-side immunoassays for RVA protein detection have shown variable results, particularly with samples from unintended species. A sensitive and specific test for detection of RVA on the farm would facilitate rapid management decisions. The insulated isothermal RT-PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay works in a portable machine to allow sensitive and specific on-site testing. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a commercially available RT-iiPCR assay for RVA detection in feces from different animal species. This assay was compared to an in-house rtRT-PCR assay and a commercially available rtRT-PCR kit, as well as an ELISA and EM for RVA detection. All three PCR assays targeted the well-conserved NSP5 gene. Clinical fecal samples from 108 diarrheic animals (mainly cattle and horses) were tested. The percentage of positive samples by ELISA, EM, in-house rtRT-PCR, commercial rtRT-PCR, and RT-iiPCR was 29.4%, 31%, 36.7%, 51.4%, 56.9%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was high (81.3-100%) in samples containing high viral loads. The sensitivity of the RT-iiPCR assay appeared to be higher than the commercially available rtRT-PCR assay, with a limit of detection (95% confidence index) of 3-4 copies of in vitro transcribed dsRNA. In conclusion, the user-friendly, field-deployable RT-iiPCR system holds substantial promise for on-site detection of RVA.

  20. Who Suffers during Recessions? NBER Working Paper No. 17951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes, Hilary W.; Miller, Douglas L.; Schaller, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present…

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  2. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  3. [DISSEMINATION BY H. PYLORI IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING VARIOUS FORMS OF CHOLECYSTITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyazimov, I L; Takhmazova, Ch T

    2015-05-01

    Comparative analysis of dissemination by H. pylori of the bile portions in patients of a control group, suffering an acute calculous cholecystitis (ACCH), was performed. Dissemination of H. pylori in a control group was significantly less, than in a bile portions of patients, suffering ACCH. While analyzing the rate and degree of dissemination by H. pylori of the gastic and gallbladder mucosa biopsies of patients, suffering chronic non-calculous cholecystitis, associated with duodenogastric reflux and gastroduodenitis, bacteria were revealed trustworthy more often and in more number, than in a gallbladder mucosa in patients, suffering ACCH.

  4. Grips and ties: agency, uncertainty, and the problem of suffering in North Karelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkasalo, Marja-Liisa

    2009-03-01

    In medical anthropological research, the question of suffering has been a topic of salient interest mostly from two theoretical viewpoints: those of endurance and of agency. The concept "suffering" derives its origins from two etymological roots, those of suffering-souffrance-sofferanza and of misery-misère-miseria. According to the first approach, that of "endurance" and founded largely on Judeo-Christian theology, suffering is regarded as an existential experience at the borders of human meaning making. The question then is: how to endure, how to suffer? The latter view, that of "agency," follows the Enlightenment, and later the Marxist view on mundane suffering, misery, and the modern question of how to avoid or diminish it. This article follows the lines of the second approach, but my aim is also to try to build a theoretical bridge between the two. I ask whether agency would be understood as a culturally shared and interpreted modes of enduring, and if so, which conceptual definition of agency applies in this context? I theorize the relationship between suffering and agency using Ernesto de Martino's notion la crisi della presenza. In line with Pierre Bourdieu, I think that in people's lives, there may be sufferings in a plural form, as a variety of sufferings. The article is based on a one-year long fieldwork in Finnish North Karelia.

  5. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes; Cornou, Cécile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  6. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  7. Keeping the feet of the gods and the saints warm: mundane pragmatics in times of suffering and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Els

    2008-12-01

    In this article the author writes about mundane pragmatics, or everyday deeds, in times of suffering and uncertainty. Such pragmatics differ from cultural practices such as biomedical therapies or individual health-seeking behaviour patterns. Medical anthropologists and others working in the field of health and illness often overlook such pragmatics. However, these actions are of great social value and express the connectedness and bonds between people. They also express our deep beliefs, hopes, powerlessness and vulnerability.

  8. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    Persons in middle or last stages of dementia seem to respond less and less to music. Experiences from clinical music therapy practise with a structured and safe setting shows that this population responds to music therapy and communicates musically. The presentation consists of a short description...... of the 6 participants, a view of the clinical music therapy setting, video examples exemplifying different response categories, graphically correlation tendencied between musical and physiological responses, and finally a short case example of the way a person with dementia emotionally profits from...... the structured musical form....

  9. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering.

  10. Did King Herod suffer from a rheumatic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Cianna; Panush, Richard S

    2017-04-01

    Herod the Great was appointed "king of Jews," to govern Judea, by the Roman Emperor and Senate. He lived from 73/74 BCE to 4 CE. He died with an illness and symptoms that have been the source of considerable speculation. Richard Strauss depicted Herod in his classic opera, "Salome." That opera was derived from a play of the same name by Oscar Wilde, which was based on an 1876 painting, "Salome Dancing Before Herod," by Gustave Moreau. The operatic Herod was afflicted with an illness characterized by dementia, hallucinations, paranoia, alcoholism (from drinking the Emperor's wine), violence, twitches, and sterility; different interpretations showed him also with falls, chills, shaking, thirst, forgetfulness, and sleepiness, for which we suggest the novel diagnosis of chronic lead intoxication (which can manifest to rheumatologists as saturnine gout). He had compatible symptoms (encephalopathy and neuromuscular abnormalities) and consumed excessive quantities of imperial wine, known to be highly contaminated with lead and likely associated with similar symptoms among Roman aristocracy. Herod's demented cruelties-an oppressive reign which including the beheading of John the Baptist-exacerbated the political climate and may have contributed to the subsequent violent 7-year revolt culminating in the destruction of the second temple. How different might history have been if Herod the Great had been abstemious?

  11. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures%不同动物粪肥的磷素形态特征及有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正娟; 陈硕; 王敏锋; 宋梓玮; 贾伟; 陈清

    2015-01-01

    development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(P)in animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manures)were 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manures)and the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29), compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P), NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P ), NaOH(NaOH-P)and HCl(HCl-P). The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-P)in total P(>60%), but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in fast release of liable P in non

  12. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  13. THE HISTORY OF LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THE 3RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    This talk will give an introduction to the history of the use of laboratory animals with focus on the history of the three Rs (3Rs). We will see how animal experimentation has been performed early in our civilization, and how the suffering of animals has been justified. This will include Rene...... Descartes´s mechanical view of animals in the seventeenth century, and Charles Darwin's ambivalent relationship to animal experimentation, which he views as cruel but necessary. In the 1870s the Danish Foundation for Protection of Animals (“Dyrenes Beskyttelse”) and Professor Peter Panum discussed the use...... Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”. This book founded the concept of the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Today, the concept of the 3Rs is widespread, and this concept is incorporated into the laboratory animal legislation of many countries, including EU directives and Danish legislation...

  14. Animal-Assisted Therapy in Pediatric Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Mary Jo; Baudino, Marissa N; Tielsch Goddard, Anna; Vickers, Donna C; Akard, Terrah Foster

    2016-09-01

    Animal-assisted therapy is an emerging complementary strategy with an increasing presence in the literature. Limited studies have been conducted with children, particularly those with life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. Although outcomes show promise in decreasing suffering of children receiving palliative care services, more work is needed to validate evidence to support implementation of animal-assisted therapy with this vulnerable population.

  15. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  16. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  17. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  18. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  19. Risk levels for suffering a traffic injury in primary health care. The LESIONAT* project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bel Jordi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature shows that not only are traffic injuries due to accidents, but that there is also a correlation between different chronic conditions, the consumption of certain types of drugs, the intake of psychoactive substances and the self perception of risk (Health Belief Model and the impact/incidence of traffic accidents. There are few studies on these aspects in primary health care. The objectives of our study are: Main aim: To outline the distribution of risk factors associated with Road Traffic Injuries (RTI in a driving population assigned to a group of primary health care centres in Barcelona province. Secondly, we aim to study the distribution of diverse risk factors related to the possibility of suffering an RTI according to age, sex and population groups, to assess the relationship between these same risk factors and self risk perception for suffering an RTI, and to outline the association between the number of risk factors and the history of reported collisions. Methods/Design Design: Cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: 25 urban health care centres. Study population: Randomly selected sample of Spanish/Catalan speakers age 16 or above with a medical register in any of the 25 participating primary health care centres. N = 1540. Unit of study: Basic unit of care, consisting of a general practitioner and a nurse, both of whom caring for the same population (1,500 to 2,000 people per unit. Instruments of measurement: Data collection will be performed using a survey carried out by health professionals, who will use the clinical registers and the information reported by the patient during the visit to collect the baseline data: illnesses, medication intake, alcohol and psychoactive consumption, and self perception of risk. Discussion We expect to obtain a risk profile of the subjects in relation to RTI in the primary health care field, and to create a group for a prospective follow-up. Trial Registration

  20. Factors Associated with Pain, Disability and Quality of Life in Patients Suffering from Frozen Shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Bagheri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frozen shoulder is resulting in limb disability and reduction of quality of life but the factors associated with patients’ disability and quality of life is not clear. To assess pain, disability, the quality of life and factors associated with them in patients suffering from frozen shoulder.  Methods: We enrolled 120 patients (37 men and 83 women with phase-II idiopathic frozen shoulder in our cross-sectional study. Demographic data were collected and shoulder range of motion was measured in four different directions (elevation, abduction, external and internal rotation in both upper limbs. Patients were asked to fill out Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS and, Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36 as well as Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaires. We asked the patients to fill out the Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Results: The mean of VAS pain, DASH, PCS, and MCS scores were 69(18, 53(17, 35(8.0, and 42(10 respectively. All the domains of SF36 questionnaires where below the normal population except physical function. VAS pain score was correlated to Hamilton depression scores in both bivariate and mulivarilable analysis. DASH score were correlated to sex, age, ROM, and both Hamilton anxiety and depression scores; However, DASH score only impact with Hamilton anxiety and ROM independently. PCS is correlated to age and MCS to Hamilton depression. Conclusion: Patient with frozen shoulder are more suffering from pain and disability secondary to psychiatric parameters such as depression and anxiety than demographic features or even restriction of range of motion.

  1. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  2. Empathy and the application of the 'unbearable suffering' criterion in Dutch euthanasia practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Donald G.; Rietjens, Judith A. C.; van der Heide, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    A pivotal due care criterion for lawful euthanasia in the Netherlands is that doctors must be convinced that a patient requesting for euthanasia, suffers unbearably. Our study aims to find out how doctors judge if a patient suffers unbearably. How do doctors bridge the gap from 3rd person assessment

  3. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  4. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  5. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  6. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  7. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  8. Study on the Isolation ,Identification and Drug Resistance of Enterococcus from Different Animal Sources%不同动物来源肠球菌的分离·鉴定及耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王熙楚; 王世旗; 王波臻; 曹树珠; 周霞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为动物肠球菌感染机制的研究提供理论依据.[方法]采用常规细菌分离方法从不同动物的肛拭样品中分离肠球菌,利用基于肠球菌保守tuf基因的PCR方法对其进行鉴定,同时采用KB纸片法对分离到的肠球菌进行药敏试验.[结果]共分离到177株细菌,经鉴定确定为肠球菌.药敏试验结果表明,鸡源肠球菌对青霉素的耐药率为80%,牛源肠球菌为46.4%;猪源肠球菌对环丙沙星的耐药率为27.3%,羊源肠球菌为2.8%;鸡源肠球菌对高浓度链霉素的耐药率为62.9%,而羊源未出现耐药菌株.[结论]来源于不同动物的正常菌群肠球菌对某些抗生素表现出不同程度的耐药性.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to provide theoretical basis for studying the infection mechanism of enterococcus from animals. [ Method] Enterococcus were isolated from anus samples of different animals by using conventional bacterial isolation method. And they were identified by PCR based on conservative tuf gene of enterococcus. Drug test on the isolated enterococcus was conducted by using K - B disk diffusion method. [ Result] 177 strains of bacteria were isolated and they were identified as enteroeoccus. The results of drug sensitivity test showed that the drug resistance rate of enterococcus from chicken and cattle to penicillin was 80% and 46.4% respectively. The drug resistance rate of enterococcus from pig and sheep to ciprofloxacin were 27. 3% and 2. 8% respectively. The drug resistance rate of enterococcus from chicken to streptomycin at high concentrations was 62.9% and enterococcus from sheep showed no drug resistance. [ Conclusion ] Enterococcus from normal flora of different animal varieties exhibited resistance to antibiotics to different extent.

  9. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  10. Psychiatric morbidity in school children who suffered a stampede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet S Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stampede is described as a sudden movement of a mass of people in response to a particular circumstance or stimulus. Human stampedes are quite often reported from crowded places like places of worship, sporting events, political rallies, etc. There are reports of development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents subsequent to both natural and man-made disasters. The present tragedy struck in a Government Secondary School in Delhi on September 9, 2009. The study describes the long-term psychiatric morbidity in children following stampede. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 38 children (all adolescent girls were registered at the casualty of the hospital and 1 absconded, 5 were brought dead. A total of 32 children were included in the study. After first assessment in the casualty, subsequent assessments at 8 weeks and 6 months were done using semi-structured performa, GHQ and Child′s reaction to traumatic event scale (CRTES-Revised. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The age-group of the children were 12-20 years(mean 14.3, all girls, studying in grades - VII to X Eight weeks follow up GHQ score was high in 27 (87%. On CRTESQ-R scale, 22 children were in high distress group (71%. Twenty-two children had symptoms of PTSD and five were in moderate distress group. Eleven children also had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder, six had phobic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. There were statistically significant differences in mean GHQ scores at baseline and at 6 months follow up. There was also significant decrease in CRTESQ-R scale scores between baseline and 6 months. Conclusion: The children who were victims of stampede warrant the need for long-term intervention.

  11. Update on the state of play of Animal Health and Welfare and Environmental Impact of Animals derived from SCNT Cloning and their Offspring, and Food Safety of Products Obtained from those Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA received in December 2011, a request from the European Commission for an update on the possible scientific developments for cloning of farmed animals for food production purposes. The present Statement follows the EFSA 2009 and 2010 Statements and the EFSA 2008 Scientific Opinion, and is based on peer reviewed scientific literature published since the EFSA 2010 Statement, information made available to EFSA following a call for data, and discussions with experts in the field of animal cloning. As reported before, Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT can produce healthy clones, but a portion of the animal clones suffered from developmental abnormalities likely due to epigenetic dysregulation (incomplete nuclear programming and died at various stages of development. For some of the live animal clones, in particular calves and piglets, health and welfare were compromised specifically within the perinatal and juvenile period. Also some of the surrogate dams were affected due to abnormal pregnancies. Food products from healthy clones, i.e. meat or milk, did not differ from products from healthy conventionally bred animals. The offspring of clones and their food products showed no differences with conventional offspring or products. Data on clones of farmed species for food production other than cattle and pigs have remained limited and do not allow for the assessment of food safety or animal health and welfare aspects. The cloning efficiency, defined as the number of live offspring as a proportion of the number of transferred embryos, remained about 6-15 % for cattle and about 6 % for pigs. When compared with in vitro fertilisation (IVF, for which the background percentage of live offspring per transferred embryo is 45-60%, the efficiency of cattle SCNT relative to IVF is 13-25%. To overcome the relatively low cloning efficiency researchers continue to amend cloning procedures, with limited

  12. Diagnosis and therapy of oral cavity diseases in small domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nikola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In parallel with the stepped up urbanisation of modern man, there is an increasing number of house pets of different breeds and species who suffer certain biological and physiological changes because of the specific manner of breeding and upkeep. The altered conditions of their natural environment can lead to disorders in the animal genetic fund, which is why numerous diseases include cases of constitutional flaws (caries, periodontosis and related complications, cysts, abscesses, malformations of hereditary origin - hypodontia, andontia, impacted teeth, and others. The paper presents cases of the most frequent diseases of teeth and supporting tissues, as well as the optimal manner of therapy. It also points out certain limitations in practicing veterinary orthodontia aimed at avoiding situations when certain congenital or acquired anomalies are corrected but result in the animal no longer meeting the required standards for its species.

  13. Annoyance of Low Frequency Noise (LFN) in the laboratory assessed by LFN-sufferers and non-sufferers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    In a series of listening tests, test subjects listened to eight different environmental low frequency noises to evaluate their loudness and annoyance. The noises were continuous noise with and without tones, intermittent noise, music, traffic noise and low frequency noises with an impulsive...... character. The noises were presented at L-Acq levels of 20, 27.5 and 35 dB. The main group of test subjects (the reference group) comprised eighteen young persons with normal hearing. A special group of four subjects who had reported annoyance due to low frequency noise in their homes was also included....... It was found that the special group generally assessed the annoyance of the noises much higher, especially the annoyance at night....

  14. Opportunities for improving animal welfare in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidster, Katie; Jefferys, John G; Blümcke, Ingmar; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Flecknell, Paul; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Gray, William P; Kaminski, Rafal; Pitkänen, Asla; Ragan, Ian; Shah, Mala; Simonato, Michele; Trevelyan, Andrew; Volk, Holger; Walker, Matthew; Yates, Neil; Prescott, Mark J

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of epilepsy and seizures, mostly involving mice and rats, are used to understand the pathophysiology of the different forms of epilepsy and their comorbidities, to identify biomarkers, and to discover new antiepileptic drugs and treatments for comorbidities. Such models represent an important area for application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use). This report provides background information and recommendations aimed at minimising pain, suffering and distress in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures in order to improve animal welfare and optimise the quality of studies in this area. The report includes practical guidance on principles of choosing a model, induction procedures, in vivo recordings, perioperative care, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, social housing, environmental enrichment, reporting of studies and data sharing. In addition, some model-specific welfare considerations are discussed, and data gaps and areas for further research are identified. The guidance is based upon a systematic review of the scientific literature, survey of the international epilepsy research community, consultation with veterinarians and animal care and welfare officers, and the expert opinion and practical experience of the members of a Working Group convened by the United Kingdom's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs).

  15. /sup 133/Xe clearance of the knee joint of patients suffering from arthritis and osteoarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balint, G.; Reviczky, L.A.; Lendvay, J.; Boehm, U.; Kucsera, K.; Genti, Gy. (Orszagos Reuma es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    65 inflammed and 13 non-inflammed knee joints of patients suffering from osteoarthrosis were examined by the Xe/sup 133/ clearance method. The control group consisted of 27 patients with exsudative arthritis of the knee. The counts of 80 ..mu..C /sup 133/Xe given intraarticcularly were measured above the knee joint by NK 350 energy selective counter. The time needed to halve the count rate measured in the 4th minute after administration (biological half life (T1/2)) was significantly different in the three groups. It was the longest in the non-inflammed arthrosis, the shortest in the exsudative arthritis group. Significant differences were apparent regarding joint pain and tenderness in all the three groups. Though the synovial protein level and the C/sub 3/ complement level were significantly different, in the three groups no relationship was found between the T1/2 and synovial/serum protein ratio or between the synovial/serum C/sub 3/ ratio. The authors concluded that /sup 133/Xe clearance, which measures the perfusion of the synovial membrane, can be used for measuring the inflammatory activity of knee joint synovitis.

  16. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM VÁRZEA SISTEMATIZADA CULTIVADA COM FORRAGEIRAS DE ESTAÇÃO FRIA SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE ADUBAÇÃO ANIMAL WEIGHT GAIN IN A SYSTEMIZED LOWLAND AREA SOWN WITH WINTER PASTURE SPECIES AND DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2002-04-01

    pastejo foi de 98, 121 e 128 para os tratamentos 50, 100 e 150% da recomendação oficial, respectivamente. Os níveis de adubação NPK, mantendo constante a adubação nitrogenada, não afetaram o ganho médio dos animais, a carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare.The use of lowland areas in the Central Depression of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil is basically limited to irrigated rice. Those areas stay on fallow during the winter due to lack of a good natural drainage. Improvement in drainage can be obtained througth area leveling and microrelief correction associated to the establishment of superficial drains. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in order to evaluate cattle production on a leveled lowland area with several grazing winter plant species under different fertilizer rates. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria in a soil of the Vacacaí mapping unit. The area was leveled with a 0.06% slope gradient and the plant species were ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, white clover (Trifolium repens and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus. The fertilizer levels were 50%, 100% and 150% of the official recomended rate and the soil had its pH corrected to 5.5 using limestone. The experiment design was a randomized block with two replications and each experimental unit measured 0.5ha. The beef calves had 8-10 months of age and placed under continuous grazing, with 480 kg ha-1 of live weight for treatment. The parameters evaluated were: individual daily weight gain, animal load, weight gain per area, average dry matter accumulation by the pastures, in vitro digestibility, protein and botanical composition. The dry matter of the pastures was around 1000kg ha-1 and average accumulation for dry matter of the pastures was 19.9kg ha-1 day-1. The average weight gain per animal was 1016g animal-1 day--1, with an average load 738.6kg per hectare and the average weight gain was 469.7 kg ha-1. The total number of grazing days were 98, 121 and

  17. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  18. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...... both apathetic and sympathetic views, the ethical reflections are more nuanced as a result of actually seeing the user experience simulated through different user dispositions. Exploring the three ethical stances by visualising real use cases with the technologies simulated as already being implemented...

  19. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  20. An Animal-Centered Perspective on Colonial Oppression: Animal Representations and the Narrating Ox in Uwe Timm’s ‘‘Morenga’’ (1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Röhrs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of its topic and its narrative style, Uwe Timm’s novel ‘Morenga’ (1978 marks an important step in the development of postcolonial German literature. The main theme of the book is the bloody suppression of the Herero and the Nama uprisings through the German army in South-West Africa at the beginning of the 20th century. With recourse to historical and fictional documents and by using different narrative perspectives, the text achieves a plurality of voices and thereby destabilizes a one-dimensional view on colonialism. The present article discusses the functions of the nonhuman animals appearing in ‘Morenga’. It is assumed that the animal representations are an essential part of the plot and underscore the criticism of colonial rule in a narrative manner too. The novel contains several descriptions of suffering animals and links them to the harm of the Herero and the Nama in order to point out the ruthlessness of the colonists. Moreover, the book features a story-telling ox, which initiates a reflection process about possible ways of narrating colonial history. The talking ox adds a specific animal-centered perspective on colonial oppression and raises questions about emancipation, self-determination, and the agency of the nonhuman ‘other’

  1. Produção animal e vegetal em pastagem de Cynodon manejada sob diferentes ofertas de forragem por ovinos de dois grupos genéticos Animal and vegetal production of a Cynodon pasture managed under different forage allowance by wethers of two breeding groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Soriano

    2013-01-01

    .05 from 1178 to 609kg of BW ha-1 when GLAL increased from 3.2 to 9.5% of BW. Animal production per area was in average negative (mean BW gain of -551g ha-1day-1, highly variable (variation coefficient of 280% and not affected by treatments. Individual animal performance was affected by interaction between treatments and animal breed (P<0.05. Daily BW gain by Lacaune-crossed wethers was positive (34g day-1 and higher (P<0.05 for the highest allowance, null for the lowest allowance and negative (-62g day-1 for the intermediary allowance treatment. Differently, the daily BW gain by Texel × Ile de France wethers was negative and similar for all treatments (mean of -18g day-1. Independently of animal breeding, the daily grazing time was similar for the lowest and highest forage allowance treatments whereas it was lower for the intermediary level of forage allowance (P<0.05. In conclusion, the Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon pasture showed a low productive potential, mainly when the GLAL was similar or lower than 6% of animal BW. However, results also indicate that pasture structure and animal breed interact with forage allowance to determine animal performance.

  2. Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing.

  3. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  4. Suffering in fashion: the links that expose issues for the future production of garments and their appropriation as fashionable items

    OpenAIRE

    Almond, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The paper highlights how distress, pain, misery and ultimately suffering in the wearing and production of fashionable clothes are essential components for initiating change. Suffering in fashion could compare with the religious analogies of suffering, redemption and spiritual enrichment, suffering being a motivating factor for change so the fashion production cycle can seasonally re-invigorate. Suffering in the ways clothes are worn is examined by investigating the design and manufacture of u...

  5. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However......, following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal......, the indicators selected as measures of animal welfare may introduce biases which are relevant from an ethical perspective. Thus, indicators connected with pathologies and other states which are signs of pain and other types of physical suffering will inevitably favour production systems which are safe but barren...

  6. Aproximación a la esencia del sufrimiento The essence of suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Torralba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se pretende explorar la esencia del sufrimiento a partir de la filosofía de santo Tomás de Aquino. El autor plantea la definición de sufrimiento y, posteriormente, los tipos y formas de padecimiento que puede sufrir el ser humano.This article explores the essence of suffering on the basis of the philosophy of Saint Thomas of Aquinas. The author sets out the definition of suffering and, subsequently, the types and forms of suffering that the human being can undergo.

  7. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  10. Different Treatment factors on Establishment of Experimental Anemic Animal Models%3种不同施加因素建立实验性贫血模型的基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范颖; 初杰; 赵友林; 林庶茹

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过考察3种不同施加因素制作的实验性贫血动物模型外周血细胞计数和血红蛋白含量变化,了解3种不同因素的对机体造成"血虚"的差异性,为临床用药提供科学依据.方法:采用血细胞计数法测定外周血红细胞和白细胞计数以及血红蛋白含童的变化.结果:失血性贫血外周血红细胞计数降低明显(P>0.05),而外周血白细胞计数虽有下降趋势,但无统计学意义(P>0.05);化疗性贫血外周血红细胞计数、白细胞计数均降低(P0.05).结论:3种不同施加因素对机体外周血细胞计数的影响具有差异性.%Objective: To analysis the peripheral hemogram variation of three different treatment factors on experimental anemic animal models, realizing the difference in blood deficiency caused by the treatment factors and providing scientific guideline for clinic. Methods ; Peripheral blood erythrocytes, peripheral blood leucocytes and hemoglobin were measured by blood count. Results;Peripheral blood erythrocytes mainly decreased in hemorrhagic anemia, peripheral blood leucocytes in chemotherapy - induced Anemia( P >0.01 ) . The amount of peripheral blood erythrocytes tended to be decreased ( P > 0.05) , and peripheral blood leucocytes decreased obviously in eating disorder, (P>0.05). Conclusion;There is difference in three different treatment factors on peripheral hemogram of experimental anemic animal models.

  11. Addressing the Complexity of Tourette's Syndrome through the Use of Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias M; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2016-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by fluctuating motor and vocal tics, usually preceded by sensory premonitions, called premonitory urges. Besides tics, the vast majority-up to 90%-of TS patients suffer from psychiatric comorbidities, mainly attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The etiology of TS remains elusive. Genetics is believed to play an important role, but it is clear that other factors contribute to TS, possibly altering brain functioning and architecture during a sensitive phase of neural development. Clinical brain imaging and genetic studies have contributed to elucidate TS pathophysiology and disease mechanisms; however, TS disease etiology still is poorly understood. Findings from genetic studies led to the development of genetic animal models, but they poorly reflect the pathophysiology of TS. Addressing the role of neurotransmission, brain regions, and brain circuits in TS disease pathomechanisms is another focus area for preclinical TS model development. We are now in an interesting moment in time when numerous innovative animal models are continuously brought to the attention of the public. Due to the diverse and largely unknown etiology of TS, there is no single preclinical model featuring all different aspects of TS symptomatology. TS has been dissected into its key symptomst hat have been investigated separately, in line with the Research Domain Criteria concept. The different rationales used to develop the respective animal models are critically reviewed, to discuss the potential of the contribution of animal models to elucidate TS disease mechanisms.

  12. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation.

  13. 四个不同种属动物肢体 II导联心电图比较%Comparison of the ECG lead II characteristics in four different species of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭莹; 那敏; 王京昆; 苏敏; 廖伟; 史新辉; 杨宏博; 毛勇; 徐红花; 师廷川; 李勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective The ECG lead II characteristics of Beagle dog, rhesus monkey, Japanese white rabbit and tree shrew were analyzed and summarized to provide reference for drug safety evaluation studies.Methods The ECG lead II of healthy adult Beagle dog, rhesus monkey, Japanese white rabbit and tree shrew were recorded to determine the interval of P, PR, QT ( QTc) , the QRS waves and amplitude of P, R, T waves and the ST shift.Results and Conclusion All the animals had sinus rhythm.All the four species of animals had similar ECG pattern with no particular specific changes, but had some differences of the QRS wave group and T wave.The amplitude of P and T waves in Japanese white rabbit was smaller, and the heart rate of tree shrew was faster than that of the other species of animals.The ECG leadⅡdatabase of the Beagle dog, rhesus monkey, Japanese white rabbit and tree shrew is established.%目的:对比格犬、恒河猴、日本大耳白兔、树鼩四个不同种属实验动物的 ECG-II进行分析比较,归纳其ECG-II的特点,旨在为上述动物在安评中的运用提供参考。方法选择成年比格犬、恒河猴、日本大耳白和树鼩,分别对其在清醒状态下的 ECG-II进行描记和分析,并对ECG-II各项指标进行测量分析。结果与结论不同种属动物均为窦性心律,在波型方面基本一致,未出现特异性改变,但不同动物在QRS波群和T波形态上具有一定差异;各指标测定结果显示,日本大耳白兔 P波、T波振幅和树鼩心率分别小于和快于其他种属动物。

  14. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  15. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  17. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  18. The characteristics, treatment and prevention of laboratory animal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Ferdenzi, Elisabetta; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-12-17

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) is a pervasive problem that affects up to one-third of laboratory animal personnel. An immediate hypersensitivity reaction can be triggered by contact with antigens present in urine, hair, dander and saliva of laboratory animals. The authors provide an overview of the epidemiology, triggering mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of LAA. They also discuss primary and secondary prevention measures that can be taken to reduce LAA morbidity and to allow personnel suffering from LAA to safely continue to do their jobs.

  19. 不同来源畜禽粪的养分和污染物组成%Contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in different sources of animal manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单英杰; 章明奎

    2012-01-01

    Intensive confined livestock and poultry production systems generate large quantities of by-product that can be potentially recycled on lands as manure.Environmental protection is a major consideration for developing management practices that effectively use livestock manure as nutrient resource and soil conditioner in agricultural production.To date,most environmental problems associated with land applications of by-product manure have centered mainly on groundwater and/or surface water contamination by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients.With increasing use of trace elements such as Cu in nutritional supplements and antibiotics in livestock medicines as feed additives in intensive livestock industries,manure application has become the main source of heavy metal (e.g.,Cu,Zn and As) and antibiotic load in soils.By-product manure is applied in farmlands to supply primarily soil N and/or P,without regard to heavy metal pollution.The danger lies in accumulation of manure-borne metals and antibiotics,whichthreaten food safety and security.To reduce the risk of offsite contamination,it is important to characterize the contents of nutrient elements and pollutants in animal manure.In this study,155 samples of animal manure (including 93 samples of pig manure,31 samples of chicken manure,18 samples of duck manure and 13 samples of cow manure) were collected from both intensive animal farms and household animal houses in different regions of Zhejiang Province.Chemical and spectrum analysis were used to characterize the contents of nutrient elements,heavy metals and antibiotic residues.The results showed low contents of Cd,Cr,Hg,Ni andPb and high contents of Cu and Zn in animal manure.The ranges of manure contents of Cu,Zn and As were 18.56~1 788.04 mg-kg-1,12.46~10 056.68 mg·kg-1 and 0.69~76.43 mg·kg-1,with mean values of 525.38 mg·kg-1,897.14 mg·kg-1 and 10.01 mg·kg-1,respectively.Based on the national standards of heavy metal load limit of sludge for land

  20. [CARE NURSE AT REFRACTORY SPIRITUAL SUFFERING USING TAXONOMY NANDA-NOC-NIC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo-martín, Mría Socorro; Galán González-Serna, José María; Romero-Serrano, Rocío; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Almudena; Medina, Eulalia Alburquerque

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces the concept of refractory spiritual suffering in the terminal patient, the factors that influence it, the possibility of their assessment and care approach emphasizing the role of nurse care to despair for identification and relief through the use of taxonomy NANDA-NOC-NIC (NNN). We conclude that it is necessary to incorporate into the care routine screening of spiritual suffering, assessment, prevention and interdisciplinary care. When direct care nursing developed aimed at improving levels of hope that the patient achieves his spiritual suffering terminal decline. In refractory spiritual suffering is necessary to consider the option of palliative sedation in which nurses have a crucial role both in their valuation for the indication and in the administration and evaluation of its therapeutic effects.

  1. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, Retno; SahBandar, Ivo N.; Theelen, Bart; Hagen, Ferry; Poot, Ge; Meis, Jacques F.; Rozalyani, Anna; Sjam, Ridhawati; Widodo, Djoko; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Boekhout, Teun

    2008-01-01

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavueonazole and wa

  2. Pleasure-suffering indicators of nursing work in a hemodialysis nursing service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Cassol Prestes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To measure the pleasure and suffering indicators at work and relate them to the socio-demographic and employment characteristics of the nursing staff in a hemodialysis center in southern Brazil. METHOD Quantitative research, with 46 workers. We used a self-completed form with demographic and labor data and the Pleasure and Suffering Indicators at Work Scale (PSIWS. We conducted a bivariate and correlation descriptive analysis with significance levels of 5% using the Epi-Info® and PredictiveAnalytics Software programs. RESULTS Freedom of Speech was considered critical; other factors were evaluated as satisfactory. The results revealed a possible association between sociodemographic characteristics and work, and pleasure and suffering indicators. There was a correlation between the factors evaluated. CONCLUSION Despite the satisfactory evaluation, suffering is present in the studied context, expressed mainly by a lack of Freedom of Speech, with the need for interventions to prevent injury to the health of workers.

  3. Poor Asthma Sufferers Often Stuck in Homes That Worsen Their Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162878.html Poor Asthma Sufferers Often Stuck in Homes That Worsen Their ... Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Poor Americans with asthma face constant challenges in managing their respiratory disease -- ...

  4. Care as a matter of courage: vulnerability, suffering and ethical formation in nursing care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun; Rundqvist, Ewa; Roberts, Christel

    2012-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 Care as a matter of courage: vulnerability, suffering and ethical formation in nursing care The aim of the study was to explore nurses' experience of how their own vulnerability and suffering influence their ethical formation and their capacity to provide professional care......, it also demonstrates that the nurse's personal and professional life experiences of vulnerability and suffering influence ethical formation. Vulnerability and suffering have proven to be sensitive issues for nurses, like a sore point that either serve as an eye-opener or cause the development of blind......, resulting in the capacity to provide professional care. A nurse must have the sense of being a complete human being with own personal attributes and sensitivity in order to be able to relate to other people. The study is based on qualitative interviews with 23 experienced nurses from Sweden, Finland...

  5. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit different species and breeds. Nevertheless, there are several drugs and many peculiar anesthetic techniques used in animals but not in human beings. Keeping this in mind, literature was hand searched and electronically searched using the words "veterinary anesthesia," "anesthetic drugs and techniques in animals" using Google search engine. The interesting information so collected is presented in this article which highlights some challenging and amazing aspects of anesthetizing animals including the preanesthetic assessment, preparation, premedication, monitoring, induction of general anesthesia, intubation, equipment, regional blocks, neuraxial block, and perioperative complications.

  6. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catthoor K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs. Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions: Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD

  7. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  8. Transforming Suffering: Insights From the Work of Gloria Evangelina Anzaldúa

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Pearl Maria

    2016-01-01

    Gloria Anzaldúa’s understanding of suffering is inextricably connected to subjectivity and spirituality. Tracing her rethinking of stories/histories involving the violent dismemberment of female religious figures, specifically Teresa of Ávila and Coyolxauhqui, I show how Anzaldúa's critical engagement and creative reimagining of these stories/histories lead her to develop a conception of fragmentation and wholeness that resists dualistic epistemologies. For Anzaldúa, suffering emerges from ...

  9. Pharmacological enhancement of memory and executive functioning in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders.

  10. Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

    Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

  11. Scientific uses of animals: harm-benefit analysis and complementary approaches to implementing the three Rs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, G.; Clark, J.M.; Zurlo, J.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of humane experimental technique, first described by Russell and Burch in 1959, focus on minimising suffering to animals used for scientific purposes. Internationally, as these principles became embedded in the various systems of oversight for the use of animals in science, attention

  12. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  13. Sex differences associated with intermittent swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Libman, Matthew K; Wooten, Katherine L; Drugan, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Various animal models of depression have been used to seek a greater understanding of stress-related disorders. However, there is still a great need for novel research in this area, as many individuals suffering from depression are resistant to current treatment methods. Women have a higher rate of depression, highlighting the need to investigate mechanisms of sex differences. Therefore, we employed a new animal model to assess symptoms of depression, known as intermittent swim stress (ISS). In this model, the animal experiences 100 trials of cold water swim stress. ISS has already been shown to cause signs of behavioral depression in males, but has yet to be assessed in females. Following ISS exposure, we looked at sex differences in the Morris water maze and forced swim test. The results indicated a spatial learning effect only in the hidden platform task between male and female controls, and stressed and control males. A consistent spatial memory effect was only seen for males exposed to ISS. In the forced swim test, both sexes exposed to ISS exhibited greater immobility, and the same males and females also showed attenuated climbing and swimming, respectively. The sex differences could be due to different neural substrates for males and females. The goal of this study was to provide the first behavioral examination of sex differences following ISS exposure, so the stage of estrous cycle was not assessed for the females. This is a necessary future direction for subsequent experiments. The current article highlights the importance of sex differences in response to stress.

  14. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paixão Rita Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  15. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Leal Paixão

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Cerebrovascular Pathology with Patients Suffering from Ph-Negative Myeloproliferative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine M. Tanashyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disturbances of microcirculation play a significant role in the development and progression of both acute and chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD and may be associated with different hemogram abnormalities. One of the reasons of the prothrombogenic state of the endothelium is the increase in the number of blood corpuscles leading to (non-Ph myeloproliferative disorders (MPD including essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV, and primary myelofibrosis (PM. Materials and Methods: The study included 167 patients: 102 patients with Ph-MPD and the control group comprising 65 patients with CVD. According to MPD subtype, the patients were divided into three groups: patients with ET (37%, n = 38, male/female 7/31, age 52 ± 7 years, those with PV (40%, n = 41, male/female 20/21, age 50 ± 6 years and those with PM (23%, n = 23, male/female 5/18, age 54 ± 4 years. Results: In 79% (n = 81 of cases in the study group (with Ph-MPD, patients had chronic CVD, with the most frequently identified symptoms being asthenia (92% and headache (72%. Headache in Ph-MPD patients was more frequently (86% associated with PM, while in patients with PV and ET it was equally distributed (70%. Neurological symptoms in 53% of cases were associated with focal changes of the brain on MRI localized in the subcortical area of the frontal and parietal lobes. Twenty-one (21% patients suffered an acute cerebrovascular accident, 8 of them had thrombotic occlusion of one of the internal carotid arteries leading to hemispheric infarcts. Endothelial function (as measured by flow-dependent dilation of the brachial artery was severely impaired in all study groups (median 5% with normal cut-off at 10%, the lowest degree of vasodilator activity being specific for patients with a history of stroke (p = 0.011. Conclusion: Patients suffering from MPD had asymptomatic focal changes in the brain in the absence of concomitant vascular disease (hypertension

  17. Sleep complaints and their relation with drug treatment in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Zarranz, Juan Jose; Lezcano, Elena; Velasco, Fernando; Ciordia, Roberto; Rouco, Idoia; Losada, Jose; Bilbao, Iker

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify sleep problems in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease by means of the new Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and to correlate such problems with the possible influence of current drug treatment. A total of 70 patients (36 men and 34 women) with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were enrolled. Their mean age was 69.7 +/- 8.2 years, and duration of disease was 7.4 +/- 4.8 years. All patients completed the PDSS and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Parts I-IV). Drug consumption and doses were registered. The mean score on the PDSS scale was 109.23 +/- 19.75 and on the UPDRS III scale was 25.24 +/- 11.35. The lowest scores were obtained in Item 3 (sleep fragmentation): 5.53 (2.46); and in Item 8 (nocturia): 5.75 (2.91). There was a weak correlation between the PDSS and UPDRS III (cc = -0.355, P = 0.003), PDSS and UPDRS I (cc = -0.272, P = 0.02), and PDSS and UPDRS IV (cc = -0.416, P < 0.001). Motor conditions, mental state, and drug complications influence sleep quality. Although this effect was significant, it was not of a great magnitude. Dopaminergic drugs did not increase daytime sleepiness. As a whole, sleep quality in patients who took dopaminergic agonists did not differ from that of patients who took levodopa in monotherapy.

  18. [Assessment of family relations by the patients suffering from anorexia nervosa--part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Józefik, Barbara; Namysłowska, Irena; Ulasińska, Romualda

    2002-01-01

    A lot of research indicates the importance of the family context in the occurrence of Eating Disorders. Authors present results of research in families with an adolescent suffering from Anorexia Nervosa according to ICD-10. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among family members. Anorectic girls (n = 37), their sisters (n = 16) and control girls (n = 41) completed the Polish version of The Family Assessment Measure standardised on a Polish sample. The questionnaire was constructed to measure some aspects of the family life such as task accomplishment, role performance, communication including affective expression, affective involvement, control, values and norms. The study revealed some interesting differences between samples. For example, anorectic girls and their sisters generally express dissatisfaction with the relationship with their parents, particularly with fathers, contrary to the control group of girls. Anorectic girls and their sisters more critically assess functioning of the family as a whole than control group girls. Anorectic girls and their sisters express dissatisfaction with their mutual relationship, contrary to the control group.

  19. EARLY SURGERY TO PATIENTS SUFFERING FULMINANT ACUTE PANCREATITIS WITH ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao; LI Yong-guo; CHEN Dao-jin; LI Xiao-rong; ZHANG Sheng-dao; LEI Ruo-qing; TANG Yao-qing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively analyze and compare conservative versus surgical treatment of patients with fulminant acute pancreatitis (FAP) plus abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Methods From January 1998 to September 2005, 21 patients with FAP plus ACS were retrospectively analyzed. Ten patients were conservatively treated by means of intensive care medicine without surgery, and 11 patients received open surgical management and suction drainage. Results Seven of the 10 non-surgical patients died, comprising one with mild, four with moderate and two with severe ACS (70% mortality rate). Of the 11 patients receiving open surgical management in the early phase (within 3 days of disease initiation), three died, comprising one with moderate and two with severe ACS (27.3% mortality rate). The difference in mortality rates was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion Our data indicate patients suffering FAP with severe ACS should be treated with open management of the abdomen in the early phase (within 3 days), even in the absence of infection. This approach appears superior to that of conservative management. Surgical treatment resulted in abdominal decompression and subsequently significantly decreased the mortality rate and improved overall prognosis.

  20. [Prognosis of the hemorrhage recurrence in the patients suffering from acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaroshenko, E A; Didenko, V I; Tsipko, V I; Grabchuk, V N; Cherednichenko, E I; Bendetskiĭ, A M; Pisareva, N N; Gasparian, N G

    2013-06-01

    The prognostication method for the hemorrhage recurrence, permitting to estimate the risk of its occurrence and to prescribe an adequate antirecurrence treatment, was proposed. Among numerous predictors of recurrence the most significant clinical, endoscopic and laboratory factors were selected to raise the prognostication precision. Depending on therisk degree of a recurrent hemorrhage, different methods of treatment were prescribed to the patients. The proposed method was applied in 112 patients, suffering ulcer gastroduodenal hemorrhage. The hemorrhage recurrence have had occurred in 45 (43.3%) of them, in 5 (4.46%)--operative intervention was conducted, using organpreserving methods. General lethality have had constituted 0.89%, postoperative one in a control group--7.14%, and in the main all the patients were alive. The method proposed permits with a high precision to prognosticate and to determine effective tactics of treatment. Taking into account the additional factors of risk raises the prognosis precision and permits to prescribe antihelicobacter therapy and the proton pump inhibirors in a rational dosage soundly.

  1. Emergency department-based interventions for women suffering domestic abuse: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sereena; Boyle, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Domestic abuse represents a serious public health and human rights concern. Interventions to reduce the risk of abuse include staff training and standardized documentation improving detection and adherence to referral pathways. Interventional studies have been conducted in primary care, maternity and outpatient settings. Women disclosing abuse in emergency departments differ from women attending other healthcare settings, and it is unclear whether these interventions can be transferred to the emergency care setting. This review examines interventional studies to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency department-based interventions in reducing domestic abuse-related morbidity. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched, according to prespecified selection criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 273 search results, nine were eligible for review. Interventions involving staff training demonstrated benefits in subjective measures, such as staff knowledge regarding abuse, but no changes in clinical practice, based on detection and referral rates. When staff training was implemented in conjunction with supporting system changes - for example, standardized documentation for assessment and referral - clinically relevant improvements were noted. Interventions centred around staff training are insufficient to bring about improvements in the management and, thus, outcome of patients suffering abuse. Instead, system changes, such as standardized documentation and referral pathways, supported by training, may bring about beneficial changes. It remains uncertain whether surrogate outcomes employed by most studies translate to changes in abuse-related morbidity: the ultimate goal.

  2. Experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness: a hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Hummelvoll, Jan Kåre; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    Being a mother is inseparable from women's existential life. Mothers with mental illness struggle with conflicting and distressing feelings related to motherhood. They seldom obtain the necessary support to increase their control over the determinants of their role as a mother, thus their opportunity of improving their own and their children's mental health is weakened. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of being a mother with mental illness. The research question was: How can mothers' experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness be understood? The understanding emerged through a hermeneutical interpretation of the empirical material on four different levels of abstraction. The inductive-deductive approach, inspired by the philosophy of Gadamer, was used. The mothers' experiences were understood in their way of struggling to become good enough mothers, managing to become the mother they longed to be, being present in the caring relationship with their child, as well as being recognized as a mother and living openly and honestly in relationships with others. Addressing the existential needs of motherhood is important for their improvement and recovery, as well as for promoting their children's mental health and well-being.

  3. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Peggs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings.

  4. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Kay

    2015-07-22

    Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings.

  5. [Reduction of animal experiments in experimental drug testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrensdorf-Nicol, H; Krämer, B

    2014-10-01

    In order to ensure the quality of biomedical products, an experimental test for every single manufactured batch is required for many products. Especially in vaccine testing, animal experiments are traditionally used for this purpose. For example, efficacy is often determined via challenge experiments in laboratory animals. Safety tests of vaccine batches are also mostly performed using laboratory animals. However, many animal experiments have clear inherent disadvantages (low accuracy, questionable transferability to humans, unclear significance). Furthermore, for ethical reasons and animal welfare aspects animal experiments are also seen very critical by the public. Therefore, there is a strong trend towards replacing animal experiments with methods in which no animals are used ("replacement"). If a replacement is not possible, the required animal experiments should be improved in order to minimize the number of animals necessary ("reduction") and to reduce pain and suffering caused by the experiment to a minimum ("refinement"). This "3R concept" is meanwhile firmly established in legislature. In recent years many mandatory animal experiments have been replaced by alternative in vitro methods or improved according to the 3R principles; numerous alternative methods are currently under development. Nevertheless, the process from the development of a new method to its legal implementation takes a long time. Therefore, supplementary regulatory measures to facilitate validation and acceptance of new alternative methods could contribute to a faster and more consequent implementation of the 3R concept in the testing of biomedical products.

  6. Animal models for auditory streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya; Klump, Georg M

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons' response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  7. Psychophysiological responses of female headache sufferers and controls using a picture-viewing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason C; Gramling, Sandra E; Vrana, Scott R; Nicholson, Robert A; Buenaver, Luis F

    2006-12-01

    Despite the advancement of the biopsychosocial model, the interrelationship between behavioral, emotional, and physiological factors in tension-type headache (TTH) remains unclear. Using a picture-viewing paradigm, the present study investigated differences between females with TTH and controls on physiological reactivity, affective valence and arousal, and oral motor habits. In addition, the concordance between EMG activity and self-reported oral habits (i.e., proprioceptive awareness) and EMG activity and self-reported affect (i.e., affective coherence) were measured using within-subject correlations per individual and then compared between groups. Data were analyzed for 27 TTH sufferers and 27 controls who completed a questionnaire packet followed by a psychophysiological assessment consisting of 3 phases (adaptation, scheduled-viewing, recovery) with EMG activity recorded continuously at 3 sites (frontalis, corrugator, zygomatic). During the scheduled-viewing phase, participants were presented with 24 pictures designed to elicit positive, neutral, and negative affect. Compared to controls, the headache group reported elevations in pain, oral habits, and stress across the 3 phases of the assessment, along with elevations in arousal while viewing the pictures. There were no significant differences between the groups in EMG activity while viewing the pictures. Analyses on concordance revealed partial evidence for poor proprioceptive awareness and affective coherence among the headache group, although the correlations were not significantly different than the control group. These findings suggest that arousal, stress perception, and oral habits may play a role in the pathophysiology of TTH and that within-subject designs should be tested further against group designs when measuring psychophysiological concordance.

  8. Natural selection and animal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, NJ; Reale, D

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress has been made on the study of personality in animals, both from a mechanistic and a functional perspective. While we start knowing more about the proximal mechanisms responsible for the consistent differences in behaviour between individuals in a population, little is known yet about

  9. "Concepts in animal welfare": a syllabus in animal welfare science and ethics for veterinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boo, Jasmijn; Knight, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Public attitudes toward animal welfare have improved with growing social affluence, and veterinarians are increasingly expected to be informed about animal welfare in a broader sense than health alone. However, animal welfare has not been a traditional component of the veterinary curriculum. To help address this lack, the World Society for the Protection of Animals(WSPA) and the University of Bristol School of Veterinary Science launched the ''Concepts in Animal Welfare'' syllabus in 2003. This comprehensive syllabus comprises seven core and 23 elective modules and covers a range of animal welfare issues, including farm and companion animal welfare, wildlife, and the use of animals in experiments. There are also modules on ethics and animal legislation. The syllabus is interactive, promotes critical analysis of issues from different angles, and may be adapted for use in any veterinary curriculum. WSPA provides training and workshops in developing countries and assists with the implementation of the syllabus.

  10. 不同畜禽粪肥对土壤培肥及玉米增产效应的影响%Effects of Different Animal Manures on Soil Enriching and Maize Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永平; 史向远; 周静; 张晓晨

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of different animal manures on soil enriching and maize yield,effects of different kinds and amounts of animal manures on soil respiration rate,yield and water use efficiency were studied.The results showed that:the soil respiration rate in chicken manure and sheep manure treatments were higher (4.13 and 3.85 μmol/(m2·s)),while in pig manure and cattle manure were lower (3.73 and 3.46 μmol/(m2·s)); the production with chicken manure and sheep manure increased by more than 35%,with pig manure and cattle manure increased by more than 25%,the production was the highest with the fertilizer of 20 230.0 kg/hm2 (T3); water use efficiency increased as the fertilization increased,and the max was 31.07 kg/ (hm2·mm) in chicken manure of T3.It was concluded that animal manures would increase maize yields,improve soil respiration rate and water use efficiency in an order from strong to weak as chicken manure > pig manure > sheep manure > cattle manure.%为了探索不同畜禽粪肥对土壤培肥及玉米增产的作用,通过不同种类和数量的畜禽粪肥对土壤呼吸速率、玉米产量和水分利用效率产生的影响进行分析.结果表明,鸡粪和羊粪处理的土壤呼吸速率较高,分别为4.13,3.85 μmol/(m2·s),猪粪和牛粪处理的较低,分别为3.73,3.46 μmol/(m2·s);鸡粪和羊粪处理的增产效应达到35%以上,猪粪和牛粪处理的增产效应达到25%以上,均为T3处理产量最高(折合干物质量为20 230.0 kg/hm2);不同粪肥处理的水分利用效率随着施用量的增大而增大,水分利用效率最大的是鸡粪T3处理,为31.07 kg/(hm2· mm);施入不同畜禽粪肥后可增加玉米产量、提高土壤呼吸速率和水分利用效率,而且效应由高到低的顺序:鸡粪>猪粪>羊粪>牛粪.这可为不同等级的农田培肥土壤提供理论依据.

  11. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  12. Affectivity in educational context and in the teacher’s formation: mobilization, social participation and ethical-politics suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Melo de Mendonça

    Full Text Available It was intended to draw reflections on the subject and affectivity constitution within the theoretical and methodological approach of the socio-historical psychology, having as a field of analysis the question of ethical-political suffering in educational context and teacher’s formation. It was concluded that the challenge for education and formation of undergraduates and teachers is to propose alternatives that enable educational institutions to rethink their social practices with adolescents and youth to produce spaces of rights and respect for differences.

  13. 灯盏乙素淀粉微球经离体鼻黏膜的渗透性评价%Scutellarin starch microspheres' permeability through nasal mucosa of different animals in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶赏和; 宋晓玲; 李昌煜; 葛卫红; 石森林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study scutellarin starch microspheres' permeability through nasal mucosa of different animals in vitro. Method: The Franz diffusion cell method was used to experiment the permeability test (n = 4 ) , taking fresh nasal mucosa of dog, swine and domestica in vitro as permeation barrier separately, with scutellarin starch microspheres (scutellarin 0. 25 mg) above them, and blank Ph6. 8 PBS as absorption liquid to detemine the scutellarin by HPLC. Result: The permeability coefficient of scutellarin starch microspheres through nasal mucosa of dog, swine and domestica in vitro were (5.295 ± 0.637) × 10 -3, (4.065 ±1. 140) × 10-3,( 1.855 ±0. 150) × 10-3 cm ? Ml-1 separately. The permeability coefficient order of scutellarin starch microspheres through nasal mucosa of different animals in vitro is dog > swine > domestica, and there are significant differences between the permeability coefficient of scutellarin starch microspheres through nasal mucosa of dog, swine in vitro, and that through nasal mucosa of swine and domestica in vitro. Conclusion: Drugs in scutellarin starch microspheres could permeate through the above-mentioned nasal mucosa in vitro. There might be different permeability coefficient among different species.%目的:研究灯盏乙素淀粉微球经动物离体鼻黏膜的渗透性.方法:采用立式扩散池,分别以新鲜的离体犬、小型猪、家猪鼻黏膜为渗透屏障,灯盏乙素淀粉微球(以灯盏乙素计0.25 mg)置于鼻黏膜上方,以空白pH 6.8 PBS为接收液,进行渗透试验(n=4),HPLC测定灯盏乙素.结果:灯盏乙素淀粉微球经离体犬、小型猪、家猪鼻黏膜渗透系数分别为(5.295±0.637)×10-2,(4.065±1.140)×10-2,(1.855±0.150)×10-2m·L-1;灯盏乙素淀粉微球不同动物离体鼻黏膜渗透系数大小顺序为犬>小型猪>家猪;灯盏乙素淀粉微球经犬与家猪离体鼻黏膜的渗透系数、经小型猪与家猪离体鼻黏膜的渗透系数之间存在显著性

  14. Android 30 Animations Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Written in Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book takes a step-by-step approach with each chapter made up of three to five tutorials that introduce and explain different animation concepts. All concepts are explained with real-world examples that are fun to read and work with. If you are familiar with developing Android applications and want to bring your apps to life by adding smashing animations, then this book is for you. The book assumes that you are comfortable with Java development and have familiarity with creating Android Views in XML and Java. The tutorials assume that you will wa

  15. 3种不同血瘀证动物模型的建立与评价%The establishment and evaluation of three different kinds of animal model of blood stasis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁耀月; 李佳佳; 董世芬; 张荣; 袁悦莹; 孙建宁

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立痰浊血瘀、气滞血瘀、痰浊+气滞血瘀大鼠模型,研究不同血瘀状态动物模型的特征。方法选用SD大鼠,随机分为正常对照组、高脂饲料组、慢性刺激组( chro-nic unpredictable mild stress,CUMS)、高脂饲料+慢性刺激组,分别采用相应因素干预6周。于2、4、6周动态监测动物体重、旷场行为、血脂和血清皮质酮指标;实验终点(6周)采用小动物超声和左心室插管法检测心功能,采用黏度仪、红细胞变形/聚集测试仪检测血液流变性相关指标。结果与正常对照组大鼠相比,采用高脂饲料、慢性不可预知性刺激后均可引起血瘀状态,对动物的行为学、血脂、心脏功能、血液黏度造成了不同程度的影响,当两因素叠加时,血瘀相关指标变化最明显,表现为:与正常对照组比较,体重明显降低(P<0.01),2周时水平运动、垂直运动、运动时间均减少(P<0.01或 P <0.05),2周、4周时,血清皮质酮上升( P <0.01或P<0.05),4周、6周时TG明显上升(P<0.01)。6周时,血流速度减慢(P<0.01),收缩末期左室前壁、后壁厚度均增厚(P<0.01或P<0.05),舒张期左心室指数上升(P<0.01),左心室最大收缩速率降低(P<0.05),全血黏度上升(P<0.01)。结论高脂饲料喂养和慢性不可预知性刺激均可形成血瘀状态,但是具有不同的特点。当两因素叠加时,动物可明显出现行为学、血液黏度、心脏功能、血脂等指标的异常,可为血瘀证以及相关药物的研究提供依据。%Aim To establish phlegm and blood stasis, qi-stag-nation and blood stasis, phlegm turbid+qi-stagnation and blood stasis model in rats and to study the characteristics of animal models with different blood stasis. Methods SD rats were ran-domly divided into normal group, high fat diet group, chronic unpredictable mild stress group ( CUMS ) and high fat diet +chronic unpredictable mild stress group. Different states

  16. Effects of carbachol matching oral fluid resuscitation on intestinal mucosa blood flow and absorption rate of dogs suffered hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin LI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of carbachol matching oral fluid resuscitation on intestinal mucosa blood flow(IMBF and intestinal absorption rate of dogs suffered hemorrhagic shock.Methods Twenty-four hours after a preliminary intubation of carotid artery,jugular vein and jejunum by asepsis,twelve Beagle dogs were subjected to a loss of 40% total blood volume to establish animal model of hemorrhagic shock.Animals were then divided into oral resuscitation group and carbachol group(6 each.Dogs in oral resuscitation group were given by gastric tube the glucose-electrolyte solution(GES,which was 3 times volume of blood loss,within 24h after bleeding;while dogs in carbachol group were given GES added carbachol(0.25μg/kg.The IMBF and intestinal absorption rate of water before hemorrhage(0h and 2,4 and 8h after hemorrhage were measured.All the animals were sacrificed at 8h after hemorrhage to record the intestinal GES volume.Results The intestinal absorption rate of water remarkably decreased after hemorrhage in both groups,while in carbachol,group it was obviously higher than that in oral resuscitation group(P < 0.05.The GES volume absorbed by intestine in carbachol group was high than that in oral resuscitation group 8h after hemorrhage(P < 0.05.The IMBF decreased significantly in the both groups after hemorrhage,and then increased gradually 2h after hemorrhage.The IMBF in carbachol group was obviously higher than that in oral resuscitation group(P < 0.05.Conclusion Carbachol in oral resuscitation with GES can improve intestinal absorption rate of water and GES,and increase IMBF in dogs with 40% blood loss.

  17. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  18. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  19. Algorithm Animation with Galant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F

    2017-01-01

    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  20. Prophylactic versus Therapeutic Fingolimod: Restoration of Presynaptic Defects in Mice Suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Padolecchia, Cristina; Grilli, Massimo; Milanese, Marco; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ghelardini, Carla; Bonanno, Giambattista; Marchi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Fingolimod, the first oral, disease-modifying therapy for MS, has been recently proposed to modulate glutamate transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice suffering from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in MS patients. Our study aims at investigating whether oral fingolimod recovers presynaptic defects that occur at different stages of disease in the CNS of EAE mice. In vivo prophylactic (0.3 mg/kg for 14 days, from the 7th day post immunization, d.p.i, the drug dissolved in the drinking water) fingolimod significantly reduced the clinical symptoms and the anxiety-related behaviour in EAE mice. Spinal cord inflammation, demyelination and glial cell activation are markers of EAE progression. These signs were ameliorated following oral fingolimod administration. Glutamate exocytosis was shown to be impaired in cortical and spinal cord terminals isolated from EAE mice at 21 ± 1 d.p.i., while GABA alteration emerged only at the spinal cord level. Prophylactic fingolimod recovered these presynaptic defects, restoring altered glutamate and GABA release efficiency. The beneficial effect occurred in a dose-dependent, region-specific manner, since lower (0.1–0.03 mg/kg) doses restored, although to a different extent, synaptic defects in cortical but not spinal cord terminals. A delayed reduction of glutamate, but not of GABA, exocytosis was observed in hippocampal terminals of EAE mice at 35 d.p.i. Therapeutic (0.3 mg/kg, from 21 d.p.i. for 14 days) fingolimod restored glutamate exocytosis in the cortex and in the hippocampus of EAE mice at 35 ± 1 d.p.i. but not in the spinal cord, where also GABAergic defects remained unmodified. These results improve our knowledge of the molecular events accounting for the beneficial effects elicited by fingolimod in demyelinating disorders. PMID:28125677