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Sample records for animal suffering differ

  1. The Brain Functional Networks Associated to Human and Animal Suffering Differ among Omnivores, Vegetarians and Vegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs. PMID:20520767

  2. Skepticism, empathy, and animal suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltola, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. Resting on Wittgenstein and Husserl, it is argued that skepticism relies on a misguided epistemology and, thus, that key questions posed by it face the risk of absurdity. In the second part of the paper it is suggested that, instead of skepticism, empathy together with intersubjectivity be adopted. Edith Stein's take on empathy, along with contemporary findings, are explored, and the claim is made that it is only via these two methods of understanding that the suffering of nonhuman animals can be perceived.

  3. Animal suffering should not trump environmental stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantassel, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Andrew Linzey contends that our treatment of children should act as a model for our treatment of animals: just as we use our power to prevent the suffering of children, so should we restrict our behavior to protect animals from human-originated suffering. While not ignoring the role theology and emotion play in his ethical view, Linzey endeavors to provide a rational argument for the moral consideration of animals. In addition, Linzey explains how humans have created institutions to help them justify the continuance of animal suffering, followed by a plan to replace those institutions with animal-friendly ones. Linzey then applies his thinking to three contemporary institutions he believes cause animal suffering in an unjustifiable manner, namely hunting with dogs, fur farming, and commercial sealing. This review offers a detailed account of several significant weaknesses of Linzey's argument, ranging from the theological to the scientific, that should be considered before adopting his views.

  4. "Unnecessary suffering": the cornerstone of animal protection legislation considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, M

    1999-09-01

    Causing "unnecessary suffering" has been widely adopted in legislation to define criminal liability in respect of the treatment of animals. This article examines the way in which the term has been interpreted and applied by the courts, and considers its effectiveness in affording animals protection from abuse.

  5. [Animal-assisted therapy for people suffering from severe dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribet, J; Boucharlat, M; Myslinski, M

    2008-04-01

    The elderly represent the fastest growing population group in France. The care management of people suffering from dementia has become an important problem. Demented patients manifest behavioral problems, depression, apathy, impairment in social activities and language skill disorders. The literature contains few studies investigating animal-assisted therapy for demented patients. However, there is a clear need for psychological assistance for this population. In the management of such behavioural problems associated with dementia, we propose to develop a dog-assisted therapy. Three qualitative case studies are analysed to specify the perceptions of the therapist regarding animal-assisted therapy. This study is a qualitative pilot study. Subjects were two female and one male patients admitted in a nursing home. They were diagnosed with severe dementia. Their mean age was 94 years. All of them agreed to attend the dog therapy activities and informed consent from their family was requested. We met these patients 15 times over nine months. The meetings always took place in the same place for 30 min, once a week. The evaluation was based on the clinical observations of the psychologist. This study revealed many psychological benefits for patients with dementia. The animal-assisted therapy had a calming effect on the patients. It could well be helpful as a communication link during therapy sessions. The dog, because of its unconditional acceptance, increases the self-esteem of the patient and contributes to a more secure environment. The patients, who rarely interacted socially, increased their interactions with the dog. In spite of the lack of normal verbal use of language, nonverbal communication continues including touching and posture. Furthermore, patients verbalized that the dog was affectionate and they could identify themselves with it. This prospective study leads up to the conclusion that pet therapy could prove to be efficient. We conducted animal

  6. Silence and Denial in Everyday Life—The Case of Animal Suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre Wicks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available How can we make sense of the fact that we live in a world where good people co-exist in silence about widespread animal suffering. How is it that sites of suffering such as laboratories, factory farms, abattoirs and animal transportation are all around us and yet we ‘do not, in a certain sense, know about them’ [1]. This ‘not knowing’ is one of the most difficult barriers for animal activists who must constantly develop new strategies in an attempt to catch public attention and translate it into action. Recent contributions from the ‘sociology of denial’ have elucidated many of the mechanisms involved in ‘not knowing’ in relation to human atrocities and genocide. In this context, ‘denial’ refers to the maintenance of social worlds in which an undesirable situation is unrecognized, ignored or made to seem normal [2]. These include different types of denial: personal, official and cultural, as well as the process of normalization whereby suffering becomes invisible through routinization, tolerance, accommodation, collusion and cover up. Denial and normalization reflect both personal and collective states where suffering is not acknowledged [3]. In this paper, I will examine insights from the sociology of denial and apply them to human denial and normalization of animal suffering. This will include an examination of denial which is both individual and social and the implications of these insights for theory and practice in the human/animal relationship.

  7. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Animal Therapy in Treating Children Suffering from Forms of Dysontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia V.

    2012-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of animal therapy using are discussed. Research of 30 case studies is displayed that pet therapy is a good therapeutic tool in approximately 60% of cases. To diagnose possible problems in families which have got a dog as a "therapist" for the child suffering from some or other form of dysontogenesis, the…

  8. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    examine only self-powered animal locomotion. ... At different phases of their life cycle both animals and plants are highly mobile but their ... wind driven transport (Figure C). ..... fins which serve the function of rudimentary limbs, particularly.

  9. Predator Bounties in Western Canada Cause Animal Suffering and CompromiseWildlife Conservation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Proulx

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although predation bounty programs (rewards offered for capturing or killing an animal ended more than 40 years ago in Canada, they were reintroduced in Alberta in 2007 by hunting, trapping, and farming organizations, municipalities and counties, and in 2009 in Saskatchewan, by municipal and provincial governments and the Saskatchewan Cattlemen’s Association. Bounty hunters use inhumane and non-selective killing methods such as shooting animals in non-vital regions, and killing neck snares and strychnine poisoning, which cause suffering and delayed deaths. They are unselective, and kill many non-target species, some of them at risk. Predator bounty programs have been found to be ineffective by wildlife professionals, and they use killing methods that cause needless suffering and jeopardize wildlife conservation programs. Our analysis therefore indicates that government agencies should not permit the implementation of bounty programs. Accordingly, they must develop conservation programs that will minimize wildlife-human conflicts, prevent the unnecessary and inhumane killing of animals, and ensure the persistence of all wildlife species.

  10. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimalizacja cierpienia zwierząt a wegetarianizm [Minimisation of animal suffering and vegetarianism

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    Krzysztof Saja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is a reductio ad absurdum of assumptions which are shared by a largenumber of followers of the animal welfare movement and utilitarianism. I arguethat even if we accept the main ethical arguments for a negative moral assessmentof eating meat we should not promote vegetarianism but rather beefism (eating onlymeat from beef cattle. I also argue that some forms of vegetarianism, i.e. ichtivegetarianism,can be much more morally worse than normal meat diet. In order to justifythese thesis I show that there are significant moral differences in the consumptionof animal products from different species.

  12. Sex differences in depression after widowhood. Do men suffer more?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grootheest, D.S.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: This study focuses on sex differences in depression of the widowed. Previous research showed different results in sex differences and in depression after bereavement. We assessed the effects of widowhood on depressive symptoms for men and women and examined whether environmental strain

  13. How long must they suffer? success and failure of our efforts to end the animal tragedy in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2015-05-01

    Scientific findings have revealed how much we have dramatically underestimated the intellectual, social and emotional capabilities of non-human animals, including their levels of self-consciousness and ability to suffer from psychological stress. In the 21st century, the field of animal ethics has evolved as a serious scientific discipline, and nowadays largely advocates that the way we treat animals, both legally and in practice, is morally wrong. Politics and legislation have reacted to these facts, to some extent, but neither current legislation nor current practice reflect the scientific and moral state-of-the-art. Too often, the will to change things is watered down in the decision-making process, e.g. in the drafting of legislation. In the field of animal experimentation there have been many genuine efforts by various players, to advance and apply the principles behind the Three Rs. However, the fundamental problem, i.e. the overall number of animals sacrificed for scientific purposes, has increased. Clearly, if we are serious about our will to regard animal experimentation as an ethical and societal problem, we have to put much more emphasis on addressing the question of how to avoid the use of animals in science. To achieve this goal, certain issues need to be considered: a) the present system of ethical evaluation of animal experiments, including testing for regulatory purposes, needs to be reformed and applied effectively to meet the legal and moral requirements; b) animal testing must be avoided in future legislation, and existing legislation has to be revised in that regard; c) resources from animal-based research have to re-allocated toward alternatives; and d) the academic curricula must be reformed to foster and integrate ethical and animal welfare issues. 2015 FRAME.

  14. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Frans W A

    2002-01-01

    The use of live animals for experiments plays an important role in many forms of research. This gives rise to an ethical dilemma. On the one hand, most of the animals used are sentient beings who may be harmed by the experiments. The research, on the other hand, may be vital for preventing, curing or alleviating human diseases. There is no consensus on how to tackle this dilemma. One extreme is the view taken by adherents of the so-called animal rights view. According to this view, we are never justified in harming animals for human purposes - however vital these purposes may be. The other extreme is the ruthless view, according to which animals are there to be used at our discretion. However, most people have a view situated somewhere between these two extremes. It is accepted that animals may be used for research - contrary to the animal rights view. However, contrary to the ruthless view, that is only accepted under certain conditions. The aim of this presentation is to present different ethical views which may serve as a foundation for specifying the circumstances under which it is acceptable to use animals for research. Three views serving this role are contractarianism, utilitarianism and a deontological approach. According to contractarianism, the key ethical issue is concern for the sentiments of other human beings in society, on whose co-operation those responsible for research depend. Thus it is acceptable to use animals as long as most people can see the point of the experiment and are not offended by the way it is done. According to utilitarianism, the key ethical issue is about the consequences for humans and animals. Thus it is justified to use animals for research if enough good comes out of it in terms of preventing suffering and creating happiness, and if there is no better alternative. In the deontological approach the prima facie duty of beneficence towards human beings has to be weighed against the prima facie duties not to harm animals and to

  15. Is there a difference in survival between men and women suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Johan; Persson, Carina; Strömberg, Anna; Arestedt, Kristofer

    2014-01-01

    To describe in-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) events with regard to sex and to investigate if sex is associated with survival. Previous studies exploring differences between sexes are incongruent with regard to clinical outcomes. In order to provide equality and improve care, further investigations into these aspects are warranted. This registry study included 286 CAs. To investigate if sex was associated with survival, logistic regression analyses were performed. The proportion of CA with a resuscitation attempt compared to CA without resuscitation was higher among men. There were no associations between sex and survival when controlling for previously known predictors and interaction effects. Sex does not appear to be a predictor for survival among patients suffering CA where resuscitation is attempted. The difference regarding proportion of resuscitation attempts requires more attention. It is important to consider possible interaction effects when studying the sex perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.

  17. Gender differences in sex life issues – A population-based study of migraine sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojanlatva Ansa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is considered to have a negative influence on sex life. The present study was to analyse the perceptions of importance of and satisfaction with sex life as well as the expression of interest in sex among people having migraines in a prospective follow-up mail survey in 1998 and 2003. Methods The random sample was stratified according to gender and age in four age groups (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years. Altogether 25 898 individuals responded to the baseline and 19 626 to the follow-up questionnaire (75.8% response rate. We examined as to how the perceptions of sex life of those suffering from migraine changed during a 5-year follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the data of the responses on self-reported migraine in the baseline and follow-up surveys (N = 2 977, 79.2% women. Each person with migraine was assigned a gender- and age-matched control in the analysis. Results All three outcome variables tended to decrease in value. Importance of sex life was higher among men with migraine than among their controls. Among women migraine lessened interest in sex life. Conclusion Our findings suggested that migraine has a different impact on sex life among women from that among men.

  18. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  19. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty, and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  20. Attention "Blinks" Differently for Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as "plant blindness," a term that is meant to encapsulate both the…

  1. Living with constant suffering: a different life following the diagnosis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan M; de Dios Sánchez, Rosa; Lluva-Castaño, Alicia; Mestres-Camps, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    We used grounded theory in semi-structured interviews with 32 persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Barcelona, Spain, and found that PLWH live with constant suffering, a core category combining four realities: I need help; My life is constantly controlled; I have a new imposed life; and I have an uncertain reality. Participants described being constantly controlled by health policies and medications. They thought their lives were in the hands of others and that a new life, characterized by the constant fear of stigma, had been imposed on them. They felt they were losing freedom and vitality, as many questions remained unanswered, causing uncertainty related to health and public life. Emotional help was obtained mainly from peers and social networks. Our emergent theory shows a disruptive experience, with serious consequences to individual and social development. Health care has to focus on the real needs of PLWH to reduce suffering and uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  3. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise, Food and Drug Administration rules excluded women of childbearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more ADRs than men; the classic sex hormone paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and TK including absorption, distribution, metabolisms, and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical, and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging.

  4. Rural and urban differences in the commission of animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 261 inmates, the authors investigate how demographic, familial differences and species type have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty. In general, early exposure to animal abuse is a strong predictor of the subsequent behavior. However, rural inmates learned to be cruel by watching family members exclusively, whereas urban inmates learned from family members and friends. Moreover, urban inmates chose dogs, cats, and wild animals as their target animals; however, rural inmates chose only cats.

  5. Causal Attribution and Coping Maxims Differences between Immigrants and Non-Immigrants Suffering from Back Pain in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims in people suffering from back pain. Further, it aimed at identifying in how far causal attributions and related coping maxims would defer between immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland. Data for this study came from a larger survey study that was conducted among immigrant populations in the German- and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. Included in the analyses were native Swiss participants, as well as Albanian- and Serbian-speaking immigrants, who had indicated to have suffered from back pain within the last 12 months prior to the study. Data was analyzed for overall 495 participants. Items for causal attributions and coping maxims were subject to factor analyses. Cultural differences were assessed with ANOVA and regression analyses. Interaction terms were included to investigate whether the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims would differ with cultural affiliation. For both immigrant groups the physician's influence on the course of their back pain was more important than for Swiss participants (p immigrant groups were more likely to agree with maxims that were related to the improvement of the back pain, as well as the acceptance of the current situation (p immigrants and non-immigrants exist. Further, the results support the assumption of an association between causal attribution and coping maxims. However cultural affiliation did not considerably moderate this relationship.

  6. The multifaceted phenomenon of animation: Analysing the background and aims of different types of animations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dudová

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The word animation is used in different contexts (film, theatre, computers,culture. The object of this study is animation in the context of social pedagogy, socialwork and pastoral care. The importance of animation in education lies in nondirectiveeducational influence, which is enabled by the use of the animation approach. Theessence of animation is derived not only from the etymology of the word animation(imparting life, but also from its understanding in the particular historical development.The authors analysed in detail the development of animation in France andthen in other countries (Italy, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Czech Republic,Slovakia. They drew on foundational works of renowned authors in the field (Gillet,Opaschowski, Pollo as well as on the comparison of the individual – often fragmented– bits of information that can be found on animation in educational literature. Theresult is an attempt to summarise common and different attributes of various typesof animation in the social science fields in Europe. It seems that all current types ofanimation are created on foundations of at least two of the four social variables: thesociety – education – culture – art.

  7. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  8. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  9. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  10. Long-term evacuation after the nuclear accident in Fukushima. Different daily living under low-dose radioactive suffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    One year has passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident. Even currently, more than 150,000 evacuees in Fukushima Prefecture are forced to leave their home and to move throughout Japan. Because of the limited space of temporary housing and the weakening of personal ties in local communities, many families need to move and have separate lives. As a consequence, Fukushima has a serious shortage of caregivers for the elderly. There have been more than 1,300 disaster-related deaths due to shock and stress after long-distance drifts from town to town. Most of the victims were the elderly, who collapsed, caught pneumonia, suffered stroke and heart attack. Concerns about the safety of low-dose radiation exposure deprived the elderly of important contact with playing outside with their grandchildren in Fukushima. Fear of invisible radioactive contamination inactivated outdoor activities such as farming, dairy, fishing, gardening, hiking and wild-vegetable/mushroom hunting, although most of these activities have been traditionally supported by the wisdom of the elderly. Several recent questionnaire investigations revealed that older evacuees wish to go home even if the environment has significant contamination. In contrast, more than half of younger generation with small children have a different attitude. Nuclear accident brought serious social pains although it did not acutely hurt our bodies. (author)

  11. Interspecies comparison of probiotics isolated from different animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. Abdou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify naturally occurring probiotic Lactobacillus species in different animals with the different environmental background including fish, and farm animals to investigate interspecies differences in probiotics on the species level. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 fecal and milk samples were collected under aseptic conditions from cattle, buffalo, camel, sheep, goats, and fish. The samples were cultured, and the isolated strains were confirmed biochemically and molecularly using 16S rRNA multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis following DNA extraction from the bacterial isolates. Results: A total of 31 isolates identified as lactobacilli were isolated from cattle milk, goat feces, sheep feces, fish feces, buffalo milk, camel milk, and goats' milk. Lactobacillus species were identified based on the size of the PCR product. The results showed that different species were different in their lactobacilli content. At the same time, there were some differences between individuals of the same species. Conclusion: The diversity of probiotic strains isolated from different animal species implies different types of benefits to the host. Although it would be both money - and time-consuming research, discovering the benefit of each of these strains may provide very important information for the health of both human and animal. Furthermore, transferring these beneficial effects either to individuals within the same species or between different species would be of great importance.

  12. Fungal infections in animals: a patchwork of different situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Bosco, Sandra De M G; De Hoog, Sybren

    2018-01-01

    The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans....... In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed....... Opportunistic mycoses are responsible for a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and infections caused by melanized fungi. The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome...

  13. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  14. Diagnosing suffering: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, E J

    1999-10-05

    The alleviation of suffering is crucial in all of medicine, especially in the care of the dying. Suffering cannot be treated unless it is recognized and diagnosed. Suffering involves some symptom or process that threatens the patient because of fear, the meaning of the symptom, and concerns about the future. The meanings and the fear are personal and individual, so that even if two patients have the same symptoms, their suffering would be different. The complex techniques and methods that physicians usually use to make a diagnosis, however, are aimed at the body rather than the person. The diagnosis of suffering is therefore often missed, even in severe illness and even when it stares physicians in the face. A high index of suspicion must be maintained in the presence of serious disease, and patients must be directly questioned. Concerns over the discomfort of listening to patients' severe distress are usually more than offset by the gratification that follows the intervention. Often, questioning and attentive listening, which take little time, are in themselves ameliorative. The information on which the assessment of suffering is based is subjective; this may pose difficulties for physicians, who tend to value objective findings more highly and see a conflict between the two kinds of information. Recent advances in understanding how physicians increase the utility of information and make inferences allow one to reliably use the subjective information on which the diagnosis and treatment of suffering depend. Knowing patients as individual persons well enough to understand the origin of their suffering and ultimately its best treatment requires methods of empathic attentiveness and nondiscursive thinking that can be learned and taught. The relief of suffering depends on physicians acquiring these skills.

  15. Why do animals differ in their susceptibility to geometrical illusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lynna C; Chouinard, Philippe A; Howell, Tiffani J; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-04-01

    In humans, geometrical illusions are thought to reflect mechanisms that are usually helpful for seeing the world in a predictable manner. These mechanisms deceive us given the right set of circumstances, correcting visual input where a correction is not necessary. Investigations of non-human animals' susceptibility to geometrical illusions have yielded contradictory results, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms with which animals see the world may differ across species. In this review, we first collate studies showing that different species are susceptible to specific illusions in the same or reverse direction as humans. Based on a careful assessment of these findings, we then propose several ecological and anatomical factors that may affect how a species perceives illusory stimuli. We also consider the usefulness of this information for determining whether sight in different species might be more similar to human sight, being influenced by contextual information, or to how machines process and transmit information as programmed. Future testing in animals could provide new theoretical insights by focusing on establishing dissociations between stimuli that may or may not alter perception in a particular species. This information could improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind illusions, but also provide insight into how sight is subjectively experienced by different animals, and the degree to which vision is innate versus acquired, which is difficult to examine in humans.

  16. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.

  17. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.; Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Mallik, Sandipan B.; Maì ti, Chinmay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  18. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  19. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  2. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  3. Animation: textural difference and the materiality of Holocaust memory

    OpenAIRE

    Walden, Victoria Grace

    2014-01-01

    The notion of “Holocaust animation” may seem paradoxical; how can a medium which, in the popular eye, is usually associated with comedy, play and fantasy be used to remember one of the 20th century’s most traumatic events? By examining the textural difference of animation to our lived world in texts such as Silence (Yadin and Bringas 1998) and I was a Child of Holocaust Survivors (Ann Marie Fleming 2010), it becomes clear how the medium can emphasise the fragile materiality of Holocaust memor...

  4. Effects of different ways of fasting in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Naderi Ghalenoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While fasting has been practiced for centuries, its beneficial effects was unknown until recently. This review tries to analyze the current literature of how fasting and intermittent fasting (IF could affect clinical pathological parameters, learning, mood and brain plasticity. The effects of different ways of fasting on metabolism and stress were also explored. Animal experiments have elucidated fasting and IF could exert positive effects on learning, mood and brain, plus metabolic functions such lowering plasma glucose and insulin level and improvement in lipid metabolism (reduced visceral fat tissue and increased plasma adiponectin level, and an increased resistance to stress. Thus, more clinical studies are necessary to test the effectiveness of fasting and IF in preventing different diseases.

  5. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Szűcs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982 that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  6. 'If you are empathetic you care about both animals and people. I am a nurse and I don't like to see suffering anywhere': Findings from 103 healthcare professionals on attitudes to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-11-01

    This report presents qualitative and quantitative data from 103 UK healthcare professionals describing attitudes to the current system of animal testing (to produce medicines and health interventions). To gather qualitative testimony, these healthcare professionals were organised into six separate focus groups (of 18, 17, 17, 15, 17 and 19 participants) where they were asked 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focussed on attitudes to the current system rather than attitudes to animal testing in general. The healthcare professionals also completed a quantitative attitude scale questionnaire consisting of 20 statements (all favourable) towards the system of animal testing as currently practised. Statements such as 'Testing agencies abide by legislation to safeguard animal welfare' were displayed and the healthcare professionals were invited to agree or disagree with these statements. The results from both the quantitative and qualitative data suggest that healthcare professionals were opposed to the current system of animal experimentation.

  7. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Patil, Grete; Ihlebaek, Camilla

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in cognitively impaired nursing home residents is known to be very high, with depression and agitation being the most common symptoms. The possible effects of a 12-week intervention with animal-assisted activities (AAA) in nursing homes were studied. The primary outcomes related to depression, agitation and quality of life (QoL). A prospective, cluster randomized multicentre trial with a follow-up measurement 3 months after end of intervention was used. Inclusion criteria were men and women aged 65 years or older, with a diagnosis of dementia or having a cognitive deficit. Ten nursing homes were randomized to either AAA with a dog or a control group with treatment as usual. In total, 58 participants were recruited: 28 in the intervention group and 30 in the control group. The intervention consisted of a 30-min session with AAA twice weekly for 12 weeks in groups of three to six participants, led by a qualified dog handler. Norwegian versions of the Cornell Scale for Depression, the Brief Agitation Rating Scale and the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia scale were used. A significant effect on depression and QoL was found for participants with severe dementia at follow-up. For QoL, a significant effect of AAA was also found immediately after the intervention. No effects on agitation were found. Animal-assisted activities may have a positive effect on symptoms of depression and QoL in older people with dementia, especially those in a late stage. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Morally relevant differences between animals and human beings justifying the use of animals in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J U

    1997-03-01

    I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by

  10. Sufferers divided by the prefectural border. Too different measures corresponding to the disaster. Is this really 'no problem'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    The series reports how general people, who are not radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 11, 2011). The section 4 is reported by a mother having 3 school children living in Kosugo, Shiroishi City, Miyagi Prefecture, localizing at the border to Fukushima Prefecture, 65 km distant from the Plant. Just after the Accident, the author was first eased by the government view, no immediate radiation effects by the Accident, and then became anxious, particularly about children, by the similar Miyagi prefectural view despite American recommendation for evacuation to the area 80 km far from the Plant and Kosugo's enrollment in the contaminated region. Major trend in the town was against the interest in radiation problems as the region was not in Fukushima and there were fears about the reputational risk. Under these circumstances, dosimeters and surveymeters, which had been lent by neither Miyagi nor Shiroishi, were lent thanks to the favor of Tohoku University, and have been used to measure the radiation doses in the school zone. Decontamination of Kosugo primary school garden of which dose had been 0.95 mc-Sv/hr in April, 2011, was conducted as lately as in July, 2012. The exposure dose to pupils was conceivably higher than that in the neighboring Fukushima school whose decontamination had been conducted in July, 2011. Is this really 'No problem'? Differing from Fukushima where the prefectural health project started already, Kosugo children have come to receive the pay thyroid echo examination since January, 2014, and 64% of pupils wish to have the diagnosis. The author prays for science to let children be safe for their bright future beyond the border. (T.T.)

  11. Evaluation of set-up deviations during the irradiation of patients suffering from breast cancer treated with two different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KukoIowicz, Pawel Franciszek; Debrowski, Andrzej; Gut, Piotr; Chmielewski, Leszek; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Kedzierawski, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare reproducibility of set-up for two different treatment techniques for external irradiation of the breast. Methods and materials: In total, the analysis comprised 56 pairs of portal and simulator films for 14 consecutive patients treated following breast conserving therapy and 98 pairs of portal and simulator films for 20 consecutive patients treated after mastectomy. For the first group the tangential field technique (TF technique) was used, for the second the inverse hockey stick technique (IHS technique). Evaluation of the treatment reproducibility was performed in terms of systematic and random error calculated for the whole groups, comparison of set-up accuracy by means of comparison of cumulative distribution of the length of the displacement vector. Results: In the IHS and TF techniques for medial and lateral fields, displacement larger than 5 mm occurred in 28.3, 15.8 and 25.4%, respectively. For the IHS technique, the systematic errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 1.9 and 1.7 mm, respectively (1 SD), the random errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 2.0 and 2.5 mm. For the TF technique, the systematic errors for ventral-dorsal and cranial-caudal direction were 2.6 and 1.3 mm for medial field and 3.7 and 0.7 mm for lateral fields, respectively, the random errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 2.2 and 1.0 mm for medial field and 2.9 and 1.1 for lateral field, respectively. Rotations were negligible in the IHS technique. For the TF technique the systematic and random components amounted to about 2.0 degrees (1 SD). Conclusions: Both the inverse hockey stick and standard tangential techniques showed good reproducibility of patients' set-up with respect to cranial-caudal direction. For the TF technique, the accuracy should be improved for the medial field with respect to the ventral-dorsal direction

  12. Do plants and animals differ in phenotypic plasticity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    fits, of a plastic versus non-plastic phenotype in plants and animals. [Renee M Borges ... polyphenol oxidase and other oxidative enzymes in the defence repertoire of .... males in response to environmental stress (Cremer and. Heinze 2003).

  13. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola fever in laboratory animals with different sensitivity to this virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurnov, A A; Dadaeva, A A; Kolesnikov, S I

    2001-12-01

    Pathophysiological parameters were compared in animals with different sensitivity to Ebola virus infected with this virus. Analysis of the results showed the differences in immune reactions underlying the difference between Ebola-sensitive and Ebola-resistant animals. No neutrophil activation in response to Ebola virus injection was noted in Ebola-sensitive animal. Phagocytic activity of neutrophils in these animals inversely correlated with animal sensitivity to Ebola virus. Animal susceptibility to Ebola virus directly correlated with the decrease in the number of circulating T and B cells. We conclude that the immune system plays the key role in animal susceptibility and resistance to Ebola virus.

  14. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  15. Sex differences in life span: Females homozygous for the X chromosome do not suffer the shorter life span predicted by the unguarded X hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengdahl, Martin; Kimber, Christopher M; Maguire-Baxter, Jack; Friberg, Urban

    2018-03-01

    Life span differs between the sexes in many species. Three hypotheses to explain this interesting pattern have been proposed, involving different drivers: sexual selection, asymmetrical inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes, and hemizygosity of the X(Z) chromosome (the unguarded X hypothesis). Of these, the unguarded X has received the least experimental attention. This hypothesis suggests that the heterogametic sex suffers a shortened life span because recessive deleterious alleles on its single X(Z) chromosome are expressed unconditionally. In Drosophila melanogaster, the X chromosome is unusually large (∼20% of the genome), providing a powerful model for evaluating theories involving the X. Here, we test the unguarded X hypothesis by forcing D. melanogaster females from a laboratory population to express recessive X-linked alleles to the same degree as males, using females exclusively made homozygous for the X chromosome. We find no evidence for reduced life span or egg-to-adult viability due to X homozygozity. In contrast, males and females homozygous for an autosome both suffer similar, significant reductions in those traits. The logic of the unguarded X hypothesis is indisputable, but our results suggest that the degree to which recessive deleterious X-linked alleles depress performance in the heterogametic sex appears too small to explain general sex differences in life span. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Genetic Evaluation and Ranking of Different Animal Models Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An animal model utilizes all relationships available in a given data set. Estimates for variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, maternal environmental and direct environmental effects, and their covariances between direct and maternal genetic effects for post weaning growth traits have been obtained with ...

  17. Bifidobacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of animals: differences and similarities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Rada, V.; Killer, Jiří; Musilová, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 377-388 ISSN 1876-2883 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bifidobacteria * animals * occurrence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.614, year: 2014

  18. Plant and animal stem cells: similar yet different

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Sabatini, S.

    2014-01-01

    The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into

  19. The contamination of the different groups of animals. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, D.V.; Galkovskaya, G.A.; Khmeleva, N.N.; Golubev, A.P.; Plenin, A.E.; Moroz, M.D.; Shevtsova, T.M.; Voronovich, A.I.; Matveenko, A.A.; Maksimova, S.L.; Blinov, V.V.; Litvinova, A.N.; Belyavskaya, V.I.; Maksimenkov, M.V.; Pikulik, M.M.; Drobenkov, S.M.; Vyazovich, Yu.A.; Gutkovskaya, G.F.; Parejko, O.A.; Tarletskaya, R.Yu.; Kozulin, A.V.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.S.; Sidorovich, V.E.; Kozlo, P.G.; Kuchmel', S.V.; Dunin, V.F.; Emel'yanova, L.G.; Deryabina, T.G.; Fomenkov, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    By means of radiometric monitoring of fauna it was detected territorial and chronological features of radioactive contamination of various animal groups of water and terrestrial ecosystems such as seston, plankton, benthos, fishes, soil invertebrates, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. 12 tabs., 13 figs

  20. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  1. [Christian dimension of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, K

    1999-01-01

    Human existence is marked by imperfection, whose expression--among other things--is suffering. The problem of answering the question about the meaning of suffering for human life in its entirety is of great significance in philosophy and theology. In the Old Testament it meant God's punishment for the evil done by man. In Christianity this bleak notion of suffering has found a new dimension--suffering is creative, redemptive in character; it enables a man to surpass his limits. The understanding of suffering and its sense has a profound meaning in building a suitable attitude of a sick person towards his own weakness.

  2. Genetic and genomic interactions of animals with different ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, J P; Bi, K

    2013-01-01

    Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex

  3. Place-based differences in the commission of recurrent animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher; Evans, Rhea A

    2012-12-01

    Despite the recent surge in research linking animal and human acts of violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining animal cruelty itself. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 180 inmates, this study examines how demographic characteristics, exposure to animal cruelty in childhood, and the target animal's relationship with the abuser have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty in urban- and rural-based settings. Unlike their urban counterparts, rural respondents who engaged in recurrent animal cruelty were more likely to have witnessed family members and/or friends abuse an animal. Moreover, rural respondents who engaged in recurrent animal cruelty abused pet and stray animals, whereas recurrent animal abusers who grew up in urban areas tended to abuse pets only. These findings suggest possible place-based differences in the etiology of recurrent animal cruelty.

  4. Conceptualizing suffering and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Gómez, Noelia

    2017-09-29

    This article aims to contribute to a better conceptualization of pain and suffering by providing non-essential and non-naturalistic definitions of both phenomena. Contributions of classical evidence-based medicine, the humanistic turn in medicine, as well as the phenomenology and narrative theories of suffering and pain, together with certain conceptions of the person beyond them (the mind-body dichotomy, Cassel's idea of persons as "intact beings") are critically discussed with such purpose. A philosophical methodology is used, based on the review of existent literature on the topic and the argumentation in favor of what are found as better definitions of suffering and pain. Pain can be described in neurological terms but cognitive awareness, interpretation, behavioral dispositions, as well as cultural and educational factors have a decisive influence on pain perception. Suffering is proposed to be defined as an unpleasant or even anguishing experience, severely affecting a person at a psychophysical and existential level. Pain and suffering are considered unpleasant. However, the provided definitions neither include the idea that pain and suffering can attack and even destroy the self nor the idea that they can constructively expand the self; both perspectives can b e equally useful for managing pain and suffering, but they are not defining features of the same. Including the existential dimension in the definition of suffering highlights the relevance of suffering in life and its effect on one's own attachment to the world (including personal management, or the cultural and social influences which shape it). An understanding of pain and suffering life experiences is proposed, meaning that they are considered aspects of a person's life, and the self is the ever-changing sum of these (and other) experiences. The provided definitions will be useful to the identification of pain and suffering, to the discussion of how to relieve them, and to a better understanding

  5. Spiritual pain and suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, George B

    2010-01-01

    Spiritual pain/suffering is commonly experienced by persons with life-limiting illness and their families. Physical pain itself can be exacerbated by non-physical causes such as fear, anxiety, grief, unresolved guilt, depression and unmet spiritual meets. Likewise, the inability to manage physical pain well can be due to emotional and spiritual needs. This is why a holistic, interdisciplinary assessment of pain and suffering is required for each patient and family. The mind, body and spirit are understood in relationship to each other and, in those cases, in relationship to a deity or deities are important to understand. Cultural interpretations of pain and suffering may conflict with the goals of palliative care. Understanding the spiritual framework of the patient and family can help to assure that the physical and spiritual suffering of the patient can be eliminated to provide a peaceful death. Spiritual practices may help in the management of physical pain.

  6. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Different Animal Hosts and Different Geographic Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidaric, V.; Janezic, S.; Indra, A.

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic sporogenic bacterium traditionally associated with human nosocomial infections, and animals have been recognized as an important potential reservoir for human infections (Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2013). Ribotype 078 is often reported in animals but according...... was to establish an international C. difficile animal collection with one PCR ribotype per species per country/laboratory and to compare PCR ribotypes across animal hosts and countries....... to recent studies the overlap between PCR ribotypes found in humans and animals seems to be increasing (Bakker et al., 2010; Gould and Limbago, 2010; Janezic et al., 2012; Keel et al., 2007; Koene et al., 2011). However, genetic diversity among animal strains remains poorly understood. The aim of our work...

  7. Structural characterization of pharmaceutical heparins prepared from different animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Li, Guoyun; Yang, Bo; Onishi, Akihiro; Li, Lingyun; Sun, Peilong; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Although most pharmaceutical heparin used today is obtained from porcine intestine, heparin has historically been prepared from bovine lung and ovine intestine. There is some regulatory concern about establishing the species origin of heparin. This concern began with the outbreak of mad cow disease in the 1990s and was exacerbated during the heparin shortage in the 2000s and the heparin contamination crisis of 2007-2008. Three heparins from porcine, ovine, and bovine were characterized through state-of-the-art carbohydrate analysis methods with a view profiling their physicochemical properties. Differences in molecular weight, monosaccharide and disaccharide composition, oligosaccharide sequence, and antithrombin III-binding affinity were observed. These data provide some insight into the variability of heparins obtained from these three species and suggest some analytical approaches that may be useful in confirming the species origin of a heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [The morphological changes of Hassall corpuscles of the different maturity in vertebrate animals and human in different stages of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchinskij, V Ja

    With the use of methods of light microscopy we produce comparison morphological investigation of Hassall corpuscles of different maturity in animals and human with age difference. It was arranged that quantity and sizes of Hassall corpuscles in different stages of age depend on organization level, belonging to a vital form, shape and age of animal. On the base of our investigation we can make resume about functional role of Hassall corpuscles.

  9. Intrinsic material property differences in bone tissue from patients suffering low-trauma osteoporotic fractures, compared to matched non-fracturing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennin, S; Desyatova, A; Turner, J A; Watson, P A; Lappe, J M; Recker, R R; Akhter, M P

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporotic (low-trauma) fractures are a significant public health problem. Over 50% of women over 50yrs. of age will suffer an osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetimes. While current therapies reduce skeletal fracture risk by maintaining or increasing bone density, additional information is needed that includes the intrinsic material strength properties of bone tissue to help develop better treatments, since measurements of bone density account for no more than ~50% of fracture risk. The hypothesis tested here is that postmenopausal women who have sustained osteoporotic fractures have reduced bone quality, as indicated with measures of intrinsic material properties compared to those who have not fractured. Transiliac biopsies (N=120) were collected from fracturing (N=60, Cases) and non-fracturing postmenopausal women (N=60, age- and BMD-matched Controls) to measure intrinsic material properties using the nano-indentation technique. Each biopsy specimen was embedded in epoxy resin and then ground, polished and used for the nano-indentation testing. After calibration, multiple indentations were made using quasi-static (hardness, modulus) and dynamic (storage and loss moduli) testing protocols. Multiple indentations allowed the median and variance to be computed for each type of measurement for each specimen. Cases were found to have significantly lower median values for cortical hardness and indentation modulus. In addition, cases showed significantly less within-specimen variability in cortical modulus, cortical hardness, cortical storage modulus and trabecular hardness, and more within-specimen variability in trabecular loss modulus. Multivariate modeling indicated the presence of significant independent mechanical effects of cortical loss modulus, along with variability of cortical storage modulus, cortical loss modulus, and trabecular hardness. These results suggest mechanical heterogeneity of bone tissue may contribute to fracture resistance

  10. Antioxidant system parameters in children from different follow-up groups who suffered from Chernobyl accident and their changes at application of antioxidants (vitamin E and iskador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipkyin, Yu.G.; Pochinok, T.V.; Omel'chenko, L.Yi.; Arabs'ka, L.P.; Osins'ka, L.F.; Vasyuk, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low-dose radiation causes changes in the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant protective system in children who frequently suffer from acute respiratory virus infections. To improve the general condition and to normalize the metabolic disturbances it is advisable to administer antioxidants (vitamin E, Iskador)

  11. Trauma, suffering and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casas Soberón, Elena; Berliner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the challenge of using a conceptual framework to understand traumatic stress and still be open to listening to the stories of suffering, of lamentation, grief, hope, and values of people being oppressed by organised violence. The complexity of responses to the losses caused ...

  12. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Producing patient-avatar identification in animation video information on spinal anesthesia by different narrative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Vesterby, Martin; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup

    2016-06-01

    Visual approaches to health information reduce complexity and may bridge challenges in health literacy. But the mechanisms and meanings of using animated video in communication with patients undergoing surgery are not well described. By comparing two versions of a two-dimensional animated video on spinal anesthesia, this study tested the patient-avatar identification within two different narrative models. To explore the perspectives of total hip arthroplasty, we employed qualitative methods of interviews and ethnographic observation. The animated presentation of the spinal anesthesia procedure was immediately recognized by all participants as reflecting their experience of the procedure independent of the narrative form. The avatar gender did not affect this identification. We found no preference for either narrative form. This study supports the potential of animation video in health informatics as a didactic model for qualifying patient behavior. Animation video creates a high degree of identification that may work to reduce pre-surgical anxiety. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Presenteeism as social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Dalsgaard

    Historically, ensuring that employees turn up regularly at work (and at the right time) has been a central problem of workplace management. For that reason, absenteeism can be seen as part of industrial conflict at the workplace level where economic incentives in particular have been used...... suffering? Is SP the result of individualising industrial conflicts that would formerly have resulted in strikes or work stoppage? Does this mean that resilience (understood e.g. as the capability to work while ill) becomes a prerequisite to participate on the labour market?...

  15. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, M

    2009-04-01

    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.

  16. Comparative studies on the distribution of rhodanese in different tissues of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, M; Gilanpour, H

    1991-01-01

    1. The activity of rhodanese in different tissues of some domestic animals was measured. 2. Rhodanese was present in all tissues studied. 3. The activity of rhodanese in most tissues of sheep was higher than other animals studied. 4. In sheep and cattle the epithelium of rumen, omasum and reticulum were the richest sources of rhodanese. Significant activity of rhodanese was also present in liver and kidney. 5. In camel the liver contained the highest level of rhodanese followed by lung and rumen epithelium. Camel liver contained a third of the activity of sheep liver. 6. Equine liver had a third of the activity of sheep liver. Other tissues showed low levels of rhodanese activity. 7. Dog liver contained only 4% of the activity of sheep liver. In this animal, brain was the richest source of rhodanese. 8. The results are discussed in terms of efficacy of different tissues of animals in cyanide detoxification.

  17. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  18. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  19. Transnational Organizational Considerations for Sociocultural Differences in Ethics and Virtual Team Functioning in Laboratory Animal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working wit...

  20. Ferritin gene organization: differences between plants and animals suggest possible kingdom-specific selective constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, D; Wei, J; Briat, J; Theil, E C

    1996-03-01

    Ferritin, a protein widespread in nature, concentrates iron approximately 10(11)-10(12)-fold above the solubility within a spherical shell of 24 subunits; it derives in plants and animals from a common ancestor (based on sequence) but displays a cytoplasmic location in animals compared to the plastid in contemporary plants. Ferritin gene regulation in plants and animals is altered by development, hormones, and excess iron; iron signals target DNA in plants but mRNA in animals. Evolution has thus conserved the two end points of ferritin gene expression, the physiological signals and the protein structure, while allowing some divergence of the genetic mechanisms. Comparison of ferritin gene organization in plants and animals, made possible by the cloning of a dicot (soybean) ferritin gene presented here and the recent cloning of two monocot (maize) ferritin genes, shows evolutionary divergence in ferritin gene organization between plants and animals but conservation among plants or among animals; divergence in the genetic mechanism for iron regulation is reflected by the absence in all three plant genes of the IRE, a highly conserved, noncoding sequence in vertebrate animal ferritin mRNA. In plant ferritin genes, the number of introns (n = 7) is higher than in animals (n = 3). Second, no intron positions are conserved when ferritin genes of plants and animals are compared, although all ferritin gene introns are in the coding region; within kingdoms, the intron positions in ferritin genes are conserved. Finally, secondary protein structure has no apparent relationship to intron/exon boundaries in plant ferritin genes, whereas in animal ferritin genes the correspondence is high. The structural differences in introns/exons among phylogenetically related ferritin coding sequences and the high conservation of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms of the gene structure within plant or animal kingdoms suggest that kingdom-specific functional constraints may

  1. Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the

  2. Examination of the interaction of different lighting conditions and chronic mild stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Gal, N; Betlehem, J; Fuller, N; Acs, P; Kovacs, G L; Fusz, K; Jozsa, R; Olah, A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light-dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light-dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p animals.

  3. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Corine S; van Weert, Julia C M; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-13

    Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health literate audiences, it is concluded that

  4. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  5. Variability in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: differences in disease progression in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi Wang,1 Debra C DuBois,1,2 Siddharth Sukumaran,2 Vivaswath Ayyar,1 William J Jusko,2,3 Richard R Almon1–3 1Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: Both obesity and chronic inflammation are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat (fa/fa is an obese animal model frequently used in type 2 diabetes research. The current study determines whether chronic administration (from 5 weeks of age through 24 weeks of age of salsalate, a salicylate with anti-inflammatory properties, would be effective in mitigating diabetes disease progression in ZDF rats. Although a trend existed for lower blood glucose in the salsalate-treated group, significant differences were obscured by high animal-level variability. However, even in the non-drug-treated group, not all ZDF rats became diabetic as expected. Therefore, animals were parsed into two groups, regardless of drug treatment: normoglycemic ZDF rats, which maintained blood glucose profiles identical to nondiabetic Zucker lean rats (ZLRs, and hyperglycemic ZDF rats, which exhibited progressive elevation in blood glucose. To ascertain the differences between ZDF rats that became hyperglycemic and those that did not, relevant physiological indices and expression levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs in adipose tissue were measured at sacrifice. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations and expression levels of cytokine and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs suggested more prevalent chronic inflammation in hyperglycemic animals. Early elevation of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, was present in both ZDF groups, with the rate of its age-related decline

  6. The Paradox of Modern Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The Paradox of Suffering in modern western Culture In non-western cultures and pre-modern western cultures suffering is considered the normal state of life. Corrispondingly the suffering of oneself and that of other people form a central focus to most religions, their practices and philosophies...

  7. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Zheng-juan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(Pin animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manureswere 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manuresand the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29, compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P, NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P, NaOH(NaOH-Pand HCl(HCl-P. The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pin total P(>60%, but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in

  8. Influence of different methods of internal bone fixation on characteristics of bone callus in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Correct choice of osteosynthesis method is a very important factor in providing the optimal conditions for appropriate healing of the fracture. There are still disagreements about the method of stabilization of some long bone fractures. Critically observed, no method of fracture fixation is ideal. Each osteosynthesis method has both advantages and weaknesses. Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the experimental application of three different internal fixation methods: plate fixation, intramedullary nail fixation and self-dynamisable internal fixator (SIF. Methods. A series of 30 animals were used (Lepus cuniculus as experimental animals, divided into three groups of ten animals each. Femoral diaphysis of each animal was osteotomized and fixed with one of three implants. Ten weeks later all animals were sacrificed and each specimen underwent histological and biomechanical testing. Results. Histology showed that the healing process with SIF was more complete and bone callus was more mature in comparison to other two methods. During biomechanical investigation (computerized bending stress test, it was documented with high statistical significance that using SIF led to stronger healing ten weeks after the operation. Conclusion. According to the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that SIF is a suitable method for fracture treatment.

  9. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  10. Suffering from Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Safa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Jebraili2, Momen-nasab M3 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Some of the skin diseases cause severe stress in patients and relieving these stresses greatly helps to treat the underlying disease. Alopecia areata is one of the common causes of alopecia which is an autoimmune disease. Other factors like genetics and psychological factors have important roles in the beginning or exacerbation of the disease. This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression and anxiety disorders in patient suffering from alopecia areata. Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with alopecia areata who had referred to dermatologic clinic of Shohaday-e Ashayer hospital in Khorramabad from 1382 to 1383(Hj. were evaluated. After filling the questionnaires, the patients were referred to the Psychiatric Clinic and the cases were diagnosed by interviews using SCL-90 test and DSM-IV-IIIR scale. The analysis of data was done by the SPSS software. Results: 80 patients were selected as the subjects of the study. including 52 men (65% and 28 women (35%. 43 patients (53.8% were less than 25 years old and 54 (67.5% were unmarried. 56 patients (70% had a family history of alopecia areata and 45 (56.25% had no history of drug intake. In most of the patients (63.8% the site of the first lesion was the scalp. Out of 80 patients, 64 (80% had anxiety and 60 (75% had depression. 27 (33.3% had major depressive disorders. These findings were statistically significant. Major depressive disorders were more in women. No correlation was found between education, marital status, family history, and the history of drug intake, and the site of first lesion. Conclusion: The

  11. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visvikis, D.; Lefevre, T.; Lamare, F.; Kontaxakis, G.; Santos, A.; Darambara, D.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems

  12. Differentiation of partial acylglycerols derived from different animal fats by EA-IRMS and GCMS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nina Naquiah, A.N.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Shuhaimi, M.

    2016-07-01

    A study was carried out to compare partial acylglycerols of lard with those of chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analysis–Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). Mono- (MAG) and di-(DAG) acylglycerols of animal fats were prepared according to a chemical glycerolysis method and isolated using column chromatography. The fatty acid composition and δ13C carbon isotope ratio of MAG and DAG derived from individual animal fat were determined separately to establish their identity characteristics. The results showed that the δ13C values of MAG and DAG of lard were significantly different from those of MAG and DAG derived from chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. According to the loading plots based on a principle component analysis (PCA), fatty acids namely stearic, oleic and linoleic were the most discriminating parameters to distinctly identify MAG and DAG derived from different animal fats. This demonstrated that the EA-IRMS and the PCA of fatty acid data have considerable potential for discriminating MAG and DAG derived from lard from other animal fats for Halal authentication purposes. (Author)

  13. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D

    1982-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer.

  14. Do animals and furniture items elicit different brain responses in human infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschonek, Susanna; Marinovic, Vesna; Hoehl, Stefanie; Elsner, Birgit; Pauen, Sabina

    2010-11-01

    One of the earliest categorical distinctions to be made by preverbal infants is the animate-inanimate distinction. To explore the neural basis for this distinction in 7-8-month-olds, an equal number of animal and furniture pictures was presented in an ERP-paradigm. The total of 118 pictures, all looking different from each other, were presented in a semi-randomized order for 1000ms each. Infants' brain responses to exemplars from both categories differed systematically regarding the negative central component (Nc: 400-600ms) at anterior channels. More specifically, the Nc was enhanced for animals in one subgroup of infants, and for furniture items in another subgroup of infants. Explorative analyses related to categorical priming further revealed category-specific differences in brain responses in the late time window (650-1550ms) at right frontal channels: Unprimed stimuli (preceded by a different-category item) elicited a more positive response as compared to primed stimuli (preceded by a same-category item). In sum, these findings suggest that the infant's brain discriminates exemplars from both global domains. Given the design of our task, we conclude that processes of category identification are more likely to account for our findings than processes of on-line category formation during the experimental session. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy as new treatment for clear cell sarcoma: Trial on different animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Tooru; Fujimoto, Takuya; Sudo, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Epstein, Alan L.; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. In our previous study, the tumor disappeared under boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on subcutaneously-transplanted CCS-bearing animals. In the present study, the tumor disappeared under this therapy on model mice intramuscularly implanted with three different human CCS cells. BNCT led to the suppression of tumor-growth in each of the different model mice, suggesting its potentiality as an alternative to, or integrative option for, the treatment of CCS. - Highlights: • BNCT with the use of L-BPA was applied for three human clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines. • BNCT trial was performed on a newly established intramuscularly CCS-bearing animal model. • A significant decrease of the tumor-volume was seen by single BNCT with the use of L-BPA. • A multiple BNCT application would be required for controlling the growth of any residual tumors

  16. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development.

  17. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  18. Be different--the diversity of peroxisomes in the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islinger, M; Cardoso, M J R; Schrader, M

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisomes represent so-called "multipurpose organelles" as they contribute to various anabolic as well as catabolic pathways. Thus, with respect to the physiological specialization of an individual organ or animal species, peroxisomes exhibit a functional diversity, which is documented by significant variations in their proteome. These differences are usually regarded as an adaptational response to the nutritional and environmental life conditions of a specific organism. Thus, human peroxisomes can be regarded as an in part physiologically unique organellar entity fulfilling metabolic functions that differ from our animal model systems. In line with this, a profound understanding on how peroxisomes acquired functional heterogeneity in terms of an evolutionary and mechanistic background is required. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the heterogeneity of peroxisomal physiology, providing insights into the genetic and cell biological mechanisms, which lead to the differential localization or expression of peroxisomal proteins and further gives an overview on peroxisomal biochemical pathways, which are specialized in different animal species and organs. Moreover, it addresses the impact of proteome studies on our understanding of differential peroxisome function describing the utility of mass spectrometry and computer-assisted algorithms to identify peroxisomal target sequences for the detection of new organ- or species-specific peroxisomal proteins. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  20. Determinants of anxiety in patients with advanced somatic disease: differences and similarities between patients undergoing renal replacement therapies and patients suffering from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska, Justyna; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Gołębiewska, Justyna; Majkowicz, Mikołaj; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety is the most frequent emotional reaction to the chronic somatic disease. However, little is known about anxiety and coping strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing renal replacement therapies (RRTs). The purpose of the study was to assess the intensity and determinants of anxiety in patients treated with different RRTs in comparison with end-stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The study involved (1) ESRD patients undergoing different RRTs: 32 renal transplant recipients, 31 maintenance haemodialysis and 21 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients, (2) women with end-stage breast cancer (n = 25) and (3) healthy persons (n = 55). We used State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Scale of Personal Religiousness, Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, Rotterdam Symptom Checklist with reference to medical history. The data thus obtained were analysed using the analysis of variance, the Tukey's HSD post hoc test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Both ESRD and breast cancer patients revealed higher level of anxiety state and trait than healthy controls; however, there was no statistically significant difference found between both findings. There was a tendency towards higher levels of anxiety state in breast cancer patients when compared to ESRD patients undergoing the RRT treatment and for both groups non-constructive coping strategies correlated with the levels of anxiety state. With ESRD patients undergoing RRTs, the intensity of anxiety state did not depend on the mode of treatment but on the correlation between the levels of anxiety and the general quality of their life, psychological condition and social activity. In patients with advanced somatic disease (ESRD and end-stage breast cancer), non-constructive strategies of coping with the disease require further evaluation and possibly psychological support.

  1. Imaging children suffering from lymphoma: an evaluation of different 18F-FDG PET/MRI protocols compared to whole-body DW-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Julian; Deuschl, Cornelius; Schweiger, Bernd; Herrmann, Ken; Forsting, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Umutlu, Lale

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of different PET/MRI reading protocols, entailing non-enhanced / contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted 18 F-FDG PET/MR imaging and whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for lesion detection and determination of the tumor stage in pediatric lymphoma patients. A total of 28 18 F-FDG PET/MRI datasets were included for analysis of four different reading protocols: (1) PET/MRI utilizing sole unenhanced T2w and T1w imaging, (2) PET/MRI utilizing additional contrast enhanced sequences, (3) PET/MR imaging utilizing unenhanced, contrast enhanced and DW imaging or (4) WB-DW-MRI. Statistical analyses were performed on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis. Follow-up and prior examinations as well as histopathology served as reference standards. PET/MRI correctly identified all 17 examinations with active lymphoma disease, while WB-DW-MRI correctly identified 15/17 examinations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 96.5%, 97%, 95%, and 96% for PET/MRI 1 ; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI 2 ; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI 3 and 77%, 96%, 96%, 78.5% and 86% for MRI-DWI. 18 F-FDG PET/MRI is superior to WB-DW-MRI in staging pediatric lymphoma patients. Neither application of contrast media nor DWI leads to a noticeable improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI. Thus, unenhanced PET/MRI may play a crucial role for the diagnostic work-up of pediatric lymphoma patients in the future.

  2. Imaging children suffering from lymphoma: an evaluation of different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI protocols compared to whole-body DW-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Julian; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald [University Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Dusseldorf (Germany); Deuschl, Cornelius; Schweiger, Bernd; Forsting, Michael; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of different PET/MRI reading protocols, entailing non-enhanced / contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging and whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for lesion detection and determination of the tumor stage in pediatric lymphoma patients. A total of 28 {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI datasets were included for analysis of four different reading protocols: (1) PET/MRI utilizing sole unenhanced T2w and T1w imaging, (2) PET/MRI utilizing additional contrast enhanced sequences, (3) PET/MR imaging utilizing unenhanced, contrast enhanced and DW imaging or (4) WB-DW-MRI. Statistical analyses were performed on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis. Follow-up and prior examinations as well as histopathology served as reference standards. PET/MRI correctly identified all 17 examinations with active lymphoma disease, while WB-DW-MRI correctly identified 15/17 examinations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 96.5%, 97%, 95%, and 96% for PET/MRI{sub 1}; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI{sub 2}; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI{sub 3} and 77%, 96%, 96%, 78.5% and 86% for MRI-DWI. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI is superior to WB-DW-MRI in staging pediatric lymphoma patients. Neither application of contrast media nor DWI leads to a noticeable improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI. Thus, unenhanced PET/MRI may play a crucial role for the diagnostic work-up of pediatric lymphoma patients in the future. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of in vitro toxicological effects of biomass smoke from different sources of animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Thatcher, Thomas H; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, over 4 million premature deaths each year are attributed to the burning of biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Epidemiological studies associate household air pollution with lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections. Animal dung, a biomass fuel used by economically vulnerable populations, generates more toxic compounds per mass burned than other biomass fuels. The type of animal dung used varies widely depending on local agro-geography. There are currently neither standardized experimental systems for dung biomass smoke research nor studies assessing the health impacts of different types of dung smoke. Here, we used a novel reproducible exposure system to assess outcomes related to inflammation and respiratory infections in human airway cells exposed to six different types of dung biomass smoke. We report that dung biomass smoke, regardless of species, is pro-inflammatory and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and JNK transcription factors; however, dung smoke also suppresses interferon responses after a challenge with a viral mimetic. These effects are consistent with epidemiological data, and suggest a mechanism by which the combustion of animal dung can directly cause lung diseases, promote increased susceptibility to infection, and contribute to the global health problem of household air pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Differences in pathogenicity of three animal isolates of Mycobacterium species in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodi Dong

    Full Text Available Animal mycobacterioses are among the most important zoonoses worldwide. These are generally caused by either Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, M. bovis (MBO or M. avium (MAV. To test the hypothesis that different species of pathogenic mycobacteria isolated from varied anatomic locations or animal species differ in virulence and pathogenicity, we performed experiments with three mycobacteria strains (NTSE-3(MTB, NTSE-4(MBO and NTSE-5 (MAV obtained from animal species. Spoligotyping analysis was used to confirm both MTB and MBO strains while the MAV strain was confirmed by 16s rDNA sequencing. BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with the three strains at low and high CFU doses to evaluate variations in pathogenicity. Clinical and pathological parameters were assessed. Infected mice were euthanized at 80 days post-inoculation (dpi. Measures of lung and body weights indicated that the MBO infected group had higher mortality, more weight loss, higher bacterial burden and more severe lesions in lungs than the other two groups. Cytokine profiles showed higher levels of TNF-α for MBO versus MTB, while MAV had the highest amounts of IFN-β in vitro and in vivo. In vitro levels of other cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, and IFN-β showed that Th1 cells had the strongest response in MBO infected mice and that Th2 cells were inhibited. We found that the level of virulence among the three isolates decreased in the following order MBO>MTB>MAV.

  5. Hemolitic action of Naja naja atra cardiotoxin on erythrocytes from different animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Troiano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on the sensitivity of erythrocytes from different vertebrate species (avian, mammalian and reptilian to the hemolytic action caused by cardiotoxin isolated from Naja naja atra venom was carried out. Cardiotoxin was able to induce direct hemolysis in washed erythrocytes from several animals, except for llama. The EC50 values from hemolysis of the most sensitive (cat and the most resistant (snake animal varied approximately tenfold. According to the cell behavior, it was possible to characterize four types of behavior: The first was observed in cat, horse and human cells; the second in rat, rabbit and dog erythrocytes; and the third only in llama erythrocytes, which were resistant to cardiotoxin concentrations up to 300 µg/ml. Finally, avian and reptilian erythrocytes were more resistant to cardiotoxin III-induced hemolysis than those of the mammalian species.

  6. Sex differences in drug addiction: a review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Altea, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Addiction research has historically neglected research on women, and most studies have been conducted on men only, with the concluding results generalized to the female population. The role of sex differences in vulnerability to drug abuse, their repercussions on prevention and treatment strategies all require detailed studies, as does the progression from recreational drug use to dependence. This review synthesizes evidence of gender differences in drug addiction, with particular emphasis on women's health and implications. We first reviewed behavioral studies showing sex differences in the preference for and self-administration of licit (i.e., alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and cannabis) substances as revealed by animal models of addiction. Clinical studies demonstrating differences between men and women in craving, drug use, abstinence and relapse will then be examined. For both animal and human studies, the effects of hormones and estrous/menstrual cycle will be reviewed. Finally, neurobiological factors underlying gender differences in vulnerability to drug addiction (i.e., brain morphology and neurotransmission) and need for gender-specific detoxification treatments will be discussed.

  7. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of support is comparable to those held by the general public found in national surveys. A clear majority of researchers were positive towards animal testing, and large statistical differences between patients and researchers were found regarding their attitudes towards testing animals commonly held as pets...... (Pattitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical...

  8. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  10. Chronic caffeine consumption prevents memory disturbance in different animal models of memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo A; Agostinho, Paula M

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug, enhances attention/vigilance, stabilizes mood, and might also independently enhance cognitive performance. Notably, caffeine displays clearer and more robust beneficial effects on memory performance when memory is perturbed by stressful or noxious stimuli either in human or animal studies. Thus, caffeine restores memory performance in sleep-deprived or aged human individuals, a finding replicated in rodent animal models. Likewise, in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), caffeine alleviates memory dysfunction, which is in accordance with the tentative inverse correlation between caffeine intake and the incidence of AD in different (but not all) cohorts. Caffeine also affords beneficial effects in animal models of conditions expected to impair memory performance such as Parkinson's disease, chronic stress, type 2 diabetes, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, early life convulsions, or alcohol-induced amnesia. Thus, caffeine should not be viewed as a cognitive enhancer but instead as a cognitive normalizer. Interestingly, these beneficial effects of caffeine on stress-induced memory disturbance are mimicked by antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors. This prominent role of A2A receptors in preventing memory deterioration is probably related to the synaptic localization of this receptor in limbic areas and its ability to control glutamatergic transmission, especially NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity, and to control apoptosis, brain metabolism, and the burden of neuroinflammation. This opens the real and exciting possibility that caffeine consumption might be a prophylactic strategy and A2A receptor antagonists may be a novel therapeutic option to manage memory dysfunction both in AD and in other chronic neurodegenerative disorders where memory deficits occur.

  11. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  12. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: from human to animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835

  15. Visualization of amino acid composition differences between processed protein from different animal species by self-organizing feature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfan ZHOU,Zengling YANG,Longjian CHEN,Lujia HAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are the dominant organic components of processed animal proteins, however there has been limited investigation of differences in their composition between various protein sources. Information on these differences will not only be helpful for their further utilization but also provide fundamental information for developing species-specific identification methods. In this study, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM were used to visualize amino acid composition of fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM produced from poultry, ruminants and swine. SOFM display the similarities and differences in amino acid composition between protein sources and effectively improve data transparency. Amino acid composition was shown to be useful for distinguishing fish meal from MBM due to their large concentration differences between glycine, lysine and proline. However, the amino acid composition of the three MBMs was quite similar. The SOFM results were consistent with those obtained by analysis of variance and principal component analysis but more straightforward. SOFM was shown to have a robust sample linkage capacity and to be able to act as a powerful means to link different sample for further data mining.

  16. Neural mechanisms regulating different forms of risk-related decision-making: Insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Moorman, David E; Young, Jared W; Setlow, Barry; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-11-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a growing interest in the neural underpinnings of cost/benefit decision-making. Recent studies with animal models have made considerable advances in our understanding of how different prefrontal, striatal, limbic and monoaminergic circuits interact to promote efficient risk/reward decision-making, and how dysfunction in these circuits underlies aberrant decision-making observed in numerous psychiatric disorders. This review will highlight recent findings from studies exploring these questions using a variety of behavioral assays, as well as molecular, pharmacological, neurophysiological, and translational approaches. We begin with a discussion of how neural systems related to decision subcomponents may interact to generate more complex decisions involving risk and uncertainty. This is followed by an overview of interactions between prefrontal-amygdala-dopamine and habenular circuits in regulating choice between certain and uncertain rewards and how different modes of dopamine transmission may contribute to these processes. These data will be compared with results from other studies investigating the contribution of some of these systems to guiding decision-making related to rewards vs. punishment. Lastly, we provide a brief summary of impairments in risk-related decision-making associated with psychiatric disorders, highlighting recent translational studies in laboratory animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TEUŞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today nanotechnology represents a domain that is rapidly developing because nanoparticles are being used in a very large range of products with biomedical applications. Every year, new products, containing nanoparticles (NP appear on the market. Most of the products containing such nanomaterials come to be used by consumers without a previous and careful testing. Therefore, the effects they may have upon human health should be thoroughly investigated, the toxicological potential of NP upon the reproduction function (nanoreprotoxicity in particular, as any possible noxious effect will be reflected in the new generation. Most of the research papers that exist refer on the effects of silver, gold and titanium dioxide NP on embryo development. In this review paper we present the effects of less studied metal NP (platinum, aluminium, cerium oxide, tin oxide, nickel and indium on different species of animal embryos (Gallus domesticus – different hybrids, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis

  18. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  19. Analysis of animal experiments of radiation dependent tumor regression in relation to different parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, F.; Mueller-Duysing, W.; Blattman, H.; Bacesa, L.; Rao, K.R.; Mindek, G.

    In order to be able to test the therapeutic value of the pions in comparison with conventional X-rays, analyses of animal experiments with induced tumors, transplantation tumors, and comparative cellular kinetic studies of tissue cultures will be performed. So that differences in radiation effect and a possible superiority of the pion therapy be objectively acknowledged, the reaction systems to be tested must be as homogenous as possible. For this purpose, the dependence of the radiation related regression on various parameters such as sex, age of hosts, environmental factors radiation conditions (intensity, fractionation, and so on), tumor size, and so on, must be investigated on sterile animals in a sterile environment. The experiments should be conducted under conditions as close as possible to clinical ones. For comparison, the reaction of normal tissue (in vitro and in vivo) and of malignant cells in short-time tissue cultures will be analysed. Cellular kinetics, alteration of chromosomes and metabolic activity of the cells will be studied

  20. A comparative review of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and functionality in different animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eVAURE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR family, a key component of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens and initiate an immediate immune response to them, followed by a long-lasting adaptive immune response. Activation of TLRs leads to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. TLR4 specifically recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, along with several other components of pathogens and endogenous molecules produced during abnormal situations, such as tissue damage. Evolution across species can lead to substantial diversity in the TLR4’s affinity and specificity to its ligands, the TLR4 gene and cellular expression patterns and tissue distribution. Consequently, TLR4 functions vary across different species. In recent years, the use of synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants has emerged as a realistic therapeutic goal, notably for the development of vaccines against poorly immunogenic targets. Given that an adjuvanted vaccine must be assessed in pre-clinical animal models before being tested in humans, the extent to which an animal model represents and predicts the human condition is of particular importance. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the critical points of divergence between human and the mammalian species commonly used in vaccine research and development (non-human primate, mouse, rat, rabbit, swine and dog, in terms of molecular, cellular and functional properties of TLR4.

  1. The use of hexacyanoferrates in different forms to reduce radiocaesium contamination of animal products in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnikov, A.N.; Vasiliev, A.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Krasnova, E.G.; Pasternak, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Hove, K.; Strand, P.

    1998-01-01

    Hexacyanoferrates have been identified as highly effective radiocaesium binders which effectively reduce radiocaesium uptake and transfer to milk and meat. In Russia a hexacyanoferrate called ferrocyn has been produced for use as a countermeasure. In 1989-1992, experiments were undertaken in Russia to study the effectiveness of four different ferrocyn materials as 137 Cs binders, their potential toxicity, effect on production rates of cow milk, effect on animal health and ease of implementation in routine agricultural practice. Four different ferrocyn delivery forms have been used: 98% pure powder, sustained release rumen boli (15% ferrocyn), salt licks (10% ferrocyn) and sawdust with 10% ferrocyn adsorbed (bifege). In initial experiments with different cows, sheep and pigs these four ferrocyn materials were effective in reducing radiocaesium transfer to animal products. Daily administration of ferrocyn powder at a rate of 3-5 g per cow reduced 137 Cs transfer by up to 90% in milk. One single administration of three boli per cow (containing 30 g ferrocyn per boli) reduced 137 Cs transfer by 50-75% for a period of 2 months. Salt licks containing 10% ferrocyn (0.22 kg ferrocyn per 2.2 kg briquette provided once) reduced transfer of 137 Cs up to twofold for up to 10 days whilst bifege, given at a rate of 30-60 g day -1 (3-6 g day -1 ferrocyn), reduced 137 Cs transfer by 90-95%. However, large-scale application of these ferrocyn materials on collective and private farms in agricultural trials in 1994 resulted in a lower effectiveness. Therefore, in 1996 a comparative assessment of the application of the four ferrocyn forms was made under carefully controlled conditions. The results fully validated the previous experimental data, and showed the importance of meeting recommended procedures for treatment, particularly when hexacyanoferrates are administered on a day-to-day basis

  2. An Investigation of the Effects of Different Types of Activities during Pauses in a Segmented Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Chung, Sungwon; Crooks, Steven M.; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Jeakyeong

    2014-01-01

    Since the complex and transient information in instructional animations requires more cognitive resources, the segmenting principle has been proposed to reduce cognitive overload by providing smaller chunks with pauses between segments. This study examined the effects of different types of activities during pauses in a segmented animation. Four…

  3. Tracheal reaction to three different intraluminal stents in an animal model of tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark; Sandbank, Judith; Flumenblit, Yoseph; Klin, Baruch; Vinograd, Itzhak

    2005-06-01

    Three different internal airway stents were studied in an animal model of tracheomalacia: the Palmaz stent (Johnson & Johnson, Warren, New Jersey) and the NIR stent (Medinol Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel)--both made of stainless steel in the form of tubular mesh--and the Nitinol stent, made of nickel-titanium formed into a spiral shape. All three stents could be adequately stabilized in the malacic tracheal segment. The Nitinol stent (Medinol Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel) proved to be less reactive to the tracheal mucosa, demonstrated higher biocompatibility with significantly less granulation tissue formation, and showed superior radial resistance. Extraction of the Nitinol stent also proved to be much smoother. This stent may be the stent of choice in the treatment of tracheo- and bronchomalacia.

  4. Benefits of Suffering: Communicator Suffering. Benefiting, and Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Christian church developed, largely around this act of sacrifice. In the political realm, Hitler, Ghandi and Lenin all spent time in jail and/or exile...revolutionary leaders such as Mao or Ghandi have often used public displays of sacrifice or suffering to demonstrate their own dedication and gain

  5. The Moral Economy of Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Sofie

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns people who fled Iraq and came to Denmark as refugees, most of them victims of torture and state violence. On the basis of three months of ethnographic fieldwork in a rehabilitation centre for torture victims, followed by ten months of ethnographic fieldwork among Iraqi...... associations and families, the thesis presents the perspective of Iraqi families, trying to make a living in Denmark, and struggling with fellow Iraqis and local authorities for recognition of their suffering. The thesis aims at providing a nuanced understanding of the suffering of Iraqi refugees in Denmark...

  6. Differentiation of partial acylglycerols derived from different animal fats by EA-IRMS and GCMS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Naquiah, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to compare partial acylglycerols of lard with those of chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and Elemental Analysis–Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS. Mono- (MAG and di-(DAG acylglycerols of animal fats were prepared according to a chemical glycerolysis method and isolated using column chromatography. The fatty acid composition and δ13C carbon isotope ratio of MAG and DAG derived from individual animal fat were determined separately to establish their identity characteristics. The results showed that the δ13C values of MAG and DAG of lard were significantly different from those of MAG and DAG derived from chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. According to the loading plots based on a principle component analysis (PCA, fatty acids namely stearic, oleic and linoleic were the most discriminating parameters to distinctly identify MAG and DAG derived from different animal fats. This demonstrated that the EA-IRMS and the PCA of fatty acid data have considerable potential for discriminating MAG and DAG derived from lard from other animal fats for Halal authentication purposes.Se realizó un estudio para comparar acilgliceroles parciales de la manteca de cerdo con las de grasa de pollo, grasa de vacuno y grasa de cordero utilizando cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS y análisis elemental de Isótopos-Espectrometría de Masas (EA-IRMS. Los mono- (MAG y di- (DAG acilgliceroles de grasas animales se prepararon mediante un método de glicerolisis química y se aislaron mediante cromatografía en columna. La composición de ácidos grasos y la relación isotópica de carbono δ13C de los MAG y DAG de las grasas de animales se determinan por separado para establecer sus características de identidad. Los resultados mostraron que los valores de δ13C de MAG y DAG de la manteca de cerdo fue significativamente diferente de los de MAG y DAG derivados de grasa

  7. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  8. Cordia verbenacea and secretion of mast cells in different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Déborah Mara Costa; Luchini, Ana Carolina; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Gomes, José Carlos; Crespo-López, María Elena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2011-05-17

    Different plant species from Cordia genera are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory medication throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, Cordia verbenacea is a medicinal plant known as "erva-baleeira". The alcoholic extracts, decoctions and infusions with leaves of C. verbenacea are used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of cough, pneumonia, parasitic diseases and, especially, the inflammatory processes. Anti-inflammatory activity was already demonstrated; however, molecular mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Considering the importance of histamine in early events of inflammation and in allergic diseases, we evaluated the effect of ethanol extract of leaves of C. verbenacea on histamine release (in vitro and in vivo studies) from different types of mast cells induced by chemical agents using several species of rodents. The extraction and quantification of histamine were performed by using an automatic fluorometric continuous flow system. The extract of C. verbenacea (30 μg/ml) reduced the in vitro secretion of histamine from rat mast cells induced by ionophore A23187, concanavalin A and compound 48/80, respectively, to 22.1 ± 2.2%, 24.3 ± 2.5% and 21.4 ± 2.1%. At the same concentration, the extract also inhibited the secretion of histamine from mast cells of guinea pig induced by ionophore A23187 to 33.3 ± 2.2%, and mast cells of hamster induced by ionophore A23187 and concanavalin A to 15.8 ± 2.5% and 10.8 ± 2.6%, respectively. The oral treatment with the extract (300 mg/kg) also inhibited the secretion of histamine induced by A23187 about to 36.3 ± 3.2% in rats. C. verbenacea inhibits the in vitro secretion of histamine from mast cells of different animal species, as well as the secretion of mast cells from animals treated with the extract, which gives not only the proven anti-inflammatory effect of the plant, but also anti-allergic effect, opening new possibilities for future anti

  9. Sex differences in visual realism in drawings of animate and inanimate objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Sex differences in a visually realistic drawing style were examined using the model of a curvy cup as an inanimate object, and the Draw-A-Person test (DAP) as a task involving animate objects, with 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 60; 30 boys). Accurately drawing the internal detail of the cup--indicating interest in a depth feature--was not dependent on age in boys, but only in girls, as 7-year-old boys were already engaging with this cup feature. However, the age effect of the correct omission of an occluded handle--indicating a transition from realism in terms of function (intellectual realism) to one of appearance (visual realism)--was the same for both sexes. The correct omission of the occluded handle was correlated with bilingualism and drawing the internal cup detail in girls, but with drawing the silhouette contour of the cup in boys. Because a figure's silhouette enables object identification from a distance, while perception of detail and language occurs in nearer space, it was concluded that boys and girls may differ in the way they conceptualize depth in pictorial space, rather than in visual realism as such.

  10. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuny, Christiane; Friedrich, Alexander; Kozytska, Svetlana; Layer, Franziska; Nübel, Ulrich; Ohlsen, Knut; Strommenger, Birgit; Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar; Witte, Wolfgang

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals such as horses, pet animals and productive livestock has raised questions of a probable human origin and in more general of host specificity of S. aureus. Particular clonal lineages are obviously specific for humans (e.g.

  11. Comparison of different methods for ectoparasite infestation detection in Laboratory bred animals and standardization of their health certificate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Abdigoudarzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study external parasites of laboratory reared animals at Razi institute, different methods including brushing of animal's surface body, cellophane tape of body surface, peri-anal cellophane tape test (CTT and skin scrapings and digestive method were applied and collected samples were studied. In addition, field collected rats were tested using brushing method. One mouse had been infested by some mites. Rabbits, rats, mice and guinea pigs had not been infested with external parasites. Field collected rats had been highly infested with mites from the family Laelapidae. The, brushing method was confirmed to be a useful method for mite detection. According to the methods used in this study and these recommended by SOP from international animal breeding centers the CTT method was proposed to be useful for preparing health certificate of laboratory animals at the department of laboratory animal breading at Razi institute.

  12. Safety comparison of four types of rabies vaccines in patients with WHO category II animal exposure: An observation based on different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Lu, Sha; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhang, Man; Hu, Quan; Fang, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the safeties of 4 types of rabies vaccines for patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups.A total of 4000 patients with WHO category II animal exposure were randomly divided into 4 vaccine groups, and were respectively given with Vaccines A, B, C, and D. And subjects in each vaccine group were divided into 4 age groups (≤5, 5-18, 19-60, and ≥60-year-old groups). Then adverse events (including local and systemic ones) were recorded and compared. Consequently, except for Vaccine B, patients under the age of 5 in Groups A, C, and D suffered from more adverse reactions than those in other age groups. Furthermore, for the children aged less than 5 years, incidence of adverse events following administration of Vaccine B, with the dose of 0.5 mL and production of bioreactor systems, was significantly lower than Vaccines A and D.Our data showed that rabies vaccines with smaller doses and more advanced processing techniques are of relatively high safety for the patients, especially for the young children.

  13. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  14. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  15. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  16. Comparative evaluation of radiation damage to the intestine in laboratory animals differing in radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotova, M.I.; Belousova, O.I.

    1975-01-01

    The total number of cells in the duodenum of animals differing by radiosensitivity (Wistar rats, guinea pigs and rabbits) was determined at the time of the maximum fall in the quantity of such cells after irradiation with doses from 100 to 5000 R. The dynamics of cell number after 900, 1200 and 5000 R irradiation was also studied. The fall in the cell number was dose-dependent in the dose range of 1200 to 1500 R and the extent of devastation for a single dose varied with the species. A two-fold decrease in the cell number (CD 50 ) was observed at 500, 650 and 750 R for rats, rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. Increasing the dose from 1500 to 5000 R did not result in any further fall of duodenum cell number in rats and guinea pigs (1200 R was the absolutely lethal dose for rabbits). The devastation process was the most rapid and pronounced in rats; in rabbits, and especially in guinea pigs, it developed slower and to a lesser extent

  17. GOD AND THE SUFFERING OF HIS PEOPLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Philosophically the problem of suffering gives a rational ... and adds that, the only legitimate response to .... can give ourselves in times of suffering is that ... Emotionally, people suffer hurt inside, ... death, and the evils that affect our world,.

  18. Conservation Station and Beyond: Experiences at Disney's Animal Kingdom That Make a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jackie; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Mellen, Jill; Dierking, Lynn; Adelman, Leslie; Burks, Kyle; Miller, Lance

    2001-01-01

    Describes a five-year plan for educational research and evaluation at the Disney Animal Kingdom. Focuses on conservation-related issues and presents some of the preliminary results from the study of visitor attitudes. (DDR)

  19. Brain Mechanisms Underlying Individual Differences in Reaction to Stress: An Animal Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegel, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    .... We developed an animal model of this important dimension of behavior in which we reported that cats and rats who display high levels of exploration, activity, aggression, and risk taking show VEP...

  20. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Fernanda; Lima, Nathalia Ea; Ornelas, Elisabete; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C), metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise), metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk), and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun). The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv) of the studied structures. Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (-54%), triglyceride levels (-40%), Vv[islet] (-62%), Vv[islet.cells] (-22%), Vv[islet.insterstitial] (-44%), and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-24%) and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%). Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (-34%) and triglyceride levels (-27%), an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%), and a decrease of Vv[acini] (-4%) and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-16%) when compared with those in the MS group. Our results suggest that the experimental model with low-intensity exercise (walking) seems to be more particularly recommended for preventing morphological and metabolic disorders occurring in the MS.

  1. Partial differential equation techniques for analysing animal movement: A comparison of different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Shan; Potts, Jonathan R

    2017-03-07

    Recent advances in animal tracking have allowed us to uncover the drivers of movement in unprecedented detail. This has enabled modellers to construct ever more realistic models of animal movement, which aid in uncovering detailed patterns of space use in animal populations. Partial differential equations (PDEs) provide a popular tool for mathematically analysing such models. However, their construction often relies on simplifying assumptions which may greatly affect the model outcomes. Here, we analyse the effect of various PDE approximations on the analysis of some simple movement models, including a biased random walk, central-place foraging processes and movement in heterogeneous landscapes. Perhaps the most commonly-used PDE method dates back to a seminal paper of Patlak from 1953. However, our results show that this can be a very poor approximation in even quite simple models. On the other hand, more recent methods, based on transport equation formalisms, can provide more accurate results, as long as the kernel describing the animal's movement is sufficiently smooth. When the movement kernel is not smooth, we show that both the older and newer methods can lead to quantitatively misleading results. Our detailed analysis will aid future researchers in the appropriate choice of PDE approximation for analysing models of animal movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...

  3. Reducing Sex Differences in Children's Empathy for Animals through a Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angantyr, Malin; Hansen, Eric M.; Eklund, Jakob Håkansson; Malm, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Humane education programs designed to increase children's empathy for animals are becoming more common. A quasi-experiment tested the effectiveness of one such program by comparing 80 children who had completed the program with a control group of 57 children who had not. The children read a story involving an injured dog and rated the degree of…

  4. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  5. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahovschi, V; Zamboni, C B; Silva, L F F Lopes; Metairon, S; Medeiros, I M M A

    2015-01-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities. (paper)

  6. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  7. [The role of transaminases and mitochondrial anion porters in the energetics of animals of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmerov, R N; Sultanov, Sh; Allamuratov, Sh I

    1995-01-01

    Aminohydroxyacetate, an inhibitor of aminotransferases, decreases the rate of oxygen consumption by 1-day-old young rats by 35% 10 min after intraperitoneal injection, whereas for 20-day-old rats, the inhibitory effect is 56%, and for adult mice, it is 83%. More prolonged exposure to aminohydroxyacetate leads to death of the animal. One-day-old rats die 90 min after the injection, 20-day-old rats die 30 min after the injection, and adult mice die 15 min after the injection. Butylmalonate (an inhibitor of mitochondrial dicarboxylate translocator) decreases the rate of energy metabolism to a lower extent, by 38% in adult mice and by 18% in 1-day-old rats. The animals generally remain alive after the exposure to this compound. 1,2,3-benzyltricarboxylate, an inhibitor of tricarboxylate transport, shows only a weak effect on energy metabolism of animals of any age. These results provide evidence that the role of the transaminase system in energy metabolism increases with age. Mechanisms underlying weak sensitivity of newborn animals to these inhibitors are discussed.

  8. Differences in Preschool Children's Conceptual Strategies When Thinking about Animate Entities and Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Nicole; Dunham, Philip J.; Dunham, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Preschoolers viewed stimulus sets comprised of a sample picture and three types of matches and were asked to choose a match that "went with" each sample. Children's choices indicated that a shift occurs between 3 and 4 years of age from a taxonomic bias to a thematic bias. Animate sample stimuli enhanced children's tendency to adopt…

  9. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.S.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Haven, C.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  10. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Amaral,1 Nathalia EA Lima,1 Elisabete Ornelas,1 Lucila Simardi,2 Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca,2,3 Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino1,4 1Laboratório de Estudos Morfoquantitativo e Imunohistoquímico, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. Methods: In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C, metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise, metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk, and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun. The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv of the studied structures. Results: Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (–54%, triglyceride levels (–40%, Vv[islet] (–62%, Vv[islet.cells] (–22%, Vv[islet.insterstitial] (–44%, and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (–24% and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%. Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (–34% and triglyceride levels (–27%, an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%, and a decrease of Vv

  11. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  12. [The susceptibility of different animal species to synanthropic and natural populations of Trichinella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Iu G; Artemenko, L P

    1997-01-01

    Pigs have been found to be highly susceptible to the synanthropic (domestic) population of Trichinella [correction of Trachina] and weakly susceptible to the natural (native) one. Fur-bearing animals (polar foxes and foxes) are more susceptible to the natural population of Trichinella [correction of Trachina], but minks are equally sensible to the two variants of T. spiralis. In the host's body, synanthropic Trichinella [correction of Trachinas] form capsules of lemon-like, less frequently, oval shape, but the native population do round capsules. There is larval adaptation when Trichinella [correction of Trachina] larvae enter the nonspecific host's body after their prepassage through the organism of domestic carnivorous animals (cats, dogs). The pig is successfully infected with T. spiralis nativa via the cat or dog; the infection rate is approximately close to that observed during control infection of pigs with synanthropic Trichinella [correction of Trachina].

  13. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  14. Cariogenicity Of Different Types Of Milk: An Experimental Study Using Animal Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Peres R.C.; Coppi L.C.; Franco E.M.; Volpato M.C.; Groppo F.C.; Rosalen P.L.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cariogenic potential of infant formulas and cow's milk, using a high cariogenic challenge in the animal model. Sixty female Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus sobrinus and desalivated were randomly divided into 6 groups, which received ad libitum: 1) sterilized deionized distilled water (SDW) with 5% sucrose; 2) cow's milk; 3) Nan 2; 4) Nestogeno 2; 5) Ninho growth supporting; 6) SDW. Groups 1 and 6 also received essential diet NCP#2 by gavage, twice a day. After...

  15. Feeding Rate of Soil Animals in Different Ecosystems in Pati, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAHAYU WIDYASTUTI

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The feeding activity of soil animals was measured by using bait lamina test in three main ecosystems, i.e. the teak forest, home garden and rainfed paddy field. Two additional ecosystems in rainfed paddy field, i.e. the old (permanently established bund around paddy fields and new bunds were examined as well. Three blocks of bait-lamina sticks (each block consisting of 16 individual sticks were exposed at each location. The bait lamina were retrieved from the soil after two days and visually assessed. Each hole is designated as “fed” (perforated or “non-fed” hole. The feeding rate is measured as the absolute number of “fed” holes. Soil animals in the old bunds showed the highest feeding activity (55.20%, followed by home garden (39.10%, rainfed paddy field (16.50%, teak forest (15.60%, and new bund (7.80%. The frequency of animals attack to the bait strips also indicated the similar pattern as their feeding activity, i.e. high in the old bunds (0.90, followed by home garden (0.70, teak forest (0.40, new bunds (0.40 and rainfed paddy field (0.30, respectively.

  16. Sources of variation in oxygen consumption of aquatic animals demonstrated by simulated constant oxygen consumption and respirometers of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt

    2016-01-01

    As intermittent-flow respirometry has become a common method for the determination of resting metabolism or standard metabolic rate (SMR), this study investigated how much of the variability seen in the experiments was due to measurement error. Experiments simulated different constant oxygen cons...... oxygen consumption rates of fishes in systems with reasonable RFRs mainly comes from the animal, not from the measuring equipment....

  17. Associating Animations with Concrete Models to Enhance Students' Comprehension of Different Visual Representations in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Hajri, Sheikha H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the impact of associating animations with concrete models on eleventh-grade students' comprehension of different visual representations in organic chemistry. The study used a post-test control group quasi-experimental design. The experimental group (N = 28) used concrete models, submicroscopic…

  18. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  19. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  20. A comparison of the different animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and their use in studying complex behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Patten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE has been linked to widespread impairments in brain structure and function. There are a number of animal models that are used to study the structural and functional deficits caused by prenatal ethanol exposure, including, but not limited to: invertebrates, fish, rodents and non-human primates. Animal models enable a researcher to control important variables such as the route of ethanol administration, as well as the timing, frequency and amount of ethanol exposure. Each animal model and system of exposure has its place, depending on the research question being undertaken. In this review we will examine the different routes of ethanol administration and the various animal models of FASD that are commonly used in research, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. We will also present an up-to-date summary on the effects of prenatal/neonatal ethanol exposure on behavior across the lifespan, focusing on learning and memory, olfaction, social, executive and motor functions. Special emphasis will be placed where the various animal models best represent deficits observed in the human condition and offer a viable test bed to examine potential therapeutics for humans with FASD.

  1. Electromagnetic Energy Absorption and Its Distribution for Man and Animals at Different Frequencies under Various Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    orientation and found to be fairly accurate for six animal species 5 from 25-g mice to 2250-g rabbits. These equations are given in Table 1. The... mice humans) of major length varying from 7.6 to 25.4 cm. when exposed to microwave radiation at 710, 985, 1700, The temperature increase for a 5-min...laborator, . The new radiation chamber i sketched in Fig. 8. Tihe radiator coinsists of a 450 corner reflector in conjunction with a quarter-wave monopole ab

  2. Monitoring of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from free-living animals using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syczyło, K; Platt-Samoraj, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Lipczyńska, K; Jabłoński, A; Procajło, Z; Szweda, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor Y. enterocolitica strains from free-living animals captured during 2011-2014 hunting seasons in Poland using warm (ITC) and cold (PSB) enrichment and molecular examination. Over 1600 samples have been cultured. After ITC/PSB enrichment 237 strains presenting features characteristic for Y. enterocolitica were isolated. Molecular examination using multiplex PCR revealed 140 isolates from PSB and 78 from ITC. The concentration of pathogenic Yersinia in asymptomatic carriers is low and the PCR detection should be preceded by bacteriological examination.

  3. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  4. Palliative sedation for intolerable suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltoni, Marco; Scarpi, Emanuela; Nanni, Oriana

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update on palliative sedation in palliative and end-of-life care. Palliative sedation is the medical procedure used to deal with refractory symptoms in advanced cancer patients when all other specific approaches have failed. Palliative sedation, in the strictest sense of the term, is a proportionate (proportionate palliative sedation, PPS) and intrinsically variable procedure used on an individual basis to relieve refractory symptoms in terminally ill patients, without the intention of hastening death. Completely separate from any other end-of-life decision and not intended to hasten death, palliative sedation has been shown not to have a detrimental impact on survival. To maintain palliative sedation as a legitimate clinical procedure from any ethical or clinical point of view, it must be limited to the restricted area for which it was conceived, that is, relief from refractory suffering as deemed necessary by a patient and by an experienced palliative care team. In this way, there is no risk of associating palliative sedation with other end-of-life decisions. Close collaboration is needed between oncologists and palliative care physicians for this clinical procedure.

  5. The investigation of interspecies diversity of erythrocyte aggregation properties by two different photometric methods in four animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, F; Toth, E; Peto, K; Miko, I; Nemeth, N

    2015-12-01

    Among the haemorheological parameters, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation shows the largest interspecies diversity, and often controversial data can be found in the literature, besides the methodology-dependent issues. In this present investigation, we compared four experimental/laboratory animal species' RBC aggregation by two different photometric methods for better revealing the differences. Blood samples (K3-EDTA, 1.5 mg/ml) were taken from female animals: 16 inbred mice (Mus musculus, cardiac puncture), 15 outbred rats (Rattus norvegicus, caudal caval vein puncture), 15 beagle dogs (Canis canis, cephalic vein) and 23 juvenile pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus, medial saphenous vein). Haematological parameters (microcell counter) and RBC aggregation (light transmission and syllectometry-laser backscatter methods) were determined within 2 h after sampling. Describing the first 5-10 s of the aggregation process, additional parameters were calculated out of the syllectometric raw data. Standardized difference was calculated to determine the sensitivity of the two devices. Parameters describing the extent and magnitude of red blood cell aggregation showed the lowest values in the rat and the highest in the pig and canine blood. In turn, parameters describing the kinetics of aggregation showed the lowest values in the mouse and the highest in the rat. The standardized difference values for the laser backscattering method were 2-4 times larger vs. the light transmission one. The magnitude of the differences was not consequent in the aggregation parameters. These comparative results show that the laser backscattering method can detect the RBC aggregation differences between the investigated species more sensitively than the light transmission method. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Intravital Microscopy Reveals Differences in the Kinetics of Endocytic Pathways between Cell Cultures and Live Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Weigert

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravital microscopy has enabled imaging of the dynamics of subcellular structures in live animals, thus opening the door to investigating membrane trafficking under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine whether the architecture and the environment of a fully developed tissue influences the dynamics of endocytic processes. To this aim, we imaged endocytosis in the stromal cells of rat salivary glands both in situ and after they were isolated and cultured on a solid surface. We found that the internalization of transferrin and dextran, two molecules that traffic via distinct mechanisms, is substantially altered in cultured cells, supporting the idea that the three dimensional organization of the tissue and the cues generated by the surrounding environment strongly affect membrane trafficking events.

  7. Determination and application of immunodominant regions of SARS coronavirus spike and nucleocapsid proteins recognized by sera from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meng; Stevens, Vicky; Berry, Jody D; Crameri, Gary; McEachern, Jennifer; Tu, Changchun; Shi, Zhengli; Liang, Guodong; Weingartl, Hana; Cardosa, Jane; Eaton, Bryan T; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2008-02-29

    Knowledge of immunodominant regions in major viral antigens is important for rational design of effective vaccines and diagnostic tests. Although there have been many reports of such work done for SARS-CoV, these were mainly focused on the immune responses of humans and mice. In this study, we aim to search for and compare immunodominant regions of the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins which are recognized by sera from different animal species, including mouse, rat, rabbit, civet, pig and horse. Twelve overlapping recombinant protein fragments were produced in Escherichia coli, six each for the S and N proteins, which covered the entire coding region of the two proteins. Using a membrane-strip based Western blot approach, the reactivity of each antigen fragment against a panel of animal sera was determined. Immunodominant regions containing linear epitopes, which reacted with sera from all the species tested, were identified for both proteins. The S3 fragment (aa 402-622) and the N4 fragment (aa 220-336) were the most immunodominant among the six S and N fragments, respectively. Antibodies raised against the S3 fragment were able to block the binding of a panel of S-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to SARS-CoV in ELISA, further demonstrating the immunodominance of this region. Based on these findings, one-step competition ELISAs were established which were able to detect SARS-CoV antibodies from human and at least seven different animal species. Considering that a large number of animal species are known to be susceptible to SARS-CoV, these assays will be a useful tool to trace the origin and transmission of SARS-CoV and to minimise the risk of animal-to-human transmission.

  8. Accuracies of breeding values for dry matter intake using nongenotyped animals and predictor traits in different lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Calus, M P L; Ten Napel, J

    2017-11-01

    Given the interest of including dry matter intake (DMI) in the breeding goal, accurate estimated breeding values (EBV) for DMI are needed, preferably for separate lactations. Due to the limited amount of records available on DMI, 2 main approaches have been suggested to compute those EBV: (1) the inclusion of predictor traits, such as fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight (LW), and (2) the addition of genomic information of animals using what is called genomic prediction. Recently, several methodologies to estimate EBV utilizing genomic information (EBV) have become available. In this study, a new method known as single-step ridge-regression BLUP (SSRR-BLUP) is suggested. The SSRR-BLUP method does not have an imposed limit on the number of genotyped animals, as the commonly used methods do. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters using a relatively large data set with DMI records, as well as compare the accuracies of the EBV for DMI. These accuracies were obtained using 4 different methods: BLUP (using pedigree for all animals with phenotypes), genomic BLUP (GBLUP; only for genotyped animals), single-step GBLUP (SS-GBLUP), and SSRR-BLUP (for genotyped and nongenotyped animals). Records from different lactations, with or without predictor traits (FPCM and LW), were used in the model. Accuracies of EBV for DMI (defined as the correlation between the EBV and pre-adjusted DMI phenotypes divided by the average accuracy of those phenotypes) ranged between 0.21 and 0.38 across methods and scenarios. Accuracies of EBV for DMI using BLUP were the lowest accuracies obtained across methods. Meanwhile, accuracies of EBV for DMI were similar in SS-GBLUP and SSRR-BLUP, and lower for the GBLUP method. Hence, SSRR-BLUP could be used when the number of genotyped animals is large, avoiding the construction of the inverse genomic relationship matrix. Adding information on DMI from different lactations in the reference population gave higher

  9. Disturbance of binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins during acute radiation sickness of different experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Omel'chuk, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    In experiments on different animals a study was made of the effect of total-body γ-irradiation on binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins. It was demonstrated that the increase in the number of physiologically active corticosteroids at the peak of radiation sickness is due to diminution of linking ability of corticosteroid-binding globulin of blood plasma and independent ot the total concentration of hormones in blood which is, evidently, a general radiobiological law

  10. Comparison of in vivo efficacy of different ocular lubricants in dry eye animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Goto, Tomoko; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-04-29

    To compare the efficacy of three types of ocular lubricants in protecting corneal epithelial cells in dry eye animal models. Ocular lubricants containing 0.1% or 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (SH), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were tested. First, ocular lubricant containing 0.002% fluorescein was dropped onto the rabbit corneas. The fluorescein intensity as an index of retention was measured. Second, a rabbit dry eye model was made by holding the eye open with a speculum, and 50 μL of each ocular lubricant was dropped onto the cornea. After 3 hours, the corneas were stained with 1% methylene blue (MB), and the absorbance of MB was measured. Third, a rat dry eye model was treated with the ocular lubricants for 4 weeks, and the corneal fluorescein staining was scored. Eyes treated with physiological saline were used as controls. Finally, immunohistochemistry was used to analyze occludin, an epithelial barrier protein, in cultured human corneal epithelial cells pretreated with ocular lubricants and desiccated for 20 or 60 minutes. Our results showed that 0.3% SH had a significantly longer retention time than the other lubricants (all P eye syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  12. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  13. VENENO-PONZOÑA, ENVENENAMIENTO-EMPONZOÑAMIENTO, ANIMALES VENENOSOS-ANIMALES PONZOÑOSOS: ¿CUÁLES SON LAS DIFERENCIAS? | VENOM-POISON, ENVENOMATION-POISONING, VENOMOUS ANIMALS-POISONOUS ANIMALS: WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the specialized scientific literature of Latin America, the terms venom and poison, envenomation and poisoning, venomous animals and poisonous animals are frequently implemented improperly as synonyms. Thus, in the present communication the differences of these terms are discussed in the context of the Clinical Toxinology lexic and the need for homogenizing such a nomenclature is highlighted.

  14. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the

  15. Individual differences and the characterization of animal models of psychopathology: a strong challenge and a good opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of valuable new techniques (i.e., genetics, neuroimage) for the study of the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric diseases, there are strong limitations in the information that can be gathered from human studies. It is thus critical to develop appropriate animal models of psychiatric diseases to characterize their putative biological bases and the development of new therapeutic strategies. The present review tries to offer a general perspective and several examples of how individual differences in animals can contribute to explain differential susceptibility to develop behavioral alterations, but also emphasizes methodological problems that can lead to inappropriate or over-simplistic interpretations. A critical analysis of the approaches currently used could contribute to obtain more reliable data and allow taking full advantage of new and sophisticated technologies. The discussion is mainly focused on anxiety-like and to a lower extent on depression-like behavior in rodents.

  16. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal. VIII. Species difference on biological half life of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakubo, G; Hasegawa, A; Ikebuchi, H; Onoda, K; Nakaura, S [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    About 30 -- 60 ..mu..Ci/0.15 mg Cd/kg of cadmium chloride solution containing sup(115m)Cd was injected intraperitoneally to mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and quails, and thereafter the whole body retention of Cd was measured continuously for 60 -- 92 days in order to find the biological half lives of the metal in these animals. The whole body retention was determined by whole body counting of radioactivity in mice, rats, guinea pigs and quails, but in the case of rabbit it was determined by counting rates of excreta. The biological half lives thus obtained in mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and quail were 220, 150 and 181, 334, 299 and 367 days, respectively. Namely, an apparent species difference was observed even under the same conditions such as sex of animal, dose of metal per kg and dosing route.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaldev Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite bhasma (SMB has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas . The experimental animals (rats were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  18. Late-phase MSCT in the different stages of myocardial infarction: animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Bruners, Philipp; Kinzel, Sylvia; Katoh, Marcus; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to intraindividually evaluate myocardial late enhancement on multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for the assessment of the different stages of myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Reperfused MI was successfully induced in seven pigs. Delayed enhancement MR imaging and late-phase MSCT were performed on day 0 as well as 7, 28 and 90 days after the procedure. The pigs were sacrificed, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolin-chloride (TTC) staining was acquired. MI size was compared between the different imaging techniques and over time applying Bland-Altman plots and multivariate analysis with repeated measures. On day 0 the mean MI size was 23.7 ± 11.8% of the left ventricular area on MSCT and 24.5 ± 10.6% on MR imaging. On day 90 infarct sizes decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 8.4% and 18.9 ± 8.0%, respectively (P 0.0019). On TTC staining the size of MI was 16.8 ± 8.2%. Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between MSCT and MR imaging with mean deviations ranging from -3.4% to -1.9%. No significant difference between MSCT and MR imaging was found. Myocardial late enhancement on MSCT correlates well with delayed enhancement MR imaging during the different stages of MI and allows for reliable assessment of reperfused MI during acute, subacute and chronic stages. (orig.)

  19. Reports on badgers Meles meles in Dutch newspapers 1900–2013 : same animals, different framings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Marjolein; Vink, Hans

    Culling wild badgers Meles meles in an attempt to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infections in domestic cattle has provoked a long and fierce debate in the UK. Research has shown that the controversy over badger culling exists because of fundamental differences in how badgers and

  20. Anxiety from a Phylogenetic Perspective: Is there a Qualitative Difference between Human and Animal Anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Belzung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems. The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  1. Using the animal to the last bit: Consumer preferences for different beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Corsi, Armando Maria; Casini, Leonardo; Contini, Caterina; Loose, Simone Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Meat is expensive to produce, making it is essential to understand the importance consumers pay to different meat cuts. Previous research on consumers' meat choices has mainly focused on meat species, while consumer preferences for meat cuts has so far only received limited interest. The aim of this study is to shed some light into this relatively unexplored area by answering four research questions. First, this study intends to show the relative importance meat cuts play in relation to other extrinsic product attributes. Secondly, this paper looks into differences in choice criteria between regular and special occasions. Third, consumer segments that differ in their preferences and beef purchase are identified, and, finally, the meat purchase portfolios of these segments are revealed. A stated preference methodology of a discrete choice experiment with cut-specific prices covering several meat cuts simultaneously is proposed to answer the research questions. The sample consists of 1500 respondents representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender and geographic location The results shows that meat cut is the most important factor when choosing bovine meat followed by quality certification (origin), production technique, the type of breed and price. In terms of consumption occasions, we observe significantly lower price sensitivity for marbled steaks and cutlets for special occasions compared to normal occasions. Segmentation analysis shows that while the choices of two segments (comprising about 40% of the sample) are mostly driven by extrinsic product attributes, the remaining segments are mostly driven by meat cuts. These varying preferences are also reflected in the purchase portfolios of the different segments, while less variability is detected from a socio-demographic perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mobility of macrophages and alveolar decontamination in different kinds of animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolibe, D; Metivier, H; Masse, R

    1973-05-01

    From congress on alveolar macrophage; Lille, France (28 May The mobility of macrophages in relation to alveolar decontamination following the inhalation of toxic substances was studied in the dog, monkey, cat, rat, and guinea pig. The alveolar macroPhages showed a migration rate that varied from 30 to 10% in the rat and rabbit. The measurement of alveolar decontamination should take into consideration inter-species differences in macrophage mobility. (JSR)

  3. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  4. Animal models for studying neural crest development: is the mouse different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Elias H; Trainor, Paul A; Bronner, Marianne; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type and has been well studied in a number of model systems. Zebrafish, Xenopus and chick embryos largely show consistent requirements for specific genes in early steps of neural crest development. By contrast, knockouts of homologous genes in the mouse often do not exhibit comparable early neural crest phenotypes. In this Spotlight article, we discuss these species-specific differences, suggest possible explanations for the divergent phenotypes in mouse and urge the community to consider these issues and the need for further research in complementary systems. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The Nerve Supply of the Bone Marrow in Different Laboratory Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, W. [Forschungsgruppe Freiburg, Institut fuer Haematologie der Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung Assoziation mit EURATOM, Freiburg/Breisgau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1967-07-15

    The proliferation and release of the different types of cells from the bone marrow presents so many obscurities in the explanation of the maintenance of homeostasis at the level of the blood corpuscles that one wonders if this difficulty is due to a lack of information in some important area. The function of an organ, and the influence that other organs may have on its physiological and pathological changes, cannot be understood if the role of the nervous system and the hormones are not taken into consideration; but when we study the bone marrow and speak about its function as a blood-forming organ, the nervous system is continually ignored. The situation is such that the first question that comes to mind is this: Are there nerves in the bone marrow? The answer of the old anatomists was: Yes. The description of nerves entering into the bone cavity can be found in papers published more than one hundred years ago, but the description of their distribution and relation with the different elements of the marrow is vague and contradictory. Consequently we considered it worthwhile to study the problem of the innervation of the bone marrow anew.

  6. Virulence of geographically different Cryptosporidium parvum isolates in experimental animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Fatma G.; Hamza, Amany I.; Galal, Lamia A.; Sayed, Douaa M.; Gaber, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite which causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and a variety of other mammalian species. Several studies have reported different degrees of pathogenicity and virulence among Cryptosporidium species and isolates of the same species as well as evidence of variation in host susceptibility to infection. The study aimed to investigate infectivity and virulence of two Cryptosporidium parvum “Iowa isolate” (CpI) and a “local water isolate” (CpW). Thirty-three Swiss albino mice have been divided into three groups: Negative control Group (C), the CpI group infected with “Iowa isolate “and the CpW group infected with C. parvum oocysts isolated from a local water supply. Infectivity and virulence have been measured by evaluating clinical, parasitological and histological aspects of infection. Significant differences were detected regarding oocysts shedding rate, clinical outcomes, and the histopathological picture of the intestine, lung, and brain. It was concluded that the local water isolate is significantly more virulent than the exported one.

  7. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  8. Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of different devices for interventional closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Sigler, M; Handt, S; Seghaye, M; von Bernuth, G; Grabitz, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of three different devices following interventional closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an animal model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS—A medical grade stainless steel coil (n = 8), a nickel/titanium coil (n = 10), and a polyvinylalcohol foam plug knitted on a titanium wire frame (n = 11) were used for interventional closure of PDA in a neonatal lamb model. The PDA had been maintained by repetitive angioplasty. Between one and 278 days afte...

  9. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pastuszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50% than cow milk (about 20%, and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%, which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants. Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the ‘0’ variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  10. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Rafiq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%, solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%, total solids (18.05%±0.05%, protein (5.15%±0.06% and casein (3.87%±0.04% contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%, buffalo (0.68%±0.02% and sheep (0.66%±0.02% milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82, cow (r = 0.88, sheep (r = 0.86 and goat milk (r = 0.98. The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g, camel (96±2.2 mg/g and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  11. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  12. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard E. Rollin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society’s moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  13. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2011-01-19

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society's moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  14. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in the amount of epsilon-hexosyllysine, UV absorbance, and fluorescence of collagen with age in different animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miksik, I.; Deyl, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Skin and aorta collagen specimens of Wistar rats, white mice, beagle dogs, cats, horses, and human necropsies of different ages were examined with respect to the content of glycated products. The data presented show that (a) glycation and accumulation of the chromophore(s) are comparable in collagen samples from different species of comparable age; (b) glycation and pigmented accumulation increase markedly during the first 5-10 years of age; (c) the extent of glycation is different in different tissues (in particular, glycation of aortal collagen is about twice that of skin collagen); and (d) collagen pigmentation as followed by fluorescence is comparable in aortal and skin collagen (except below 10 years); pigmentation measured by absorbance at 350 nm is, on the contrary, lower in aortal than in skin collagen. Based on the assumption of constant blood glucose level during the life span, it appears feasible to conclude that the degree of nonenzymatic collagen glycation reflects the time period for which the protein was exposed to the action of sugars. This period, because of increased cross-linking, is likely to be extended in older animals. Other factors, such as differences in collagen turnover between different tissues and the intensity of the removal process of the glycated products, should be taken into consideration as well

  16. Four different animated sub-particles as the origins of the life and creator of different angular momentums of elementary particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Zeinab

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the internal structure of the proton is crucial challenge for QCD, and one important aspect of this is to understand how the spin of the nucleon is build-up from the angular momentum of its quarks and gluons. In this way, what's the origin of differences between angular momentums of fundamental particles? It may be from their substructures. It seems there are four sub-particles of mater, plant, animal and human in substructure of each fundamental particle (string) as the origins of life and cause of differences between spins of those elementary particles. Material's sub-particle always is on and active. When the environmental conditions became ready for creation of each field of the plant, animal and human, sub-particles of their elementary particles became on and active and then, those elementary particles participated in processes of creation in their own field. God, as the main source of information, has been communicated with their sub-particles and transfers a package (bit) of information and laws (plus standard ethics for human sub-particles) to each of them for process and selection (mutation) of the next step of motion and interaction of their fundamental particles with each other in each Plank's time. This is causality for particles' motion in quantum area.

  17. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  18. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggren, Marie; Vinner, Lasse; Andresen, Betina Skovgaard; Grevstad, Berit; Repits, Johanna; Melchers, Mark; Elvang, Tara Laura; Sanders, Rogier W; Martinon, Frédéric; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Bowles, Emma Joanne; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Heyndrickx, Leo; Grand, Roger Le; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-07-19

    HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb). We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  19. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Le Grand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb. We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  20. Does the Recent Growth of Aquaculture Create Antibiotic Resistance Threats Different from those Associated with Land Animal Production in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Hansa Y; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-05-01

    Important antibiotics in human medicine have been used for many decades in animal agriculture for growth promotion and disease treatment. Several publications have linked antibiotic resistance development and spread with animal production. Aquaculture, the newest and fastest growing food production sector, may promote similar or new resistance mechanisms. This review of 650+ papers from diverse sources examines parallels and differences between land-based agriculture of swine, beef, and poultry and aquaculture. Among three key findings was, first, that of 51 antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture and agriculture, 39 (or 76%) are also of importance in human medicine; furthermore, six classes of antibiotics commonly used in both agriculture and aquaculture are also included on the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of critically important/highly important/important antimicrobials. Second, various zoonotic pathogens isolated from meat and seafood were observed to feature resistance to multiple antibiotics on the WHO list, irrespective of their origin in either agriculture or aquaculture. Third, the data show that resistant bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and agriculture share the same resistance mechanisms, indicating that aquaculture is contributing to the same resistance issues established by terrestrial agriculture. More transparency in data collection and reporting is needed so the risks and benefits of antibiotic usage can be adequately assessed.

  1. Rethinking Suffering: Allowing for Suffering that is Intrinsic at End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Maxxine; Berzoff, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The dilemma so central to the work of providers of palliative and end-of-life care is the paradox of their professional and ethical duty to try to relieve suffering and the limitations of so doing. While the capacity to sit with suffering at the end of life is critical to clinical work, the idea that some intrinsic suffering cannot necessarily always be relieved may model for patients and families that suffering can be borne. Clinicians who encounter unrelievable suffering may feel a sense of failure, helplessness, moral distress, and compassion fatigue. While tolerating suffering runs counter to the aims of palliative care, acknowledging it, bearing it, and validating it may actually help patients and families to do the same. "Sitting with suffering" signals a paradigm shift within the discipline of palliative care, as it asks clinicians to rethink their role in being able to relieve some forms of psychosocial suffering intrinsic to dying.

  2. Interpreting suffering from illness: The role of culture and repressive suffering construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Liu, Shi; Sullivan, Daniel; Pan, Shengdong

    2016-07-01

    Mental and physical illnesses are among the most prominent forms of suffering. Cultural worldviews provide tools for making sense of and coping with suffering. In this research, we examine how culture influences both experts' and laypeople's interpretation of suffering from illness. We focus on one type of interpretation of suffering- repressive suffering construal-an interpretation that frames suffering both as the result of immorality on the part of the sufferer and as having the function of maintaining social order by curtailing deviance. We sought to test whether this type of suffering interpretation is more common in cultural ecologies (e.g., urban vs. rural; higher vs. lower status) traditionally associated with collectivist values. Study 1 used data from the General Social Survey to examine variation in suffering interpretation in a representative sample of the U.S. Study 2 examined variation in suffering interpretation with a survey completed by a subsample of Chinese health-care professionals. Study 1 found that U.S. citizens living in a rural environment are more likely to interpret illnesses as being the fault of the sufferer. Study 2 found that those from a lower-SES background are more likely to interpret illnesses in a repressive fashion. In these studies, family size mediates the effect of ecological conditions on RSC. Our research highlights how ecological variables associated with collectivism may bias both laypeople and professionals to interpret suffering from illness in a more repressive way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Farmed fish welfare-suffering assessment and impact on product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish welfare, suffering and the perception of pain were debated, together with several factors reducing infra vitam welfare of farmed fish (genetic, environment, density, malnutrition, starvation, cataracts, deformities, vaccination side effects, transport, handling, confinement, crowding, harvesting, killing method. Behavioural and physiological stress responses were considered as indicators of welfare reduction. The effects of pre-slaughter management practices, and the most commonly used stunning/slaughtering methods on welfare and quality reduction of farmed fish were discussed. A number of indicators can be used to assess fish welfare-suffering, both in a scientific and practical context, such as behavioural, haematic, cellular, tissue post mortem fish stress and quality indicators, but none of them are optimal. The best strategy for a reliable assessment of fish welfare/suffering and their impact on product quality is a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account animal behaviour and the different biochemical and physiological ante mortem and post mortem processes involved: several components, all influenced in a similar way by the same condition, suggest real welfare and quality reduction.

  4. Collectivism and the meaning of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel; Landau, Mark J; Kay, Aaron C; Rothschild, Zachary K

    2012-12-01

    People need to understand why an instance of suffering occurred and what purpose it might have. One widespread account of suffering is a repressive suffering construal (RSC): interpreting suffering as occurring because people deviate from social norms and as having the purpose of reinforcing the social order. Based on the theorizing of Emile Durkheim and others, we propose that RSC is associated with social morality-the belief that society dictates morality-and is encouraged by collectivist (as opposed to individualist) sentiments. Study 1 showed that dispositional collectivism predicts both social morality and RSC. Studies 2-4 showed that priming collectivist (vs. individualist) self-construal increases RSC of various types of suffering and that this effect is mediated by increased social morality (Study 4). Study 5 examined behavioral intentions, demonstrating that parents primed with a collectivist self-construal interpreted children's suffering more repressively and showed greater support for corporal punishment of children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  6. Treatment of holistic suffering in cancer: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Aldridge, Lynley; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian; Price, Melanie A; Webster, Fleur

    2015-12-01

    Holistic suffering is a debilitating problem for cancer patients. Although many treatments have been suggested for its alleviation, they have not been compared for effectiveness. This literature review seeks to identify what interventions are effective in treatment of holistic suffering of cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted to identify and evaluate studies of interventions for holistic suffering in adult cancer patients. Search terms were generated iteratively from the literature. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases were searched for the years 1992-2015. Included studies were peer-reviewed, English language reports of either a controlled trial or a randomised controlled trial focusing on therapies aimed at relieving suffering in adult cancer patients. Articles were excluded if focused predominantly on spiritual or existential issues or concerns not leading to suffering. Studies were graded for quality using the QualSyst quantitative checklist. Levels of evidence were ascertained by completing the National Health and Medical Research Council criteria. Results are reported according to AMSTAR guidelines. The studies represented seven intervention types. Meaning-centred, hope-centred and stress-reduction interventions were found to be effective. Results of both psycho-educational and spiritual interventions in improving spiritual well-being were mixed. Supportive-expressive interventions - with the exception of forgiveness therapy - were not efficacious. There was little or no evidence for the efficacy of creative and healing arts and other assessed interventions such as animal therapy and haptotherapy. This systematic review found that spiritual well-being, meaning, hope and benefit finding can be positively impacted by a variety of treatment modalities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity Between Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations. We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1. In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein-1, and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides

  9. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  10. Text, pictures or animations in instructions for use : a validation of different media for specific types of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, P.H.; Ensink, T.; Sauer, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Bieger and Glock taxonomy of information types is applied to test the relative effectiveness of text, pictures and animation in on-line help systems. On the basis of this taxonomy seven versions of an on-line help system for telephones were designed, varying text, picture and animation for the

  11. Effects of simulated microgravity on surfactant and water balance of lung in animals with different resistance to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndina, Irina; Vasilieva, Natalia

    Weightlessness is accompanied by redistribution of blood flow in lung, changes of lung volumes and gas exchange (Prisk et al., 2002; Grigoriev, Baranov, 2003). On the other hand, it is known that microgravity is considered as a kind of moderate stress (Grigoriev et al., 2004). Stress response may differ in animals resistant or vulnerable to stress (Sudakov, 2007). To study the effects of simulated microgravity upon lung, we used 20 male albino rats tested for behavior in the "open field" and than divided into active (stress resistant - SR ) and passive (stress vulnerable - CV) groups. Two mouse lines were used with similar goal - C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice (n=16). According to data obtained earlier, BALB/c mice referred as more stress vulnerable, in contrast to C57BL/6 mice, which are considered to be relatively stress resistant (Flint et al., 2007). We have previously shown that changes in lung surfactant system after psychosocial stress or long-term immobilization are less pronounced in stress resistant rats (Vasilieva, Bryndina, 2012). The aim of this work is to study the properties and biochemical composition of pulmonary surfactant and lung water balance in rats and mice with different stress resistance in antiorthostatic suspension (AOS) of short and long duration. Simulated microgravity was reproduced according to procedure of Ilyin-Novikov in modification of Morey-Holton. The duration of exposure was 10 days for rats and 30 days for mice. The properties of pulmonary surfactant were assessed by the evaluation of surface activity (surface tension - ST), the content of total phospholipids (PL) and their fractions. Simultaneously we calculated the gravimetric water balance indices: lung coefficient, "dry residue" and wet-to-dry ratio. Total and extravascular lung fluid and pulmonary blood supply were estimated as well. The experiments demonstrated that there was a decrease of surface tension of surfactant films after 10-day AOS in both groups of rats (to a greater

  12. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  13. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Bohlen

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae and Sinibotia (Botiinae. In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44% and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%, and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF DIFFERENT HORMONE TREATMENTS IN THE ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF PIKEPERCH (Sander luciopreca REGARDING THE ASPECTS OF ANIMAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. NÉMETH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pikeperch (Sander lucioperca is very important and valuable freshwater fish in Hungary. The quality of lash is very high (white, tasty and boneless thus the gastronomically demand grows year by year. Besides the pikeperch is an attractive game fish and as a top predator, plays an important role in the maintenance of ecological balance in freshwater ecosystems. The success of pond culture of pikeperch depends on the propagation and nursing methods. Recently the technological development of artificial reproduction ensures the production of more fry and fingerlings. Present study investigates the different reproduction methods in consideration of the spawning behaviour of the pikeperch breeders. Between the hormone treatment and spawning there were observed six stagers in the behaviour of pike-perch couples- In addition to the observations on behaviour of spawning, various hormone products were examined in order to stimulate and synchronise the ovulation of pike perch breeders. Best results were recorded in case of using dried carp pituitary as a hormone treatment (170g eggs/stripped females, while the treatment with GnRH analogs resulted 145 g respectively. Moreover the price and biological advances of GnRH analogs require more research in their use in the field of artificial propagation of pikeperch. These hormones do not interfere violently the neuro-humoral regulation of the ovulation, thus contributes to maintain better conditions of animal welfare during the propagation procedure.

  15. Effects of a Single Bout of Resistance Exercise in Different Volumes on Endothelium Adaptations in Healthy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct; low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions. The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM. Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.

  16. Efeitos da agressividade infantil para o sofrimento psíquico de professores em diferentes momentos de carreira Effects of children's aggressiveness for the mental suffering of teachers in different moments of career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Eugênia Fernandes de Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O sofrimento de professores tem sido amplamente considerado pela literatura, em associação com diversos fatores. O presente trabalho investiga esse sofrimento sob o aspecto da agressividade vivenciada em sala de aula. Foram entrevistados doze professores de uma escola pública da cidade de São Paulo - onze do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino - distribuídos em função de três momentos na carreira de ensino: inicial (até seis anos, intermediário (entre doze e dezoito anos e final (últimos cinco anos da carreira. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e os dados categorizados conforme a frequência simples de ocorrência. A comparação das respostas revelou diferenças entre os educadores com menor e maior tempo de carreira no ensino: na percepção da agressividade infantil, nos sentimentos despertados e nas estratégias de manejo utilizadas. Frente à constatação dessas diferenças, foi possível refletir e tecer considerações para o delineamento de intervenções preventivas.Teachers' psychological distress has been widely studied in the literature, concerning several factors. This paper investigates the impact of children´s aggression in classroom as a source of teachers' distress. Twelve public school teachers from São Paulo city were interviewed - 11 female and 1 male - distributed according to three different stages of the career: initial (1 to 6 years, intermediate (12 to 18 years and final phase (last 5 years of the career. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and data were categorized considering the simple frequency of occurrence. Data analysis revealed different perceptions of classroom aggression, feelings and management strategies, depending on the phase of the teaching career. From these findings, it was possible to reflect and to present some considerations for outlining preventive interventions.

  17. Systemic humiliation as daily social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothbart, Daniel; Poder, Poul

    2017-01-01

    and capacities of these people. Drawing upon recent developments in social identity theory, moral philosophy, sociological theory, and clinical psychology, we argue that systemic humiliation generates social pain that is experienced as annulment of one’s inherent value; it is an affront to suffering persons...

  18. Compassionate solidarity: suffering, poetry, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulehan, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Suffering is the experience of distress or disharmony caused by the loss, or threatened loss, of what we most cherish. Such losses may strip away the beliefs by which we construct a meaningful narrative of human life in general and our own in particular. The vocation of physicians and other health professionals is to relieve suffering caused by illness, trauma, and bodily degeneration. However, since suffering is an existential state that does not necessarily parallel physical or emotional states, physicians cannot rely solely on knowledge and skills that address physiological dysfunction. Rather, they must learn to engage the patient at an existential level. Unfortunately, however, medical pedagogy encourages "detached concern," which devalues subjectivity, emotion, relationship, and solidarity. The term "compassionate solidarity" summarizes an alternative model, which begins with empathic listening and responding, requires reflectivity and self-understanding, and is in itself a healing act. Poetry, along with other imaginative writing, may help physicians and other health professionals grow in self-awareness and gain deeper understanding of suffering, empathy, compassion, and symbolic healing.

  19. Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41: Are There Any Differences between Plant and Animal from a Financial Reporting Point of View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the evaluation of appropriateness of different ways for the measurement and reporting of different groups of biological assets. There are two possible ways of their measurement – cost and fair value. The substance of all kinds of biological assets differs significantly, especially for plants and animals. The single way for measurement of all kinds of biological assets is not satisfactory. The most significant difference is observable between bearer plants and biological assets in the form of living animals. The authors took into account a majority of factors influencing quality of individual ways of measurement, and evaluated the application of the above‑mentioned methods for representatives of both kinds of biological assets (apple orchard and dairy cows. The results of the study proved that the historical cost is the suitable way of bearer plants measurement, while the fair value measurement is more suitable for measurement of living animals.

  20. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  1. Differences among Branded Hyaluronic Acids in Italy, Part 1: Data from and Animal Studies and Instructions for Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Migliore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of hyaluronic acid (HA for intra-articular (IA injection is widespread around the world for patients affected by osteoarthritis. AIM The aim of this study is to identify scientific evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies supporting the use of IA HAs marketed in Italy We also evaluated the accuracy of indications and contraindications reported in the leaflets of such HAs compared with the available scientific evidence. Materials and Methods An extensive literature search was performed to identify all in vitro and in vivo model studies reporting on the effects of various HAs marketed in Italy for IA use. Data reported in the leaflets of different HA-based products for IA use were extracted and analyzed alongside evidence from in vitro and in vivo model studies. Results Nine in vitro studies and 11 studies on animal models were examined. Comparing results with what is reported in the leaflets of HAs marketed in Italy, it was observed that many branded formulations are introduced in the market without any reporting of basic scientific evidence. Only 12.82% and 17.95% of branded products had been shown to be effective with scientific evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. The rationale of use of these products is based on their nature, as if a class effect existed such that all HAs would yield similar effects. Conclusions Data on HAs deriving from in vitro and in vivo studies are scarce and relate to only a small percentage of products marketed in Italy. Many indications and contraindications are arbitrarily reported in Italian HA leaflets without the support of scientific evidence. Larger and brand-specific studies are necessary and should be reported in the leaflets to guide clinicians in making an appropriate choice regarding HA-based IA therapy.

  2. [Unseen Suffering - Therapy for Traumatized Refugee Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenschlager, Andreas; Nahler, Stefanie; Reisinger, Regine

    2016-12-01

    Unseen Suffering - Therapy for Traumatized Refugee Children In March 2015 the psychological counselling service (Psychologische Familien- und Lebensberatung) of Caritas Ulm initiated a psychotherapy project for traumatized minor refugees. Besides individual and group therapy, networking and qualification of qualified personnel and volunteers, in autumn 2015 we started offering our services on-site in a large collective accommodation for asylum seekers in Ulm. This was mainly because - in contrast to unaccompanied, mostly adolescent, minor refugees - our services appeared to reach children only by chance. In our opinion this is mostly due to the fact that children's suffering is often far less noticed. This paper describes our first year's project work, followed by reports on the use of psychodrama groups with refugee children and on the therapeutic work in a collective accommodation for asylum seekers.

  3. Mental Suffering as a Struggle with Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosfort, René

    2016-01-01

    of suffering. I unfold this argument in five steps. I will first look at the vexed question of what emotions are. Discussing biological and rational conceptions of emotions, I argue that human emotions are deeply ambiguous phenomena constituted by an opaque combination of biological factors and rational......Human emotional life is structured and to a certain extent constituted by language, and yet making sense of and communicating how we feel is often a challenge. In this article, I will argue that a person’s struggle to make sense of and articulate her suffering plays a major role in the experience...... factors. In the second section, I will argue that instead of trying to solve the ontological riddle of emotions we should investigate the actual experience of emotions. I examine the dialectics of the conceptual and the phenomenal aspects of our emotional experience, arguing that we need to adopt...

  4. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in animals representing different trophic levels of the North Sea food Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jan P; Lewis, Wilma E; Tjoen-A-Choy, Michael R; Allchin, Colin R; Law, Robin J; De Boer, Jacob; Ten Hallers-Tjabbes, Cato C; Zegers, Bart N

    2002-10-01

    Flamborough Head toward the Dogger Bank. In winter, the residual currents run in a more southerly direction and follow the UK coastline. The distribution pattern of the PCBs and p,p'-DDE in the invertebrates was entirely different from that of the PBDEs, which could be expected, since the use of these organochlorines in western Europe peaked in the 1960s and 1970s but has been forbidden more than two decades ago, whereas the production and use of the penta-BDE formulation is of a more recent origin. The higher trophic levels of the North Sea food web were represented by the predatory gadoid fish species whiting and cod and the marine mammal species harbor seal and harbor porpoise. The lipid-normalized levels of the six major PBDE congeners in fish were similar to the levels in the invertebrates, but a biomagnification step in concentrations of generally more than an order of magnitude occurred from gadoid fish to marine mammals. Based on the limited number of samples, no differences could be observed between harbor seal and harbor porpoise. In summary, the results in three species of sentinel invertebrates from a network of stations covering a major part of the North Sea basin showed that the estuary of the river Tees at the UK East coast is a major source for tri- to hexa-PBDEs. Throughout the food-chain, the most marked increase in (lipid-normalized) levels of all six PBDE congeners occurred from predatory (gadoid) fish to marine mammals, agreeing with the transition from gill-breathing to lung-breathing animals. This has serious consequences for the route of elimination of POPs, since their elimination from the blood into the ambient seawater via the gill-membrane is no longer possible.

  5. The meaning of healing: transcending suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnew, Thomas R

    2005-01-01

    Medicine is traditionally considered a healing profession, but it has neither an operational definition of healing nor an explanation of its mechanisms beyond the physiological processes related to curing. The objective of this study was to determine a definition of healing that operationalizes its mechanisms and thereby identifies those repeatable actions that reliably assist physicians to promote holistic healing. This study was a qualitative inquiry consisting of in-depth, open-ended, semistructured interviews with Drs. Eric J. Cassell, Carl A. Hammerschlag, Thomas S. Inui, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, Cicely Saunders, Bernard S. Siegel, and G. Gayle Stephens. Their perceptions regarding the definition and mechanisms of healing were subjected to grounded theory content analysis. Healing was associated with themes of wholeness, narrative, and spirituality. Healing is an intensely personal, subjective experience involving a reconciliation of the meaning an individual ascribes to distressing events with his or her perception of wholeness as a person. Healing may be operationally defined as the personal experience of the transcendence of suffering. Physicians can enhance their abilities as healers by recognizing, diagnosing, minimizing, and relieving suffering, as well as helping patients transcend suffering.

  6. Analytical Raman spectroscopic study for discriminant analysis of different animal-derived feedstuff: Understanding the high correlation between Raman spectroscopy and lipid characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Lingzhi; Zhang, Yuejing; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia; Liu, Xian

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of the current study were to explore the correlation between Raman spectroscopy and lipid characteristics and to assess the potential of Raman spectroscopic methods for distinguishing the different sources of animal-originated feed based on lipid characteristics. A total of 105 lipid samples derived from five animal species have been analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and FT-Raman spectroscopy. High correlations (r 2 >0.94) were found between the characteristic peak ratio of the Raman spectra (1654/1748 and 1654/1445) and the degree of unsaturation of the animal lipids. The results of FT-Raman data combined with chemometrics showed that the fishmeal, poultry, porcine and ruminant (bovine and ovine) MBMs could be well separated based on their lipid spectral characteristics. This study demonstrated that FT-Raman spectroscopy can mostly exhibit the lipid structure specificity of different species of animal-originated feed and can be used to discriminate different animal-originated feed samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Effect Different Irrigation Regimes and Animal Manure on Nutrient, Essential Oil and Chemical Composition on Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of water stress and animal manure on nutrients concentration, essential oil percentage and its chemical components in Cuminum cyminum, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, Zabol, during 2003–2004 in a randomized complete block design arranged in factorial with four replicates. Treatments were there irrigation (I1: two times irrigation, I2: three times irrigation and I3: four times irrigation and two animal manure levels (F1: no manure and F2: 20 ton/ha manure. The chemical composition of the essential oil was examined by gas- chromatography (GC and GC-MS. The effect of water stress on Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and K percentages was significant but its effect on Mn, Zn and Cu was not significant. I1F1 had maximum of Na, Ca, Mg and minimum of micro nutrients. Using of animal manure was not effected on nutrients. The effect of water stress and animal manure were significant on essential oil and its chemical compositions. I2F2 had the highest of cuminaldehyde and ρ-cymene and the lowest of β-pinene, γ-terpinene and α-pinene. Result showed that there is a correlation among the main components of cumin essential oil under water and mineral stress.

  8. Examining the antimicrobial activity and toxicity to animal cells of different types of CO-releasing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Lígia S; Jeremias, Hélia; Romão, Carlos C; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-01-28

    Transition metal carbonyl complexes used as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) for biological and therapeutic applications may exhibit interesting antimicrobial activity. However, understanding the chemical traits and mechanisms of action that rule this activity is required to establish a rationale for the development of CORMs into useful antibiotics. In this work the bactericidal activity, the toxicity to eukaryotic cells, and the ability of CORMs to deliver CO to bacterial and eukaryotic cells were analysed for a set of seven CORMs that differ in the transition metal, ancillary ligands and the CO release profile. Most of these CORMs exhibited bactericidal properties that decrease in the following order: CORM-2 > CORM-3 > ALF062 > ALF850 > ALF186 > ALF153 > [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](BF4)2. A similar yet not entirely coincident decreasing order was found for their induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli. In contrast, studies in model animal cells showed that for any given CORM, the level of intracellular ROS generated was negligible when compared with that measured inside bacteria. Importantly, these CORMs were in general not toxic to eukaryotic cells, namely murine macrophages, kidney LLC-PK1 epithelial cells, and liver cell line HepG2. CORM-2 and CORM-3 delivered CO to the intracellular space of both E. coli and the two types of tested eukaryotic cells, yet toxicity was only elicited in the case of E. coli. CO delivered by ALF186 into the intercellular space did not enter E. coli cells and the compound was not toxic to either bacteria or to eukaryotic cells. The Fe(ii) carbonyl complex [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](2+) had the reverse, undesirable toxicity profile, being unexpectedly toxic to eukaryotic cells and non-toxic to E. coli. ALF153, the most stable complex in the whole set, was essentially devoid of toxicity or ROS induction ability in all cells. These results suggest that CORMs have a relevant therapeutic potential as antimicrobial drugs since (i) they

  9. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Beth Ann; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  10. Maize and soybeans production in integrated system under no-tillage with different pasture combinations and animal categories

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of no-till system (NTS) combined with crop-livestock integration (CLI) has been a strategy promoted in Brazil, aiming to maximize areas yield and increase agribusiness profitability. This study aimed to evaluate grains yield and phytotechnical attributes from maize and soybean culture by CLI system under NTS after winter annual pure and diversified pastures with the absence or presence of grazing animals. The experiment was installed in Castro (Paraná State, Brazil) on in a dystr...

  11. Development, economic viability and attributes of lamb carcass from confined animals fed on different amounts of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to assess the effect from crude glycerin inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21% dry matter in the diet of slaughtered lamb on their development, nutrient consumption, biometrical measures, diet economic viability and carcass features. Thirty two (32 non-castrated male Texel lambs were used in the study, they presented mean initial weight 15.9 ± 4.1 kilos and were distributed in casual outlining. They were fed with four treatments, with 8 repetitions. Animals were slaughtered when they reached approximately 35 kilos. The mean total weight gain was 20.72 kilos and mean daily weight gain was 260 grams. No changes resulted from glycerin use. The carcass performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05 and the cold carcass performance (CCP was 44.68%. There were no effects (P>0.05 on the loin eye area (LEA and on fat thickness (FT; they showed averages of 13.66 cm2 and 0.84 mm, respectively. Nutrition cost per animal during the whole confinement period varied between R$82.60 (eighty-two Reais and forty-eight cents to R$92.48. The smallest nutrition amount consisted of 21% crude glycerin. The gross profit ranged from R$30.75 to R$ 34.01 per animal, for feed without glycerin and 21% glycerin, respectively. Animal development was not impacted by glycerin introduction, even with decrease on dry and organic mass consumption. The result showed that crude glycerin inclusion might be used in lambs’ diet. Whenever there are big amounts of feed involved in the process, the 21% crude glycerin addition may be an interesting cost reduction. Seventy eight percent (78% glycerol crude glycerin to replace corn-based feed in confined lambs’ diet appeared to be nutritionally and economically viable. 

  12. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Citizens’ concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. ‘Before’ survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An ‘after’ survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a ‘good’ life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a ‘good’ life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care. PMID:27243965

  13. Noise exposure of immature rats can induce different age-dependent extra-auditory alterations that can be partially restored by rearing animals in an enriched environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S J; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2016-04-01

    It has been previously shown that different extra-auditory alterations can be induced in animals exposed to noise at 15 days. However, data regarding exposure of younger animals, that do not have a functional auditory system, have not been obtained yet. Besides, the possibility to find a helpful strategy to restore these changes has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to test age-related differences in diverse hippocampal-dependent behavioral measurements that might be affected in noise-exposed rats, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential neuroprotective strategy, the enriched environment (EE), on noise-induced behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats of 7 and 15 days were exposed to moderate levels of noise for two hours. At weaning, animals were separated and reared either in standard or in EE cages for one week. At 28 days of age, different hippocampal-dependent behavioral assessments were performed. Results show that rats exposed to noise at 7 and 15 days were differentially affected. Moreover, EE was effective in restoring all altered variables when animals were exposed at 7 days, while a few were restored in rats exposed at 15 days. The present findings suggest that noise exposure was capable to trigger significant hippocampal-related behavioral alterations that were differentially affected, depending on the age of exposure. In addition, it could be proposed that hearing structures did not seem to be necessarily involved in the generation of noise-induced hippocampal-related behaviors, as they were observed even in animals with an immature auditory pathway. Finally, it could be hypothesized that the differential restoration achieved by EE rearing might also depend on the degree of maturation at the time of exposure and the variable evaluated, being younger animals more susceptible to environmental manipulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Suffering, compassion and 'doing good medical ethics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Paquita C

    2015-01-01

    'Doing good medical ethics' involves attending to both the biomedical and existential aspects of illness. For this, we need to bring in a phenomenological perspective to the clinical encounter, adopt a virtue-based ethic and resolve to re-evaluate the goals of medicine, in particular the alleviation of suffering and the role of compassion in everyday ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F

    2016-04-29

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks.

  16. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci from humans, food and different animal species according to data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Jánosi, Sz; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Agost, Gizella; Semjén, G

    2003-01-01

    Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.

  17. Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

    2011-03-15

    Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c, stx1d, stx2, stx2b, stx2e, stx2g, E-hly and eae). The 593 STEC strains grouped into 215 serotypes, and 123 serotypes (57.2%) were represented each by only one STEC isolate. Fifteen serotypes (7.0%) were attributed to 198 (33.3%) of the 593 STEC strains. The foodborne STEC were grouped into different categories in relation to the species of the food producing animal (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, red deer, wild-boar and hare). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant similarities between the animal origin of the food and the virulence markers of foodborne STEC. Significant associations (pfood producing animals. Virulence profiles and serotypes of STEC from food showed remarkable similarities to those of faecal STEC that were from the same animal species. The findings from our study clearly indicate that the food producing animals represent the most important source for the entry of STEC in the food chain. Sound hygiene measures implemented at critical stages of food production (milking, slaughtering, and evisceration) should be most effective in reducing the frequency of STEC contamination of food derived from domestic and wildlife animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between variations in the level of endogenous thiols and antioxidant activity of lipids and radiosensitivity of animals of different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Graevskaya, B.M.; Ivanenko, G.F.; Shishkina, L.N.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1978-01-01

    Initial levels of total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant activity (AOA) of lipids of the spleen and liver are measured in animals of different species. Radiosensitivity of animals is assessed by the value of LDsub(50/30). No reliable correlation has been revealed between initial levels of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids. There is a positive correlation between AOA of the spleen lipids and LDsub(50/30) as well as between the level of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of the animal species under study. It is likely that the level of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids reflect various aspects of cellular metabolism which is responsible for radioresistance of the organism

  19. The influence of salinity on copper accumulation and its toxic effects in estuarine animals with differing osmoregulatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jacqueline A; Marsden, Islay D; Glover, Chris N

    2010-08-01

    Copper is an important ionoregulatory toxicant in freshwater, but its effects in marine and brackish water systems are less well characterised. The effect of salinity on short-term copper accumulation and sublethal toxicity in two estuarine animals was investigated. The osmoregulating crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus accumulated copper in a concentration-dependent, but salinity-independent manner. Branchial copper accumulation correlated positively with branchial sodium accumulation. Sublethal effects of copper were most prevalent in 125% seawater, with a significant increase in haemolymph chloride noted after 96h at exposure levels of 510 microg Cu(II) L(-1). The osmoconforming gastropod, Scutus breviculus, was highly sensitive to copper exposure, a characteristic recognised previously in related species. Toxicity, as determined by a behavioural index, was present at all salinities and was positively correlated with branchial copper accumulation. At 100% seawater, increased branchial sodium accumulation, decreased haemolymph chloride and decreased haemolymph osmolarity were observed after 48h exposure to 221 microg Cu(II) L(-1), suggesting a mechanism of toxicity related to ionoregulation. However, these effects were likely secondary to a general effect on gill barrier function, and possibly mediated by mucus secretion. Significant impacts of copper on haemocyanin were also noted in both animals, highlighting a potentially novel mechanism of copper toxicity to animals utilising this respiratory pigment. Overall these findings indicate that physiology, as opposed to water chemistry, exerts the greatest influence over copper toxicity. An understanding of the physiological limits of marine and estuarine organisms may be critical for calibration of predictive models of metal toxicity in waters of high and fluctuating salinities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. QnrS1- and Aac(6’-Ib-cr-producing Escherichia coli among isolates from animals of different sources: susceptibility and genomic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eJones-Dias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli can inhabit humans and animals from multiple origins. These bacteria are often associated with gastroenteritis in animals, being a frequent cause of resistant zoonotic infections. In fact, bacteria from animals can be transmitted to humans through the food chain and direct contact. In this study, we aimed to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of a collection of S. enterica and E. coli recovered from animals of different sources, performing a genomic comparison of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR-producing isolates detected.Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high number of non wild-type isolates for fluoroquinolones among S. enterica recovered from poultry isolates. In turn, the frequency of non-wild-type E. coli to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was higher in food-producing animals than in companion or zoo animals. Globally, we detected two qnrS1 and two aac(6’-Ib-cr in E. coli isolates recovered from animals of different origins. The genomic characterization of QnrS1-producing E. coli showed high genomic similarity (O86:H12 and ST2297, although they have been recovered from a healthy turtle dove from a Zoo Park, and from a dog showing symptoms of infection. The qnrS1 gene was encoded in a IncN plasmid, also carrying blaTEM-1-containing Tn3. Isolates harboring aac(6’-Ib-cr were detected in two captive bottlenose dolphins, within a time span of two years. The additional antibiotic resistance genes of the two aac(6’-Ib-cr-positive isolates (blaOXA-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, catB3, aac(3-IIa and tetA were enclosed in IncFIA plasmids that differed in a single transposase and 60 single nucleotide variants. The isolates could be assigned to the same genetic sublineage – ST131 fimH30-Rx (O25:H4, confirming clonal spread. PMQR-producing isolates were associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts, which highlight the aptitude of E. coli to act as silent vehicles, allowing

  1. Effects of a Single Bout of Resistance Exercise in Different Volumes on Endothelium Adaptations in Healthy Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Macedo, Fabricio Nunes; Mesquita, Thássio Ricardo Ribeiro; Quintans, Lucindo José; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano de; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2017-05-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis. O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doen

  2. Produção animal e vegetal em pastagem nativa manejada sob diferentes ofertas de forragem por bovinos Animal and vegetal production of a natural pasture under different forage allowances for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Mezzalira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência de diferentes ofertas de forragem e suas combinações ao longo do ano sobre a dinâmica do crescimento da pastagem e o desempenho animal. O experimento foi conduzido em área de pastagem natural com novilhas de sobreano mantidas em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável. Os tratamentos foram ofertas de forragem fixas ao longo do ano: 4; 8; 12 e 16kg de matéria seca 100kg de peso vivo-1 por dia e combinações de 8 na primavera e 12 no outono-inverno-verão (8-12%; 12 na primavera e 8 no outono-inverno-verão (12-8%; 16 na primavera e 12 no outono-inverno-verão (16-12%, constituindo um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. A produção de forragem e o ganho de peso animal foram medidos na estação de crescimento de 2007-2008. Os resultados comprovaram que o uso de oferta de forragem muito baixa, como 4%, prejudica o desempenho animal individual e por área. O manejo combinado de ofertas 8-12% promoveu aumento de 35% no desempenho individual (0,345kg animal-1 aumento de 20% na produção por área (209kg ha-1 de PV em comparação ao manejo 12% ao longo do ano.In this research it was evaluated the influence of different forage allowances and combinations of forage allowances along the year on the pasture accumulation dynamic and animal performance. The experiment was conducted in a natural pasture area with yearling beef heifers maintained in continuous grazing with variable stocking rate. The treatments utilized with fixed forage allowances during the year were 4; 8; 12 e 16kg 100kg-1 of live weight; and the treatments of forage allowance combinations were 8 on Spring and 12 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (8-12%; 12 on Spring and 8 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (12-8%; 16 on Spring and 12 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (16-12%, constituting a experimental design in randomized blocks with two replicates of area. The primary and secondary productions were evaluated on the

  3. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  4. Perinatal administration of aromatase inhibitors in rodents as animal models of human male homosexuality: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the evidence supporting the existence of biological influences on sexual orientation. We focus on basic research studies that have affected the estrogen synthesis during the critical periods of brain sexual differentiation in male rat offspring with the use of aromatase inhibitors, such as 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17 (ATD) and letrozole. The results after prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with ATD reveal that these animals, when adults, show female sexual responses, such as lordosis or proceptive behaviors, but retain their ability to display male sexual activity with a receptive female. Interestingly, the preference and sexual behavior of these rats vary depending upon the circadian rhythm.Recently, we have established that the treatment with low doses of letrozole during the second half of pregnancy produces male rat offspring, that when adults spend more time in the company of a sexually active male than with a receptive female in a preference test. In addition, they display female sexual behavior when forced to interact with a sexually experienced male and some typical male sexual behavior when faced with a sexually receptive female. Interestingly, these males displayed both sexual behavior patterns spontaneously, i.e., in absence of exogenous steroid hormone treatment. Most of these features correspond with those found in human male homosexuals; however, the "bisexual" behavior shown by the letrozole-treated rats may be related to a particular human population. All these data, taken together, permit to propose letrozole prenatal treatment as a suitable animal model to study human male homosexuality and reinforce the hypothesis that human sexual orientation is underlied by changes in the endocrine milieu during early development.

  5. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  6. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  7. Changes in Soil C/N Ratio and Response of Growth of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. to Different Levels of Animal Manure and Chemical Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laleh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hemp is used in the food, drug, and natural fibers. Assessment of various systems of plant nutrition is one of the ways to improve field management and production of medicinal plants. Nitrogen is considered a necessary element in plant nutrition. Nitrogen uptake as ammonium compounds form, serves as starting material for amino acid biosynthesis and additional N-containing compound such as pyrimidine, purine bases, chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acid, vitamins and other organic compounds, therefore, the higher plants require larger amount of nitrogen. Phosphorus is the second most important nutrient in plants. Studies show that application of animal manure provides different nutrients for plants. Application of animal manure in soil at the optimal level for plant growth provides a opportunities for soil fertility, conservation, sustainability, and protection against degradation but they need time to release their nutrient. Various studies showed that the combined usage the animal manure and chemical fertilizers (like N and P has positive effects on soil, growth and yield of plant with the aim of protecting the environment. Organic and inorganic fertilizers are effective on soil C/N ratio. Soil C/N ratio is important factor for plant and soil. It is important to study the different stages of plant growth responses to organic and chemical fertilizers for plants production. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of organic amendments enriched with chemical fertilizers of nitrogen and phosphorus and studying changes of soil C/N ratio in vegetative and reproductive stages of hemp. Materials and Methods To study the effect of different levels of animal manure and chemical fertilizers, a split factorial experiment, based on complete randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at the Research Farm of Faculty of agriculture, University of Birjand, during the growing season 2013-2014. Experimental

  8. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dictus, W J; van Zoelen, E J; Tetteroo, P A; Tertoolen, L G; de Laat, S W; Bluemink, J G

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to partition into the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules show partial recovery upon photobleaching indicating the existence of lipidic microdomains. In the unfertilized egg the mobile fraction of plasma membrane lipids (approximately 50%) has a fivefold smaller lateral diffusion coefficient (D = 1.5 X 10(-8) cm2/sec) in the animal than in the vegetal plasma membrane (D = 7.6 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). This demonstrates the presence of an animal/vegetal polarity within the Xenopus egg plasma membrane. Upon fertilization this polarity is strongly (greater than 100X) enhanced leading to the formation of two distinct macrodomains within the plasma membrane. At the animal side of the egg lipids are completely immobilized on the time scale of FPR measurements (D less than 10(-10) cm2/sec), whereas at the vegetal side D is only slightly reduced (D = 4.4 X 10(-8) cm2/sec). The immobilization of animal plasma membrane lipids, which could play a role in the polyspermy block, probably arises by the fusion of cortical granules which are more numerous here. The transition between the animal and the vegetal domain is sharp and coincides with the boundary between the presumptive ecto- and endoderm. The role of regional differences in the plasma membrane is discussed in relation to cell diversification in early development.

  9. Clinical trial involving sufferers and non-sufferers of cervicogenic headache (CGH): potential mechanisms of action of photobiomodulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Ann D.; Bicknell, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is an effective tool for the management of spinal pain including inflammation of facet joints. Apart from cervical and lumbar joint pain the upper cervical spine facet joint inflammation can result in the CGH (traumatic or atraumatic in origin). This condition affects children, adults and elders and is responsible for 19% of chronic headache and up to 33% of patients in pain clinics. The condition responds well to physiotherapy, facet joint injection, radiofrequency neurotomy and surgery at a rate of 75%. The other 25% being unresponsive to treatment with no identified features of unresponsiveness. In other conditions of chronic unresponsive cervical pain have responded to photobiomodulation at a level of 80% in the short and medium term. A clinical trial was therefore conducted on a cohort of atraumatic patients from the ages of 5-93 (predominantly Neurologist referred / familial sufferers 2/3 generations vertically and laterally) who had responded to a course of PBM and physiotherapy. The CGH sufferers and their non CGH suffering relatives over these generations were then compared for features that distinguish the two groups. Fifty parameters were tested (anthropmetric, movement and neural tension tests included) and there was a noted difference in tandem stance between the groups (.04 significance with repeated measures). As this impairment is common to benign ataxia and migrainous vertigo and in these conditions there is an ion channelopathy (especially potassium channelopathy). A postulated mechanism of action of PBM would involve modulation of ion channels and this is discussed in this presentation.

  10. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    that Danish bacterial isolates from livestock so far have not or have only to a limited degree developed resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used for disinfection. Acquired copper resistance was only found in enterococci. There were large differences in the intrinsic susceptibility of the different...... of susceptibilities to the different antimicrobial agents. Large variations were observed in the susceptibility of the different bacterial species to the different compounds. Staphylococci were in general very susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. The Salmonella isolates were in general less susceptible...

  11. Recognition and assessment of pain in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex physiological phenomenon, it is hard to define in a satisfactory manner in human beings, and it is extremely difficult to recognize and interpret in animals. According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP, pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain is an important aspect of life and its prevention and decrease are important as a goal to achieve the well-being of animals. The task of scientists is to recognize the language of pain interpretation which animals use to seek help. For an objective evaluation of pain, it is essential to possess a good knowledge of physiology, etiology and clinical diagnosis. We are obliged to do this also because of the ethic principles to defend the well-being of animals and to eliminate any factor which can cause feelings of pain or suffering. The recognition of pain and its manifestation is especially important in cases of animal abuse, when it could be the only symptom. Animals can be quiet and instinctively hide the presence of pain, which makes the symptoms more subtle, but does not make their injuries any less painful. It is also important to have knowledge of manifestations of pain that appear during different surgical procedures performed by the veterinarinarian in spite of the applied dose of analgetic. Pain significantly contributes to the suffering of animals and in such cases it is important to collect relevant documents, in the form of video recordings or in photodocumentation form, because it is important information in the processing of cases of animal abuse. Veterinary experts have the responsibility to recognize, evaluate, and prevent pain and to relieve animals from the pain, which should be the fourth vital sign, following temperature, pulse and breathing, and participate in the evaluation of the condition of the animal during an examination. Due to all the above mentioned, it is

  12. Comparison of systemic interleukin 10 concentrations in healthy dogs and those suffering from recurring and first time Demodex canis infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, A O C; Guiot, E G; Stein, M; Felix, S R; Silva, E F; Nobre, M O

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this study was to assess the interleukin 10 (IL-10) concentrations in the sera of dogs suffering from demodicosis. Twenty-six dogs were distributed into three groups: demodicosis groups G1, n=11 (recurring disease) and G2, n=6 (first time occurrence), and a control group, G3, n=9 (healthy dogs). All the animals were subjected to skin scrape tests and blood harvesting for serum extraction. In G1 and G2 only those animals with Demodex canis positive skin tests were included, while healthy dogs were included in G3. To assess IL-10 levels the commercial Quantikine Canine IL-10 Immunoassay(®) (R&D Systems) kit was used. The mean IL-10 level obtained for G1 was 269.4 pg/ml (sd=290.8 pg/ml), for G2 it was 28.5 pg/ml (sd=19.7 pg/ml) while the mean for G3 was 11.9 pg/ml (sd=2.3 pg/ml). There was a significant difference between G1 and the other two groups. According to our results, dogs with reoccurring demodicosis have higher IL-10 levels than healthy dogs and those suffering the disease for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ashtawarga plants - Suffering a triple standardization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Jaswinder Kaur; Gupta, Vikas; Kumar, Sanjiv; Singh, Ranjit; Bansal, Parveen

    2017-10-01

    Ayurveda is one of the oldest known holistic health care systems recommending diverse medicinal uses of plants for prevention and cure of diseases and illness. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the holistic system is gaining more popularity due to its easy availability, low cost, congeniality, better accessibility and higher safety than allopathic medicine. Demand of herbal drugs is increasing day-by-day because of increasing popularity of herbal drugs; however market fails to meet this supply due to numerous factors, one of the important factors being the extinction of these plants from local flora. About 560 herbal species of India have been included in the Red List of Threatened species. Hence to overcome problem of non-availability of endangered species, Department of AYUSH, Govt. of India has permitted the substitution of rare herbal drugs with available substitutes on the basis of Ayurvedic concepts. Due to this, herbal drug industry has started exploiting the situation and now Ayurvedic products are suffering from a serious problem of adulteration with addition of spoiled, inferior, spurious drugs that are inferior in therapeutic/chemical properties and used to enhance profits. Adulteration with other plants degrades the quality and credibility of Ayurvedic medicine. Ashtawarga plants being an important part of many Ayurvedic formulations are also available in a very limited amount and likely to be substituted by cheap adulterants. Keeping in view the above situation, a metadata analysis has been conducted to find out types of adulteration/substitutions malpractices going on for Ashtawarga plants.

  14. The 'little extra' that alleviates suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne

    2007-05-01

    Nursing, or caring science, is mainly concerned with developing knowledge of what constitutes ideal, good health care for patients as whole persons, and how to achieve this. The aim of this study was to find clinical empirical indications of good ethical care and to investigate the substance of ideal nursing care in praxis. A hermeneutic method was employed in this clinical study, assuming the theoretical perspective of caritative caring and ethics of the understanding of life. The data consisted of two Socratic dialogues: one with nurses and one with nursing students, and interviews with two former patients. The empirical data are first described from a phenomenological approach. Observations of caregivers offering 'the little extra' were taken to confirm that patients were 'being seen', not from the perspective of an ideal nursing model, but from that of interaction as a fellow human being. The study provides clinical evidence that, as an ontological response to suffering, 'symbolic acts' such as giving the 'little extra' may work to bridge gaps in human interaction. The fact that 'little things' have the power to preserve dignity and make patients feel they are valued offers hope. Witnessing benevolent acts also paves the way for both patients and caregivers to increase their understanding of life.

  15. Comparison of gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography in different grading of blunt hepatic and splenic trauma: an animal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Li, Wenxiu; Lv, Faqin; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Yuexiang; Li, Junlai; Yang, Li

    2009-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for the detection of different grading of solid organ injuries in blunt abdominal trauma in animals. A self-made miniature tools were used as models to simulate a blunt hepatic or splenic trauma in 16 and 14 anesthetized dogs, respectively. Baseline ultrasound, CEUS and CECT were used to detect traumatic injuries of livers and spleens. The degree of injuries was determined by CEUS according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) scale and the results compared with injury scale based on CECT evaluation. CEUS showed 22 hepatic injury sites in 16 animals and 17 splenic injury sites in other 14 animals. According to AAST scale, 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 3 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic lesions were present in 16 animals; 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 6 grade III and 2 grade IV splenic lesions in 14 animals. On CECT scan, 21 hepatic and 17 splenic injuries were demonstrated. According to Becker CT scaling for hepatic injury, 1 grade I, 2 grade II, 4 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic injuries were present. On the basis of Buntain spleen scaling, 2 grade I, 5 grade II, 5 grade III, 2 grade IV splenic injuries were showed. After Spearman rank correlation analysis, the agreement of CEUS with CECT on the degree of hepatic and splenic injury is 93.3% and 92.9%, respectively. CT is currently considered as the reference method for grading blunt abdominal trauma, according to experiment results, CEUS grading showed high levels of concordance with CECT. CEUS can accurately determine the degree of injury and will play an important role in clinical application.

  16. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  17. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids were studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein- -1abelled fatty

  18. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  19. Emotion and Multimedia Learning: An Investigation of the Effects of Valence and Arousal on Different Modalities in an Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sungwon; Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Previous emotion studies in education have focused mainly on the superiority of positive emotion for learning performance (e.g., enjoyment) over negative emotion (e.g., fear). However, few studies have considered different arousal levels in terms of learners' emotion. For example, the effects of calm positive or negative emotion have not been…

  20. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: I. Animal Performance and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Beldman, G.; Delen, van J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete

  1. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  2. [Animals as a potential source of human fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Changing environment is a reason, that many saprotrophic fungi became opportunists and in the end also maybe a pathogenic. Host specific adaptation is not so strong among fungi, so there are many common fungal pathogens for people and for animals. Animals suffering from dermatomycosis are well recognize as source of human superficial mycoses. Breeding of different exotic animals such as parrots, various Reptiles and Amphibians, miniature Rodents and keeping them as a pets in the peoples houses, have become more and more popular in the recent years. This article is shortly presenting which animals maybe a potential source of fungal infections for humans. Looking for the other mycoses as systemic mycoses, especially candidiasis or aspergilosis there are no data, which allow excluding sick animals as a source of infection for human, even if those deep mycoses have endogenic reactivation mechanism. Immunocompromised people are in high-risk group when they take care of animals. Another important source of potentially pathogenic, mostly air-born fungi may be animal use in experimental laboratory work. During the experiments is possible that laboratory workers maybe hurt and these animals and their environment, food and house boxes could be the possible source of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans or other animals. Unusual way to inoculate these potentially pathogens into the skin of laboratory personnel may cause granulomatous, local lesions on their hands.

  3. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  4. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity

    OpenAIRE

    Laat, S.W. de; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids were studied in unfertilized and fertilized Xenopus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein- -1abelled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)- aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to distribute itself in the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules s...

  5. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. PMID:27143874

  6. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  7. Cultural Image of Animal Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海燕

    2017-01-01

    This paper,after introducing the definition and forms of cultural image,focuses on the detailed comparison and analysis of cultural image of animal words both in English and in Chinese from four aspects,that is,same animal word,same cultural image;same animal word,different cultural images;different animal words,same cultural image;different animal words,different cultural images.

  8. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  9. [The effect of qualitatively different fatty components of the diet on mitochondrial membranes in animals with experimental anthracosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichkhadze, G M; Daĭker, V R

    1989-01-01

    The diets with qualitatively different content of fat were found to produce structural and functional alternations in liver mitochondria of rats with experimental anthracosis. It was established in particular that the increase of the vegetable oil quota in the diet of rats affected the structure and function of mitochondria whereas the diet whose fat component included butter, lard, sunflower oil, and margarine at a ratio of 1:1, 5:1:0.5 reduced the untoward effect of coal dust and exercise on the mitochondrial membranes.

  10. Exploring the differences between pet and non-pet owners: Implications for human-animal interaction research and policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saunders

    Full Text Available There is conflicting evidence about whether living with pets results in better mental and physical health outcomes, with the majority of the empirical research evidence being inconclusive due to methodological limitations. We briefly review the research evidence, including the hypothesized mechanisms through which pet ownership may influence health outcomes. This study examines how pet and non-pet owners differ across a variety of socio-demographic and health measures, which has implications for the proper interpretation of a large number of correlational studies that attempt to draw causal attributions. We use a large, population-based survey from California administered in 2003 (n = 42,044 and find that pet owners and non-pet owners differ across many traits, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, living arrangements, and income. We include a discussion about how the factors associated with the selection into the pet ownership group are related to a range of mental and physical health outcomes. Finally, we provide guidance on how to properly model the effects of pet ownership on health to accurately estimate this relationship in the general population.

  11. Comparison of bacteroides-prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R; Voytek, Mary A

    2005-10-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment.

  12. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  13. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  14. Class and compassion: socioeconomic factors predict responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Manzo, Vida M; Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    Previous research indicates that lower-class individuals experience elevated negative emotions as compared with their upper-class counterparts. We examine how the environments of lower-class individuals can also promote greater compassionate responding-that is, concern for the suffering or well-being of others. In the present research, we investigate class-based differences in dispositional compassion and its activation in situations wherein others are suffering. Across studies, relative to their upper-class counterparts, lower-class individuals reported elevated dispositional compassion (Study 1), as well as greater self-reported compassion during a compassion-inducing video (Study 2) and for another person during a social interaction (Study 3). Lower-class individuals also exhibited heart rate deceleration-a physiological response associated with orienting to the social environment and engaging with others-during the compassion-inducing video (Study 2). We discuss a potential mechanism of class-based influences on compassion, whereby lower-class individuals' are more attuned to others' distress, relative to their upper-class counterparts.

  15. Comparison of different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Sharma, Mehar C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study is to determine and to compare the different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters of rats. Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 60 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after predetermined intervals. Rats were sacrificed and ipsilateral kidneys were subjected for analysis of morphological parameters such as renal height, cranio-caudal diameter, antero-posterior diameter, lateral diameter, volume of the pelvis and average cortical thickness: Renal height. Renal height and cranio-caudal diameter of renal pelvis after ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction started rising as early as 7 days of creating obstruction and were affected earlier than antero-posterior and lateral diameter and also were reversed earlier than other parameters after reversal of obstruction. Renal cortical thickness and volume of the pelvis were affected after prolonged obstruction (> 3 weeks) and were the late parameters to be reversed after reversal of obstruction. Cranio-caudal diameter and renal height were the early morphological parameters to be affected and reversed after reversal of obstruction in experimentally created ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction.

  16. Comparison of different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the following study is to determine and to compare the different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters of rats. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 60 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after predetermined intervals. Rats were sacrificed and ipsilateral kidneys were subjected for analysis of morphological parameters such as renal height, cranio-caudal diameter, antero-posterior diameter, lateral diameter, volume of the pelvis and average cortical thickness: Renal height. Results: Renal height and cranio-caudal diameter of renal pelvis after ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction started rising as early as 7 days of creating obstruction and were affected earlier than antero-posterior and lateral diameter and also were reversed earlier than other parameters after reversal of obstruction. Renal cortical thickness and volume of the pelvis were affected after prolonged obstruction (> 3 weeks and were the late parameters to be reversed after reversal of obstruction. Conclusions: Cranio-caudal diameter and renal height were the early morphological parameters to be affected and reversed after reversal of obstruction in experimentally created ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction.

  17. Proniosomal formulation of curcumin having anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in different experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Rai, A K

    2012-10-01

    Curcumin, the active ingredient of the spice turmeric, has a long history as an herbal remedy for a variety of diseases. Transdermal drug delivery has been recognized as an alternative route to oral delivery. Proniosomes offer a versatile vesicle delivery concept with the potential for drug delivery via the transdermal route. In this study, different proniosomal gel bases were prepared by the ether injection method, using Span 60 and Span 80, Tween 20, cholesterol, and formulation PA2. They were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, revealing vesicular structures, and assessed for stability and effect on in vitro skin permeation using rat skin. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of formulation PA2 and PB1 were compared with a standard market product containing indomethacin. The effect of formulation PA2 and PB1 was evaluated for acute inflammation in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and for chronic inflammation in complete Freud's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Further histopathological and radiographic evaluation was performed. The investigated curcumin loaded proniosomal formula proved to be non-irritant, non-toxic, but had lower anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects than the marketed indomethacin products.

  18. Effects of supplementing concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition in veal calf diets: I. Animal performance and rumen fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, B J; Van Reenen, C G; Beldman, G; van Delen, J; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments consisted of 1) milk replacer control, 2) pectin-based concentrate, 3) neutral detergent fiber-based concentrate, 4) starch-based concentrate, and 5) mixed concentrate (equal amounts of concentrates of treatments 2, 3, and 4). Concentrate diets were provided as pellets in addition to a commercial milk replacer. Calves were euthanized either at the end of 8 or 12 wk of age. The overall dry matter intake of the concentrate diets varied between 0.37 and 0.52 kg/d. Among the concentrate diets, the dry matter intake was lower in the starch diet (0.37 kg/d of dry matter) and differed between the NDF and pectin diets. The average daily gain for all the dietary treatments varied between 0.70 and 0.78 kg/d. The mixed- and NDF-fed calves had an increased average daily gain (0.78 and 0.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with the starch- and pectin-fed calves (0.70 and 0.71 kg/d, respectively). Rumen fermentation in the calves fed concentrates was characterized by a low pH (4.9 to 5.2), volatile fatty acid concentrations between 100 and 121 mmol/L, and high concentrations of reducing sugars (33 to 66 g/kg of dry matter). The volatile fatty acid concentrations of calves fed concentrates were higher than those of the control calves. All concentrate treatments showed a low acetate-to-propionate ratio in rumen fluid (between 1.3 and 1.9). Among the concentrates, the NDF diet had the highest (55.5%) and starch the lowest (45.5%) molar proportions of acetate. Calves fed the mixed, pectin, and starch diets had significantly higher molar proportions of butyrate (13.1 to 15.8%) than the NDF- and control-fed groups (9

  19. The Antioxidant Effect of Rosmarinic Acid by Different Delivery Routes in the Animal Model of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna R; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Di Pino, Antonella; Rolesi, Rolando; Paciello, Fabiola; Grassi, Claudio; Troiani, Diana; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2018-03-01

    Trans-tympanic Rosmarinic Acid (RA), as compared with the systemic administration, protects against noise-induced auditory hair cell and hearing losses in rats in vivo. ROS production, lipoperoxidative damage, and an imbalance of antioxidant defences play a significant role in noise-induced hearing loss. Several molecules with antioxidant properties have been tested to restore redox homeostasis; however, drug delivery system represents a challenge for their effectiveness. In our model, acute and intense noise exposure induces hearing loss, hair cell death, and oxidative stress, with an increase in superoxide production and over-expression of lipid peroxidation in cochlear structures. RA was administrated in male Wistar rats by trans-tympanic (20 μl) and systemic (10 mg/kg) modality. In systemic administration, RA was injected 1 hour before noise exposure and once daily for the following 3 days. ABRs were measured before and at days 1, 3, 7, and 30 after noise exposure. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining, dihydroethidium and 8-isoprostane immunostainings were performed to assess and quantify outer hair cells loss, superoxide production, and lipid peroxidation in the different experimental groups. Systemic RA administration significantly decreased noise-induced hearing loss and the improvement of auditory function was paralleled by a significant reduction in cochlear oxidative stress. The trans-tympanic modality of drug administration showed a similar degree of protection both at the functional and morphological levels. The effectiveness of RA given via trans-tympanic injection could be interesting for the future application of this minimally-invasive procedure in the treatment of ROS-induced hearing loss.

  20. Two different genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza virus isolated in northern China and their pathogenicity in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; Xu, Chuantian; Yan, Minghua; Xin, Xiaoguang; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2015-02-25

    During 2006 and 2007, two swine-origin triple-reassortant influenza A (H1N2) viruses were isolated from pigs in northern China, and the antigenic characteristics of the hemagglutinin protein of the viruses were examined. Genotyping and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated different emergence patterns for the two H1N2 viruses, Sw/Hebei/10/06 and Sw/Tianjin/1/07. Sequences for the other genes encoding the internal proteins were compared with the existing data to determine their origins and establish the likely mechanisms of genetic reassortment. Sw/Hebei/10/06 is an Sw/Indiana/9K035/99-like virus, whereas Sw/Tianjin/1/07 represents a new H1N2 genotype with surface genes of classic swine and human origin and internal genes originating from the Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 virus. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice infected with the Sw/HeB/10/06 and Sw/TJ/1/07 viruses showed an average weight loss of 12.8% and 8.1%, respectively. Healthy six-week-old pigs were inoculated intranasally with either the Sw/HeB/10/06 or Sw/TJ/1/07 virus. No considerable changes in the clinical presentation were observed post-inoculation in any of the virus-inoculated groups, and the viruses effectively replicated in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. Based on the results, it is possible that the new genotype of the swine H1N2 virus that emerged in China may become widespread in the swine population and pose a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zo Young-Gun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx, the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic

  2. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  3. Power, distress, and compassion: turning a blind eye to the suffering of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Oveis, Christopher; van der Löwe, Ilmo; LuoKogan, Aleksandr; Goetz, Jennifer; Keltner, Dacher

    2008-12-01

    Responses to individuals who suffer are a foundation of cooperative communities. On the basis of the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), we hypothesized that elevated social power is associated with diminished reciprocal emotional responses to another person's suffering (feeling distress at another person's distress) and with diminished complementary emotion (e.g., compassion). In face-to-face conversations, participants disclosed experiences that had caused them suffering. As predicted, participants with a higher sense of power experienced less distress and less compassion and exhibited greater autonomic emotion regulation when confronted with another participant's suffering. Additional analyses revealed that these findings could not be attributed to power-related differences in baseline emotion or decoding accuracy, but were likely shaped by power-related differences in the motivation to affiliate. Implications for theorizing about power and the social functions of emotions are discussed.

  4. Effects of two different rearing systems (organic and barn on production performance, animal welfare traits and egg quality characteristics in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative housing systems for hen eggs production represents clear evidence of the trend in animal housing and husbandry towards extensive rearing methods. Consumer demand is oriented towards healthy foods controlled not only under a safety point of view, but also under a welfare assessment of the animals’ living conditions. Among the different alternative systems deep litter and organic production in recent years have been improved in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different housing systems (barn B and organic O for laying hens may influence productive performance, fear responses and egg quality characteristics. A total of 4,745 birds were housed in the B system and 2,016 in the O system, both of which were commercial facilities. In each system the same strain (Hy-Line Brown was housed and layer performance, external and internal egg characteristics, mortality and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Animal reactivity was recorded monthly with the approaching test. Moreover, the Tonic Immobility test was conducted at 70 weeks of age; feather and foot pad conditions were also investigated at the same time. The peak of laying was reached in both housing systems at 25 weeks of age and was higher in organic hens (94.5% than in barn hens (93.0%. Feed conversion rate during the overall laying period was 2.36 vs 2.20, respectively, in O and B housing systems. There was a significant difference concerning the eggs classified as very dirty, dirty and cracked between the two systems. The dirty eggs were higher in O system probably due to laying eggs in a free range area, while the higher number of cracked eggs in B system may be due to a significantly less shell thickness in this system. Egg weight increased with layer age in both housing systems. Animals reared in O system showed less fearfulness than in B emphasised by the approaching and Tonic Immobility test results. Feather scoring did not evidence any severe plumage

  5. Role of veterinarians in recognition and prevention of animal abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Criminal law of the Republic of Serbia in 2005 as well as the Law on veterinary medicine, there has been an increasing number of cases that deal with raising criminal charges due to animal killing or torturing. There is also a significant number of forensic cases that are aimed at discovering criminal acts. Animal abuse is a social issue, which includes a range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse, or neglect. Abuse and neglect of animals have a variety of forms and manifestations, but the end result is always the same - animal suffering. The connection between animal abuse, domestic violence, and child abuse indicates that there is a significant role of veterinarians in social contexts and in terms of stopping this vicious cycle by preventing, discovering and turning in suspects involved in these crimes. The help that veterinarians provide to public prosecutors is of great importance. This study shows the role of veterinarians in cases of possible animal abuse, as well as their role in processing that type of cases.

  6. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L.; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  7. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  8. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  9. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wetlands are repositories of unique biodiversity. Wetlandorganisms are well adapted to their habitat, lying at theinterface of aquatic and terrestrial environments. In order tounderstand their adaptations in a better way, it is essential tograsp the basic properties of the medium in which variousorganisms live. This is attempted ...

  10. Whole bone testing in small animals: systematic characterization of the mechanical properties of different rodent bones available for rat fracture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Peter M; Foehr, Peter; Bürklein, Dominik; Bissinger, Oliver; Pilge, Hakan; Kreutzer, Kilian; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Tischer, Thomas

    2018-02-14

    animals, light animals showed good consistency in failure loads of the humeri (CV% 7.7). Most consistent results of both sides (left vs. right) in failure loads were provided by the femurs of light animals (mean difference 4.0 ± 2.8%); concerning stiffness, humeri of heavy animals were most consistent (mean difference of 6.2 ± 5%). In general, the failure loads showed strong correlations to the BMC (R 2  = 0.85-0.88) whereas stiffness correlated only moderate, except for the humerus (BMC vs. stiffness: R 2  = 0.79). Altogether, the rat's femur of mature specimens showed the most accurate and consistent radiological and biomechanical results. In synopsis with the common experimental use enabling comparison among different studies, this bone offers ideal biomechanical conditions for three point bending experiments. This can be explained by the combination of a superior aspect ratio and a round and long, straight morphology, which satisfies the beam criteria more than other bones tested.

  11. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  12. [Morpho-functional reaction of spleen natural killer cells and macrophages to melatonin administration to the animals kept on different illumination regimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatskikh, O A; Luzikova, E M

    2012-01-01

    The aim this investigation was to study the changes in the numbers of spleen CD57+ and CD68+ cells (natural killer cells and macrophages respectively) after melatonin administration to the animals kept on different illumination regimens. The experimental animals were given melatonin in dose of 0.03 mg per day for 2 and 4 weeks under conditions of natural illumination or artificial darkening. Spleen paraffin sections were stained using immunohistochemical methods for detection of CD57+ and CD68+ cells. It was shown that long-term administration of melatonin under conditions of natural illumination had an immunosuppressive effect, that was manifested by the depopulation of the marginal zones, white pulp and all the zones of the red pulp, parenchyma loosening and denudation of the reticular stroma of the organ. However, long-term hormone administration under conditions of artificial darkening had an immunostimulatory effect as evidenced by the increased inflow of immunocompetent cells into the spleen, their migration from the white pulp into the marginal zones and emigration into peripheral blood flow, concomitant with the increase in the number of lymphoid nodules. The number of CD57+ and CD68+ cells was increased in splenic periarterial lymphoid sheaths and decreased in B-dependent zones of the organ.

  13. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  14. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  15. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  16. Quality of life in breast cancer sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, Ahmed Essmat; Abou El Ezz, Nahla Fawzy; Gado, Nivine; Ibrahim Goda, Amal Mahmoud

    2016-08-08

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to measure health-related quality of life (QOL) among patients with early stage cancer breast under curative treatment at department of oncology and nuclear medicine at Ain Shams University Hospitals. Identify factors affecting QOL among these patients. Design/methodology/approach - A cross-sectional study measured QOL among early stage female breast cancer (BC) patients and determined the main factors affecting their QOL. Three interviewer administered questionnaires were used. Findings - The physical domain mostly affected in BC patients and the functional domain least. Socio-demographic factors that significantly affected BC patients QOL scores were patient age, education, having children and family income. Specific patient characteristics include caregiver presence - a factor that affected different QOL scores. Age at diagnosis, affection in the side of the predominant hand, post-operative chemotherapy and difficulty in obtaining the medication were the disease-related factors that affected QOL scores. Originality/value - The final model predicting QOL for early stage female BC patients included age, education and difficulty in obtaining the medication as determinants for total QOL score. Carer presence was the specific patient characteristic that affected different QOL scores.

  17. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-04-01

    sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion: There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. Keywords: air pollution, biomass, chronic bronchitis, COPD, intervention

  18. [Apotemnophilia as a contemporary frame for psychological suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baubet, T; Gal, B; Dendoncker-Viry, S; Masquelet, A C; Gatt, M-T; Moro, M R

    2007-09-01

    trouble as an association of a factitious disorder with a borderline personality disorder. In the last part of this paper, we discuss the scientific litterature about apotemnophilia and BIID. We support the idea that BIID can be considered as a culture-bound syndrome, a contemporary frame for psychological suffering. We think that BIID does not have neither intrinsic nor unequivocal psychopathological meaning. It is a (Elliott), a common pathway for the expression of very different kinds of psychological suffering. Apotemnophilia and BIID are raising important ethical and practical issues for psychiatrists: their opinion will probably be requested by patients and surgical teams having to deal with patient asking for healthy limbs amputation.

  19. Iodine metabolism and thyroid functions in various species of domestic animals and poultry birds. I - Species difference in thyroid status as reflected by triiodothyronine 131I uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setia, M.S.; Parshad, Omkar; Varman, P.N.

    1974-01-01

    In vitro triiodothyronine- 131 I uptake, by red blood cells was studied in buffaloes, buffaloe calves, cross-bred calves, rams, goats, piglets and also in pure white leg horn and cross-bred birds. Results revealed that buffalo calves have the lowest uptake values, whereas piglets appeared to have the highest values as compared to other species. Distinct differences in the uptake of T 3 - 131 I by the erythrocytes were observed to exist within as well as amongst the species of farm animals and poultry birds studied. Cross-breds exhibited higher degree of T 3 - 131 I uptake as compared to pure-breds. This test offers promise where more tedious methods may not be possible for conducting the survey on the thyroid status and iodine metabolism on large population of live-stock. (author)

  20. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli populations isolated from farm animals with different exposure to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Justyna; Pusz, Paweł; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the presence or the absence of antibiotic input on the emergence and maintenance of resistance in commensal bacteria from food producing animals. The research material constituted E. coli isolates from two animal species: swine at different age from one conventional pig farm with antibiotic input in young pigs and from beef and dairy cattle originated from organic breeding farm. The sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested, and the presence of 15 resistance genes was examined. In E. coli from swine, the most prevalent resistance was resistance to streptomycin (88.3%), co-trimoxazole (78.8%), tetracycline (57.3%) ampicillin (49.3%) and doxycycline (44.9%) with multiple resistance in the majority. The most commonly observed resistance genes were: bla(TEM) (45.2%), tetA (35.8%), aadA1 (35.0%), sul3 (29.5%), dfrA1 (20.4%). Differences in phenotypes and genotypes of E. coli between young swine undergoing prevention program and the older ones without the antibiotic pressure occurred. A disparate resistance was found in E. coli from cattle: cephalothin (36.9%), cefuroxime (18.9%), doxycycline (8.2%), nitrofurantoin (7.7%), and concerned mainly dairy cows. Among isolates from cattle, multidrug resistance was outnumbered by resistance to one or two antibiotics and the only found gene markers were: bla(SHV), (3.4%), tetA (1.29%), bla(TEM) (0.43%) and tetC (0.43%). The presented outcomes provide evidence that antimicrobial pressure contributes to resistance development, and enteric microflora constitutes an essential reservoir of resistance genes.

  1. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  2. Spiritual Needs in Patients Suffering from Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Offenbaecher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess spiritual needs of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS and to evaluate correlations with disease and health associated variables. Using a set of standardized questionnaires (i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36's Quality of Life, Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, etc., we enrolled 141 patients (95% women, mean age 58 ± 10 years. Here, needs for inner peace and giving/generativity scored the highest, while existential needs and religious needs scored lowest. Particularly inner peace needs and existential needs correlated with different domains of reduced mental health, particularly with anxiety, the intention to escape from illness, and psychosocial restrictions. Thirty-eight percent of the patients stated needs to be forgiven and nearly half to forgive someone from their past life. Therefore, the specific spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases should be addressed in clinical care in order to identify potential therapeutic avenues to support and stabilize their psychoemotional situation.

  3. Hearing Recovey in Patients Suffering Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Eslami

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The study included 80 patients treated for sudden deafness over the last 5-7 years. Case history, laboratory findings, pure-tone audiogram and electronystagmography (ENG findings were noted. If any abnormalities had been recorded in ENG studies, the studies were redone. ORL status was redefined and audiograms were obtained in all patients. When becoming ill, the 80 patients had not differed from the normal population in common cardiovascular risk factors. None of them had had signs of viral infection (paired serum samples had been taken at 2-week intervals; routine examinations had been done for common viral antigens. As many as 31 of the 80 patients with acute hearing loss had had abnormalities such as spontaneous nystagmus (PN, hypoexcitability (HE and directional preponderance (DP in the bithermal caloric tests (+44 degrees C, + 30 degrees C of their ENG studies. Twenty of the 31 patients still had abnormal ENG studies after 5-7 years. Only 1 subject had positional nystagmus, and none had subjective vertigo. Patients with an abnormal ENG study showed a poor recovery of the speech reception threshold, whereas those with a normal ENG study showed slightly significant (p less than 0.05 recovery.

  4. A virtual sleepcoach for people suffering from insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    People suffering from insomnia have problems falling asleep or staying asleep. Insomnia impairs people’s daily life and their quality of life decreases. Approximately 10% of the population suffers from insomnia. The common treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I),

  5. Pain and suffering as viewed by the Hindu religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Sarah M

    2007-08-01

    Religion and spiritual practices are among the resources used by patients to cope with chronic pain. The major concepts of Hinduism that are related to pain and suffering are presented. Ways that Hindu traditions deal with pain and suffering are reviewed, including the concept of acceptance, which has been studied in the pain medicine literature. By becoming more familiar with Hindu views of pain and suffering, pain medicine practitioners can offer potentially helpful concepts to all patients and support Hindus' spirituality as it relates to pain and suffering. Religion or spirituality is often important to patients. This article will inform the pain medicine practitioner how pain and suffering are viewed in Hinduism, the third largest religion in the world. It is hoped that these concepts will prove helpful when treating not only followers of Hinduism but all patients.

  6. Not all suffering is pain: sources of patients' suffering in the emergency department call for improvements in communication from practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body, Richard; Kaide, Ergul; Kendal, Sarah; Foex, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of prompt, effective analgesia is rightly considered as a standard of care in the emergency department (ED). However, much suffering is not 'painful' and may be under-recognised. We sought to describe the burden of suffering in the ED and explore how this may be best addressed from a patient centred perspective. In a prospective cohort study, we included undifferentiated patients presenting to the ED. We undertook two face to face questionnaires with the first immediately following triage. We asked patients: (a) if they were 'suffering'; (b) how they were suffering; and (c) what they hoped would be done to ease this. Prior to leaving the ED, we asked patients what had been done to ease their suffering. Data were analysed thematically. Of 125 patients included, 77 (61.6%) reported suffering on direct questioning and 92 (73.6%) listed at least one way in which they were suffering. 90 (72.0%) patients had a pain score >0/10 but only 37 (29.6%) reported that pain was causing suffering. Patients reported suffering from both physical symptoms (especially pain, nausea, vomiting and dizziness) and emotional distress (notably anxiety). Treatment (to ease physical and emotional symptoms), information (particularly diagnosis, reassurance and explanation), care (notably friendly staff) and closure (being seen, resolving the problem and going home) were the key themes identified as important for relief of suffering. In seeking to ease suffering in the ED, clinicians must focus not only on providing analgesia but on treating Emotional distress, Physical symptoms, providing Information, Care and Closure (EPICC). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  8. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  9. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  10. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  11. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  12. `So, What Do Men and Women Want? Is It any Different from What Animals Want?' Sex Education in an Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss and problematise notions of femininity and masculinity constructed in teaching situations among 16-year-old upper-secondary students studying science. The empirical examples originate from a teaching session with the theme of `sex and relationships'. The analysis is focused on metaphors inherent in a lesson that has its origins in the animal world. The findings show that the lesson `sex in the animal world' is full of anthropomorphism, metaphors that humanise animal behaviour. Teachers and students compare the animals' sexual behaviour with human behaviour, with the result that the animal world can be perceived as representative of natural sexual behaviour. The survey illustrates problems with how the examples are permeated by cultural values in the presentation of the animal world and how these examples form constructions of femininity and masculinity in the classroom.

  13. Evaluation of RT-PCR Assay for Routine Laboratory Diagnosis of Rabies in Post Mortem Brain Samples from Different Species of Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindh Babu, R. P.; Manoharan, S.; Ramadass, P.; Chandran, N. D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rabies in domestic and wild animals continues to be a major public health threat in India. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of rabies in animals is therefore of utmost importance as the individuals who were in contact with the rabid animals are at a greater risk. A significant amount of diagnostic tissue samples submitted to our laboratory are often autolysed and the WHO recommended direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for rabies diagnosis cannot be used in such samples. In this pilot study we ...

  14. Estudo sobre a eficácia da aerostasia pulmonar, em modelo animal, utilizando diferentes tipos de suturas Study about the ability of the pulmonary aerostasia, in animal model, using differents parenchymal pulmonary types of the sutures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A busca de um modelo perfeito de aerostasia pulmonar, após cirurgias que envolvam ressecções parciais, permanece um desafio para a prática da cirurgia torácica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar, em um modelo animal (suínos, a eficácia de quatro diferentes tipos de sutura pulmonar em manter aerostasia. MÉTODO: Estudo experimental, ex vivo, em pulmões de suínos, realizado no biotério da Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Quatro tipos de sutura pulmonares foram avaliadas: tipo 1, sutura manual com fios cirúrgicos absorvíveis; tipo 2, grampeador exclusivo; tipo 3, grampeador recoberto por pericárdio bovino e tipo 4, grampeador recoberto por cola biológica. As suturas foram submetidas a níveis crescentes de pressão, que variaram de 10cmH2O a 60cmH2O. O teste do borracheiro avaliou o hermetismo das suturas. RESULTADOS: A média de pressão em que se observou perda do hermetismo pulmonar foi de 29cmH2O no tipo 1 (n = 10; 38,5cmH2O no tipo 2 (n = 10; 44cmH2O no tipo 3 (n = 10 e 51,4cmH2O no tipo 4 (n = 10. A comparação entre as médias mostrou diferença estatística apenas entre as suturas tipo 1 e as suturas tipo 3 e 4, p = 0,04 e p BACKGROUND: The search for an ideal procedure to accomplish aerostasis, after partial surgical resection of the lung parenchyma, remains a practical challenge for the thoracic surgeon. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the ability of four types of parenchymal pulmonary sutures in preventing air leaks, using a porcine model with incremental endobronchial pressures. METHOD: Ex vivo experimental study in porcine lungs (n = 5 at the Laboratory of Experimental Surgery of the Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Four different parenchymal pulmonary types of suture were analyzed: type 1 (absorbable suture, type 2: (stapled suture, type 3 (stapled suture with bovine pericardium and type 4 (stapled suture with biologic glue. The surgical sutures (n = 40 were exposed to different intrabronchial

  15. The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on gastric emptying in rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigatto S.Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of rats suffering from moderate renal insufficiency to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or endotoxin. The study involved 48 eight-week-old male SPF Wistar rats (175-220 g divided into two groups of 24 animals each. One group underwent 5/6 nephrectomy while the other was sham-operated. Two weeks after surgery, the animals were further divided into two subgroups of 12 animals each and were fasted for 20 h but with access to water ad libitum. One nephrectomized and one sham-treated subgroup received E. coli LPS (25 µg/kg, iv while the other received a sterile, pyrogen-free saline solution. Gastric retention (GR was determined 10 min after the orogastric infusion of a standard saline test meal labeled with phenol red (6 mg/dl. The gastric emptying of the saline test meal was studied after 2 h. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the plasma levels of urea and creatinine. The levels of urea and creatinine in 5/6 nephrectomized animals were two-fold higher than those observed in the sham-operated rats. Although renal insufficiency did not change gastric emptying (median %GR = 26.6 for the nephrectomized subgroup and 29.3 for the sham subgroup, LPS significantly retarded the gastric emptying of the sham and nephretomized groups (median %GR = 42.0 and 61.0, respectively, and was significantly greater (P<0.01 in the nephrectomized rats. We conclude that gastric emptying in animals suffering from moderate renal insufficiency is more sensitive to the action of LPS than in sham animals

  16. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  17. CCS mRNA transcripts and serum CCS protein as copper marker in adults suffering inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Magdalena; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Arredondo, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The chaperone to Zn-Cu superoxide dismutase (CCS) has been postulated as a candidate copper indicator, changing in a consistent manner in induced and recovered copper deficiency, in experimental cell and animal models. In real life people have various conditions that may modify molecules acting as acute phase proteins, such as serum ceruloplasmin and copper concentration and could alter CCS responses. With the hypothesis that CCS mRNA transcripts and protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes in comparison to healthy individuals, we assessed adult individuals who, although not ill had conditions known to induce variable degrees of inflammation. Screening of 600 adults resulted in two study groups, formed on the basis of their clinical history and levels of serum C reactive protein (CRP): Group 1 (n = 61, mean (range) CRP = 0.9 (0.3-2.0 mg/dL) and Group 2 (n = 150, mean (range) CRP = 6.1 (4.3-8.7 mg/dL). Results showed that mRNA transcripts relative abundance was not different for CCS, MTIIA, TNF-alpha and Cu-Zn-SOD by group (p > 0.05, one way Anova), nor between sexes (p > 0.05, one way Anova). Distribution of CCS mRNA transcripts and CCS protein in serum did not show any differences or trends. Results disproved our hypothesis that CCS abundance of transcripts and CCS protein would be different in individuals suffering inflammatory processes, adding further support to the idea that CCS may be a copper marker.

  18. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  19. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  20. Resistance to antimicrobial agents used for animal therapy in pathogenic , zoonotic and indicator bacteria isolated from different food animals in Denmark: A baseline study for the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (DANMAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bager, Flemming; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    was found. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. In general, resistance was observed more frequently among isolates from pigs than from cattle and broilers. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed......, as is the occurrence of resistance in other countries. The results of this study show the present level of resistance to antimicrobial agents among a number of bacterial species isolated from food animals in Denmark. Thus, the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies has been established, enabling......This study describes the establishment and first results of a continuous surveillance system of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from pigs, cattle and broilers in Denmark. The three categories of bacteria tested were: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis...

  1. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  2. Suffering and Pessimism in Schopenhauer: Pessimism as Social Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Cabos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how the centrality of suffering in Schopenhauer’s philosophy serves to support his pessimism. Three arguments are analysed: the place of suffering in the world, its place in human consciousness and its place in front of happiness. After having considered these three arguments and seeing the inextricable link between suffering and the essence of the world, the determination of suffering in the consciousness, both in its genesis and in its intensity, and its ontological priority over happiness, it is underlined that pessimism is a required category. Finally, a possible contribution of the Schopenhauerian pessimism to the contemporary social criticism, considering the world view that late capitalism fosters, is noted.

  3. No Difference Between the Effects of Supplementing With Soy Protein Versus Animal Protein on Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Response to Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Mark; Lynch, Heidi; Dickinson, Jared M; Reed, Katharine E

    2018-05-03

    Much attention has been given to determining the influence of total protein intake and protein source on gains in lean body mass (LBM) and strength in response to resistance exercise training (RET). Acute studies indicate that whey protein, likely related to its higher leucine content, stimulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a greater extent than proteins such as soy and casein. Less clear is the extent to which the type of protein supplemented impacts strength and LBM in longer term studies (≥6 weeks). Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effect of supplementation with soy protein to animal protein supplementation on strength and LBM in response to RET. Nine studies involving 266 participants suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis were identified. Five studies compared whey with soy protein and four compared soy protein with other proteins (beef, milk or dairy protein). Meta-analysis showed that supplementing RET with whey or soy protein resulted in significant increases in strength but found no difference between groups (bench press Chi 2 = 0.02, p=0.90; squat Chi 2 =0.22, p =0.64). There was no significant effect of whey or soy alone (n=5) on LBM change, and no differences between groups (Chi 2 =0.00, p=0.96). Strength and LBM both increased significantly in the 'other protein' and the soy groups (n=9), but there were no between group differences (bench Chi 2 =0.02, p=0.88; squat Chi 2 =0.78, p=0.38 and LBM Chi 2 =0.06, p=0.80). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that soy protein supplementation produces similar gains in strength and LBM in response to RET as whey protein.

  4. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  5. To do good might hurt bad: exploring nurses' understanding and approach to suffering in forensic psychiatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Mattias; Fredriksson, Lennart; Wiklund Gustin, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Patients in forensic psychiatric settings not only have to deal with their mental illness, but also memories of criminal activities and being involuntarily hospitalized. The aim of the present study was to explore how nurses working in forensic psychiatric services understand and approach patients' experiences of suffering. Data were generated by semistructured interviews with psychiatric nurses from two different forensic psychiatric units in Sweden. Data were analysed by means of a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's hermeneutics. The findings are reflected in four main themes: (i) ignoring suffering; (ii) explaining suffering as a natural and inevitable part of daily life in the forensic context; (iii) ascribing meaning to suffering; and, (iv) being present in suffering. To engage in alleviating suffering is a struggle that demands courage and the strength to reflect on its character and consequences. To encounter suffering means that nurses are not only confronted with patients' suffering, but also their own reactions to those patients. If suffering is not recognized or encountered, there is a risk that actions may have a negative impact on patients. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  7. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  8. Intravenous iron isomaltoside treatment of women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars L; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To explore if intravenous iron isomaltoside (Monofer®) leads to a better relief of fatigue than current treatment practice with oral iron in women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a subanalysis of a single...... isomaltoside. Significant differences in other fatigue and depression scores and hematological parameters were observed and all in favor of iron isomaltoside. There were no differences in side effects between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage, a single......-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted in women suffering from postpartum hemorrhage. Participants were randomized 1:1 to 1200 mg iron isomaltoside or current treatment practice with oral iron. We measured fatigue by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and Edinburgh Postnatal...

  9. Gender, religion, and the experience of suffering: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2013-12-01

    This article explores how gender and religious belief come together in an elderly woman's experience of suffering. It is based on qualitative research that explored experiences of suffering in a group of community-dwelling elders (80+) living in a North American city. We use the case study method to introduce themes that show suffering's uniqueness to the individual whose narrative we report, as well as similarity to themes that emerged in other participants' narratives. In this case, an elderly woman's gender and religious identities merge in her stories of suffering, which include the memory of a childhood disability and an incident of clergy abuse that occurred 70 years previously. A key finding in this paper is that key themes in her story of suffering, which are disablement and clergy abuse, resonate to the general themes of suffering found in our study, which are (1) threats to personal identity; (2) loss of a valued item, quality, or relationship; and (3) a lack of control over self or the circumstances of life.

  10. "Suffering" in palliative sedation: Conceptual Analysis and Implications for Decision-Making in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzaro, Claudia; Schildmann, Jan

    2018-04-21

    Palliative sedation is an increasingly used and, simultaneously, challenging practice at the end of life. Many controversies associated with this therapy are rooted in implicit differences regarding the understanding of "suffering" as prerequisite for palliative sedation. The aim of this paper is to inform the current debates by a conceptual analysis of two different philosophical accounts of suffering, (1) the subjective and holistic concept and (2) the objective and gradual concept and by a clinical-ethical analysis of the implications of each account for decisions about palliative sedation. We will show that while the subjective and holistic account of suffering fits well with the holistic approach of palliative care, there are considerable challenges to justify limits to requests for palliative sedation. By contrast, the objective and gradual account fits well with the need for an objective basis for clinical decisions in the context of palliative sedation, but runs the risk of falling short when considering the individual and subjective experience of suffering at the end of life. We will conclude with a plea for the necessity of further combined conceptual and empirical research to develop a sound and feasible understanding of suffering which can contribute to consistent decision-making about palliative sedation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Comprehensive profiling of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in milk from different animal species by LC-DAD-MS/MS hyphenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Caretti, Fulvia; Bellante, Simona; Ventura, Salvatore; Canepari, Silvia; Curini, Roberta

    2013-02-27

    This paper describes a novel and efficient analytical method to define the profile of fat-soluble micronutrients in milk from different animal species. Overnight cold saponification was optimized as a simultaneous extraction procedure. Analytes were separated by nonaqueous reversed-phase (NARP) chromatography: carotenoids on a C(30) column and fat-soluble vitamins on a tandem C(18) column system. Besides 12 target analytes for which standards are available (all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin, all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, phylloquinone, and menaquinone-4), the DAD-MS combined detection allowed the provisional identification of other carotenoids on the basis of the expected retention times, the absorbance spectra, and the mass spectrometric data. Retinol and α-tocopherol were the most abundant fat-soluble micronutrients and the only ones found in donkey's milk along with γ-tocopherol. Ewe's milk also proved to be a good source of vitamin K vitamers. Bovine milk showed a large variety of carotenoids that were absent in milk samples from other species with the only exception of all-trans-lutein and all-trans-zeaxanthin.

  12. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  13. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  14. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  15. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  16. Nutritional status (BMI in children suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research encompassed 708 children of both genders, aged 6 to 15. Three hundred and fifty four of the total number had been diagnosed with Asthma bronchiale, whereas the other half of the children were healthy and served as a control group. Their nutritional condition was determined on the basis of the percentile value of their BMI. Recent studies on the level of nutrition and its connection to asthma have shown contradictory results. This paper was aimed at estimating the nutritional level of sick children in relation to healthy ones. The data were analyzed in relation to group, gender and age by means of descriptive methods, univariate (analysis of variance - ANOVA and multivariate (multivariate analysis of variance - MANOVA, whereas the results were tested by Roy’s test (Pearson contingency coefficient χ, coefficient of multiple correlation R. It was determined that male children more frequently suffer from this disease than female children do. Both healthy and sick children were normally nourished. However, as regards the sick, the number of normally nourished was considerably lower, whereas the number of underweight was considerably higher, as well as those that were overweight. Intergroup differences in the distribution of certain levels of nutrition of male and female children occurred in only two non-sequential age groups, being later in boys than in girls. This uneven distribution is probably a consequence of the joint effects of environment factors, sickness and therapy.

  17. Peran People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (Peta) Dalam Kasus Animal Testing Terhadap Hewan Luwak Di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harto, Syafri; Ambarrini, Tantin

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 million animals every year suffer and die by fierce chemical test, medical, food, and cosmetic by giving poisonous, blinding and killing million animals every year for irresponsible companies. In medical world, all procedures that are done against the animals called animal testing.Animal testing happens in Indonesia against civet cat animal. The animal eats coffee fruit and digests it to be coffee fruit seed that is put out with its feces. This seed that has unique taste and hig...

  18. In silico study of protein to protein interaction analysis of AMP-activated protein kinase and mitochondrial activity in three different farm animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, S.; Widyas, N.

    2018-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is cellular energy censor which works based on ATP and AMP concentration. This protein interacts with mitochondria in determine its activity to generate energy for cell metabolism purposes. For that, this paper aims to compare the protein to protein interaction of AMPK and mitochondrial activity genes in the metabolism of known animal farm (domesticated) that are cattle (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa) and chicken (Gallus gallus). In silico study was done using STRING V.10 as prominent protein interaction database, followed with biological function comparison in KEGG PATHWAY database. Set of genes (12 in total) were used as input analysis that are PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB1, PRKAB2, PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3, PPARGC1, ACC, CPT1B, NRF2 and SOD. The first 7 genes belong to gene in AMPK family, while the last 5 belong to mitochondrial activity genes. The protein interaction result shows 11, 8 and 5 metabolism pathways in Bos taurus, Sus scrofa and Gallus gallus, respectively. The top pathway in Bos taurus is AMPK signaling pathway (10 genes), Sus scrofa is Adipocytokine signaling pathway (8 genes) and Gallus gallus is FoxO signaling pathway (5 genes). Moreover, the common pathways found in those 3 species are Adipocytokine signaling pathway, Insulin signaling pathway and FoxO signaling pathway. Genes clustered in Adipocytokine and Insulin signaling pathway are PRKAA2, PPARGC1A, PRKAB1 and PRKAG2. While, in FoxO signaling pathway are PRKAA2, PRKAB1, PRKAG2. According to that, we found PRKAA2, PRKAB1 and PRKAG2 are the common genes. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, we can demonstrate that protein to protein interaction shows distinct different of metabolism in different species. However, further validation is needed to give a clear explanation.

  19. Neutralising the meat paradox: Cognitive dissonance, gender, and eating animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Elisha; Semmler, Carolyn; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel A; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Meat eating is a common behaviour, despite many people claiming to like, love, and care about animals. The apparent disconnection between not wanting animals to suffer, yet killing them for food, has been termed the 'meat paradox.' In this experimental study (N = 460), participants completed pre-affect, post-affect, meat attachment, and attitude towards animals questionnaires, under two conditions: exposure to the life of an Australian meat lamb, and information about the nutritional benefits of meat. A factorial MANOVA revealed that negative affect was significantly greater when participants were exposed to the meat-animal connection; however, more entrenched attitudes towards animals and attachment to meat remained unaffected. Significant gender effects were found across all variables: most notably, meat attachment differed according to gender, decreasing in women and increasing in men when exposed to the meat-animal condition. Open-ended responses were subjected to content analysis to understand participants' future meat-consumption preferences and accompanying reasoning strategies. Findings from the present study contribute to understanding how cognitive dissonance and inconsistencies are rationalised by meat consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The zipper effect: Why different positions along the chromosome suffer different selection pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Moss de Oliveira, S.

    2011-02-01

    Variability within diploid sexual populations comes from two ingredients: mutations and recombination (or crossing-over). On average, the first introduces genetic defects in offspring genomes, while the second is a mechanism which tends to eliminate them, continuously “cleaning” the population genetic pool from harmful mutations along the generations. Here, we propose that loci near the chromosome tips are more effectively cleaned by the recombination mechanism than loci near the chromosome centre. This result implies that clusters of neighbouring, orchestrated-functioning genes, supposed to be more robust against the effects of genetic mutations, are more likely found near the chromosome centres, while isolated genes are more likely found near the tips. We confirm the tip-centre asymmetry through a simple computer agent-based model. In order to test this effect in reality, we also analyse as an example the particular case of HOX genes distributed along the 24 human chromosomes and verify that indeed, most HOX genes belong to such clustered networks located near the chromosome centres. Accordingly, isolated HOX genes are located closer to the tips.

  1. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  2. [Crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel with different ratio of molecular weight for subcutaneous injection: animal experimental study and clinical trials subcutaneous injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Weizhi; Wang, Xiaoli; Hu, Yuefei; Gao, Songying; Yang, Yahong; Sun, Jian; Sun, Shuming; Liu, Zhongmei; Wang, Jiangling

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the biocompatibility and degradation rate of crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel with different ratio of molecular weight, so as to choose the effective, safe and totally degraded hyaluronate gel for aesthetic injection. (1) Compound colloid was formed by cross-linking the divinyl sulphone and sodium hyaluronate with different molecular weight (4 x 10(5), 8 x 10(5), 10 x 10(5), 12 x 10(5)). (2) Healthy level KM mice was randomly divided into two groups to receive hyaluronic acid gel or liquid injection. Each group was subdivided into three subgroup to receive hyaluronic acid with different molecular weight. The biocompatibility and degradation rate, of hyaluronate were observed at 7, 90, 180 days after injection. At the same time, different molecular weight of sodium hyaluronate gel is sealed or exposed respectively under the low temperature preservation to observe its natural degradation rate. (3) The most stable colloid was selected as aesthetic injector for volunteers to observe the aesthetic effect. The sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular of 4 x 10(5) was completely degraded 90 days later. The sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular of 8 x 10(5) was completely degraded 180 days later. The sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular of 10 x 10(5) was degraded to 90.0% after 180 days. The sodium hyaluronate liquid can be degraded completely within 7 days. The colloid could be kept for at least 12 months when sealed under low temperature, but was totally degraded when exposed for I d. Sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular 10 x 10(5) was confirmed to be kept for at least 6 months in animal experiment and clinical trials. Under the same condition of material ratio, the higher the molecular weight is, the lower the degradation rate is. But the liquidity of gel is not good for injection when molecular weight is too large. It suggests that Sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular 10 x 10(5) maybe the best choice in cosmetic injections.

  3. [Actual vitamin and main foodstuffs consumption by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, G M; Tutel'ian, A V

    2011-01-01

    Actual consumption of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine and main foodstuffs by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome has been given. Frequency analysis of foodstuffs consumption was used to study actual nourishment of recovered patients. Surplus consumption of fat mainly due to the use of saturated fatty acids, deficiency of poly unsaturated fatty acids, surplus sugar consumption and predominance of proteins of animal origin over proteins of vegetable origin in ration has been revealed. Deficiency of water soluble vitamins equals to 41,6-78,7% of all examined patients, deficiency of fat water soluble vitamins is lower (21,4-38,3%).

  4. Morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia (experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kaluzhina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system in newborns with chronic hypoxia is affected in 40–70%. Aim. To investigate morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Methods and results. Aortic wall was investigated with modern morphological methods in 34 laboratory animals in order to identify the morphological features of the fetuses and newborns’ vessel affected by this pathogenic factor. It was established that chronic hypoxia leads to endothelial trophics deterioration, its flattening, dystrophic processes with following cells desquamation, density reduction of smooth muscle cells, thickening of the intima-media. Conclusion. It shows alterative-sclerotic changes in aorta in cases with chronic hypoxia influence.

  5. Animal experimentations: Part I: General considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T K Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All materials, in the form of drugs or devices, which are intended for human use are required to be tested first in suitable animals. Many biological understandings are established on various modes of cruelties on animals. This observational notes guide us to accept or modify or even reject materials for ultimate human use. The science of experiments on animals gives us the remedial solutions to many of our human sufferings. This unique and important discipline is in need of proper understanding for selection of suitable number of animals and its proper care in captivity, and further refinements of code of conducts and ethical issues.

  6. Animal Assisted Therapy and Trauma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Debra; Waddell, Rhondda

    2016-01-01

    Animal therapy is making strides in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For years, animals have been used with great benefit in the treatment of the aged and the terminally ill. Now animal assisted therapy is benefitting sufferers of PTSD. The results of animal assisted therapy in the treatment of PTSD patients have seen significant results. In one study of the effect of dogs with patients, psychologists noted an 82% reduction in symptoms. One particular case noted that interacting with the dog for as little as one week, enabled a patient to decrease the amount of anxiety and sleep medications by half.

  7. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  8. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  9. All about Animal Adaptations. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Animals change to better adapt to their environment. Over long periods of time, nature helps the animals adapt by changing their body shape and color as well as adjusting their methods of getting and eating food, defending themselves, and caring for their young. In this videotape, students learn what changes different animals go through in order…

  10. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  11. Alleviating cancer patients' suffering: whose responsibility is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    In medicine, we have historically been better at learning about the body and disease than we have at understanding the human beings who come to us with the ailments. We have acted to relieve pain, consoling patients and families as a complement, but done little to understand and alleviate suffering as a fundamental part of our practice. In fact, only in more recent decades has "suffering" been conceptualized as something apart from pain, associated with distress and its causes. It was Eric T. Cassell, in his ground-breaking work in the 1980s, who posed the need to consider alleviation of suffering and treatment of illness as twin-and equally important-obligations of the medical profession. Suffering is defined as a negative, complex emotional and cognitive state, characterized by feeling under constant threat and powerless to confront it, having drained the physical and psycho-social resources that might have made resistance possible. This unique depletion of personal resources is key to understanding suffering.

  12. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  13. Sin, suffering, and the need for the theological virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2006-08-01

    This article examines the account of the relationship between sin and suffering provided by J. L. A. Garcia in "Sin and Suffering in a Catholic Understanding of Medical Ethics," in this issue. Garcia draws on the (Roman) Catholic tradition and particularly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, who remains an important resource for Catholic theology. Nevertheless, his interpretation of Thomas is open to criticism, both in terms of omissions and in terms of positive claims. Garcia includes those elements of Thomas that are purely philosophical, such as natural law and acquired virtue, but neglects the theological and infused virtues, the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the beatitudes. These omissions distort his account of the Christian life so that he underplays both the radical problem posed by sin (and suffering), and the radical character of the ultimate solution: redemption in Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit.

  14. Child’s dignity in suffering and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuch, Grażyna; Kruszecka-Krówka, Agnieszka

    The magnitude of unfair, absurd, pointless suffering we cannot accept or understand makes it a phenomenon which defies human logic - especially when it concerns children. The source of suffering of a dying child is pain, fear, failure to satisfy the basic human needs and concern about the parents. It is also heightened by medical procedures, including treatments aimed at preventing the unavoidable death. Such actions, resulting from the fear of death and a lack of acceptance of death as the end of life burdened with suffering, pose a risk to the child’s fundamental rights and violate the source of human freedom - one’s inalienable dignity. Our priority should be to unconditionally respect the children’s rights postulated by Korczak, to ensure that while providing holistic care for a dying child, their dignity is always considered the greatest good.

  15. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  16. Marketing animal-friendly products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers: a study on 1311 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthieu; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Loas, Gwénolé; Hubain, Philippe; Linkowski, Paul

    2017-07-06

    Several studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insomnia in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a large sample of insomnia sufferers. Data from 1311 insomnia sufferers who were recruited from the research database of the sleep laboratory of the Erasme Hospital were analysed. An apnea-hypopnea index of ≥15 events per hour was used as the cut-off score for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine clinical and demographic risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. The prevalence of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in our sample of insomnia sufferers was 13.88%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, lower maintenance insomnia complaint, presence of metabolic syndrome, age ≥ 50 & 30 kg/m 2 , and CRP >7 mg/L were significant risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common pathology in insomnia sufferers. The identification of these different risk factors advances a new perspective for more effective screening of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  20. Continuous palliative sedation: not only a response to physical suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Siebe J; van der Heide, Agnes; van Zuylen, Lia; Perez, Roberto S G M; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; van der Maas, Paul J; van Delden, Johannes J M; Rietjens, Judith A C

    2014-01-01

    Palliative sedation is a medical intervention aimed at relieving symptoms that can no longer be controlled by conventional treatment. Ample knowledge is available regarding the nature of such symptoms, but there is no in-depth information regarding how health care workers decide about palliative sedation. The study objective was to investigate considerations concerning the indications for continuous palliative sedation (CPS) and issues that influence these considerations. The study consisted of qualitative interviews regarding patients who had recently received CPS. The study involved physicians and nurses working in general practice, nursing homes, and hospitals. Analyses by a multidisciplinary research team used the constant comparative method. Together with physical symptoms, psychological and existential suffering may combine to produce a refractory state for which other treatment options than CPS were not available or considered inappropriate. A limited life expectancy was by many considered crucial (e.g., to avoid hastening death) and by some less important (e.g., because the patient's suffering was considered to be key). Issues influencing the decision to use CPS related to patient preferences (e.g., dignity, not wanting to experience further suffering) or family issues (impact of suffering on family, family requesting CPS). The indication for CPS typically originates from physical symptoms and nonphysical problems producing a refractory state in which a patient suffers unbearably. In such states, preferences of patients and families and the life expectancy criterion are weighed against the severity of refractory symptoms. Therefore the use of CPS is not only a response to the physical suffering of patients in the dying phase.

  1. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  2. The Future of Music Therapy with Persons Suffering from Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents important research concerning music therapy with persons suffering from schizophrenia. It further presents the most Applied theories and models concerning clinical practice individual and in Groups with this population. It offers ideas as to why music therapy Works...... with persons suffering from schizophrenia. These ideas are divided into 1) possible positions of the music therapist, 2) the function of the music. Finally a discussion on the questions:´ Should music therapy focus on symptoms, resources - or both?´, is unfodled....

  3. Nonmotor symptoms in patients suffering from motor neuron diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Günther

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis has gained much attention, especially for Parkinson’s disease (PD. The various nonmotor symptoms (NMS in neurodegenerative diseases would be much better explained by this hypothesis than by the degeneration of disease-specific cell populations. Motor neuron disease (MND is primarily known as a group of diseases with a selective loss of motor function. Recent evidence, however, suggests disease spreading into nonmotor brain regions also in MND. The aim of this study was to comprehensively detect NMS in patients suffering from MND.Methods: We used a self-rating questionnaire including 30 different items of gastrointestinal, autonomic, neuropsychiatric and sleep complaints (NMSQuest which is an established tool in PD patients. 90 MND patients were included and compared to 96 controls.Results: In total, MND patients reported significantly higher NMS scores (median: 7 points in comparison to controls (median: 4 points. Dribbling, impaired taste/smelling, impaired swallowing, weight loss, loss of interest, sad/blues, falling and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in MND patients compared to controls. Interestingly excessive sweating was more reported in the MND group. Correlation analysis revealed an increase of total NMS score with disease progression.Conclusions: NMS in MND patients seemed to increase with disease progression which would fit with the recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis. The total NMS score in the MND group significantly exceeded the score for the control group, but only 8 of the 30 single complaints of the NMSQuest were significantly more often reported by MND patients. Dribbling, impaired swallowing, weight loss and falling could primarily be connected to motor neuron degeneration and declared as motor symptoms in MND.

  4. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  5. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  6. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  7. How Young Children and Their Mothers Experience Two Different Types of Toys: A Traditional Stuffed Toy versus an Animated Digital Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihyun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of digital toys, research evidence of how a digital toy's features affect children's development and the nature of parent-child interactions during play is limited. Objective: The present study aimed to examine how mother-child dyads experience a traditional stuffed toy and an animated digital toy by comparing…

  8. Leprosy Sufferers' Perception Of Social Stigma As A Determinant Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at relating leprosy sufferers perception of social stigma to their lifestyles. Eighty leprosy affected persons comprising males and females drawn from Delta State Government Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Center participated in this study. A focus group discussion schedule containing information about ...

  9. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  10. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  11. "Losing an Arm": Schooling as a Site of Black Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data from a historical-ethnographic study of the cultural politics of school desegregation in Seattle, USA, the author explores suffering as a recurring theme in the narratives of four black leaders, educators and activists involved in the struggle for black educational opportunity in that city during the post-Civil Rights Era. As these…

  12. Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

  13. Socio-economic Determinants of Domestic Violence Suffered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...

  14. Might Avatar-Mediated Interactions Rehabilitate People Suffering from Aphasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Many people suffering from communication disabilities after a brain injury have difficulties coming to terms with their new self as disabled persons. Being unable to deal with these problems verbally exacerbates the condition. As a result they often isolate socially and develop low self-esteem...

  15. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo S. Tilvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from loneliness was assessed with one question and participants were categorized as lonely or not lonely. Total mortality was retrieved from the National Population Information System. Results. Of 3687 respondents, 39% suffered from loneliness. Lonely people were more likely to be deceased during the 57-month follow-up (31% than subjects not feeling lonely (23%, <.001. Excess mortality (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.21-1.57 of lonely people increased over time. After controlling for age and gender, the mortality risk of the lonely individuals was 1.33 (95% CI=1.17-1.51 and after further controlling for subjective health 1.17 (CI=1.02-1.33. The excess mortality was consistent in all major subgroups. Conclusion. Suffering from loneliness is common and indicates significant mortality risk in old age.

  16. Evaluation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in nigerians suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are conflicting reports on the role of plasma lipids in depressive illness. Very little is known about the lipid and lipoprotein status in Nigerian adults suffering from depression. One hundred subjects consisting of sixty (60) depressed patients with mean age (40.3±12.3 yrs) and forty (40) apparently healthy controls ...

  17. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  18. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  19. Attitudes towards treatment among patients suffering from sleep disorders. A Latin American survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloret Santiago

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sleep disorders are common, they frequently remain unnoticed by the general practitioner. Few data are available about the willingness and reasons of patients with sleep disturbances to seek for medical assistance. Methods The results of a cross-sectional community-based multinational survey in three major Latin American urban areas, i.e. Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Sao Paulo, are reported. Two-hundred subjects suffering sleep disturbances and 100 non-sufferers were selected from the general population in each city (total number: 600 sufferers vs. 300 non-sufferers. A structured interview was conducted, sleep characteristics, feelings about sleep disturbances and strategies to cope with those problems being recorded. Data were analyzed by employing either t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA to the Z-transformed proportions. Results 22.7 ± 3.5 % (mean ± SEM of subjects reported to suffer from sleep disturbances every night. About 3 out of 4 (74.2 ± 2.0 % considered their disorder as mild and were not very concerned about it. Only 31 ± 2 % of sufferers reported to have sought for medical help. Although 45 ± 2 % of sufferers reported frequent daily sleepiness, trouble to remember things, irritability and headaches, they did not seek for medical assistance. Among those patients who saw a physician with complaints different from sleep difficulties only 1 out of 3 (33 ± 2 % of patients were asked about quality of their sleep by the incumbent practitioner. Strategies of patients to cope with sleep problems included specific behaviors (taking a warm bath, reading or watching TV (44 ± 1.6 %, taking herbal beverages (17 ± 1.2 % or taking sleeping pills (10 ± 1.1 %. Benzodiazepines were consumed by 3 ± 0.6 % of sufferers. Conclusion Public educational campaigns on the consequences of sleep disorders and an adequate training of physicians in sleep medicine are needed to educate both the public and the general

  20. Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre- Ec-lampsia in Baghdad City- Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assala G. H. Al-Shammery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on the number of pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia who live in different areas in Baghdad city. These areas were suffering from air pol-lution by different pollutants in high rates and it was chosen from among these pollutants lead metal which is a high percentage of air pollution where it was observed by measuring the level of lead in blood serum which taken from pregnant women by 40 pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia and 20 pregnant women don't suffering from any abnormal symptoms during pregnancy period and classified as control group , so we found marked a significant rise in lead level in comparison with control group reaching ratio of lead in blood of pregnant women which suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia 38.44 mg/dl ± 3.0 mg/dl in comparison with con-trol group which 14.56 mg/d l± 2.50 mg/dl,this increase may refer to the amount of lead which found in the air and in excess of the normal limit which exposed pregnant women like all people through the overcrowding of roads and use fuel non-environmentally friendly through breathing which effect on pregnant women health, it has been shown on symptoms of preeclampsia from measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure and measuring of urea in blood, T-test was used at possibility of(0.001to see the difference between infected samples and control group, therefore this study suggested that a lead is one of the causes of preeclampsia because live in polluted and unhealthy environment. (pt space line

  1. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and The Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization[1].Animal experimentation is fundamental to the biomedical sciences, not only for the advancement of specific vital processes, but also for the improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease both in man and in animals. The use of animals is also indispensable for testing the potency and safety of biological substances used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for determining the toxicity of the rapidly growing number of molecules that never existed before in nature and which may represent a hazard to health. This extensive exploitation by man of animals implies philosophical and moral problems that are not peculiar to their use for scientific purposes, and there are no objective ethical criteria by which to judge claims and counterclaims in such matters[2]. However, there is a consensus that „deliberate cruelty is repugnant”.While many countries have general laws or regulations imposing penalties for ill-treatment of animals, relatively few make specific provision for their use for scientific purposes. Because of differing legal systems and cultural backgrounds there are varying approaches to the use of

  2. A simple value-distinction approach aids transparency in farm animal welfare debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Stafleu, F.; Lauwere, de C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Public debate on acceptable farm animal husbandry suffers from a confusion of tongues. To clarify positions of various stakeholder groups in their joint search for acceptable solutions, the concept of animal welfare was split up into three notions: no suffering, respect for intrinsic value, and

  3. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  4. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  5. Violence against wives: a silent suffering in northern Saudi community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Elfetoh, Nagah M; Abd El-Mawgod, Mohamed M

    2015-09-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide epidemic. It may take different forms depending on history, culture, background, and experiences, but it causes great suffering for women, their families, and the communities in which they live. Despite its high prevalence, no previous studies that have been conducted in Arar, northern area of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), addressing this issue could be traced. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and determinants of violence experienced by ever-married women attending primary health centers in Arar city, Northern Border, KSA. This study is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period from January to June 2014 in Arar city in the Northern Province of the KSA. Data were collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 208 wives (184 currently married, 16 divorced, and eight widowed) attending five randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Arar, KSA, were interviewed. Collected data provided information on both physical and emotional violence. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence in the studied group was 80.7 and 100.0% for physical and psychological violence, respectively. On studying the reasons for physical violence, half (50%) of the participants reported no clear cause, 19.2% reported failure to adequately care for children (such as cleaning, feeding, and dressing), and 7.8% reported causes related to poor scholastic achievement and couple conflict about appropriate approaches of upbringing of children. Suspicion on wife's fidelity was the most common form of psychological violence (21%). The perpetrator was the husband in 76.9% of cases and the husband's family was the perpetrator in 3.8% of cases. Physical violence was significantly higher during the first 10 years of marriage compared with other durations. University-educated husbands showed significantly lower percentage of physical violence against women compared with those of other

  6. Live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations in male progeny of sires differing in genetic merit for beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A M; Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2009-07-01

    In genetic improvement programmes for beef cattle, the effect of selecting for a given trait or index on other economically important traits, or their predictors, must be quantified to ensure no deleterious consequential effects go unnoticed. The objective was to compare live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations of male progeny of sires selected on an economic index in Ireland. This beef carcass index (BCI) is expressed in euros and based on weaning weight, feed intake, carcass weight and carcass conformation and fat scores. The index is used to aid in the genetic comparison of animals for the expected profitability of their progeny at slaughter. A total of 107 progeny from beef sires of high (n = 11) or low (n = 11) genetic merit for the BCI were compared in either a bull (slaughtered at 16 months of age) or steer (slaughtered at 24 months of age) production system, following purchase after weaning (8 months of age) from commercial beef herds. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 factorial design (two levels of genetic merit by two production systems). Progeny of high BCI sires had heavier carcasses, greater (P animal value (obtained by multiplying carcass weight by carcass value, which was based on the weight of meat in each cut by its commercial value) than progeny of low BCI sires. Regression of progeny performance on sire genetic merit was also undertaken across the entire data set. In steers, the effect of BCI on carcass meat proportion, calculated carcass value (c/kg) and animal value was positive (P carcass fat proportion (P carcass weight followed the same trends as BCI. Muscularity scores, carcass meat proportion and calculated carcass value increased, whereas scanned fat depth, carcass fat and bone proportions decreased with increasing sire EPD for conformation score. The opposite association was observed for sire EPD for fat score. Results from this study show that selection using the BCI had positive

  7. Everyday suffering outside prison walls: a legacy of community justice in post-genocide Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutayisire, Théoneste; Richters, Annemiek

    2014-11-01

    Twenty years after the 1994 genocide, Rwanda shows all indications of moving quickly towards socio-economic prosperity. Rwanda's community justice system, Gacaca, was to complement this prosperity by establishing peace and stability through justice, reconciliation and healing. Evaluations of the Gacaca courts' achievements from 2002 to 2012 have had widely differing conclusions. This article adds to previous evaluations by drawing attention to specific forms of relatively neglected suffering (in literature and public space) that have emerged from the Gacaca courts or were amplified by these courts and jeopardize Gacaca's objectives. The ethnographic study that informs the article was conducted in southeastern Rwanda from September 2008-December 2012 among 19 ex-prisoners and 24 women with husbands in prison including their family members, friends and neighbors. Study findings suggest that large scale imprisonment of genocide suspects coupled with Gacaca court proceedings have tainted the suffering of ex-prisoners and women with imprisoned husbands in unique ways, which makes their plight unparalleled in other countries. We argue that the nature and scale of this suffering and the potentially detrimental impact on families and communities require humanitarian action. However, in Rwanda's post-genocide reality, the suffering of these two groups is overwhelmed by that of other vulnerable groups, such as genocide survivors and orphaned children; hence it is rarely acknowledged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greisse da Silveira Maissiat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST. Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. RESULTS: Organization (91.3% and work conditions (64% received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%, freedom of expression (62.4% and recognition (59.9%. However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The workers evaluated their work context as inappropriate and complained of exhaustion, although they claimed their work affords some satisfaction.

  9. [Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maissiat, Greisse da Silveira; Lautert, Liana; Pai, Daiane Dal; Tavares, Juliana Petri

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT) and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST). Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Organization (91.3%) and work conditions (64%) received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%), freedom of expression (62.4%) and recognition (59.9%). However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (psatisfaction.

  10. Experiences of well-being and suffering after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life after hip fracture. Identifying the meaning of a hip fracture in older people can provide a deeper understanding of what matters during rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life. Aim: To aggregate, appraise, interpret and synthesize findings from...... whole. Conclusion: The meta-synthesis provided evidence that both the sufferings and the possibilities of older people need to be addressed during rehabilitation to support experiences of well-being, independency and confidence after a hip fracture. The study contributed with evidence......Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during...

  11. Engendering social suffering: a Chinese diasporic community in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how reproducing Chineseness has become a source of social suffering through the case study of a group of Yunnan Chinese who escaped Chinese communist rules in the Mainland in 1949 or shortly after and settled in northern Thailand in the 1960s. As self-proclaimed carriers of traditional Chinese culture, they worked arduously to replicate whatever they considered 'authentic' Chinese through a narrow interpretation of the Confucian moral tenets in daily life. The (re)establishment of a patriarchal social order in Thailand - a society with a relatively high level of gender-equality, has inflicted tremendous pain and suffering among women and youth in this reified society. Ethnographic fieldwork, upon which this paper was based, was conducted in Maehong Village, Chiang Mai Province, between 2002 and 2007.

  12. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    Persons suffering from dementia progressively loose language skills, cognitive skills, memory function, perception, etc. Still they seem to respond to music and to interact in the music therapy setting. As part of a Ph.D.-research I have worked with 6 persons suffering from middle to last stages...... of dementia in individual music therapy. I have focused on the use of familiar songs in order to create a safe and secure setting and enhance communication and reminiscence. In the presentation I give examples of how the persons respond to the music, how the individual music therapy sessions are build up......, criteria for choosing the songs, and how a person emotionally can profit from the structured musical form....

  13. Drug Abuse In Women suffering from Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Krankusová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...

  14. Did Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R; Novikov, Vladimir P I; Regard, Marianne; Siegel, Adrian M

    2005-07-01

    Many scientific authors--among them famous names such as Henri Gastaut or Sigmund Freud--dealt with the question from what kind of epilepsy Fyodor Mikhailovitch Dostoevsky (1821-1881) might had suffered. Because of the tight interplay between Dostoevsky's literary work and his own disease we throw light on the author's epilepsy against the background of his epileptic fictional characters. Moreover, we attempt to classify Dostoevsky's epilepsy on the basis of his bibliography, language, and literary work.

  15. Lives rendered invisible: Bearing witness to human suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladjo Ivanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethical challenges involved in the ways public representation structures our experiences of atrocities and facilitates an adequate awareness of and response towards the suffering of others. It points out that such an analysis should not exhaust itself in answering what makes public representations of human suffering ethically suspicious and intolerable, but should rather extend this task by clarifying how the public forms sentiments about their social and political reality by elucidating under which conditions public representation promotes broader political agendas. One of the central tenets of human rights advocacy is the widespread conviction that exposure to images and stories of human rights abuse has a mobilizing effect on western audience(s whose exposure to such knowledge can motivate them to intervene and prevent future atrocities. In order to assess the basic implications of such a conviction we must answer at least three principal clusters of questions. First, how do public representations of atrocities affect individuals and their capacities to conceive and respond to social injustices and the suffering of others? Under what circumstances may agents respond effectively to shocking content? Second, how do social powers operate within the field of perception in order to control how the viewing public is affected? And how do these effects inform and galvanize political support or opposition regarding concrete historical events? Finally, what can be said about the responsibilities of visual representation? Whose agency is it that images inform, and what reforms are necessary to make representations of suffering ethically effective means to encourage better acknowledgment of individual and collective responsibilities that would motivate the public to meet its moral and political obligations? This paper ultimately suggests that in order for politically implicated images to have an immediate critical effect on

  16. THE HISTORY OF LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THE 3RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    This talk will give an introduction to the history of the use of laboratory animals with focus on the history of the three Rs (3Rs). We will see how animal experimentation has been performed early in our civilization, and how the suffering of animals has been justified. This will include Rene...... Descartes´s mechanical view of animals in the seventeenth century, and Charles Darwin's ambivalent relationship to animal experimentation, which he views as cruel but necessary. In the 1870s the Danish Foundation for Protection of Animals (“Dyrenes Beskyttelse”) and Professor Peter Panum discussed the use...

  17. The substance of love when encountering suffering: an interpretative research synthesis with an abductive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kari Marie; Eriksson, Katie; Råholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    This study presents the results of an interpretative research synthesis undertaken to explore the essence of love when encountering suffering. The idea of caring as an expression of love and compassion belongs with ideas that have shaped caring for hundreds of years. Love and suffering are the core concepts in caring science and thus demand a basic research approach. The synthesis was undertaken by the interpretation of 15 articles focusing on love in different aspects, but within a caring science perspective. The research process was guided by a hermeneutical perspective with an abductive approach. The substance of love, when encountering suffering, reveals itself in three themes: love as a holy power, love as fundamental for being and love as an ethical act, which are to be found, respectively, within three dimensions: love as holiness, love as a communion and love as an art. Love is a holy power and encompasses everything; it is the well of strength that heals. No human can exist without love: this points to the ethical responsibility one has as a neighbour. In the ethical act, love is evident in concrete caring actions. The core of the substance of love within the three dimensions can be understood as agape. Agape connects and mirrors the dimensions, while at the same time it is clear that agape stems from and moves towards holiness, enabling love to be the ethical foundation when encountering suffering. Through the dimensions of love as communion and love as an art agape intertwine with eros forming caritas enabling the human being to move towards the dimension of holiness, which signifies becoming through suffering. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare

  19. [Animal testing ethics and human testing. Thoughts on our conduct with and our relationship to animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    After many years of experimental work with animals of diverse species, the author felt confronted with the question whether the great expenditure of sacrificed animal life would pay off when compared with the results gained. By self-critically considering his work, he gradually experienced a conversion from an unconcerned experimenter to a man feeling a deep sympathy with his fellow creatures. This motivated him to ponder the true nature of animals. Instead of applying ethics--though justified in its own realm--the author preferred to look at the problem using the General Systems Theory (GST), which can describe "the other side" of any system, the side into which any system may occasionally or necessarily transform. It occurred to him to assume that--provided we see a living organism as a system (as Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of GST, did)--the "other side" of the animal would correspond to an innocent "genius" who suffers for man (thereby assuming a Christ-like position), whereas in its transitory life the true essence of the animal is hidden. Thus, by fancifully viewing the role of animals destined to suffer, a connection between GST and theology or religion arises. The consequence for us would be to pay honour to the test animal, irrespective of whether or not painful experiments could be avoided. The differentiation between a sacrifice (spiritually surrendering for a greater good) and a victim (involuntarily subjected to suffering) reveals that the experimental animal primarily belongs to the latter. But it can be elevated to the former when the full meaning of its suffering becomes obvious. The same holds true for "human testing", if, in contrast to the formidable atrocities, e.g. of concentration camps, the momentum of voluntariness is guaranteed, as pioneers of medical research frequently demonstrated by carrying out experiments on themselves.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  1. Reliability and parameterization of Romberg Test in people who have suffered a stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Cruzado, David; Gonzalez Sanchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the reliability and describe the parameterization with inertial sensors, of Romberg test in people who have had a stroke. METHODS: Romberg's Test was performed during 20 seconds in four different setting, depending from supporting leg and position of the eyes (opened eyes / dominant leg; closed eyes / dominant leg; opened eyes / non-dominant leg; closed eyes / non-dominant leg) in people who have suffered a stroke over a year ago. Two inertial sensors (sampli...

  2. Measuring the suffering of end-stage dementia: reliability and validity of the Mini-Suffering State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminoff, Bechor Z; Purits, Elena; Noy, Shlomo; Adunsky, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of suffering is extremely important in dying end-stage dementia patients (ESDP). We have developed and examined the reliability and validity of the Mini-Suffering State Examination (MSSE), in 103 consecutive bedridden ESDP. Main outcome measures included inter-observer reliability and concurrent validity. Reliability of the MSSE questionnaire was satisfactory, with Cronbach alpha values of 0.735 and 0.718 for the two physicians (Ph-1, Ph-2), respectively. The kappa agreement coefficient was 0.791. There was a high agreement for seven items (kappa 0.882-0.972) and a substantial agreement for the other three items (kappa 0.621-0.682) of the MSSE. MSSE was validated versus the comfort assessment in dying with dementia (CAD-EOLD) scale and resulted in a significant Pearson correlation (r=-0.796, P<0.001). We conclude that the MSSE scale is a reliable and valid clinical tool, recommended for evaluating the severity of the patient's condition and the level of suffering of ESDP. Use of MSSE may improve medical management and facilitate communication between patients and caregivers.

  3. Schizophrenia: do men and women suffer from the same disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Häfner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on normal brain development and behavioural development in men and women as well as on aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia, such as pre-, peri- and postnatal complications. The male-female comparisons of age and type of onset, symptomatology, course and outcome were based on a population-based sample of 232 first illness episodes - the ABC Schizophrenia Study sample. The probands were assessed using the IRAOS interview and other instruments retrospectively at first admission and prospectively at six cross sections over five years after first contact. A representative subsample of 130 first admissions or 115 first illness episodes were compared with 130 controls, matched by age, sex and area of residence. Women, 3 to 4 years older than men at illness onset, showed a second peak of onsets in age group 45 to 50 years. After animal experiments and a controlled clinical study this finding was explained by a protective effect of oestrogen persisting until menopause. The underlying neurobiological mechanism consisted in a sensitivity reducing effect of oestrogen on D2 receptors in the brain. The effect of oestrogen, meanwhile confirmed in randomised control trials, also includes genomic effects as well as interactions with free-radical detoxifying systems, thus demonstrating the neuroprotective capabilities of oestrogen. Postmenopausal schizophrenia was more frequent and more severe in women. Men fell ill more frequently and more severely at young age and less frequently and more mildly later in life. Illness course, too, was more unfavourable in postmenopausal women than in their male peers. The protective effect of oestrogen in women depended on the degree of their predisposition to the illness: the higher the familial load for schizophrenia, the weaker the protection by oestrogen. The more favourable illness course in premenopausal women resulted from their higher level of social development at illness

  4. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  5. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  6. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  7. Phylogenomic Insights into Animal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Budd, Graham E; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-10-05

    Animals make up only a small fraction of the eukaryotic tree of life, yet, from our vantage point as members of the animal kingdom, the evolution of the bewildering diversity of animal forms is endlessly fascinating. In the century following the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, hypotheses regarding the evolution of the major branches of the animal kingdom - their relationships to each other and the evolution of their body plans - was based on a consideration of the morphological and developmental characteristics of the different animal groups. This morphology-based approach had many successes but important aspects of the evolutionary tree remained disputed. In the past three decades, molecular data, most obviously primary sequences of DNA and proteins, have provided an estimate of animal phylogeny largely independent of the morphological evolution we would ultimately like to understand. The molecular tree that has evolved over the past three decades has drastically altered our view of animal phylogeny and many aspects of the tree are no longer contentious. The focus of molecular studies on relationships between animal groups means, however, that the discipline has become somewhat divorced from the underlying biology and from the morphological characteristics whose evolution we aim to understand. Here, we consider what we currently know of animal phylogeny; what aspects we are still uncertain about and what our improved understanding of animal phylogeny can tell us about the evolution of the great diversity of animal life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative resistance level (MIC) of Escherichia coli isolated from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis: national resistance monitoring by the BVL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, Ulrike; Kaspar, Heike; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    National Resistance Monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), which was put into service in 2001, has made it possible to implement a valid and representative database on the basis of which the resistance situation, development and spread in animal pathogens can be evaluated. Escherichia coil (E. coli) strains originating from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis were first included in the investigations in the 2004/2005 study. A total of 258 bovine and 492 porcine E. coli strains were tested using the broth microdilution method to determine the in vitro susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration) to 23 (fattening pigs) and 28 (calves, piglets, weaners) different antimicrobial substances. Considerable prevalences of resistance were found for some antimicrobials. The strains originating from both animal species displayed high prevalences of resistance for tetracycline, trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline and ampicillin. Reduced susceptibility was detected particularly in the E. coli strains from calves. The data reveal that the resistance level of E. coli strains isolated from cases of enteric disease in calves and pigs is altogether higher than has so far been reported in pathogens causing different diseases and in other food-producing animal species. Based on the results presented, it is possible to assess the current resistance situation for E. coli strains in calves and pigs in Germany. This in turn helps to deduce the necessary management measures that can be taken in order to minimise resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, the data help to decide on adequate therapy of E. coli infections of the intestinal tract in calves and pigs and encourage the responsible use of antibiotics in the interests of animal health and consumer protection.

  9. Anxiety and depression in patients suffering from chronic low backache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.R.; Saleem, B.; Ahsin, S.; Farooqi, A.Z.; Farooqi, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low backache and to document other co-morbidities among these patients presenting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from July 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 170 chronic low backache patients were administered urdu translated Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scales. Scoring was done on Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time) with overall assessment by cumulative score ranging from 20 to 80, where 20-44 was normal range, 45-59 mildly depressed/anxious, 60-69 moderately depressed / anxious and 70 and above severely depressed / anxious. Results: Out of 170 patients, 157 patients above 18 years of age with male to female ratio 2:3 completed the study. Among study sample 72.2% had mild depression, 21.6% had mild anxiety, 32% had mixed mild anxiety and depression, 0.8% had severe depression, 1.6% had severe anxiety while 2.4% suffered from severe mixed symptoms. Overall, 125 (79.6%) patients were suffering from mild to severe form of depression and anxiety both alone or mixed. Obesity was present in 34 (21.66%) of patients with chronic backache and out of these 29 (85.3%) had psychological co-morbidity. Conclusion: Two thirds of the chronic backache patients reporting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital were suffering from mild to severe degree of depression and anxiety. This worrying situation calls for thorough systematic evaluation of all chronic backache patient arriving at rheumatology clinic for mood disorders and psychological ailment. (author)

  10. Mental Suffering in Protracted Political Conflict: Feeling Broken or Destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; McNeely, Clea A; El Sarraj, Eyad; Daher, Mahmoud; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Barnes, William; Abu Mallouh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study identified and then developed and validated a quantitative measure of a new construct of mental suffering in the occupied Palestinian territory: feeling broken or destroyed. Group interviews were conducted in 2011 with 68 Palestinians, most aged 30-40, in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip to discern local definitions of functioning. Interview participants articulated of a type of suffering not captured in existing mental health instruments used in regions of political conflict. In contrast to the specific difficulties measured by depression and PTSD (sleep, appetite, energy, flashbacks, avoidance, etc.), participants elaborated a more existential form of mental suffering: feeling that one's spirit, morale and/or future was broken or destroyed, and emotional and psychological exhaustion. Participants articulated these feelings when describing the rigors of the political and economic contexts in which they live. We wrote survey items to capture these sentiments and administered these items-along with standard survey measures of mental health-to a representative sample of 1,778 32-43 year olds in the occupied Palestinian territory. The same survey questions also were administered to a representative subsample (n = 508) six months earlier, providing repeated measures of the construct. Across samples and time, the feeling broken or destroyed scale: 1) comprised a separate factor in exploratory factor analyses, 2) had high inter-item consistency, 3) was reported by both genders and in all regions, 4) showed discriminate validity via moderate correlations with measures of feelings of depression and trauma-related stress, and 5) was more commonly experienced than either feelings of depression or trauma-related stress. Feeling broken or destroyed can be reliably measured and distinguished from conventional measures of mental health. Such locally grounded and contextualized measures should be identified and included in

  11. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  14. [Trichological examinations in women suffering from diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, L; Bogdanowski, T; Koślacz, E; Hawrot, A

    2000-01-01

    The lack of data on the process of alopecia in women suffering from diabetes mellitus made us undertake research in this area. The aim of this paper was the assessment of the state of head hair in trichological and clinical examinations, and on the basis of questionnaire. 50 women (age 44-82 years) were included in the study. Alopecia in women with diabetes mellitus is diffuse, located on the apex of the head and basic hair loss lies in telogenic pathomechanism. The highest percentage of telogenic hair is found in women treated with biguanides, and the lowest one in female patients taking insulin.

  15. Impact of culture on the expression of pain and suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Simon

    2011-10-01

    A primary human challenge is how to alleviate suffering and loss. One way is through culture. The core characteristics of culture are symbols, sharing and groups. These three factors enable society to help the individual cope with loss. In the modern age traditional culture is disintegrating and is being replaced. Often it is outstanding individuals who provide the impetus and tools with which to change the culture and to adapt to new challenges. One lesson to be drawn from the discussion is the idea of using our culture more pro-actively to routinely contemplate loss, ageing and death.

  16. [Difficulties at work and work motivation of ulcerative colitis suffers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Ayami; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2015-01-01

    Because ulcerative colitis (UC) repeats remission and relapse, it is necessary to keep the condition at the relapse time in mind when considering support to provide UC suffers with at the workplace. The aim of this survey was to clarify the difficulties at work and work motivation that UC suffers feel at present and experience at the worsening time, and the factors for maintaining work motivation. We carried out an anonymous questionnaire survey of patients with present or past work experience. The difficulties at work (17 items) and work motivation (4 items) in the past week and at the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work were investigated using a newly designed questionnaire. We regarded the time in the past week as the present, and the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work as the worsening time. There were 70 respondents (response rate 32.0%). Their mean age was 43.8 years, and their mean age at onset was 33.8 years. All subjects, except 2 subjects after surgery, took medicine. Fifty-three (75.7%) of the subjects were in remission at the present, and most of them (91.4%) managed their physical condition well. Difficulties at work that many subjects worried about at the present were relevant to work conditions, such as "Others at workplace do not understand having an intractable and relapsing disease" (41.4%) or "Feel delayed or lack of chance of promotion or career advancement due to the disease" (38.6%). At the worsening time, the management of physical condition went wrong, and the frequency of hospital visits was increased, but few subjects consulted with superiors or colleagues at workplace. Difficulties at work that many subjects underwent at the worsening time were relevant to symptoms, such as "Feel physically tired" (80.0%) or "Decline foods or alcoholic beverages offered at business parties" (72.9%). Those who maintained work motivation even at the worsening time received no work-related consideration and had an

  17. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  18. Correlates of perceptions of elder’s suffering from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Kane

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated social work students’ perceptions of elders as depressed and suffering (N= 156. Four predictor variables were identified from a standard regression analysis that account for 32% of the model’s adjusted variance: (a perceptions of elders as vulnerable, (b perceptions about elders as oppressed. Overall, respondents perceived elders as being depressed, vulnerable, members of an oppressed group, abusive of substances, and only moderately resilient in response to mental health services. Implications are discussed for social work education.

  19. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  20. The Effect of Hypoallergenic Diagnostic Diet in Adolescents and Adult Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Celakovská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of a diagnostic hypoallergenic diet on the severity of atopic dermatitis in patients over 14 years of age. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic hypoallergenic diet was recommended to patients suffering from atopic dermatitis for a period of 3 weeks. The severity of atopic dermatitis was evaluated at the beginning and at the end of this diet (SCORAD I, SCORAD II and the difference in the SCORAD over this period was statistically evaluated. Results: One hundred and forty-nine patients suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: 108 women and 41 men. The average age of the subjects was 26.03 (SD: 9.6 years, with the ages ranging from a minimum of 14 years to a maximum of 63 years. The mean SCORAD at the beginning of the study (SCORAD I was 32.9 points (SD: 14.1 and the mean SCORAD at the end of the diet (SCORAD II was 25.2 points (SD: 9.99. The difference between SCORAD I and SCORAD II was evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The average decrease of SCORAD was 7.7 points, which was statistically significant (P=.00000. Conclusion: Introduction of the diagnostic hypoallergenic diet may serve as a temporary medical solution" in patients suffering from moderate or severe forms of atopic dermatitis. It is recommended that this diet be used in the diagnostic workup of food allergy.

  1. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  2. Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J L A

    2006-08-01

    Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. In Part Two, I turn to a Catholic understanding of the nature and meaning of human suffering, drawing especially on writings and addresses of the late Pope John Paul II. He reminds us that physical and mental suffering can provide an opportunity to share in Christ's salvific sacrifice, better to see the nature of our earthly vocation, and to reflect on the dependence that inheres in human existence. At various places, and especially in my conclusion, I suggest a few ways in which this can inform bioethical reflection on morally appropriate responses to those afflicted by physical or mental pain, disability, mental impairment, disease, illness, and poor health prospects. My general point is that mercy must be informed by appreciation of the person's dignity and status. Throughout, my approach is philosophical rather than theological.

  3. Aging Parents' Daily Support Exchanges With Adult Children Suffering Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Meng; Graham, Jamie L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-06-17

    When adult children incur life problems (e.g., divorce, job loss, health problems), aging parents generally report providing more frequent support and experiencing poorer well-being. Yet, it is unclear how adult children's problems may influence aging parents' daily support exchanges with these children or the parents' daily mood. Aging parents from the Family Exchanges Study Wave 2 (N = 207, Mage = 79.86) reported providing and receiving emotional support, practical support, and advice from each adult child each day for 7 days. Parents also rated daily positive and negative mood. Multilevel models showed that aging parents were more likely to provide emotional and practical support to adult children incurring life problems than children not suffering problems. Parents were also more likely to receive emotional support and advice from these children with problems. Further, parents reported less negative mood on days when providing practical support to children with problems. Examining daily support exchanges adds to our understanding of how children's problems influence parent-child ties in late life. Prior research suggests that children's problems upset parents. In this study, however, it appears that supporting adult children who suffer problems may alleviate aging parents' distress regarding such children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Living with Suffering: Buddhist Wisdom Illustrated by a Widow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Kei Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Available literature, largely based on Western theories, investigates suffering from spousal loss, which can threaten an individual’s physical health and psychological well-being; however, limited studies examine how Buddhists overcome this difficulty. This case study, by in-depth semi-structured interviews, explores the lived experience of a Buddhist surviving spouse who underwent the sudden loss of her husband. Qualitative data were analysed by interpretative phenomenological analysis, with the aid of ATLAS.ti 7, a software package. In order to enhance the trustworthiness, peer analysis (inter-rater reliability=92% and member-checking were adopted. Findings revealed that the bereaved Buddhist was living with feelings of guilt, but when she applied Buddhist wisdom, including the teachings of impermanence and cause-and-effect, hopes of a reunion in future lives due to the cycle of birth and death, living in the present moment, self-awareness, and strengthening capabilities to deal with afflictions, this widow could let the sense of guilt peacefully coexist with her being. Her living with suffering hints at tackling distress through a deeper understanding of the formation of the phenomenal world, and mind management, implying that Buddhist philosophy not only offers alternative views to interpret the continual relationship between survivors and the deceased, but also inspires helping professionals to extend the horizons of their therapeutic services.

  5. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  6. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  7. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  8. 3Rs-respecting animal models in radiopharmaceutical research with a special emphasis to monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Lajos; Thuróczy, Julianna; Pöstényi, Zita; Kovács-Haász, Veronika; Lovas, Melinda; Polyák, András; Jánoki, Győző A.; Leyva Montana, René

    2016-01-01

    In better developed human medical centres hybrid (or fusion) diagnostic imaging (PET/CT, SPECT/CT, PET/MRI …) is available for clinicians to detect, localize, stage and follow-up theire patients suffering a wide variety (oncological, cardiovascular, neurological, orthopaedic …) of diseases. Easy to understand that not only human and veterinary clinical but numerous research applications could be implemented using these novel digital imaging methods. The use of hybrid equipments is not simply an expensive toy in researcher’s hands but and effective tool that serves 2 out of the 3 Rs (Refinement and Reduction) requirements as well. Hybrid (fusion) imaging method allows high-resolution pictures including correct anatomical structures and quantized functional data as altogether after radiolabelled ligand applications. Serial images could be taken using only one single anesthetized animal that must not be exterminated at the end of process. The re-use of laboratory animals allowing us to compare the characteristics of different labelled molecules in the very same biological model. Spontaneously diseased canine, feline and exotic animals is a constant source of animal models for the biomedical research and represents a great choice to replace laboratory animals. Osteosarcoma, mammary gland carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, brain tumours and a few others in dogs or cats might be the best known animal models of the appropriate human diseases. Diagnosing and then treating them with the most promising human methods (including cold MoAbs, immunotherapy, radiolabelled ligands ...) is a chance for the suffering animals, a new hope for owners and referral vets - and parallel applicable data for human oncologists and translational researchers. Authors wish to share with audience their 20 years expert in the field and hope to find friends and co-operators among them. (author)

  9. Validation of the Explorer® 2.0 test coupled to e-Reader® for the screening of antimicrobials in muscle from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Luis; Sanz, David; Razquin, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The Explorer(®) 2.0 tube test is a microbial inhibition test for the screening of antimicrobial residues in food samples. The new e-Reader(®) device coupled to Explorer(®) 2.0 operates by incubation at a selected temperature, determination of the endpoint of the assay and interpretation to generate results. This system was validated for muscle samples according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Sensitivity towards 25 substances from several groups of antimicrobials was investigated in a first step. Detection capabilities for six substances representing the six major antimicrobial groups were also determined in bovine muscle. The detection capabilities for amoxicillin (10 µg l(-1)), cefalexin (200 µg l(-1)), doxycyclin (100 µg l(-1)), sulfamethazine (100 µg l(-1)), tylosin (100 µg l(-1)) and neomycin (200 µg l(-1)) were in all cases at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). Specificity and applicability of the test were demonstrated with muscle samples from four animal species (bovine, porcine, ovine and poultry) and results were found to be satisfactory. Ruggedness was evaluated on negative and spiked samples with sulfamethazine as a representative antimicrobial. Neither false-positives nor false-negatives were detected when varying the sample volume, the time of pre-incubation, the temperature of incubation and the batch of the test. These results prove that Explorer(®) 2.0 coupled to e-Reader(®) is a valuable tool for the screening of a broad range of antimicrobials in muscle. This new methodology simplifies the analysis and increases the accuracy of interpretation of the test results since the endpoint of the assay is automatically determined and results are interpreted objectively.

  10. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  11. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Representation of victims’ suffering in violent conflicts: scope, obstacles and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila De Gamboa Tapias

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to analyze the types of moral feelings that victims’ testimonies should arouse among members of a political community that purports to be democratic, inclusive and respective of human rights. Hand in hand with Avishai Margalit, Tzvetan Todorov, Peter Strawson, Martha Nussbaum, Elizabeth Spelman and Manuel Reyes Mate, throughout the text we defend the thesis that the narrations and representations of the victims’ unfair suffering should be able to arouse indignation and informed compassion among citizens. To demonstrate the scope and meaning of this thesis, we will analyze two of the most serious problems faced by a policy that privileges the victims. The first is related to the distortions that may take place when the victims’ narrations are heard and that are largely associated with a kind of sacredness that is assigned to those who testify on the violence they have suffered. The second issue we will analyze is related to the manner in which the members of a political community represent said suffering. Specifically, we will discuss the different forms of trivialization that citizens may give the narrations that represent the damage. In the last part of the text, we shall analyze the exemplary testimony of Harriet Jacobs with the intention of showing how a testimony may generate informed indignation and compassion among the audience.

  13. The Comparison between Conceived Stress and Personality traits, in People Suffering from Migraine and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Peymannia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a common familial disease and is diagnosed with recurring throbbing headache. Investigation of biological and psychological factors in the initiation and aggravation of migraine headaches have shown that there is a relationship between the psychological factors, personality, and migraine headache. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the conceived stress and Personality traits between ill persons suffering from Migraine and healthy people. Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study which involves a sample including 30 migrainours and 30 healthy people. The migraine-suffering participants were chosen among the people who referred to specialized clinic of migraine in Ardabil in the first half of 2012. The study participants filled the Eysenck's personality questionnaire and Kohen' s Perceived stress scale. Descriptive statistics as well as MANOVA were utilized to analyze the research data. Results: The results showed that migraine-suffering participants conceived the stress negatively (P<0.01, F=11 compared to healthy participants. Moreover, migrainours scored significantly higher in regard to Neuroticism score compared to healthy people (P<0.05, F=5.91. Also, there was a significant difference between migrainours and healthy people in their extroversion score (P<0.05, F=6.57. Conclusion: According to the study findings, it appears that migraine patients are more vulnerable to the neurotic disease. Therefore, considering the psychological and personality characteristics may impact on the prognosis of disease.

  14. Social suffering and marginalisation among Eastern European students in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Dahlberg, Mette Ginnerskov

    2016-01-01

    Presenter: Lisanne Wilken, dr. phil. Global Studies, Aarhus University. ceklw@cas.au.dk Together with Mette Ginnerskov Hansen; phd-student, Global Studies, Aarhus University Theme 5: Reconsidering "Internationalisation" from peripheral perspectives Social suffering and marginalization among Eastern...... European students in Denmark In recent years Denmark has become a favoured destination for international students from the (South) Eastern Member States of the European Union. In 2013 Denmark was the 2nd most favoured destination for students from Latvia and Lithuania, the 6th most favoured destination...... for students from Romania and the 7th most favoured destination for students from Poland. Students from EU's Eastern member states are often attracted by the fee free access to highly ranked universities, and the possibilities for receiving economic student support, but also by the welfare society...

  15. Doll therapy for dementia sufferers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Koh, Shawn Shao Hong; Tan, Wei Chuan; Chan, Hwei Wuen

    2017-02-01

    Dementia affects more than 47.5 million people worldwide, and the number is expected to continue to increase as the population ages. Doll therapy is an emerging nonpharmacologic management strategy for patients with advanced dementia, especially in patients with challenging behaviours. A total of 12 published studies (mainly cohort and observational studies) were identified and discussed in this systematic review. In most instances, cognitive, behavioural and emotional symptoms were alleviated and overall wellbeing was improved with doll therapy, and dementia sufferers were found to be able to better relate with their external environment. Despite the relative paucity of empirical data and ethical concerns, we are of the opinion that doll therapy is effective for dementia care, is well-aligned with the ethos of person-centred care and should be applied in the management of dementia patients. Future research should include more robust randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resources for hyperhidrosis sufferers, patients, and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Lisa J

    2014-10-01

    The excessive sweating of hyperhidrosis creates profound psychosocial, professional, and financial burdens on the individual sufferer; it contributes to impaired self-worth and self-efficacy, decreased satisfaction in all relationships, avoidance of specific careers, and increased expenditures on everything from clothing to medical treatment. Despite morbidity equal to other well-known dermatologic conditions, hyperhidrosis has historically been underacknowledged and undertreated because of the lack of accessible, scientifically accurate information and dispersal of that information within patient and medical communities. Thankfully, the development of the Internet and the work of the not-for-profit International Hyperhidrosis Society (IHHS) have increased awareness of hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nursing in family environment: caring for person in mental suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the experience of nursing care to person in mental suffering (PMS in the family context. Developed by nursing academic during home attendance, in the 2008.2 semester. The results showed that: is undeniable the family function of the PMS care, becoming the main partner of the heath teams, the care in the perspective of psychosocial rehabilitation influences the attitudes, patterns of response and participation in treatment, resulting in the empowerment of PMS and family. It’s concluded that home attendance contributes to the process of psychosocial rehabilitation of the PMS and assessment of mental health services, subsidizing the formulation of public policies for the sector, especially, in regard to care in perspective of the whole human life.

  18. Cornual pregnancy in a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onilda Labrada Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ectopic pregnancy is a pathological entity of great incidence, which is increased, among other things, by each time earlier sexual relations. Cornual pregnancy is as a result of the implantation of the blastocyte within the segment of the fallopian tube that goes into the uterus wall or between the tubal ostium and the proximal portion of the isthmus. This is a case of a cornual pregnancy in which the use of ultrasonography played an essential role for its diagnosis, since it is about a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia, where it was not possible to clinically eliminate the possibility of an occlusive vessel crisis as the cause of abdominal pain. Subtotal hysterectomy of the right tube was performed. The patient’s evolution is satisfactory.

  19. The Stent Patency and Migration Rate of Different Shaped Plastic Stents in Bile Flow Phantom Model and In Vivo Animal Bile Duct Dilation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Joo Young; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2017-05-01

    In research and development of biliary plastic stents (PS), continuous efforts have been made to overcome short patency time and high rate of migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patency and migration rate of different PS shapes for a given period of time. Using an in vitro bile phantom model, we compared the patency among different shapes of PS (three straight PS, four double-pigtail PS, and a new screw-shaped PS). We performed an analysis of the degree of luminal narrowing by light microscopic examination. Using an in vivo swine model, we compared the patency and migration rate among the three different types of PS. Eight weeks after the bile exposure in the bile flow phantom model, 80 PS were retrieved and analyzed. The straight PS showed less biofilm formation and luminal narrowing than other types of PS (p stent migration occurred less frequently in the double-pigtail PS and the screw-shaped PS than it did in the straight PS (11.1, 10, and 27.3%, respectively). However, there was no statistical difference in stent patency among the different shapes. Stent patency may not be significantly different depending on the shape of PS for 8 weeks. The screw-shaped PS showed similar patency and migration rate to the double-pigtail PS. These results may help guiding future PS development and clinical decisions.

  20. Animal Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim) Slaughtered at 16 and 22 Months Old, and Three Different Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Eiras, Carlos Emanuel; Fugita, Carlos Alberto; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Pinto, Adriana Aparecida; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-05-01

    Current study aimed to evaluate the performance of bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim) slaughtered at two ages and three different weights. One hundred and thirteen bulls were divided into two slaughter ages (16 and 22 months) and three different slaughter weights (light, 422 kg; medium, 470 kg; and heavy, 550 kg). The body weight was higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Daily gain, carcass weight and dressing were higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Feed intake was higher for bulls slaughtered at 22 months although feed efficiency was better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Carcass characteristics were better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. The percentages of muscle, fat and bone and meat characteristics were similar between two slaughter ages. Feed intake and animal performance was lower for lighter animals. Feed conversion and carcass dressing were similar in the three slaughter weights. Muscle percentage was higher for heavier animals but fat and bone percentages were lower. Slaughter weight had no effect on meat characteristics.

  1. [COMMUNICATION AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriček, G; Cerovečki, V; Adžić, Z Ožvačić

    2015-11-01

    Although survey results indicate clear connection between the physician-patient communication and health outcomes, mechanisms of their action are still insufficiently clear. The aim was to investigate the specificity of communication with patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and the impact of good communication on measurable outcomes. We performed PubMed (Medline) search using the following key words: communication, health outcomes, and gastrointestinal diseases. Seven pathways through which communication can lead to better health include increased access to care, greater patient knowledge and shared understanding, higher quality medical decisions, enhanced therapeutic alliances, increased social support, patient agency and empowerment, and better management of emotions. Although these pathways were explored with respect to cancer care, they are certainly applicable to other health conditions as well, including the care of patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Although proposing a number of pathways through which communication can lead to improved health, it should be emphasized that the relative importance of a particular pathway will depend on the outcome of interest, the health condition, where the patient is in the illness trajectory, and the patient’s life circumstances. Besides, research increasingly points to the importance of placebo effect, and it is recommended that health professionals encourage placebo effect by applying precisely targeted communication skills, as the unquestionable and successful part of many treatments. It is important that the clinician knows the possible positive and negative effects of communication on health outcomes, and in daily work consciously maximizes therapeutic effects of communication, reaching its proximal (understanding, satisfaction, clinician-patient agreement, trust, feeling known, rapport, motivation) and intermediate outcomes (access to care, quality medical decision, commitment to

  2. Demographic Features, Beliefs And Socio–Psychological Impact Of Acne Vulgaris Among Its Sufferers In Two Towns In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaraoha CI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available There is paucity of reports in the demographic knowledge, belief and socio-psychological impact of acne vulgaris sufferers towards the disorder in a black population. This is the first study from Nigeria designed to address this issue. A total of 174 facial acne sufferers completed a self-administered questionnaire, which contained several items mentioning different areas in their belief, knowledge, perception, severity, socio-psychological impact and medication attention. The findings were discussed and compared to those of the Caucasians. The occurrence of the disorder was higher in females (65.0% compared to the males (35.0%. About 54.0% of the female subjects indicated increase in severity of the disorder during their pre-menstrual period. Also 64.9% of acne sufferers indicated increase in severity during the rainy season, while 93.1% of the population implicated stress to perpetuate the severity of the disorder. Most (75.7% of the acne sufferers believed that it is caused by oily diet, 40.8% thought that it is hereditary, while barely 5.2% had at sometime sought doctor's attention. Non- prescription products used by acne sufferers were cleansers and cream/lotions. Psychological abnormalities experienced by the sufferers included social inhibition, depression and anxiety. Pain and discomfort are the psychosomatic symptoms. No major differences were found in the beliefs, misconception and socio-psychological impact of acne sufferers in a black population (Nigeria compared to the Caucasians. There is need to improve the understanding of the disorder in Nigeria through health education programmes

  3. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielissen, Marieke F M; Prins, Judith B; Knoop, Hans; Verhagen, Stans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-06-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue. Quantitative and qualitative data of a previous randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) especially designed for postcancer fatigue was used to assess convergent validity and sensitivity to change in a sample of 83 cancer survivors. The PRISM, yielding self-illness separation (SIS-fatigue = suffering due to fatigue; SIS-cancer = suffering due to cancer), fatigue severity (Checklist Individual Strength; CIS-fatigue), functional impairment, psychological well-being, quality of life, and coping with the experience of cancer (Impact of Event Scale; IES). Moderate significant correlations were found with the PRISM and the above-mentioned measures. On the basis of SIS scores, the sample was divided into two separate groups: cancer survivors who suffered more because of fatigue and cancer survivors who suffered more because they had cancer in the past. The two groups had different scores on CIS-fatigue and IES, in line with that aspect that caused them the most suffering. The qualitative data confirmed this finding. Participants in the CBT condition demonstrated a significant difference between SIS-fatigue at baseline versus 6 months later compared with those in the waiting list condition. No change of SIS-cancer was found. The PRISM seems to be a valuable tool in fatigue research and clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Different healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects by endoscopic mucosal dissection between with and without steroid injection in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Ban, Shinichi; Aikawa, Masayasu; Akimoto, Naoe; Koyama, Isamu; Kita, Hiroto

    2013-04-25

    Stricture formation is one of the major complications after endoscopic removal of large superficial squamous cell neoplasms of the esophagus, and local steroid injections have been adopted to prevent it. However, fundamental pathological alterations related to them have not been well analyzed so far. The aim of this study was to analyze the time course of the healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects resulting in stricture formation and its modification by local steroid injection, using an animal model. Esophageal circumferential mucosal defects were created by endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD) for four pigs. One pig was sacrificed five minutes after the ESD, and other two pigs were followed-up on endoscopy and sacrificed at the time of one week and three weeks after the ESD, respectively. The remaining one pig was followed-up on endoscopy with five times of local steroid injection and sacrificed at the time of eight weeks after the ESD. The esophageal tissues of all pigs were subjected to pathological analyses. For the pigs without steroid injection, the esophageal stricture was completed around three weeks after the ESD on both endoscopy and esophagography. Histopathological examination of the esophageal tissues revealed that spindle-shaped α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myofibroblasts arranged in a parallel fashion and extending horizontally were identified at the ulcer bed one week after the ESD, and increased contributing to formation of the stenotic luminal ridge covered with the regenerated epithelium three weeks after the ESD. The proper muscle layer of the stricture site was thinned with some myocytes which seemingly showed transition to the myofibroblast layer. By contrast, for the pig with steroid injection, esophageal stricture formation was not evident with limited appearance of the spindle-shaped myofibroblasts, instead, appearance of stellate or polygocal SMA-positive stromal cells arranged haphazardly in the persistent granulation

  5. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  6. biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naser, H.F.O.

    2004-01-01

    this study investigates the biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases.100 women in premenopausal period (between 30-45 years) were divided into 5 groups:group(1) control, group(2) obese,group (3) HCV non-obese, group(4) HCV obese and group (5) other liver diseases. the obtained results indicated that, for all female-studied groups there were very highly significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist ,hip circumferences, while ,there were non-significant differences in height and waist hip ratio.also there were very highly significant differences in AST, ALT,Alkaline phosphatase,GGT,bilirubin, these results may be due to hepatic injury and metabolic dysfunction. there were very highly significant differences in HDL,triglycerides and total lipids, whereas it was significant difference in cholesterol and non-significant for LDL, these differences might be contributed to obesity and hepatitis virus C infection

  7. The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Siomar C; Silva, Artur; Trost, Eva

    2013-01-01

    , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic...

  8. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids

  9. Differences in the incidence of apoptosis between in vivo and in vitro produced blastocysts of farm animal species: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Pomar, F.J.; Teerds, K.J.; Kidson, A.; Colenbrander, B.; Tharasanit, T.; Aguilar, B.; Roelen, B.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of pregnancies and births after embryo transfer (ET) of in vivo produced embryos is generally more successful compared to that of embryos produced in vitro. This difference in ET success has been observed when embryos of morphological equal (high) quality were used. The incidence of

  10. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been ... reveals that c-type lysozymes are predominantly present in the phylum of the Chordata and in different classes of the Arthropoda. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  11. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review articles should cover new development in a field of livestock production. ... of earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos) cultured in different animal dung media ... of commercial layer feeds and their impact on performance and egg quality ...

  12. What Causes Animals to Disperse?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research involving animal behaviour and ecology for a very long time. ... shall examine two different types of dispersals that occur, try to understand the ... finally look at some practical methods through which the phe- ..... further qualitative or.

  13. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  14. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids HEDAF (5-(N-hexadecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) and TEDAF (5-(N-tetradecanoyl)-aminofluorescein) appear to partition into the plasma membrane. Under all experimental conditions used these molecules show par...

  15. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food.

  16. [Characteristics of long-term persisting strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus in different forms of the chronic process in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Karmysheva, V Ia

    1982-01-01

    The properties of the Vasilchenko strain of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and its 3 variants isolated at various stages of persistent infection (383, 453, and 535 days) in Macaca rhesus monkeys and Syrian hamsters with different forms of the chronic TBE were studied. The process characterized by chronic focal inflammatory-degenerative changes in the brains of hamsters without the disturbance of motor functions was associated with persistence of different kinds of virus-specific antigens without virulent virus production. Brain explants of this group of hamsters yielded a virus with cytopathogenic properties but not pathogenic for mice. In a chronic disease developing without the initial acute period, a virus was recovered from hamsters which proved to be virulent for mice and to possess the hemagglutinating and high invasive activity. The most virulent strain was isolated from monkeys with continuously progressive chronic encephalitis with steady paralysis of the extremities. This isolate differed from the parental Vasilchenko strain by a high pathogenicity for hamsters by intracerebral and subcutaneous routes, and thermostability at 50 degrees C.

  17. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  18. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  19. Zoonoses and poverty - a long road to the alleviation of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarchos

    2012-01-01

    Populations living in poverty in the developing world suffer a heavy burden caused by infectious diseases, most of them zoonoses. The poorer populations also tend to be marginalised from the health sector and so are many of the diseases that affect them. The poor in every society, and particularly in developing countries, bear a disproportionately high share of the disease burden. There is a broad range of viral, bacterial, mycotic, chlamydial, rickettsial and parasitic diseases of global and regional importance given their major impact on the health and socio-economic development of many populations. Endemic infectious diseases, including zoonoses, together with emerging and re-emerging diseases, are mostly shouldered by poor and vulnerable populations. Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor farmers, consumers and traders throughout the developing world. The animals of poor people are particularly vulnerable to disease because of costs, absence or unsuitability of the animal health sector, etc. The impact of endemic animal diseases are mainly felt at the farm level, while a broader economic impact can occur with these diseases through the restriction of trade in livestock and their products. Addressing comprehensive and sustainable solutions to public health problems created by endemic infections cannot be achieved solely by the public health sector alone. Partnerships with other sectors, particularly agriculture, environment, education, local administration, will be necessary to contain and effectively control zoonotic and foodborne diseases that affect mainly the poor. International organisations could support developing countries by coordinating national intersectoral activities, promoting appropriate technology and public health education, community participation and encouraging decision-makers to commit themselves. This is the only perspective for improved quality of life of poor and marginalised populations.

  20. Zoonoses and poverty – a long road to the alleviation of suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarchos Seimenis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations living in poverty in the developing world suffer a heavy burden caused by infectious diseases, most of them zoonoses. The poorer populations also tend to be marginalised from the health sector and so are many of the diseases that affect them. The poor in every society, and particularly in developing countries, bear a disproportionately high share of the disease burden. There is a broad range of viral, bacterial, mycotic, chlamydial, rickettsial and parasitic diseases of global and regional importance given their major impact on the health and socio-economic development of many populations. Endemic infectious diseases, including zoonoses, together with emerging and re-emerging diseases, are mostly shouldered by poor and vulnerable populations. Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor farmers, consumers and traders throughout the developing world. The animals of poor people are particularly vulnerable to disease because of costs, absence or unsuitability of the animal health sector, etc. The impact of endemic animal diseases are mainly felt at the farm level, while a broader economic impact can occur with these diseases through the restriction of trade in livestock and their products. Addressing comprehensive and sustainable solutions to public health problems created by endemic infections cannot be achieved solely by the public health sector alone. Partnerships with other sectors, particularly agriculture, environment, education, local administration, will be necessary to contain and effectively control zoonotic and foodborne diseases that affect mainly the poor. International organisations could support developing countries by coordinating national intersectoral activities, promoting appropriate technology and public health education, community participation and encouraging decision-makers to commit themselves. This is the only perspective for improved quality of life of poor and marginalised populations.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  5. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  6. The idea of animal welfare - developments and tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point...... of the Brambell Committee, which was to prevent avoidable suffering? Secondly, we turn to the tricky question of how welfare should be distributed between animals. Here, a tension within the concept of animal welfare, between a focus on the indivudual animal and on the herd, flock or shoal, is pointed out....... Finally, the role of economic considerations is considered, given that animal production takes place in a global market with free trade between countries with various standards of animal welfare....

  7. Sacrifice: an ethical dimension of caring that makes suffering meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Kaija; Lindström, Unni A

    2003-07-01

    transformation to achieve atonement and healing. Atonement then implies finding meaningfulness in one's suffering. The concept of sacrifice, understood in a novel way, opens up a deeper dimension in the understanding of suffering and makes caring in 'the patient's world' possible.

  8. Analysis of suffering at work in Family Health Support Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Débora Dupas Gonçalves do; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the work process in the Family Health Support Center. An exploratory, descriptive case study using a qualitative approach. Focus groups were conducted with 20 workers of a Family Health Support Center, and the empirical material was subjected to content analysis technique and analyzed in light of Work Psychodynamics. The category of suffering is presented herein as arising from the dialectical contradiction between actual work and prescribed work, from resistance to the Family Health Support Center's proposal and a lack of understanding of their role; due to an immediatist and curative culture of the users and the Family Health Strategy; of the profile, overload and identification with work. The dialectical contradiction between expectations from Family Health Strategy teams and the work in the Family Health Support Center compromises its execution and creates suffering for workers. Analisar o processo de trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Estudo de caso exploratório, descritivo e de abordagem qualitativa. Grupos focais foram realizados com 20 trabalhadores do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família, o material empírico foi submetido à técnica de análise de conteúdo e analisado à luz da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Apresenta-se aqui a categoria sofrimento que neste estudo decorre da contradição dialética entre o trabalho real e o trabalho prescrito, da resistência à proposta do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família e da falta de compreensão de seu papel; da cultura imediatista e curativa do usuário e da Estratégia Saúde da Família; do perfil, sobrecarga e identificação com o trabalho. A contradição dialética entre expectativas das equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família e o trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família compromete sua efetivação e gera sofrimento aos trabalhadores.

  9. Symptoms and suffering at the end of life in children with cancer: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, John A; Clarke, Naomi E; Donath, Susan M; McCarthy, Maria; Anderson, Vicki A; Wolfe, Joanne

    2010-01-18

    To examine the symptoms, level of suffering, and care of Australian children with cancer at the end of life. In a study conducted at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, parents of children who had died of cancer over the period 1996-2004 were interviewed between February 2004 and August 2006. Parents also completed and returned self-report questionnaires. Proportions of children suffering from and treated for various symptoms; proportion of children receiving cancer-directed therapy at the end of life; proportion of children whose treatment of symptoms was successful; location of death. Of 193 eligible families, 96 (50%) were interviewed. All interviews were conducted in person, and occurred a mean of 4.5 years (SD, 2.1 years) after the child's death. Eighty-four per cent of parents reported that their child had suffered "a lot" or "a great deal" from at least one symptom in their last month of life--most commonly pain (46%), fatigue (43%) and poor appetite (30%). Children who received cancer-directed therapy during the end-of-life period (47%) suffered from a greater number of symptoms than those who did not receive treatment (P = 0.03), but the severity of symptoms did not differ between these groups. Of the children treated for specific symptoms, treatment was successful in 47% of those with pain, 18% of those with fatigue and 17% of those with poor appetite. Of the 61 families who felt they had time to plan where their child would die, 89% preferred to have their child die at home. The majority of children (61%) died at home. Of those who died in hospital, less than a quarter died in the intensive care unit. Relatively high rates of death at home and low rates of unsuccessful medical interventions suggest a realistic approach at the end of life for Australian children dying of cancer. However, many suffer from unresolved symptoms, and greater attention should be paid to palliative care for these children.

  10. [Circadian rhythm variation of the clock genes Per1 and cell cycle related genes in different stages of carcinogenesis of buccal mucosa in animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuemei; Ye, Hua; Yang, Kai; Chen, Dan; Tang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the expression and circadian rhythm variation of biological clock gene Per1 and cell cycle genes p53, CyclinD1, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1), CyclinB1 in different stages of carcinogenesis in buccal mucosa and its relationship with the development of buccal mucosa carcinoma. Ninety golden hamsters were housed under 12 hours light-12 hours dark cycles, and the model of buccal squamous cell carcinoma was established by using the dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) to smear the golden hamster buccal mucosa. Before the DMBA was used and after DMBA was used 6 weeks and 14 weeks respectively, the golden hamsters were sacrificed at 6 different time points (5 rats per time point) within 24 hour, including 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hour after lights onset (HALO), and the normal buccal mucosa, precancerous lesions and cancer tissue were obtained, respectively. HE stained sections were prepared to observe the canceration of each tissue. Real time RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of Per1, p53, CyclinD1, CDK1 and CyclinB1, and a cosine analysis method was applied to determine the circadian rhythm variation of Per1, p53, CyclinD1, CDK1 and CyclinB1 mRNA expression, which were characterized by median, amplitude and acrophase. The expression of Per1, p53, CDK1 and CyclinD1 mRNA in 6 different time points within 24 hours in the tissues of three different stages of carcinogenesis had circadian rhythm, respectively. However, the CyclinB1 mRNA was expressed with circadian rhythm just in normal and cancer tissue (P circadian rhythm was in disorder (P > 0.05). As the development of carcinoma, the median of Per1 and p53 mRNA expression were significantly decreased (P circadian rhythm of clock gene Per1 and cell cycle genes p53, CyclinD1, CDK1, CyclinB1 expression remarkably varied with the occurrence and development of carcinoma. Further research into the interaction between circadian and cell cycle of two cycle activity and relationship with the carcinogenesis may

  11. Nutritional variations during chemotherapy for patients suffering from a locally advanced oesophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duclos, A.; Blondin, V.; Quiesse, M.; Iwanicki-Caron, I.; Lecleire, S.; Michel, P.; Di Fiore, F.; Dubray, B.; Di Fiore, F.

    2010-01-01

    As de-nutrition is frequently noticed for patients suffering from a locally advanced oesophagus cancer, the authors report a study of the variations of nutritional parameters during chemotherapy and of their impacts of the treatment process and efficiency. Thus, different parameters have been studied at the beginning, during and at the end of the treatment: weight, albumin range, body weight index, calorie survey, and the nutritional support type. The authors observe very important variations with a significant impact on treatment tolerance and efficiency. Short communication

  12. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICAL METHODS FOR WORK WITH CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM CEREBRAL PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivajlo PETROV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapy in somatopedy is always viewed in the light of the ‘initial theoretical conception’ about the unity of the mental and the somatic (neurophysiological, both in the genesis of the physical and mental disturbances and in the system of therapeutic treatments. The body and the soul, or the physical and the mental represent an unbreakable unity.The psychotherapy is especially adequate method for work with children suffering from cerebral palsy.According to our research work connected with the studying of the utilization of various forms of psychotherapy in the rehabilitation schools for children with cerebral palsy in some places in Bulgaria, as well as our own long-range experiments, we can claim with certainty that the following methods give very good results:1. Music therapy2. Art therapy3. Puppet therapy4. Cultural therapy5. Biblio therapy6. Rational psychotherapy of P. Dubois7. Family therapy8. Cognitive-behavioural therapy9. Suggestion while awake10.Autogen training of J. Schlitz

  13. Ventilation therapy for patients suffering from obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Sven A; Heidelmann, Lena M; Westerfeld, Andreas; Frickmann, Hagen; Körber, Mareike K; Zautner, Andreas E

    2014-01-01

    Severe bronchial obstruction due to one of the major pulmonary diseases: asthma, COPD, or emphysema often requires mechanical ventilation support. Otherwise, patients are at risk of severe hypooxygenation with consecutive overloading and dilatation of the right cardiac ventricle with subsequent failure. This review focuses on how to manage a calculated ventilation therapy of patients suffering from bronchial obstruction and relevant patents. Options and pitfalls of invasive and non-invasive ventilation in the intensive care setting regarding clinical improvement and final outcome are discussed. The non-invasive ventilation is very efficient in treating acute or chronic respiratory failure in COPD patients and is capable of shortening the duration of hospitalization. Further non-invasive ventilation can successfully support the weaning after a long-lasting ventilation therapy and improve the prognosis of COPD patients. "Permissive hypercapnia" is unequivocally established in invasive ventilation therapy of severe bronchial obstruction in situations of limited ventilation. When intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and elevated airways resistance are present PEEP may be useful although external-PEEP application relieves over-inflation only in selected patients with airway obstruction during controlled mechanical ventilation. Upper limit of airways peak pressure used in "protective ventilation" of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients can be exceeded under certain circumstances.

  14. Cranial MRI of neurologically impaired children suffering from neonatal hypoglycaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshihiko; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Okudera, Toshio; Hashimoto, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Background. Metabolic disturbances such as anoxia and hypoglycaemia are important in causing maldevelopment of the neonatal brain. While there have been some pathology studies of the effects of neonatal hypoglycaemia on brain development, reports of MRI findings in such infants have been rare. Objectives. To describe the MRI findings in neurologically handicapped children who had suffered from neonatal hypoglycaemia and to evaluate the relationship between the neurological impairment and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Materials and methods. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI findings in eight full-term infants with neonatal symptomatic hypoglycaemia who later exhibited neurological handicap. The age at which the MRI scans were obtained ranged from 9 months to 8 years 10 months (mean 4 years 1 month, median 4 years). Results. The most striking findings were prolonged T1 weighting and T2 weighting in the parieto-occipital periventricular deep white matter in six patients, suggesting abnormal or delayed myelination. Dilatation of the lateral ventricles, especially of the trigones, was observed in five patients in whom the distance between the posterior horns of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent sulci was reduced. The volume of white matter relative to grey matter was reduced in two patients. In addition, four patients exhibited cerebral cortical atrophy, mainly in the occipital lobe. Conclusions. These findings suggest that neonatal hypoglycaemia may cause delayed or abnormal myelination, especially in the parieto-occipital, periventricular, deep white matter, and may cause cerebral cortical atrophy, especially in the occipital lobe. (orig.)

  15. CELLULAR IMMUNITY OF THE PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM RECURRENT GENITAL CANDIDOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Miladinovic

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the cellular immunity parameters comprised 20 women suffering from the recurrent genital candidose (RGK in the remission phase as well as 20 women of the control grooup that never had any verified genital mucous infection. The aim of the research was to determine the interferon-gamma (INF gamma production in the culture of specifically (by the Candida albicans - HKB-antigens and non-specifically (Concavalin-A-ConA stimulated mononuclear cells of the peripheral blood of the women with the RKG as well as of the healthy women for the sake of determining a possible presence of the system cellular immunity hypo-activity. The IFN gamma was determined by the quantitative immuno-enzymic Quantikine method (R/D system, Minneapolis, USA.The IFN gamma was confirmed in minimal quantities in the cultures of the lymphocytes stimulated by the specific antigen (average value - 15 pg/ml. A considerably higher value of the produced IFN gamma was confirmed in the cultures of the stimulated lymphocytes (average value - 954 pg/ml as well as at the ConA and the HKB lymphocyte stimulus (average value - 1247 pg/ml.

  16. "Suffering twice": the gender politics of cesarean sections in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chen-I

    2014-09-01

    Women's pursuit of medical interventions in childbirth has been a challenging issue in feminist and medical anthropological research on the medicalization of reproduction. This article addresses the gender politics surrounding maternal requests for cesarean sections in Taiwan. Since the 1990s, Taiwanese cesarean rates have been reported as among the highest in the world. That is not the case now, yet they are still perceived as such, and the current rate of 37% is indeed high by any standards. The government and public discourses attribute the high cesarean rate to women's demand for this intervention. However, my ethnographic research indicates that the Taiwanese hospital birthing system leads to the prevalence of cesareans, and that women's requests for them constitute strategic responses to the system and its existing high cesarean rates. Using women's attempt to avoid "suffering twice" as an example, I argue that maternal requests for cesareans often lie at the intersection between their restricted control over childbirth and their agency within the medical system. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  17. Alexithymia in juvenile primary headache sufferers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Canetta, Elisabetta; Zordan, Maria; Spoto, Andrea; Ferruzza, Emilia; Manco, Irene; Addis, Alessandra; Dal Zotto, Lara; Toldo, Irene; Sartori, Stefano; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Starting in the 1990s, there has been accumulating evidence of alexithymic characteristics in adult patients with primary headache. Little research has been conducted, however, on the relationship between alexithymia and primary headache in developmental age. In their research on alexithymia in the formative years, the authors identified one of the most promising prospects for research, as discussed here. The aim of this study was to verify whether there is: (a) a link between tension-type headache and alexithymia in childhood and early adolescence; and (b) a correlation between alexithymia in children/preadolescents and their mothers. This study was based on an experimental group of 32 patients (26 females and 6 males, aged from 8 to 15 years, mean 11.2 ± 2.0) suffering from tension-type headache and 32 control subjects (26 females and 6 males, aged from 8 to 15 years, mean 11.8 ± 1.6). Tension-type headache was diagnosed by applying the International Headache Classification (ICHD-II, 2004). The alexithymic construct was measured using an Italian version of the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children in the case of the juvenile patients and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) for their mothers. Higher rates of alexithymia were observed in the children/preadolescents in the experimental group (EG) than in the control group; in the EG there was no significant correlation between the alexithymia rates in the children/preadolescents and in their mothers.

  18. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  19. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathekge, Mike; Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de; Maes, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  20. THE SUFFERING OF PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISORDERS DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Lech

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Assumption : Respiratory disorders during sleep involving the occurrence of sleep apnoea leading to a reduction in arterial oxygen saturation are classified as: obstructive sleep apnoea, central sleep apnoea and sleep-related hypoventilation with hypoxaemia. A close correlation has been proved between the occurrence of apnoea and obesity. This problem concerns 2–4% of the population, and is more likely to affect men. Aim : Presentation of the problem of respiratory disorders during sleep as a chronic disease causing much suffering. Its symptoms may lead to sleep fragmentation and somatic consequences (such as dysfunction of the cardiovascular system as well as mental consequences (personality changes. Method : An analysis of literature concerning the subject-matter from the perspective of a doctor conducting ventilation therapy of patients with respiratory sleep disorders. Summary : The problem of sleep apnoea is most often diagnosed and treated too late due to the number of symptoms with a simultaneous absence of pathognomonic symptoms. Despite its commonness, recognition of this disease is still insufficient.

  1. Influence of religion on sexual self-perception and sexual satisfaction in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitl, Marija Vucic; Peitl, Vjekoslav; Pavlovic, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that religion has an impact on mental health of both healthy people and mental health patients. However, scientific research regarding the influence of religion on sexual experiences and sexual self-perception in mental health patients and healthy people is very scarce. Therefore, our goal was to research how and in what measure religious and atheistic views of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia and healthy people influence their sexual functions and sexual self-perception. This research was conducted on 100 patients suffering from schizophrenia and 100 patients suffering from depression, while 100 healthy individuals served as a control group. DMS-IV criteria were used when diagnosing schizophrenia and depression. In order to research the aspects of sexual self-perception we used Bezinović's questionnaire and Arizona sexual experience scale (ASEX) to research the aspects of sexual intercourse. Results show that Roman-Catholic patients suffering from schizophrenia experience greater sexual satisfaction than Eastern-Orthodox or atheist schizophrenic patients. Among patients suffering from depression in regard to their differing religious views there were no significant differences regarding sexual satisfaction or the aspects of sexual self-perception. Furthermore, there is a significant difference among healthy individuals when taking into consideration religious views. We established that Muslims have a significantly stronger sexual drive then atheists, Roman-Catholic or Eastern-Orthodox individuals. Compared to Roman-Catholic and Eastern-Orthodox individuals, atheists have better consciousness of their own sexuality. We can conclude that religious views have an influence on sexual functioning and sexual self-perception of patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia and also healthy individuals. Thus, further research on a bigger sample of participants--not only of those religious denominations covered in this

  2. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  3. Individual Differences in Animal Stress Models: Considering Resilience, Vulnerability, and the Amygdala in Mediating the Effects of Stress and Conditioned Fear on Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick, Mairen E; Hallum, Olga Y; Sutton, Amy M; Williams, Brook L; Sanford, Larry D

    2016-06-01

    To examine the REM sleep response to stress and fearful memories as a potential marker of stress resilience and vulnerability and to assess the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in mediating the effects of fear memory on sleep. Outbred Wistar rats were surgically implanted with electrodes for recording EEG and EMG and with bilateral guide cannulae directed at the BLA. Data loggers were placed intraperitoneally to record core body temperature. After recovery from surgery, the rats received shock training (ST: 20 footshocks, 0.8 mA, 0.5-s duration, 60-s interstimulus interval) and afterwards received microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol (MUS; 1.0 μM) to inactivate BLA or microinjections of vehicle (VEH) alone. Subsequently, the rats were separated into 4 groups (VEH-vulnerable (VEH-Vul; n = 14), VEH-resilient (VEH-Res; n = 13), MUS-vulnerable (MUS-Vul; n = 8), and MUS-resilient (MUS-Res; n = 11) based on whether or not REM was decreased, compared to baseline, during the first 4 h following ST. We then compared sleep, freezing, and the stress response (stress-induced hyperthermia, SIH) across groups to determine the effects of ST and fearful context re-exposure alone (CTX). REM was significantly reduced on the ST day in both VEH-Vul and MUS-Vul rats; however, post-ST MUS blocked the reduction in REM on the CTX day in the MUS-Vul group. The VEH-Res and MUS-Res rats showed similar levels of REM on both ST and CTX days. The effects of post-ST inactivation of BLA on freezing and SIH were minimal. Outbred Wistar rats can show significant individual differences in the effects of stress on REM that are mediated by BLA. These differences in REM can be independent of behavioral fear and the peripheral stress response, and may be an important biomarker of stress resilience and vulnerability. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Effects of eliminating tension by means of epineural stitches: a comparative electrophysiological and histomorphometrical study using different suture techniques in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Jorge; Socolovsky, Mariano; Martins, Roberto S; Emmerich, Juan; Pennini, Maria Gabriela; Lausada, Natalia; Domitrovic, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Epineural stitches are a means to avoid tension in a nerve suture. We evaluate this technique, relative to interposed grafts and simple neurorraphy, in a rat model. Twenty rats were allocated to four groups. For Group 1, sectioning of the sciatic nerve was performed, a segment 4 mm long discarded, and epineural suture with distal anchoring stitches were placed resulting in slight tension neurorraphy. For Group 2, a simple neurorraphy was performed. For Group 3, a 4 mm long graft was employed and Group 4 served as control. Ninety days after, reoperation, latency of motor action potentials recording and axonal counts were performed. Inter-group comparison was done by means of ANOVA and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean motor latency for the simple suture (2.27±0.77 ms) was lower than for the other two surgical groups, but lower than among controls (1.69±0.56 ms). Similar values were founding in both group 1 (2.66±0.71 ms) and group 3 (2.64±0.6 ms). When fibers diameters were compared a significant difference was identified between groups 2 and 3 (p=0.048). Good results can be obtained when suturing a nerve employ with epineural anchoring stitches. However, more studies are needed before extrapolating results to human nerve sutures.

  5. Effects of eliminating tension by means of epineural stitches: a comparative electrophysiological and histomorphometrical study using different suture techniques in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Bustamante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epineural stitches are a means to avoid tension in a nerve suture. We evaluate this technique, relative to interposed grafts and simple neurorraphy, in a rat model. METHOD: Twenty rats were allocated to four groups. For Group 1, sectioning of the sciatic nerve was performed, a segment 4 mm long discarded, and epineural suture with distal anchoring stitches were placed resulting in slight tension neurorraphy. For Group 2, a simple neurorraphy was performed. For Group 3, a 4 mm long graft was employed and Group 4 served as control. Ninety days after, reoperation, latency of motor action potentials recording and axonal counts were performed. Inter-group comparison was done by means of ANOVA and the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: The mean motor latency for the simple suture (2.27±0.77 ms was lower than for the other two surgical groups, but lower than among controls (1.69±0.56 ms. Similar values were founding in both group 1 (2.66±0.71 ms and group 3 (2.64±0.6 ms. When fibers diameters were compared a significant difference was identified between groups 2 and 3 (p=0.048. CONCLUSION: Good results can be obtained when suturing a nerve employ with epineural anchoring stitches. However, more studies are needed before extrapolating results to human nerve sutures.

  6. Forgiveness and Personality Type among Men and Women Suffering from Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Foroozandeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of personality and some components of behaviors, traits and emotions as effective factors on coronary heart diseases (CHD were presented nearly 50 years ago with the concept of “type A” behavior, a compound of hostility, impatience, competitiveness and dominance. Later studies showed crucial role of other traits and behaviors like anger, introversion, depression and forgiveness. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare personality type and forgiveness in the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases based on gender. Materials and method: The cross sectional study was designed and sample was collected from men and women referred to cardiologists (within the age range of 23-75 years old from the patients of Shahid Rajaee Heart Hospital of Tehran, Iran from December 2010 to March 2011. Total 87 subjects were selected using random method. The study subjects were given two questionnaires: personality type A (with two factors: TA1, pathologic behaviors of type A personality and TA2, non pathologic behaviors of type A personality and Interpersonal Forgiveness Inventory (IFI, with three subscales namely reestablishment of relationship, control of revenge and realistic perception. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Mean(±SD age of men was 50.5±11.6 years (n=33 and 55.7±14.4 years in women (n=54. Mean duration of suffering from cardiovascular diseases in men was 7.8 years and in women was 9.10 years. The study found high mean scores of type A pathologic but not non pathologic type A among women compared to men (p<0.038 and no statistically significant differences in forgiveness subscales. Conclusion: The study revealed significant difference between women and men suffering from cardiovascular disease in pathologic type A (TA1 and negative relationship between pathologic type A and forgiveness.

  7. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  8. Support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia: what roles do conditions of suffering and the identity of the terminally ill play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Robert; Chantagul, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia under three conditions of suffering (pain; debilitated nature of the body; burden on the family) experienced by oneself, a significant other, and a person in general. The sample consisted of 1,897 Thai adults (719 males, 1,178 females) who voluntarily filled in the study's questionnaire. Initial multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant group (oneself, significant other, person in general) differences in level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia and under the three conditions of suffering. Multigroup path analysis conducted on the posited euthanasia model showed that the three conditions of suffering exerted differential direct and indirect influences on the support of voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia as a function of the identity of the person for whom euthanasia was being considered. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Don't Sweat the Small Stuff: Food Allergy Sufferer Lives a Cautious but Normal Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Food allergy sufferer lives a cautious but normal life Follow us Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff Food allergy sufferer lives a cautious but normal life Anthony ...

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of clozapine nonresponders suffering from schizophrenia--an open label study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kho, K. H.; Blansjaar, B. A.; de Vries, S.; Babuskova, D.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Linszen, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This open label study describes the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as adjunctive treatment in clozapine nonresponders suffering from schizophrenia. METHOD: The results of clozapine and ECT treatment in 11 clozapine nonresponders suffering from schizophrenia are reported in

  11. Performance, combustion timing and emissions from a light duty vehicle at different altitudes fueled with animal fat biodiesel, GTL and diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ángel; García-Contreras, Reyes; Armas, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of altitude, alternative fuels and driving conditions on emissions have been studied. • Combustion timing was studied by means of on-line thermodynamic diagnosis. • Altitude particularly increases the combustion duration of paraffinic fuels. • Altitude increases NOx emissions more than ten times compared to the sea level. • Effect of fuels on particulate matter is masked when diesel particle filters work efficiently. - Abstract: The altitude effect on performance, emissions and thermodynamic diagnosis under real world driving conditions has been evaluated using two alternative fuels and a diesel fuel. Three places, at different altitudes, were selected for the tests, from 0 to 2500 m above the sea level. Besides, two type of circuits (Urban and Extra-urban) have been selected in order to evaluate these two driving pattern conditions. A light duty diesel vehicle equipped with the same after-treatment system as Euro 5 engines was used as test vehicle. Thermodynamic diagnosis shows that, when the engine works with two pre-injection events (mainly at high altitude and without EGR) the ignition delay agrees of the cetane number of fuels. At urban conditions, altitude increases the combustion duration of all fuels and particularly with paraffinic fuels. The effect of altitude on THC and CO emissions is not noticeable, but at high altitude, NOx emissions during extra-urban tests were around three times higher than those from testing along the urban circuit. Besides, compared to circuits next to the sea level, these emissions at both circuits (urban and extra-urban) were around ten times higher, respectively, than the limits established by the Euro standards. The effect of fuels on pollutant emissions was masked by the variability associated to real driving conditions.

  12. Suffering Quantified? Feasibility and Psychometric Characteristics of 2 Revised Versions of the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets; PhD Marjet G.B.G. Blokhorst; MSc Jolene L.M. Reimus; MSc Annemieke M.A. van Nunen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2008-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) assesses suffering. In this article, the authors explored the feasibility and psychometric qualities of 2 revised versions of the PRISM-PRISM-R1 and PRISM-R2-that they used in 3 studies of participants with different medical problems.

  13. Seasonal differences in cytokine expression in the skin of Shetland ponies suffering from insect bite hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Zaiss, D.M.W.; Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.S.; Lugt, van der J.J.; Smak, J.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Willemse, T.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses is a seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder primarily caused by Culicoides spp. We hypothesize that a mixed Th2/Th1-type immune status, off season, alters into Th2-dominated immune reactivity in the skin of IBH-affected ponies in the IBM season.

  14. Gender differences in sex life issues A population-based study of migraine sufferers

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanen, Markku PT; Ojanlatva, Ansa; Rantala, Anna; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Mattila, Kari J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Migraine is considered to have a negative influence on sex life. The present study was to analyse the perceptions of importance of and satisfaction with sex life as well as the expression of interest in sex among people having migraines in a prospective follow-up mail survey in 1998 and 2003. Methods The random sample was stratified according to gender and age in four age groups (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years). Altogether 25 898 individuals responded to the baseline...

  15. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  16. Outcome among patients suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpković Sladjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In relation to pre-hospital treatment of patients with cardiac arrest (CA in the field where resuscitation is often started by nonprofessionals, resuscitation in hospital is most commonly performed by well-trained personnel. Objective. The aim was to define the factors associated with an improved outcome among patients suffering from the inhospital CA (IHCA. Methods. The prospective study included a total of 100 patients in the Emergency Center over two-year period. The patterns by the Utstein-Style guidelines recorded the following: age, sex, reason for hospital admission, comorbidity, cause and origin of CA, continuous monitoring, time of arrival of the medical emergency team and time of delivery of the first defibrillation shock (DC. Results. Most patients (61% had cardiac etiology. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was achieved in 58% of patients. ROSC was more frequently achieved in younger patients (57.69±11.37, (p<0.05, non-surgical patients (76.1%, (p<0.01 and in patients who were in continuous monitoring (66.7% (p<0.05. The outcome of CPR was significantly better in patients who received advanced life support (ALS (76.6% (p<0.01. Time until the delivery of the first DC shock was significantly shorter in patients who achieved ROSC (1.67±1.13 min, (p<0.01. A total of 5% of IHCA patients survived to hospital discharge. Conclusion. In our study, the outcome of CPR was better in patients who were younger and with non-surgical diseases, which are prognostic factors that we cannot control. Factors associated with better outcome of IHCA patients were: continuous monitoring, shorter time until the delivery of the first DC and ALS. This means that better education of medical staff, better organization and up-to-dated technical equipment are needed.

  17. Evaluation of intra-individual test–re-test variability of uroflowmetry in healthy women and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunacek, Libor; Gärtner, Marcel; Krhut, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to evaluate the intra-individual variability of uroflowmetry (UFM) in healthy control subjects and women suffering from stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence. Methods: A total of 35 healthy controls (group A) and 105 women suffering from urinary...... incontinence were enrolled in the study. Thirty-five women suffered from stress urinary incontinence (group B), 35 women suffered from mixed urinary incontinence (group C), and 35 women with overactive bladder both dry and wet (group D). All participants were asked to perform UFM measurement three times......-individual difference in any of the recorded parameters was identified among the three UFM recordings in groups A, C, and D. The intra-individual variability of the following parameters reached statistical significance in patients suffering from stress urinary incontinence (group B): Qmax (p = 0.0016), Qave (p = 0...

  18. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  19. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  20. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....