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Sample records for animal suffering differ

  1. The brain functional networks associated to human and animal suffering differ among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related d...

  2. The brain functional networks associated to human and animal suffering differ among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Filippi

    Full Text Available Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.. Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs.

  3. The brain functional networks associated to human and animal suffering differ among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A

    2010-05-26

    Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs.

  4. Protecting Wild Animals from Unnecessary Suffering

    OpenAIRE

    Spark, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the protection from unnecessary suffering afforded to wild animals with that afforded to domesticated animals and animals under human control. It considers various species-specific bio-diversity- and conservation-based protection for wild animals, under legislation such as the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010, as well as the general protection from intentionally inflicted unnecessary suffering afforded to wil...

  5. "Unnecessary suffering": the cornerstone of animal protection legislation considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, M

    1999-09-01

    Causing "unnecessary suffering" has been widely adopted in legislation to define criminal liability in respect of the treatment of animals. This article examines the way in which the term has been interpreted and applied by the courts, and considers its effectiveness in affording animals protection from abuse.

  6. [Animal-assisted therapy for people suffering from severe dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribet, J; Boucharlat, M; Myslinski, M

    2008-04-01

    The elderly represent the fastest growing population group in France. The care management of people suffering from dementia has become an important problem. Demented patients manifest behavioral problems, depression, apathy, impairment in social activities and language skill disorders. The literature contains few studies investigating animal-assisted therapy for demented patients. However, there is a clear need for psychological assistance for this population. In the management of such behavioural problems associated with dementia, we propose to develop a dog-assisted therapy. Three qualitative case studies are analysed to specify the perceptions of the therapist regarding animal-assisted therapy. This study is a qualitative pilot study. Subjects were two female and one male patients admitted in a nursing home. They were diagnosed with severe dementia. Their mean age was 94 years. All of them agreed to attend the dog therapy activities and informed consent from their family was requested. We met these patients 15 times over nine months. The meetings always took place in the same place for 30 min, once a week. The evaluation was based on the clinical observations of the psychologist. This study revealed many psychological benefits for patients with dementia. The animal-assisted therapy had a calming effect on the patients. It could well be helpful as a communication link during therapy sessions. The dog, because of its unconditional acceptance, increases the self-esteem of the patient and contributes to a more secure environment. The patients, who rarely interacted socially, increased their interactions with the dog. In spite of the lack of normal verbal use of language, nonverbal communication continues including touching and posture. Furthermore, patients verbalized that the dog was affectionate and they could identify themselves with it. This prospective study leads up to the conclusion that pet therapy could prove to be efficient. We conducted animal

  7. Behaving Like Animals: Human Cruelty, Animal Suffering, and American Culture, 1900-present

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Timothy Stephen

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean to be cruel to an animal? What does it mean for an animal to suffer? These are the questions embedded in the term "cruelty to animals," which has seemed, at first glance, a well defined term in modern America, in so far as it has been codified in anti-cruelty statutes. Cruelty to animals has been a disputed notion, though. What some groups call cruel, others call business, science, culture, worship, and art. Contests over the humane treatment of animals have therefore been c...

  8. Animal ethics goes wild: the problem of wild animal suffering and intervention in nature

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Catia

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I claim that, on the assumption that we have reasons to assist other individuals in need, there are decisive reasons to intervene in nature to prevent or reduce the harms wild animals suffer, provided that it is feasible and that the expected result is net positive. Moreover, I claim that these reasons are as strong as those we would have to intervene in order to help human beings that were in similar circumstances. This is because: (a) all sentient individuals, ...

  9. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Animal Therapy in Treating Children Suffering from Forms of Dysontogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia V.

    2012-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of animal therapy using are discussed. Research of 30 case studies is displayed that pet therapy is a good therapeutic tool in approximately 60% of cases. To diagnose possible problems in families which have got a dog as a "therapist" for the child suffering from some or other form of dysontogenesis, the…

  10. Predator Bounties in Western Canada Cause Animal Suffering and CompromiseWildlife Conservation Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Proulx

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although predation bounty programs (rewards offered for capturing or killing an animal ended more than 40 years ago in Canada, they were reintroduced in Alberta in 2007 by hunting, trapping, and farming organizations, municipalities and counties, and in 2009 in Saskatchewan, by municipal and provincial governments and the Saskatchewan Cattlemen’s Association. Bounty hunters use inhumane and non-selective killing methods such as shooting animals in non-vital regions, and killing neck snares and strychnine poisoning, which cause suffering and delayed deaths. They are unselective, and kill many non-target species, some of them at risk. Predator bounty programs have been found to be ineffective by wildlife professionals, and they use killing methods that cause needless suffering and jeopardize wildlife conservation programs. Our analysis therefore indicates that government agencies should not permit the implementation of bounty programs. Accordingly, they must develop conservation programs that will minimize wildlife-human conflicts, prevent the unnecessary and inhumane killing of animals, and ensure the persistence of all wildlife species.

  11. Posthuman Ethics, Violence, Creaturely Suffering and the (Other Animal: Schnurre’s Postwar Animal Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kleinhans

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The othering of whole groups of people in a biopolitical discourse during the Third Reich has caused many to re-assess ethics that is based on specific categories. Adorno and Horkheimer reckoned with both Enlightenment as well as classical “humanist” discourses to question whether they imply structures that lead to fascism. In the wake of these arguments, classical humanist (or sometimes also called anthropocentric ethics have also been criticized by philosophers such as Agamben, Derrida, and Wolfe. It is thus time to work on posthuman(ist ethics that avoids the traps of a narrow human ethics and that is inclusive rather than exclusive. The short stories by postwar German author Wolfdietrich Schnurre, written in the wake of the Holocaust, reckon with a purely human-centered worldview and draw a bleak picture of an anthropocentrically structured and valued world. Under the surface that portrays a speciesist world, Schnurre employs a network of sub-discourses to “cave out” carno-phallogocentric discourses and point towards a different, post-human ethics. This paper examines how anthropocentric discourses of power lead to inhumane violence and how a different approach to the Other, based on empathy and shared vulnerability, might just move us beyond it.

  12. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The recurrent aphthous stomatitis' healing duration differences in female students between the sufferer and non sufferer of chicken pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidora Karsini Soewondo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox (CP is a generalized primary infection that occurs the first time an individual contacts the virus. The etiology of CP is a VZV virus, and the replication of virus allowing recovery in two to three weeks. During the process, the VZV may progress along sensory nerves to the sensory ganglia, where it can reside in a latent, undetectable form; and can be reactivated at any time. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a recurrent ulcer in the mouth, painful, disturbing the mouth's function and esthetic when occurs in the lips. One of the etiology of RAS is the reactivation of the latent virus in the mouth. The aim of this study was to know the contribution of the latent virus in the ganglia, intervered with the differences of the healing duration of RAS in female students, between the CP sufferer and non CP sufferer. By cross-sectionally, clinical examination, after filling the questioner that included informed consent, 307 students of The St. Yusup Senior High School, Karangpilang Surabaya, were examined. In the 3rd class, there were only 6 female students that suffered RAS had CP history, while 11, student did not. Levene's test for equality of variances was done, and p: 0.698, while 2-tail sign: 0.512. According to this statistical analysis, there was no significant difference between the two groups examined. It was suggested that the female students of RAS' sufferer should maintain their balanced food intake, so the ulcer of RAS would heal quickly.

  14. Minimalizacja cierpienia zwierząt a wegetarianizm [Minimisation of animal suffering and vegetarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Saja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is a reductio ad absurdum of assumptions which are shared by a largenumber of followers of the animal welfare movement and utilitarianism. I arguethat even if we accept the main ethical arguments for a negative moral assessmentof eating meat we should not promote vegetarianism but rather beefism (eating onlymeat from beef cattle. I also argue that some forms of vegetarianism, i.e. ichtivegetarianism,can be much more morally worse than normal meat diet. In order to justifythese thesis I show that there are significant moral differences in the consumptionof animal products from different species.

  15. How long must they suffer? success and failure of our efforts to end the animal tragedy in laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2015-05-01

    Scientific findings have revealed how much we have dramatically underestimated the intellectual, social and emotional capabilities of non-human animals, including their levels of self-consciousness and ability to suffer from psychological stress. In the 21st century, the field of animal ethics has evolved as a serious scientific discipline, and nowadays largely advocates that the way we treat animals, both legally and in practice, is morally wrong. Politics and legislation have reacted to these facts, to some extent, but neither current legislation nor current practice reflect the scientific and moral state-of-the-art. Too often, the will to change things is watered down in the decision-making process, e.g. in the drafting of legislation. In the field of animal experimentation there have been many genuine efforts by various players, to advance and apply the principles behind the Three Rs. However, the fundamental problem, i.e. the overall number of animals sacrificed for scientific purposes, has increased. Clearly, if we are serious about our will to regard animal experimentation as an ethical and societal problem, we have to put much more emphasis on addressing the question of how to avoid the use of animals in science. To achieve this goal, certain issues need to be considered: a) the present system of ethical evaluation of animal experiments, including testing for regulatory purposes, needs to be reformed and applied effectively to meet the legal and moral requirements; b) animal testing must be avoided in future legislation, and existing legislation has to be revised in that regard; c) resources from animal-based research have to re-allocated toward alternatives; and d) the academic curricula must be reformed to foster and integrate ethical and animal welfare issues. 2015 FRAME.

  16. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    the direction of moisture and nutrients, animals forage actively by travelling to areas where food is available. However, there is a huge .... with lactate as the end product. In the event of a sprint, lactate. Table 2.Thedifferences between the slow and fast muscle fibres. Parameters. Slow fibres. Fast fibres. Colour. Red. White.

  17. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.

  18. Gender differences in sex life issues – A population-based study of migraine sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojanlatva Ansa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is considered to have a negative influence on sex life. The present study was to analyse the perceptions of importance of and satisfaction with sex life as well as the expression of interest in sex among people having migraines in a prospective follow-up mail survey in 1998 and 2003. Methods The random sample was stratified according to gender and age in four age groups (20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54 years. Altogether 25 898 individuals responded to the baseline and 19 626 to the follow-up questionnaire (75.8% response rate. We examined as to how the perceptions of sex life of those suffering from migraine changed during a 5-year follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the data of the responses on self-reported migraine in the baseline and follow-up surveys (N = 2 977, 79.2% women. Each person with migraine was assigned a gender- and age-matched control in the analysis. Results All three outcome variables tended to decrease in value. Importance of sex life was higher among men with migraine than among their controls. Among women migraine lessened interest in sex life. Conclusion Our findings suggested that migraine has a different impact on sex life among women from that among men.

  19. Gender differences in sex life issues - a population-based study of migraine sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanen, Markku P T; Ojanlatva, Ansa; Rantala, Anna; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Mattila, Kari J

    2008-04-09

    Migraine is considered to have a negative influence on sex life. The present study was to analyse the perceptions of importance of and satisfaction with sex life as well as the expression of interest in sex among people having migraines in a prospective follow-up mail survey in 1998 and 2003. The random sample was stratified according to gender and age in four age groups (20-24, 30-34, 40-44, and 50-54 years). Altogether 25 898 individuals responded to the baseline and 19 626 to the follow-up questionnaire (75.8% response rate). We examined as to how the perceptions of sex life of those suffering from migraine changed during a 5-year follow-up. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyse the data of the responses on self-reported migraine in the baseline and follow-up surveys (N = 2 977, 79.2% women). Each person with migraine was assigned a gender- and age-matched control in the analysis. All three outcome variables tended to decrease in value. Importance of sex life was higher among men with migraine than among their controls. Among women migraine lessened interest in sex life. Our findings suggested that migraine has a different impact on sex life among women from that among men.

  20. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  1. Living with constant suffering: a different life following the diagnosis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan M; de Dios Sánchez, Rosa; Lluva-Castaño, Alicia; Mestres-Camps, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    We used grounded theory in semi-structured interviews with 32 persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Barcelona, Spain, and found that PLWH live with constant suffering, a core category combining four realities: I need help; My life is constantly controlled; I have a new imposed life; and I have an uncertain reality. Participants described being constantly controlled by health policies and medications. They thought their lives were in the hands of others and that a new life, characterized by the constant fear of stigma, had been imposed on them. They felt they were losing freedom and vitality, as many questions remained unanswered, causing uncertainty related to health and public life. Emotional help was obtained mainly from peers and social networks. Our emergent theory shows a disruptive experience, with serious consequences to individual and social development. Health care has to focus on the real needs of PLWH to reduce suffering and uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attention "Blinks" Differently for Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Momsen, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as "plant blindness," a term that is meant to encapsulate both the…

  3. The multifaceted phenomenon of animation: Analysing the background and aims of different types of animations

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Dudová; Michal Kaplánek; Richard Macků

    2011-01-01

    The word animation is used in different contexts (film, theatre, computers,culture). The object of this study is animation in the context of social pedagogy, socialwork and pastoral care. The importance of animation in education lies in nondirectiveeducational influence, which is enabled by the use of the animation approach. Theessence of animation is derived not only from the etymology of the word animation(imparting life), but also from its understanding in the particular historical develop...

  4. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  5. [Mercury pollution in cricket in different biotopes suffering from pollution by zinc smelting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong-Mei; Li, Xin-Xin; Luo, Qing

    2012-10-01

    Total mercury contents in cricket bodies were studied in different biotopes in the surrounding of Huludao Zinc Plant to discuss the mercury distribution characteristics in cricket and to reveal the effects of environmental mercury accumulation in the short life-cycle insects through comparing cricket with other insect species. The average mercury content in cricket was 0.081 mg x kg(-1) and much higher than those in the control sites (0.012 mg x kg(-1) in average) in different biotopes. Mercury contents were found in the order of cricket head > wing > thorax approximately abdomen > leg. Mercury contents in cricket bodies varied greatly with sample sites. Significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in cricket and the distance from the pollution source as well as the mercury contents in plant stems. No significant correlation was found between the mercury contents in soil and in cricket bodies. Mercury contents in cricket were lower than those in cicadae, similar to those in other insects with shorter life-cycle periods.

  6. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT.

  7. Causal Attribution and Coping Maxims Differences between Immigrants and Non-Immigrants Suffering from Back Pain in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims in people suffering from back pain. Further, it aimed at identifying in how far causal attributions and related coping maxims would defer between immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland. Data for this study came from a larger survey study that was conducted among immigrant populations in the German- and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. Included in the analyses were native Swiss participants, as well as Albanian- and Serbian-speaking immigrants, who had indicated to have suffered from back pain within the last 12 months prior to the study. Data was analyzed for overall 495 participants. Items for causal attributions and coping maxims were subject to factor analyses. Cultural differences were assessed with ANOVA and regression analyses. Interaction terms were included to investigate whether the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims would differ with cultural affiliation. For both immigrant groups the physician's influence on the course of their back pain was more important than for Swiss participants (p immigrant groups were more likely to agree with maxims that were related to the improvement of the back pain, as well as the acceptance of the current situation (p immigrants and non-immigrants exist. Further, the results support the assumption of an association between causal attribution and coping maxims. However cultural affiliation did not considerably moderate this relationship.

  8. Rural and urban differences in the commission of animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 261 inmates, the authors investigate how demographic, familial differences and species type have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty. In general, early exposure to animal abuse is a strong predictor of the subsequent behavior. However, rural inmates learned to be cruel by watching family members exclusively, whereas urban inmates learned from family members and friends. Moreover, urban inmates chose dogs, cats, and wild animals as their target animals; however, rural inmates chose only cats.

  9. Studying Sex Differences in Animal Models of Addiction: An Emphasis on Alcohol-Related Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Elisa R; Lasek, Amy W

    2017-12-26

    Animal models are essential for understanding the biological factors that contribute to drug and alcohol addiction and discovering new pharmacotherapies to treat these disorders. Alcohol (ethanol) is the most commonly abused drug in the world, and as the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) increases, so does the need for effective pharmacotherapies. In particular, treatments with high efficacy in the growing number of female AUD sufferers are needed. Female animals remain underrepresented in biomedical research and sex differences in the brain's response to alcohol are poorly understood. To help bridge the gender gap in addiction research, this Review discusses strategies that researchers can use to examine sex differences in the context of several common animal models of AUD. Self-administration, two-bottle choice, drinking in the dark, and conditioned place preference are discussed, with a focus on the role of estrogen as a mediator of sex differences in alcohol-related behaviors.

  10. The multifaceted phenomenon of animation: Analysing the background and aims of different types of animations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dudová

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The word animation is used in different contexts (film, theatre, computers,culture. The object of this study is animation in the context of social pedagogy, socialwork and pastoral care. The importance of animation in education lies in nondirectiveeducational influence, which is enabled by the use of the animation approach. Theessence of animation is derived not only from the etymology of the word animation(imparting life, but also from its understanding in the particular historical development.The authors analysed in detail the development of animation in France andthen in other countries (Italy, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Czech Republic,Slovakia. They drew on foundational works of renowned authors in the field (Gillet,Opaschowski, Pollo as well as on the comparison of the individual – often fragmented– bits of information that can be found on animation in educational literature. Theresult is an attempt to summarise common and different attributes of various typesof animation in the social science fields in Europe. It seems that all current types ofanimation are created on foundations of at least two of the four social variables: thesociety – education – culture – art.

  11. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  12. Long-term evacuation after the nuclear accident in Fukushima. Different daily living under low-dose radioactive suffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    One year has passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident. Even currently, more than 150,000 evacuees in Fukushima Prefecture are forced to leave their home and to move throughout Japan. Because of the limited space of temporary housing and the weakening of personal ties in local communities, many families need to move and have separate lives. As a consequence, Fukushima has a serious shortage of caregivers for the elderly. There have been more than 1,300 disaster-related deaths due to shock and stress after long-distance drifts from town to town. Most of the victims were the elderly, who collapsed, caught pneumonia, suffered stroke and heart attack. Concerns about the safety of low-dose radiation exposure deprived the elderly of important contact with playing outside with their grandchildren in Fukushima. Fear of invisible radioactive contamination inactivated outdoor activities such as farming, dairy, fishing, gardening, hiking and wild-vegetable/mushroom hunting, although most of these activities have been traditionally supported by the wisdom of the elderly. Several recent questionnaire investigations revealed that older evacuees wish to go home even if the environment has significant contamination. In contrast, more than half of younger generation with small children have a different attitude. Nuclear accident brought serious social pains although it did not acutely hurt our bodies. (author)

  13. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  14. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  15. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  16. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lykholat, O.A.; Grigoryuk, I.P.; Lykholat, T.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions...

  17. Interspecies comparison of probiotics isolated from different animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M. Abdou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify naturally occurring probiotic Lactobacillus species in different animals with the different environmental background including fish, and farm animals to investigate interspecies differences in probiotics on the species level. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 fecal and milk samples were collected under aseptic conditions from cattle, buffalo, camel, sheep, goats, and fish. The samples were cultured, and the isolated strains were confirmed biochemically and molecularly using 16S rRNA multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis following DNA extraction from the bacterial isolates. Results: A total of 31 isolates identified as lactobacilli were isolated from cattle milk, goat feces, sheep feces, fish feces, buffalo milk, camel milk, and goats' milk. Lactobacillus species were identified based on the size of the PCR product. The results showed that different species were different in their lactobacilli content. At the same time, there were some differences between individuals of the same species. Conclusion: The diversity of probiotic strains isolated from different animal species implies different types of benefits to the host. Although it would be both money - and time-consuming research, discovering the benefit of each of these strains may provide very important information for the health of both human and animal. Furthermore, transferring these beneficial effects either to individuals within the same species or between different species would be of great importance.

  18. Interspecies comparison of probiotics isolated from different animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Amr M; Hedia, Riham H; Omara, Shimaa T; Mahmoud, Mohamed Abd El-Fatah; Kandil, Mai M; Bakry, M A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify naturally occurring probiotic Lactobacillus species in different animals with the different environmental background including fish, and farm animals to investigate interspecies differences in probiotics on the species level. A total of 44 fecal and milk samples were collected under aseptic conditions from cattle, buffalo, camel, sheep, goats, and fish. The samples were cultured, and the isolated strains were confirmed biochemically and molecularly using 16S rRNA multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis following DNA extraction from the bacterial isolates. A total of 31 isolates identified as lactobacilli were isolated from cattle milk, goat feces, sheep feces, fish feces, buffalo milk, camel milk, and goats' milk. Lactobacillus species were identified based on the size of the PCR product. The results showed that different species were different in their lactobacilli content. At the same time, there were some differences between individuals of the same species. The diversity of probiotic strains isolated from different animal species implies different types of benefits to the host. Although it would be both money - and time-consuming research, discovering the benefit of each of these strains may provide very important information for the health of both human and animal. Furthermore, transferring these beneficial effects either to individuals within the same species or between different species would be of great importance.

  19. [Comparison of antimicrobial resistance pattern of selected respiratory tract pathogens isolated from different animal species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, K; Frey, J

    2004-09-01

    The antibiotic resistance pattern of respiratory tract pathogens isolated of different animal species suffering from respiratory tract diseases has been investigated by antibiograms performed by agar diffusion test. The results show that the resistance situation in Switzerland is favourable compared with studies from other countries. However, high resistance rates were found in certain species: 61% of Streptococcus spp. were resistant to erythromycin and 44% to tetracycline, 59% of Bordetella bronchiseptica were resistant to ampicillin and 50% of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica were multiresistant to tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycine. The gram negative isolates were widely resistant to streptomycine.

  20. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of “craving”) show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences. PMID:26772794

  1. Attention “Blinks” Differently for Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Plants, to many, are simply not as interesting as animals. Students typically prefer to study animals rather than plants and recall plants more poorly, and plants are underrepresented in the classroom. The observed paucity of interest for plants has been described as plant blindness, a term that is meant to encapsulate both the tendency to neglect plants in the environment and the lack of appreciation for plants’ functional roles. While the term plant blindness suggests a perceptual or attentional component to plant neglect, few studies have examined whether there are real differences in how plants and animals are perceived. Here, we use an established paradigm in visual cognition, the “attentional blink,” to compare the extent to which images of plants and animals capture attentional resources. We find that participants are better able to detect animals than plants in rapid image sequences and that visual attention has a different refractory period when a plant has been detected. These results suggest there are fundamental differences in how the visual system processes plants that may contribute to plant blindness. We discuss how perceptual and physiological constraints on visual processing may suggest useful strategies for characterizing and overcoming zoocentrism. PMID:25185227

  2. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  3. Why do animals differ in their susceptibility to geometrical illusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lynna C; Chouinard, Philippe A; Howell, Tiffani J; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-04-01

    In humans, geometrical illusions are thought to reflect mechanisms that are usually helpful for seeing the world in a predictable manner. These mechanisms deceive us given the right set of circumstances, correcting visual input where a correction is not necessary. Investigations of non-human animals' susceptibility to geometrical illusions have yielded contradictory results, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms with which animals see the world may differ across species. In this review, we first collate studies showing that different species are susceptible to specific illusions in the same or reverse direction as humans. Based on a careful assessment of these findings, we then propose several ecological and anatomical factors that may affect how a species perceives illusory stimuli. We also consider the usefulness of this information for determining whether sight in different species might be more similar to human sight, being influenced by contextual information, or to how machines process and transmit information as programmed. Future testing in animals could provide new theoretical insights by focusing on establishing dissociations between stimuli that may or may not alter perception in a particular species. This information could improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind illusions, but also provide insight into how sight is subjectively experienced by different animals, and the degree to which vision is innate versus acquired, which is difficult to examine in humans.

  4. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence.

  5. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Alireza; Mirzaee, Jafar; Omidbeygi, Maryam; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD. Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Impact of Events Scale (IES). Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness. The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD.

  6. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  7. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  8. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Lykholat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions defined high sensitivity to exogenous estrogen-like compounds. Presents results on the effects of nutritional estrogens on metabolic processes in animals of different ages testify to the potential health risks of consumer products that may be contaminated with endogenous hormones. Despite the steady growth of agricultural production, development of agro-industrial pollution drugs like compounds of food is very likely. This phenomenon is of concern and requires increased control of both the responsible organizations and public associations that will enable to avoid the negative effects of dietary factors on the population health. Particular attention should be paid to the safety and quality of children's food, because this population is extremely sensitive to the influence of previously alimentary factors.

  10. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  12. Effects of different ways of fasting in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Naderi Ghalenoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While fasting has been practiced for centuries, its beneficial effects was unknown until recently. This review tries to analyze the current literature of how fasting and intermittent fasting (IF could affect clinical pathological parameters, learning, mood and brain plasticity. The effects of different ways of fasting on metabolism and stress were also explored. Animal experiments have elucidated fasting and IF could exert positive effects on learning, mood and brain, plus metabolic functions such lowering plasma glucose and insulin level and improvement in lipid metabolism (reduced visceral fat tissue and increased plasma adiponectin level, and an increased resistance to stress. Thus, more clinical studies are necessary to test the effectiveness of fasting and IF in preventing different diseases.

  13. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Szűcs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982 that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  14. Sex differences in animal models of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Setlow, Barry

    2017-01-02

    The ability to weigh the costs and benefits of various options to make an adaptive decision is critical to an organism's survival and wellbeing. Many psychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive decision making, indicating a need for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this process and the ways in which it is altered under pathological conditions. Great strides have been made in uncovering these mechanisms, but the majority of what is known comes from studies conducted solely in male subjects. In recent years, decision-making research has begun to include female subjects to determine whether sex differences exist and to identify the mechanisms that contribute to such differences. This Mini-Review begins by describing studies that have examined sex differences in animal (largely rodent) models of decision making. Possible explanations, both theoretical and biological, for such differences in decision making are then considered. The Mini-Review concludes with a discussion of the implications of sex differences in decision making for understanding psychiatric conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sex Differences in Animal Models of Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A.; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to weigh the costs and benefits of various options in order to make an adaptive decision is critical to an organism’s survival and well-being. Many psychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive decision-making, indicating the need to better understand the mechanisms underlying this process and the ways in which it is altered in pathological conditions. Great strides have been made in uncovering these mechanisms, but the majority of what is known comes from studies conducted solely in male subjects. In recent years, decision-making research has begun to include females to determine whether sex differences exist and to identify the mechanisms that contribute to such differences. This review will begin by describing studies that have examined sex differences in animal (largely rodent) models of decision-making. Possible explanations, both theoretical and biological, for such differences in decision- making will then be considered. The review will conclude with a discussion of the implications of sex differences in decision-making for understanding psychiatric conditions. PMID:27870448

  16. 'If you are empathetic you care about both animals and people. I am a nurse and I don't like to see suffering anywhere': Findings from 103 healthcare professionals on attitudes to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-11-01

    This report presents qualitative and quantitative data from 103 UK healthcare professionals describing attitudes to the current system of animal testing (to produce medicines and health interventions). To gather qualitative testimony, these healthcare professionals were organised into six separate focus groups (of 18, 17, 17, 15, 17 and 19 participants) where they were asked 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focussed on attitudes to the current system rather than attitudes to animal testing in general. The healthcare professionals also completed a quantitative attitude scale questionnaire consisting of 20 statements (all favourable) towards the system of animal testing as currently practised. Statements such as 'Testing agencies abide by legislation to safeguard animal welfare' were displayed and the healthcare professionals were invited to agree or disagree with these statements. The results from both the quantitative and qualitative data suggest that healthcare professionals were opposed to the current system of animal experimentation.

  17. Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Patil, Grete; Ihlebaek, Camilla

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in cognitively impaired nursing home residents is known to be very high, with depression and agitation being the most common symptoms. The possible effects of a 12-week intervention with animal-assisted activities (AAA) in nursing homes were studied. The primary outcomes related to depression, agitation and quality of life (QoL). A prospective, cluster randomized multicentre trial with a follow-up measurement 3 months after end of intervention was used. Inclusion criteria were men and women aged 65 years or older, with a diagnosis of dementia or having a cognitive deficit. Ten nursing homes were randomized to either AAA with a dog or a control group with treatment as usual. In total, 58 participants were recruited: 28 in the intervention group and 30 in the control group. The intervention consisted of a 30-min session with AAA twice weekly for 12 weeks in groups of three to six participants, led by a qualified dog handler. Norwegian versions of the Cornell Scale for Depression, the Brief Agitation Rating Scale and the Quality of Life in Late-stage Dementia scale were used. A significant effect on depression and QoL was found for participants with severe dementia at follow-up. For QoL, a significant effect of AAA was also found immediately after the intervention. No effects on agitation were found. Animal-assisted activities may have a positive effect on symptoms of depression and QoL in older people with dementia, especially those in a late stage. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. PMID:26833838

  19. Evaluation of set-up deviations during the irradiation of patients suffering from breast cancer treated with two different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KukoIowicz, Pawel Franciszek; Debrowski, Andrzej; Gut, Piotr; Chmielewski, Leszek; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Kedzierawski, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare reproducibility of set-up for two different treatment techniques for external irradiation of the breast. Methods and materials: In total, the analysis comprised 56 pairs of portal and simulator films for 14 consecutive patients treated following breast conserving therapy and 98 pairs of portal and simulator films for 20 consecutive patients treated after mastectomy. For the first group the tangential field technique (TF technique) was used, for the second the inverse hockey stick technique (IHS technique). Evaluation of the treatment reproducibility was performed in terms of systematic and random error calculated for the whole groups, comparison of set-up accuracy by means of comparison of cumulative distribution of the length of the displacement vector. Results: In the IHS and TF techniques for medial and lateral fields, displacement larger than 5 mm occurred in 28.3, 15.8 and 25.4%, respectively. For the IHS technique, the systematic errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 1.9 and 1.7 mm, respectively (1 SD), the random errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 2.0 and 2.5 mm. For the TF technique, the systematic errors for ventral-dorsal and cranial-caudal direction were 2.6 and 1.3 mm for medial field and 3.7 and 0.7 mm for lateral fields, respectively, the random errors for lateral and cranial-caudal direction were 2.2 and 1.0 mm for medial field and 2.9 and 1.1 for lateral field, respectively. Rotations were negligible in the IHS technique. For the TF technique the systematic and random components amounted to about 2.0 degrees (1 SD). Conclusions: Both the inverse hockey stick and standard tangential techniques showed good reproducibility of patients' set-up with respect to cranial-caudal direction. For the TF technique, the accuracy should be improved for the medial field with respect to the ventral-dorsal direction

  20. Sex differences in life span: Females homozygous for the X chromosome do not suffer the shorter life span predicted by the unguarded X hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengdahl, Martin; Kimber, Christopher M; Maguire-Baxter, Jack; Friberg, Urban

    2018-03-01

    Life span differs between the sexes in many species. Three hypotheses to explain this interesting pattern have been proposed, involving different drivers: sexual selection, asymmetrical inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes, and hemizygosity of the X(Z) chromosome (the unguarded X hypothesis). Of these, the unguarded X has received the least experimental attention. This hypothesis suggests that the heterogametic sex suffers a shortened life span because recessive deleterious alleles on its single X(Z) chromosome are expressed unconditionally. In Drosophila melanogaster, the X chromosome is unusually large (∼20% of the genome), providing a powerful model for evaluating theories involving the X. Here, we test the unguarded X hypothesis by forcing D. melanogaster females from a laboratory population to express recessive X-linked alleles to the same degree as males, using females exclusively made homozygous for the X chromosome. We find no evidence for reduced life span or egg-to-adult viability due to X homozygozity. In contrast, males and females homozygous for an autosome both suffer similar, significant reductions in those traits. The logic of the unguarded X hypothesis is indisputable, but our results suggest that the degree to which recessive deleterious X-linked alleles depress performance in the heterogametic sex appears too small to explain general sex differences in life span. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  2. Bifidobacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of animals: differences and similarities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Rada, V.; Killer, Jiří; Musilová, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 377-388 ISSN 1876-2883 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bifidobacteria * animals * occurrence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.614, year: 2014

  3. Do plants and animals differ in phenotypic plasticity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-11-30

    Nov 30, 2004 ... A true comparison between the plant and animal phenotype would be a comparison between plants and sessile photo-synthesizing colonial invertebrates. Such comparisons are lacking. However, they would provide important insights into the adaptive significance of plasticity in these groups. It is also ...

  4. Plant and animal stem cells: similar yet different

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Sabatini, S.

    2014-01-01

    The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into

  5. Genetic Evaluation and Ranking of Different Animal Models Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An animal model utilizes all relationships available in a given data set. Estimates for variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, maternal environmental and direct environmental effects, and their covariances between direct and maternal genetic effects for post weaning growth traits have been obtained with ...

  6. Do plants and animals differ in phenotypic plasticity?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    between plants; Science 221 277–279. Ballaré C L 1999 Keeping up with the neighbours: phyto- chrome sensing and other signalling mechanisms; Trends Plant. Sci. 4 97–102. Baluška F, Hlavacka A, Volkmann D and Menzel D 2004 Get- ting connected: actin-based cell-to-cell channels in plants and animals; Trends Cell ...

  7. Genetic and genomic interactions of animals with different ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, J P; Bi, K

    2013-01-01

    Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex

  8. Headache Sufferers' Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 13 Jan Headache Sufferers' Diet Posted at 21:35h in Headache ... No Comments Post A Comment Cancel Reply NATIONAL HEADACHE FOUNDATION Financials Annual Benefit HeadWise Magazine Subscribe to ...

  9. Spiritual pain and suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, George B

    2010-01-01

    Spiritual pain/suffering is commonly experienced by persons with life-limiting illness and their families. Physical pain itself can be exacerbated by non-physical causes such as fear, anxiety, grief, unresolved guilt, depression and unmet spiritual meets. Likewise, the inability to manage physical pain well can be due to emotional and spiritual needs. This is why a holistic, interdisciplinary assessment of pain and suffering is required for each patient and family. The mind, body and spirit are understood in relationship to each other and, in those cases, in relationship to a deity or deities are important to understand. Cultural interpretations of pain and suffering may conflict with the goals of palliative care. Understanding the spiritual framework of the patient and family can help to assure that the physical and spiritual suffering of the patient can be eliminated to provide a peaceful death. Spiritual practices may help in the management of physical pain.

  10. Place-based differences in the commission of recurrent animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher; Evans, Rhea A

    2012-12-01

    Despite the recent surge in research linking animal and human acts of violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining animal cruelty itself. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 180 inmates, this study examines how demographic characteristics, exposure to animal cruelty in childhood, and the target animal's relationship with the abuser have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty in urban- and rural-based settings. Unlike their urban counterparts, rural respondents who engaged in recurrent animal cruelty were more likely to have witnessed family members and/or friends abuse an animal. Moreover, rural respondents who engaged in recurrent animal cruelty abused pet and stray animals, whereas recurrent animal abusers who grew up in urban areas tended to abuse pets only. These findings suggest possible place-based differences in the etiology of recurrent animal cruelty.

  11. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology: Toxicokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions. Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise FDA rules excluded women of child-bearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more adverse drug reactions than men, The Classic Sex Hormone Paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and toxicokinetics including absorption, distribution, metabolisms and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging. PMID:27895264

  12. Binding Studies of Lamotrigine with Sera of Different Animal Species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    into the mechanism of interaction, evaluate the effect of dielectric constant on binding affinity, and to determine the effect of ..... Physico-chemical aspects of protein binding of nimesulide, Ind J. Pharm Sci, 2005; 2: 243-246. 10. Dutta, SK, Basu, SK, Sen KK. Binding of diclofenac sodium with bovine serum albumin at different ...

  13. Intrinsic material property differences in bone tissue from patients suffering low-trauma osteoporotic fractures, compared to matched non-fracturing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennin, S; Desyatova, A; Turner, J A; Watson, P A; Lappe, J M; Recker, R R; Akhter, M P

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporotic (low-trauma) fractures are a significant public health problem. Over 50% of women over 50yrs. of age will suffer an osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetimes. While current therapies reduce skeletal fracture risk by maintaining or increasing bone density, additional information is needed that includes the intrinsic material strength properties of bone tissue to help develop better treatments, since measurements of bone density account for no more than ~50% of fracture risk. The hypothesis tested here is that postmenopausal women who have sustained osteoporotic fractures have reduced bone quality, as indicated with measures of intrinsic material properties compared to those who have not fractured. Transiliac biopsies (N=120) were collected from fracturing (N=60, Cases) and non-fracturing postmenopausal women (N=60, age- and BMD-matched Controls) to measure intrinsic material properties using the nano-indentation technique. Each biopsy specimen was embedded in epoxy resin and then ground, polished and used for the nano-indentation testing. After calibration, multiple indentations were made using quasi-static (hardness, modulus) and dynamic (storage and loss moduli) testing protocols. Multiple indentations allowed the median and variance to be computed for each type of measurement for each specimen. Cases were found to have significantly lower median values for cortical hardness and indentation modulus. In addition, cases showed significantly less within-specimen variability in cortical modulus, cortical hardness, cortical storage modulus and trabecular hardness, and more within-specimen variability in trabecular loss modulus. Multivariate modeling indicated the presence of significant independent mechanical effects of cortical loss modulus, along with variability of cortical storage modulus, cortical loss modulus, and trabecular hardness. These results suggest mechanical heterogeneity of bone tissue may contribute to fracture resistance

  14. Structural Characterization of Pharmaceutical Heparins Prepared from Different Animal Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    FU, LI; LI, GUOYUN; YANG, BO; ONISHI, AKIHIRO; LI, LINGYUN; SUN, PEILONG; ZHANG, FUMING; LINHARDT, ROBERT J.

    2013-01-01

    Although most pharmaceutical heparin used today is obtained from porcine intestine, heparin has historically been prepared from bovine lung and ovine intestine. There is some regulatory concern about establishing the species origin of heparin. This concern began with the outbreak of mad cow disease in the 1990s and was exacerbated during the heparin shortage in the 2000s and the heparin contamination crisis of 2007–2008. Three heparins from porcine, ovine, and bovine were characterized through state-of-the-art carbohydrate analysis methods with a view profiling their physicochemical properties. Differences in molecular weight, monosaccharide and disaccharide composition, oligosaccharide sequence, and antithrombin III-binding affinity were observed. These data provide some insight into the variability of heparins obtained from these three species and suggest some analytical approaches that may be useful in confirming the species origin of a heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:23526651

  15. Antioxidant system parameters in children from different follow-up groups who suffered from Chernobyl accident and their changes at application of antioxidants (vitamin E and iskador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipkyin, Yu.G.; Pochinok, T.V.; Omel'chenko, L.Yi.; Arabs'ka, L.P.; Osins'ka, L.F.; Vasyuk, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low-dose radiation causes changes in the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant protective system in children who frequently suffer from acute respiratory virus infections. To improve the general condition and to normalize the metabolic disturbances it is advisable to administer antioxidants (vitamin E, Iskador)

  16. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Different Animal Hosts and Different Geographic Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidaric, V.; Janezic, S.; Indra, A.

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic sporogenic bacterium traditionally associated with human nosocomial infections, and animals have been recognized as an important potential reservoir for human infections (Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2013). Ribotype 078 is often reported in animals but according...

  17. Trauma, suffering and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Casas Soberón, Elena; Berliner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the challenge of using a conceptual framework to understand traumatic stress and still be open to listening to the stories of suffering, of lamentation, grief, hope, and values of people being oppressed by organised violence. The complexity of responses to the losses caused ...

  18. [The morphological changes of Hassall corpuscles of the different maturity in vertebrate animals and human in different stages of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchinskij, V Ja

    With the use of methods of light microscopy we produce comparison morphological investigation of Hassall corpuscles of different maturity in animals and human with age difference. It was arranged that quantity and sizes of Hassall corpuscles in different stages of age depend on organization level, belonging to a vital form, shape and age of animal. On the base of our investigation we can make resume about functional role of Hassall corpuscles.

  19. Does God Suffer?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarot, M.

    2001-01-01

    The author argues that Thomas G. Weinandy in his book Does God Suffer? starts from the axiom of divine apathy, rather than that he argues for it. He criticizes the hermeneutic implicit in Weinandy's interpretation of 1 Samuel 15, and proposes an alternative approach. Moreover, he criticizes Weinandy's appeal to agreement among the church fathers (based on a non-representative selection) and his appeal to the doctrine of the Trinity (based on a most speculative, but insuffciently warranted int...

  20. A comparison of four different standards of reference for the animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often, therefore, it is not clear which standard of reference for the AU or which method of determining stocking rate has been used in the presentation of research results. A comparison is made of four different standards of reference for the AU, namely; 1. the individual animal, 2. animal biomass, 3. metabolic mass, and 4. the ...

  1. Disgust sensitivity and the sex difference in fears to common indigenous animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Mulkens, S; Vollenbroek, J; Kok, Jeroen

    Davey's mediational hypothesis [Davey, G. C. L. (1994). Self-reported fears to common indigenous animals in an adult UK population: the role of disgust sensitivity. British Journal of Psychology, 85, 541-554.] suggests that the sex difference in self-assessed animal fears can be accounted for by the

  2. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. CAPACITY, POTENTIAL, AND ABILITY: INTEGRATING DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO STUDYING ANIMAL VS HUMAN CREATIVE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Kaufman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For all of the differences between studying animal and human creativity and innovation, there are enough similarities that we can gain insight by integrating both perspectives. Both research approaches focus on creative ability, but animal studies favor the concept of creative capacity whereas human scholars prefer the idea of creative potential. We explore here the implications of these differences and what each field can learn from the other.

  4. To See the Suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Rita

    2017-12-01

    The author notes the impressive growth in medical humanities programs, scholarly journals, textbooks, and national and international conferences as well as the convening of two recent national forums or boards addressing the potential of the humanities and the arts to improve medical practice. She also notes that the field of medical humanities seems to have shifted from addressing topics on the margins of medical education to equipping students with the foundational skills required for effective doctoring. This Invited Commentary proposes a number of personal, relational, and interpretive consequences to rigorous training in the humanities or the arts that might lead to improvement in the skills of doctoring. Where else but in hospitals with very ill patients and very young doctors who care for them are such skills needed the most? The author suggests that to see the suffering might be what the humanities in medicine are for, and that those who become capable of seeing the suffering around them in medical practice both experience the cost of countenancing the full burden of illness and death and, simultaneously, comprehend with clarity the worth of this thing, this life.

  5. Producing patient-avatar identification in animation video information on spinal anesthesia by different narrative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Vesterby, Martin; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup

    2016-06-01

    Visual approaches to health information reduce complexity and may bridge challenges in health literacy. But the mechanisms and meanings of using animated video in communication with patients undergoing surgery are not well described. By comparing two versions of a two-dimensional animated video on spinal anesthesia, this study tested the patient-avatar identification within two different narrative models. To explore the perspectives of total hip arthroplasty, we employed qualitative methods of interviews and ethnographic observation. The animated presentation of the spinal anesthesia procedure was immediately recognized by all participants as reflecting their experience of the procedure independent of the narrative form. The avatar gender did not affect this identification. We found no preference for either narrative form. This study supports the potential of animation video in health informatics as a didactic model for qualifying patient behavior. Animation video creates a high degree of identification that may work to reduce pre-surgical anxiety. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Market Opportunities for Animal-Friendly Milk in Different Consumer Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie de Graaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers have increasing, but highly variable, interest in sustainability attributes of food, including ethical aspects, such as animal welfare. We explored market opportunities for animal-friendly cow’s milk based on segmentation (cluster analysis. Flemish survey participants (n = 787 were clustered (n = 6 based on their intention to purchase (IP animal-friendly milk, and their evaluation of cows’ welfare state (EV. Three market opportunity segments were derived from clusters and labelled as “high”, “moderate” and “limited”. Only 8% of the participants belong to the “high market opportunities” segment, characterized by a high IP and a low EV. The “limited” segment (44% indicated a neutral to low IP and a positive EV. The “moderate” segment (48% had a moderately positive IP and positive/negative EV. Reported willingness to pay, interest in information about the state of animal welfare and importance of the product attribute “animal welfare” differed among segments and were strongly related to IP. Most promising selling propositions about animal-friendly milk were related to pasture access. The high degree of differentiation within the Flemish milk market reveals market opportunities for animal-friendly milk, but for an effective market share increase supply of animal-friendly products needs to get more aligned with the heterogeneous demand.

  7. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, M

    2009-04-01

    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.

  8. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  9. Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the

  10. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portolano, B.; Maizon, D.O.; Riggio, V.; Tolone, M.; Cacioppo, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than

  11. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Portolano, B.; Maizon, D. O.; Riggio, V.; Tolone, M.; Cacioppo, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EB...

  12. The Moral Economy of Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Sofie

    2006-01-01

    . In contrast to approaches, which relate to the suffering of individual refugees, this study approaches suffering as a relational and social matter. Among other things this involves examining the quest of Iraqis for recognition of suffering as a social value that enters social exchange. When Iraqi refugges...

  13. Individual differences versus social dynamics in the formation of animal dominance hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Ivan D; Tovey, Craig; Spangler-Martin, Debra; Manfredonia, Michael

    2002-04-16

    Linear hierarchies, the classical pecking-order structures, are formed readily in both nature and the laboratory in a great range of species including humans. However, the probability of getting linear structures by chance alone is quite low. In this paper we investigate the two hypotheses that are proposed most often to explain linear hierarchies: they are predetermined by differences in the attributes of animals, or they are produced by the dynamics of social interaction, i.e., they are self-organizing. We evaluate these hypotheses using cichlid fish as model animals, and although differences in attributes play a significant part, we find that social interaction is necessary for high proportions of groups with linear hierarchies. Our results suggest that dominance hierarchy formation is a much richer and more complex phenomenon than previously thought, and we explore the implications of these results for evolutionary biology, the social sciences, and the use of animal models in understanding human social organization.

  14. Suffering from Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Safa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Jebraili2, Momen-nasab M3 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Some of the skin diseases cause severe stress in patients and relieving these stresses greatly helps to treat the underlying disease. Alopecia areata is one of the common causes of alopecia which is an autoimmune disease. Other factors like genetics and psychological factors have important roles in the beginning or exacerbation of the disease. This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression and anxiety disorders in patient suffering from alopecia areata. Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with alopecia areata who had referred to dermatologic clinic of Shohaday-e Ashayer hospital in Khorramabad from 1382 to 1383(Hj. were evaluated. After filling the questionnaires, the patients were referred to the Psychiatric Clinic and the cases were diagnosed by interviews using SCL-90 test and DSM-IV-IIIR scale. The analysis of data was done by the SPSS software. Results: 80 patients were selected as the subjects of the study. including 52 men (65% and 28 women (35%. 43 patients (53.8% were less than 25 years old and 54 (67.5% were unmarried. 56 patients (70% had a family history of alopecia areata and 45 (56.25% had no history of drug intake. In most of the patients (63.8% the site of the first lesion was the scalp. Out of 80 patients, 64 (80% had anxiety and 60 (75% had depression. 27 (33.3% had major depressive disorders. These findings were statistically significant. Major depressive disorders were more in women. No correlation was found between education, marital status, family history, and the history of drug intake, and the site of first lesion. Conclusion: The

  15. Underlying differences between conscientious omnivores and vegetarians in the evaluation of meat and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-04-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important options for those reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism/veganism (i.e., veg*nism), the avoidance of animal flesh/all animal products; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has recently received much attention in the social science literature, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as COs have been virtually nonexistent. The present research sought to investigate possible underlying attitudinal differences between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to veg*ns, COs evaluated animals less favorably, meat more favorably, and were lower in idealism, misanthropy, and ingroup identification. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences between COs and veg*ns in the perceived acceptability of killing animals for food were mediated by beliefs about animals and meat. The discussion largely speculates on the causal direction of these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Variability in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: differences in disease progression in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi Wang,1 Debra C DuBois,1,2 Siddharth Sukumaran,2 Vivaswath Ayyar,1 William J Jusko,2,3 Richard R Almon1–3 1Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: Both obesity and chronic inflammation are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rat (fa/fa is an obese animal model frequently used in type 2 diabetes research. The current study determines whether chronic administration (from 5 weeks of age through 24 weeks of age of salsalate, a salicylate with anti-inflammatory properties, would be effective in mitigating diabetes disease progression in ZDF rats. Although a trend existed for lower blood glucose in the salsalate-treated group, significant differences were obscured by high animal-level variability. However, even in the non-drug-treated group, not all ZDF rats became diabetic as expected. Therefore, animals were parsed into two groups, regardless of drug treatment: normoglycemic ZDF rats, which maintained blood glucose profiles identical to nondiabetic Zucker lean rats (ZLRs, and hyperglycemic ZDF rats, which exhibited progressive elevation in blood glucose. To ascertain the differences between ZDF rats that became hyperglycemic and those that did not, relevant physiological indices and expression levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs in adipose tissue were measured at sacrifice. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations and expression levels of cytokine and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs suggested more prevalent chronic inflammation in hyperglycemic animals. Early elevation of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, was present in both ZDF groups, with the rate of its age-related decline

  17. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  18. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D

    1982-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer.

  19. Characteristics and Availability of Different Forms of Phosphorus in Animal Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Zheng-juan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of intensive livestock industry has greatly increased the discharge of animal manure. Reasonable utilization of large amounts of phosphorus(Pin animal manure can not only save the fertilizer resource, but also avoid water pollution from manure due to direct discharge or excess application in farmland. In this study, P contents and fractionation in 76 animal manures were analyzed using Hedley P fractionation method based on the survey for 52 livestock farms, and P mobility and environmental risks in different manures were evaluated as the reference for manure P management. The results showed that there were significant differences in total P content of animal manures. The mean P contents were 22.5, 13.7, 12.9, 9.6 g P·kg-1 and 7.5 g P·kg-1, in which the proportion of organic P in total P were 33.1%, 41.5%, 66.4%, 28.1%and 36.8%in pig, chicken, duck, cattle and sheep manures, respectively. The contents of total and organic P in non-ruminant animal manure(pig, chicken and duck manureswere 1.7~3.0 times and 2.1~3.0 times greater than that in ruminant manure (cattle and sheep manuresand the proportion of organic P in total P in poultry manure was higher than that in other manures. P mineraliza-tion was easier in non-ruminant animal manure with lower C/P ratio(19~29, compared with that in ruminant manure with C/P ratio of 38~45. Manure P was sequentially extracted by deionized water(H2O-P, NaHCO3(NaHCO3-P, NaOH(NaOH-Pand HCl(HCl-P. The pro-portion of H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P, HCl-P and residual-P in total P in ruminant animal manure were 27.8%, 32.8%, 18.1%, 15.2%and 6.1%, respectively, while that were 24.6%, 19.4%, 12.7%, 34.4% and 8.9% in non-ruminant animal manure. The significant differences were in NaHCO3-P and HCl-P between ruminant and non-ruminant animal manures. Ruminant manure had greater proportion of liable P (H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pin total P(>60%, but the characteristics of higher mineralization rate might result in

  20. War, suffering and modern German history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This introduction proceeds in five steps. First, it briefly considers the etymology of the term "suffering," as well as the way in which scholars from different disciplines have approached it conceptually and empirically. Second, drawing on the contributions to this issue, it raises general themes emerging from the study of the Thirty Years, Franco-Prussian and First World Wars, with particular attention to gender, the disabled, and Jewish-German veterans. Finally, it considers the most politically contested field of German suffering - the Second World War - and reflects on how that suffering can be narrated and understood without running into the intellectual dead ends of either self-pity or collective guilt.

  1. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  2. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EBVs obtained with alternative recording schemes showed different degrees of Spearman correlation with EBVs obtained using the monthly recording scheme. These correlations ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. A reduction in accuracy and intensity of selection could be anticipated if these alternative schemes are used; more research in this area is needed to reduce the costs of test-day recording.

  3. Differentiation of partial acylglycerols derived from different animal fats by EA-IRMS and GCMS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nina Naquiah, A.N.; Marikkar, J.M.N.; Shuhaimi, M.

    2016-07-01

    A study was carried out to compare partial acylglycerols of lard with those of chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analysis–Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). Mono- (MAG) and di-(DAG) acylglycerols of animal fats were prepared according to a chemical glycerolysis method and isolated using column chromatography. The fatty acid composition and δ13C carbon isotope ratio of MAG and DAG derived from individual animal fat were determined separately to establish their identity characteristics. The results showed that the δ13C values of MAG and DAG of lard were significantly different from those of MAG and DAG derived from chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. According to the loading plots based on a principle component analysis (PCA), fatty acids namely stearic, oleic and linoleic were the most discriminating parameters to distinctly identify MAG and DAG derived from different animal fats. This demonstrated that the EA-IRMS and the PCA of fatty acid data have considerable potential for discriminating MAG and DAG derived from lard from other animal fats for Halal authentication purposes. (Author)

  4. Do animals and furniture items elicit different brain responses in human infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschonek, Susanna; Marinovic, Vesna; Hoehl, Stefanie; Elsner, Birgit; Pauen, Sabina

    2010-11-01

    One of the earliest categorical distinctions to be made by preverbal infants is the animate-inanimate distinction. To explore the neural basis for this distinction in 7-8-month-olds, an equal number of animal and furniture pictures was presented in an ERP-paradigm. The total of 118 pictures, all looking different from each other, were presented in a semi-randomized order for 1000ms each. Infants' brain responses to exemplars from both categories differed systematically regarding the negative central component (Nc: 400-600ms) at anterior channels. More specifically, the Nc was enhanced for animals in one subgroup of infants, and for furniture items in another subgroup of infants. Explorative analyses related to categorical priming further revealed category-specific differences in brain responses in the late time window (650-1550ms) at right frontal channels: Unprimed stimuli (preceded by a different-category item) elicited a more positive response as compared to primed stimuli (preceded by a same-category item). In sum, these findings suggest that the infant's brain discriminates exemplars from both global domains. Given the design of our task, we conclude that processes of category identification are more likely to account for our findings than processes of on-line category formation during the experimental session. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Construction and improvement of animal models with different positional osseous metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y X; Xiao, M H; Zhang, N N; Li, X Y; Mao, X P; Zhang, K; Zhang, Z R; Zhao, L Y

    2017-08-18

    To provide an important tool for the study of diagnose and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and change of bone stress force on prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and a platform, which is more congruous to clinical process, for prevention and cure of neoplastic bone metastases, and to carry out the construction and improvement of animal models of PCa with different positional osseous metastasis in vivo. Different gradient concentrations of RM-1 cells were inoculated into the cavity of left femoral bone or lumbar vertebra of mice (C57BL/6) respectively. The change of mouse activity, tumor formation, tumor size and survival time were observed respectively. And the femur tissue and spinal tissue were obtained from the mice after death. The gray value of iconography were measured by imageological examination of femur tissue, and the final histopathological examination were taken to determine the tumor type in both femur and spinal tissue. The tumor growth could be touched at the puncture site in all the mice after inoculated for 7 days. There were no obvious differences in the time of tumorigenesis, the rate of tumor growth and tumor size among the mice in the same group (P>0.05). As the result, the construction femoral bone and lumbar vertebra metastatic models of PCa had been confirmed by iconography and pathology detection. At the same time, the survival time of the mice inoculated with low concentrations of PCa cells was obviously longer than that of high concentrations of PCa cells ( at least 2 weeks longer). The animal models with different positional osseous metastasis (limbs and axial skeleton) of PCa using the same PCa cells (RM-1) had been first constructed successfully in our study. At the same time, a high success rate of construction of PCa animal model with bone metastasis was obtained by femoral bone marrow cavity injection of PCa cells. The rate of tumor growth was rapid, animal survival time was appropriate, and the PCa animal

  6. Imaging children suffering from lymphoma: an evaluation of different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI protocols compared to whole-body DW-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Julian; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald [University Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Dusseldorf (Germany); Deuschl, Cornelius; Schweiger, Bernd; Forsting, Michael; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the diagnostic potential of different PET/MRI reading protocols, entailing non-enhanced / contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MR imaging and whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for lesion detection and determination of the tumor stage in pediatric lymphoma patients. A total of 28 {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI datasets were included for analysis of four different reading protocols: (1) PET/MRI utilizing sole unenhanced T2w and T1w imaging, (2) PET/MRI utilizing additional contrast enhanced sequences, (3) PET/MR imaging utilizing unenhanced, contrast enhanced and DW imaging or (4) WB-DW-MRI. Statistical analyses were performed on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis. Follow-up and prior examinations as well as histopathology served as reference standards. PET/MRI correctly identified all 17 examinations with active lymphoma disease, while WB-DW-MRI correctly identified 15/17 examinations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 96.5%, 97%, 95%, and 96% for PET/MRI{sub 1}; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI{sub 2}; 97%, 96.5%, 97%, 96.5%, and 97% for PET/MRI{sub 3} and 77%, 96%, 96%, 78.5% and 86% for MRI-DWI. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI is superior to WB-DW-MRI in staging pediatric lymphoma patients. Neither application of contrast media nor DWI leads to a noticeable improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI. Thus, unenhanced PET/MRI may play a crucial role for the diagnostic work-up of pediatric lymphoma patients in the future. (orig.)

  7. Transnational Organizational Considerations for Sociocultural Differences in Ethics and Virtual Team Functioning in Laboratory Animal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development. PMID:20587155

  8. Transnational organizational considerations for sociocultural differences in ethics and virtual team functioning in laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-05-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working with sociocultural differences in ethics and by knowing how to facilitate appropriate virtual team actions. Associated practices include implementing codes and policies transcend cultural, ethnic, or other boundaries and equipping virtual teams with the needed technology, support, and rewards to ensure timely and productive work that ultimately promotes good science and patient safety in drug development.

  9. Animal Protection and Animal 'Rights' in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Zoltan J.

    2012-01-01

    In Hungary, the first Act on Animal Protection, which aimed at handling and respecting animals as living creatures capable of feelings and suffering and thus deserving and entitled to protection, was adopted in 1998. Based on this, the Act contains several regulations which ensure that animals are protected against all possible kinds of avoidable physical or mental harm. Furthermore, it prohibits and imposes sanctions for any treatment that causes animals unnecessary suffering. The present st...

  10. Sufferers divided by the prefectural border. Too different measures corresponding to the disaster. Is this really 'no problem'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    The series reports how general people, who are not radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 11, 2011). The section 4 is reported by a mother having 3 school children living in Kosugo, Shiroishi City, Miyagi Prefecture, localizing at the border to Fukushima Prefecture, 65 km distant from the Plant. Just after the Accident, the author was first eased by the government view, no immediate radiation effects by the Accident, and then became anxious, particularly about children, by the similar Miyagi prefectural view despite American recommendation for evacuation to the area 80 km far from the Plant and Kosugo's enrollment in the contaminated region. Major trend in the town was against the interest in radiation problems as the region was not in Fukushima and there were fears about the reputational risk. Under these circumstances, dosimeters and surveymeters, which had been lent by neither Miyagi nor Shiroishi, were lent thanks to the favor of Tohoku University, and have been used to measure the radiation doses in the school zone. Decontamination of Kosugo primary school garden of which dose had been 0.95 mc-Sv/hr in April, 2011, was conducted as lately as in July, 2012. The exposure dose to pupils was conceivably higher than that in the neighboring Fukushima school whose decontamination had been conducted in July, 2011. Is this really 'No problem'? Differing from Fukushima where the prefectural health project started already, Kosugo children have come to receive the pay thyroid echo examination since January, 2014, and 64% of pupils wish to have the diagnosis. The author prays for science to let children be safe for their bright future beyond the border. (T.T.)

  11. The Paradox of Modern Suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    . According to Buddhism, existence is suffering, and each persons desire to reach a state of nothingness (Nirvana) causes them to return over and over through reincarnation, in order to work out their karma. In Christianity suffering is inseparable from man's earthly existence, and it must serve to overcome...

  12. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  13. Comparison of in vitro toxicological effects of biomass smoke from different sources of animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Claire E; Duffney, Parker F; Wyatt, Jeffrey D; Thatcher, Thomas H; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, over 4 million premature deaths each year are attributed to the burning of biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Epidemiological studies associate household air pollution with lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections. Animal dung, a biomass fuel used by economically vulnerable populations, generates more toxic compounds per mass burned than other biomass fuels. The type of animal dung used varies widely depending on local agro-geography. There are currently neither standardized experimental systems for dung biomass smoke research nor studies assessing the health impacts of different types of dung smoke. Here, we used a novel reproducible exposure system to assess outcomes related to inflammation and respiratory infections in human airway cells exposed to six different types of dung biomass smoke. We report that dung biomass smoke, regardless of species, is pro-inflammatory and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and JNK transcription factors; however, dung smoke also suppresses interferon responses after a challenge with a viral mimetic. These effects are consistent with epidemiological data, and suggest a mechanism by which the combustion of animal dung can directly cause lung diseases, promote increased susceptibility to infection, and contribute to the global health problem of household air pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Concepts Joy and Suffering in Russian Linguaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Korostova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Russian linguistic consciousness, the concepts of emotions joy and suffering are verbalized at the lexical and phraseological levels, forming the basis for metaphorical combinations. Concepts of emotions, suffering and joy are mutually reinforcing: in the presupposition of the idea of suffering, there is a knowledge that it is not infinite and is always replaced by joy. Russian naive-linguistic consciousness reflects the oldest ideas about the alternation of phenomena and events, desirable and undesirable for man. The concepts of suffering and joy are closely related to the universal category of time. As observations on linguistic projections of concepts show, suffering is realized as a longer process than joy. Emotives of different levels of language represent emotional states of joy and suffering in Russian linguistic culture. According to the National Corpus of the Russian language, lexical demonstrators of the concept of joy dominate. Cognitive interpretation of events in the mind of a person can be changed under the influence of the emotional regime carried out by the media.

  15. Hemolitic action of Naja naja atra cardiotoxin on erythrocytes from different animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Troiano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on the sensitivity of erythrocytes from different vertebrate species (avian, mammalian and reptilian to the hemolytic action caused by cardiotoxin isolated from Naja naja atra venom was carried out. Cardiotoxin was able to induce direct hemolysis in washed erythrocytes from several animals, except for llama. The EC50 values from hemolysis of the most sensitive (cat and the most resistant (snake animal varied approximately tenfold. According to the cell behavior, it was possible to characterize four types of behavior: The first was observed in cat, horse and human cells; the second in rat, rabbit and dog erythrocytes; and the third only in llama erythrocytes, which were resistant to cardiotoxin concentrations up to 300 µg/ml. Finally, avian and reptilian erythrocytes were more resistant to cardiotoxin III-induced hemolysis than those of the mammalian species.

  16. Influence of different types of electromagnetic fields on skin reparatory processes in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Milan; Lazetic, Bogosav; Poljacki, Mirjana; Djuran, Verica; Matic, Aleksandra; Gajinov, Zorica

    2009-05-01

    Wound healing is a very complex process, some phases of which have only recently been explained. Magnetic and electromagnetic fields can modulate this process in a non-thermal way. The aim of this research was to compare the influence of constant and pulsed electromagnetic fields and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in experimental animals. The experiment was conducted on 120 laboratory rats divided into four groups of 30 animals each (constant electromagnetic field, pulsed electromagnetic field, LLLT and control group). It lasted for 21 days. Under the influence of the constant electromagnetic field the healing of the skin defect was accelerated in comparison with the control group. The difference was statistically significant in all the weeks of the experiment at the P electromagnetic field (P electromagnetic fields have a promoting effect on the wound healing process.

  17. Sex differences in drug addiction: a review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Altea, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Addiction research has historically neglected research on women, and most studies have been conducted on men only, with the concluding results generalized to the female population. The role of sex differences in vulnerability to drug abuse, their repercussions on prevention and treatment strategies all require detailed studies, as does the progression from recreational drug use to dependence. This review synthesizes evidence of gender differences in drug addiction, with particular emphasis on women's health and implications. We first reviewed behavioral studies showing sex differences in the preference for and self-administration of licit (i.e., alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and cannabis) substances as revealed by animal models of addiction. Clinical studies demonstrating differences between men and women in craving, drug use, abstinence and relapse will then be examined. For both animal and human studies, the effects of hormones and estrous/menstrual cycle will be reviewed. Finally, neurobiological factors underlying gender differences in vulnerability to drug addiction (i.e., brain morphology and neurotransmission) and need for gender-specific detoxification treatments will be discussed.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  19. Dual-purpose wheat grain and animal production under different grazing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Santos Rocha Pitta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different grazing periods on beef animal production and on wheat forage and grain yield. The experiment was carried out in Pato Branco, PR, Brazil. Six grazing periods were evaluated (0, 21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days on dual-purpose wheat cultivar BRS Tarumã. Purunã steers, with average live weight of 162 kg and ten months of age, were kept under continuous grazing using a variable stocking rate, in order to maintain the established sward height of 25 cm. Greater increases in total animal gain (TAG occurred with longer grazing periods. However, there was little increase after 63 days (490 kg ha-1, and TAG decreased from 552 to 448 kg ha-1 between 84 and 105 days. Grain yield decreased from 2,830 to 610 kg ha-1 when the grazing period increased from 0 to 105 days, but there was little change after 63 days (750 kg ha-1. Cultivar BRS Tarumã shows excellent animal production potential, and the decision on how long wheat pastures should be grazed must be based on relative prices of grain and livestock.

  20. Suffering: toward a contextual praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jane M

    2002-09-01

    Janice M. Morse's article in Advances in Nursing Science (24:1) revised and summarized the major findings of a research program exploring the behavioral-experiential nature of suffering. Using a feminist critical theory stance, this article addresses Morse's conceptualization of a praxis of suffering. First, it identifies the strengths and contributions of Morse's body of research to nursing science. Next, it undertakes a critique situated in feminist critical theory in which the limitations of Morse's work are explored using exemplars from the Western literary tradition. Finally, the article proposes a new conceptualization of an alternative contextual praxis of suffering in which nurses' responses to suffering are situated in an emancipatory paradigm of authentic presence.

  1. Effects of Different Animal Waste Treatment Technologies on Detection and Viability of Porcine Enteric Viruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Verónica P.; Azevedo, Ana C.; Li, Xin; Williams, Mike C.; Michel, Frederick C.; Saif, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Enteric pathogens in animal waste that is not properly processed can contaminate the environment and food. The persistence of pathogens in animal waste depends upon the waste treatment technology, but little is known about persistence of porcine viruses. Our objectives were to characterize the porcine enteric viruses (porcine noroviruses [PoNoVs], porcine sapoviruses [PoSaVs], rotavirus A [RV-A], RV-B, and RV-C) in fresh feces or manure and to evaluate the effects of different candidate environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for animal waste treatment on the detection of these viruses. Untreated manure and samples collected at different stages during and after treatment were obtained from swine farms that used conventional waste management (CWM) and five different candidate ESTs. The RNA from porcine enteric viruses was detected by reverse transcription-PCR and/or seminested PCR; PoSaV and RV-A were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell culture immunofluorescence (CCIF) and experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were used to determine RV-A/C infectivity in posttreatment samples. The PoSaV and RV-A were detected in pretreatment samples from each farm, whereas PoNoV and RV-C were detected in pretreatment feces from three of five and four of five farms using the candidate ESTs, respectively. After treatment, PoSaV RNA was detected only in the samples from the farm using CWM and not from the farms using the candidate ESTs. RV-A and RV-C RNAs were detected in four of five and three of four candidate ESTs, respectively, after treatment, but infectious particles were not detected by CCIF, nor were clinical signs or seroconversion detected in inoculated Gn pigs. These results indicate that only RV-A/C RNA, but no viral infectivity, was detected after treatment. Our findings address a public health concern regarding environmental quality surrounding swine production units. PMID:17601821

  2. Sex differences and ovarian hormones in animal models of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Anker, Justin J

    2010-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of sex differences in many aspects of drug abuse. Most studies reveal that females exceed males during the initiation, escalation, extinction, and reinstatement (relapse) of drug-seeking behavior, but males are more sensitive than females to the aversive effects of drugs such as drug withdrawal. Findings from human and animal research indicate that circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones account for these sex differences. Estrogen (E) facilitates drug-seeking behavior, while progesterone (P) and its metabolite, allopregnanalone (ALLO), counteract the effects of E and reduce drug seeking. Estrogen and P influence other behaviors that are affiliated with drug abuse such as drug-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. The enhanced vulnerability to drug seeking in females vs. males is also additive with the other risk factors for drug abuse (e.g., adolescence, sweet preference, novelty reactivity, and impulsivity). Finally, treatment studies using behavioral or pharmacological interventions, including P and ALLO, also indicate that females show greater treatment effectiveness during several phases of the addiction process. The neurobiological basis of sex differences in drug abuse appears to be genetic and involves the influence of ovarian hormones and their metabolites, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, dopamine (DA), and gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GABA). Overall, sex and hormonal status along with other biological risk factors account for a continuum of addiction-prone and -resistant animal models that are valuable for studying drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: from human to animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835

  4. Neural mechanisms regulating different forms of risk-related decision-making: Insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Moorman, David E; Young, Jared W; Setlow, Barry; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-11-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been a growing interest in the neural underpinnings of cost/benefit decision-making. Recent studies with animal models have made considerable advances in our understanding of how different prefrontal, striatal, limbic and monoaminergic circuits interact to promote efficient risk/reward decision-making, and how dysfunction in these circuits underlies aberrant decision-making observed in numerous psychiatric disorders. This review will highlight recent findings from studies exploring these questions using a variety of behavioral assays, as well as molecular, pharmacological, neurophysiological, and translational approaches. We begin with a discussion of how neural systems related to decision subcomponents may interact to generate more complex decisions involving risk and uncertainty. This is followed by an overview of interactions between prefrontal-amygdala-dopamine and habenular circuits in regulating choice between certain and uncertain rewards and how different modes of dopamine transmission may contribute to these processes. These data will be compared with results from other studies investigating the contribution of some of these systems to guiding decision-making related to rewards vs. punishment. Lastly, we provide a brief summary of impairments in risk-related decision-making associated with psychiatric disorders, highlighting recent translational studies in laboratory animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TEUŞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today nanotechnology represents a domain that is rapidly developing because nanoparticles are being used in a very large range of products with biomedical applications. Every year, new products, containing nanoparticles (NP appear on the market. Most of the products containing such nanomaterials come to be used by consumers without a previous and careful testing. Therefore, the effects they may have upon human health should be thoroughly investigated, the toxicological potential of NP upon the reproduction function (nanoreprotoxicity in particular, as any possible noxious effect will be reflected in the new generation. Most of the research papers that exist refer on the effects of silver, gold and titanium dioxide NP on embryo development. In this review paper we present the effects of less studied metal NP (platinum, aluminium, cerium oxide, tin oxide, nickel and indium on different species of animal embryos (Gallus domesticus – different hybrids, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis

  6. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  7. Caring conversations - psychiatric patients' narratives about suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Lennart; Lindström, Unni A

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to increase and deepen the understanding of how psychiatric patients in conversations with nurses narrate their experience of suffering. Data were obtained in the years 2001-2002 by audio recording of 20 individual caring conversations between eight patients and three psychiatric nurses at a psychiatric outpatient unit in Sweden. Before the data were gathered the study was approved by a local research ethics committee. The methodology is inspired by the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur. The data is given a naïve reading which is followed by two structural analyses which explain the text. Finally, the structural analyses and the pre-understanding are confronted in a critical reflection. In the patients' narratives, suffering was at first concealed under a façade that helps the patient to cope with suffering and with shame. As they moved along to a turning point, something happened that made them able to risk everything, i.e. their very selves, but also gave them the possibility of regaining vital parts of themselves that where lost when the façade was constructed. As they took the suffering upon themselves, they grew to be fully visible as human beings and healing was possible as a re-establishment of the interpersonal bridge. This not only meant that the sufferer became open for relationships with others or an abstract other, but also that an opening in the relationship with themselves occurred. If psychiatric patients are allowed to narrate freely they develop different plot structures, which can either hide or reveal suffering. Patients who could establish an answer to the why-question of suffering could also interpret their suffering in a way that enabled growth and reconciliation. In order to do so, they had to abandon the shelter of the façade and confront suffering and shame. This turning point opened them up to life-sustaining relationships with themselves as well as with abstract and concrete others.

  8. Different shades of grey: Compromise products to encourage animal friendly consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary production and consumption are often characterised by negative externalities, for example regarding animal welfare. Despite consumer concerns about animal welfare standards in livestock production systems, the market share of organic meat is still low. The current paper investigates to

  9. Analysis of animal experiments of radiation dependent tumor regression in relation to different parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, F.; Mueller-Duysing, W.; Blattman, H.; Bacesa, L.; Rao, K.R.; Mindek, G.

    In order to be able to test the therapeutic value of the pions in comparison with conventional X-rays, analyses of animal experiments with induced tumors, transplantation tumors, and comparative cellular kinetic studies of tissue cultures will be performed. So that differences in radiation effect and a possible superiority of the pion therapy be objectively acknowledged, the reaction systems to be tested must be as homogenous as possible. For this purpose, the dependence of the radiation related regression on various parameters such as sex, age of hosts, environmental factors radiation conditions (intensity, fractionation, and so on), tumor size, and so on, must be investigated on sterile animals in a sterile environment. The experiments should be conducted under conditions as close as possible to clinical ones. For comparison, the reaction of normal tissue (in vitro and in vivo) and of malignant cells in short-time tissue cultures will be analysed. Cellular kinetics, alteration of chromosomes and metabolic activity of the cells will be studied

  10. A comparative review of Toll-like receptor 4 expression and functionality in different animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eVAURE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR family, a key component of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens and initiate an immediate immune response to them, followed by a long-lasting adaptive immune response. Activation of TLRs leads to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. TLR4 specifically recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, along with several other components of pathogens and endogenous molecules produced during abnormal situations, such as tissue damage. Evolution across species can lead to substantial diversity in the TLR4’s affinity and specificity to its ligands, the TLR4 gene and cellular expression patterns and tissue distribution. Consequently, TLR4 functions vary across different species. In recent years, the use of synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants has emerged as a realistic therapeutic goal, notably for the development of vaccines against poorly immunogenic targets. Given that an adjuvanted vaccine must be assessed in pre-clinical animal models before being tested in humans, the extent to which an animal model represents and predicts the human condition is of particular importance. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the critical points of divergence between human and the mammalian species commonly used in vaccine research and development (non-human primate, mouse, rat, rabbit, swine and dog, in terms of molecular, cellular and functional properties of TLR4.

  11. An Investigation of the Effects of Different Types of Activities during Pauses in a Segmented Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Chung, Sungwon; Crooks, Steven M.; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Jeakyeong

    2014-01-01

    Since the complex and transient information in instructional animations requires more cognitive resources, the segmenting principle has been proposed to reduce cognitive overload by providing smaller chunks with pauses between segments. This study examined the effects of different types of activities during pauses in a segmented animation. Four…

  12. Benefits of Suffering: Communicator Suffering. Benefiting, and Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    period of greatest influence. Jesus , for example, had only a handful of followers until after his death. It was subsequent to the crucifixion that the...sacrifice and suffering of religious leaders such as Jesus , Moses or Joseph Smith is, of course, well known, and similar ex- periences among certain...political and/or ideological reasons which the communicator in the current study, and historical leaders such as Jesus , Mao, Hitler, etc., had for

  13. A unified approach to model peripheral nerves across different animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Giannessi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerves are extremely complex biological structures. The knowledge of their response to stretch is crucial to better understand physiological and pathological states (e.g., due to overstretch. Since their mechanical response is deterministically related to the nature of the external stimuli, theoretical and computational tools were used to investigate their behaviour. In this work, a Yeoh-like polynomial strain energy function was used to reproduce the response of in vitro porcine nerve. Moreover, this approach was applied to different nervous structures coming from different animal species (rabbit, lobster, Aplysia and tested for different amount of stretch (up to extreme ones. Starting from this theoretical background, in silico models of both porcine nerves and cerebro-abdominal connective of Aplysia were built to reproduce experimental data (R2 > 0.9. Finally, bi-dimensional in silico models were provided to reduce computational time of more than 90% with respect to the performances of fully three-dimensional models.

  14. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  15. Sex differences in visual realism in drawings of animate and inanimate objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Sex differences in a visually realistic drawing style were examined using the model of a curvy cup as an inanimate object, and the Draw-A-Person test (DAP) as a task involving animate objects, with 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 60; 30 boys). Accurately drawing the internal detail of the cup--indicating interest in a depth feature--was not dependent on age in boys, but only in girls, as 7-year-old boys were already engaging with this cup feature. However, the age effect of the correct omission of an occluded handle--indicating a transition from realism in terms of function (intellectual realism) to one of appearance (visual realism)--was the same for both sexes. The correct omission of the occluded handle was correlated with bilingualism and drawing the internal cup detail in girls, but with drawing the silhouette contour of the cup in boys. Because a figure's silhouette enables object identification from a distance, while perception of detail and language occurs in nearer space, it was concluded that boys and girls may differ in the way they conceptualize depth in pictorial space, rather than in visual realism as such.

  16. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuny, Christiane; Friedrich, Alexander; Kozytska, Svetlana; Layer, Franziska; Nübel, Ulrich; Ohlsen, Knut; Strommenger, Birgit; Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar; Witte, Wolfgang

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals such as horses, pet animals and productive livestock has raised questions of a probable human origin and in more general of host specificity of S. aureus. Particular clonal lineages are obviously specific for humans (e.g.

  17. Safety comparison of four types of rabies vaccines in patients with WHO category II animal exposure: An observation based on different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Lu, Sha; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhang, Man; Hu, Quan; Fang, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the safeties of 4 types of rabies vaccines for patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups.A total of 4000 patients with WHO category II animal exposure were randomly divided into 4 vaccine groups, and were respectively given with Vaccines A, B, C, and D. And subjects in each vaccine group were divided into 4 age groups (≤5, 5-18, 19-60, and ≥60-year-old groups). Then adverse events (including local and systemic ones) were recorded and compared. Consequently, except for Vaccine B, patients under the age of 5 in Groups A, C, and D suffered from more adverse reactions than those in other age groups. Furthermore, for the children aged less than 5 years, incidence of adverse events following administration of Vaccine B, with the dose of 0.5 mL and production of bioreactor systems, was significantly lower than Vaccines A and D.Our data showed that rabies vaccines with smaller doses and more advanced processing techniques are of relatively high safety for the patients, especially for the young children.

  18. Gender differences in veterinarian-client-patient communication in companion animal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jane R; Bonnett, Brenda N; Roter, Debra L; Adams, Cindy L; Larson, Susan

    2012-07-01

    To describe the relationship between veterinarian and client genders and veterinarian-client-patient communication. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Random sample of 50 companion animal practitioners in southern Ontario and a convenience sample of 300 clients and their pets. For each practitioner, 6 clinical appointments were videotaped, and the resulting 300 videotapes were analyzed with the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). Linear regression was conducted to study the relationship between demographic factors, measures of veterinarian-client-patient communication, and gender of the veterinarian and client. Female veterinarians conducted more relationship-centered appointments, provided more positive and rapport-building statements, talked more to the patient, and were perceived as less hurried or rushed, compared with male veterinarians. Clients were more likely to provide lifestyle-social information to female veterinarians. Same-gender veterinarian-client interactions were relationship centered and included client provision of more lifestyle-social information. Gender influenced veterinarian-client-patient communication, and previously described physician gender differences in medical communication were largely replicated in the veterinary context.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptional Profiles of Adult Schistosoma japonicum from Different Laboratory Animals and the Natural Host, Water Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhou, Xiaosu; Piao, Xianyu; Wu, Chuang; Hou, Nan; Chen, Qijun

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widely distributed parasitic diseases in the world. Schistosoma japonicum, a zoonotic parasite with a wide range of mammalian hosts, is one of the major pathogens of this disease. Although numerous studies on schistosomiasis japonica have been performed using laboratory animal models, systematic comparative analysis of whole-genome expression profiles in parasites from different laboratory animals and nature mammalian hosts is lacking to date. Adult schistosomes were obtained from laboratory animals BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and the natural host, water buffaloes. The gene expression profiles of schistosomes from these animals were obtained and compared by genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis. The results revealed that the gene expression profiles of schistosomes from different laboratory animals and buffaloes were highly consistent (r>0.98) genome-wide. Meanwhile, a total of 450 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in schistosomes which can be clustered into six groups. Pathway analysis revealed that these genes were mainly involved in multiple signal transduction pathways, amino acid, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism. We also identified a group of 1,540 abundantly and stably expressed gene products in adult worms, including a panel of 179 Schistosoma- or Platyhelminthes-specific genes that may be essential for parasitism and may be regarded as novel potential anti-parasite intervention targets for future research. This study provides a comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from different laboratory animals and water buffaloes. An expanded number of genes potentially affecting the development of schistosomes in different animals were identified. These findings lay the foundation for schistosomiasis research in different laboratory animals and natural hosts at the transcriptional level and provide a valuable resource for screening anti

  1. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  2. Animal experimentation and ethics in India: the CPCSEA makes a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Shiranee; Veeraraghavan, Prema; Ghosh, Sonya; Gandhi, Maneka

    2004-06-01

    The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) is a statutory body formed by the Act of the Indian Parliament under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960. Formed in 1964, it was revived in 1998, under the committed chairpersonship of Maneka Gandhi. In the last two years, the CPCSEA has bettered the life of the animals in laboratories across India. This committee is composed of members of the scientific community, regulatory authorities and animal activists. The CPCSEA functions with a brilliant network of volunteers who liaise with the laboratories. For the first time in India: over 665 laboratories are registered with the CPCSEA; Institutional Animal Ethics Committees (IAECs) are constituted in every laboratory, which are only empowered to approve research project proposals that use rats, mice, guinea-pigs or rabbits; every project that uses canines, ovines, bovines or non-human primates can only be conducted if approved by the panel of scientific experts constituted for this purpose; guidelines on laboratory animal care and practice have been formulated and enforced; a protocol for the production of immunobiologicals from equines has been formulated and ratified by the Supreme Court of India; the CPCSEA has been deliberating on alternatives and working out modalities to introduce alternatives in basic/regulatory research and education, in keeping with the international arena; the CPCSEA, to date, has rehabilitated and homed over 300 dogs, 150 equines, 200 non-human primates and several cattle, cats, birds, rabbits and mice; the CPCSEA proactively trains and guides scientific and non-scientific personnel on issues of alternatives and laboratory animal welfare; and the CPCSEA has fought legal issues on laboratory animal care and use and have had verdicts that favoured alternatives and animal welfare.

  3. Conservation Station and Beyond: Experiences at Disney's Animal Kingdom That Make a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jackie; Lehnhardt, Kathy; Mellen, Jill; Dierking, Lynn; Adelman, Leslie; Burks, Kyle; Miller, Lance

    2001-01-01

    Describes a five-year plan for educational research and evaluation at the Disney Animal Kingdom. Focuses on conservation-related issues and presents some of the preliminary results from the study of visitor attitudes. (DDR)

  4. Plant Richness and Diversity Response to Different Treatments of Animal in Kalashak Rangelands (Case Study: Kermanshah Province)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sadeghirad; H. Arzani; H. Azarnivand

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of plant richness and diversity is important in rangeland ecosystems because biological control, conservation of genetic resources and the control of natural ecosystems are possible by identifying diversity. One of the factors affecting the richness and diversity is animals' utilization of the vegetation. Therefore, this research was done to study the plant richness and diversity response to different treatments of animals. To this end, four sites with none, half, equal and twice a...

  5. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D

    2005-12-01

    Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.

  6. Coping styles of headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniatchkin, M; Riabus, M; Hasenbring, M

    1999-04-01

    Psychological factors are important in the chronification and aggravation of headaches. We studied 90 patients suffering from migraine, chronic daily headache (CDH) evolved from migraine, and episodic or chronic tension-type headache (TTH). Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral pain coping were assessed using the Kiel Pain Inventory (KPI), Beck's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, and Quality of Life Questionnaire. In addition, the clinical course of headache was analyzed using a validated headache diary. The results were as follows. Firstly, the KPI is reliable internally for the assessment of pain-coping strategy employment among headache patients. Secondly, migraine sufferers were characterized by pronounced psychological abnormalities during the headache phase, demonstrating a less adaptive coping behavior. This was in contrast to the TTH patients, who showed more general distress manifesting in elevated anxiety and lower quality of life. The only factor which appeared to be essential for differentiating between migraine and TTH was the intensity of headache. Thirdly, chronic TTH and CDH evolved from migraine demonstrated more pronounced psychological disabilities and more severe clinical courses of headaches than episodic TTH or nontransformed migraine. The predictor variable for transformation of migraine was impairment of well-being/quality of life, and for transformation of TTH, the frequency of headaches and depression. Finally, analgesic misuse seems to be less important for chronification and transformation of headaches than the degree of psychological disability. This study draws attention to the role of psychological factors in the chronification of TTH and transformation of migraine and provides some recommendations for the behavioral treatment of chronic headaches.

  7. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Corine S.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Haven, Carola J.; Smit, Edith G.

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  8. Creative processes in motion: students’ different approaches to creating a computer animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, T.; Janssen, T.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this explorative study we examined the creative process of making a computer animation. Six students with varying abilities participated (tenth grade, pre university education). The students thought aloud while carrying out the task and they were interviewed afterwards. In addition, we used

  9. Reducing Sex Differences in Children's Empathy for Animals through a Training Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angantyr, Malin; Hansen, Eric M.; Eklund, Jakob Håkansson; Malm, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Humane education programs designed to increase children's empathy for animals are becoming more common. A quasi-experiment tested the effectiveness of one such program by comparing 80 children who had completed the program with a control group of 57 children who had not. The children read a story involving an injured dog and rated the degree of…

  10. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...

  11. [The role of transaminases and mitochondrial anion porters in the energetics of animals of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmerov, R N; Sultanov, Sh; Allamuratov, Sh I

    1995-01-01

    Aminohydroxyacetate, an inhibitor of aminotransferases, decreases the rate of oxygen consumption by 1-day-old young rats by 35% 10 min after intraperitoneal injection, whereas for 20-day-old rats, the inhibitory effect is 56%, and for adult mice, it is 83%. More prolonged exposure to aminohydroxyacetate leads to death of the animal. One-day-old rats die 90 min after the injection, 20-day-old rats die 30 min after the injection, and adult mice die 15 min after the injection. Butylmalonate (an inhibitor of mitochondrial dicarboxylate translocator) decreases the rate of energy metabolism to a lower extent, by 38% in adult mice and by 18% in 1-day-old rats. The animals generally remain alive after the exposure to this compound. 1,2,3-benzyltricarboxylate, an inhibitor of tricarboxylate transport, shows only a weak effect on energy metabolism of animals of any age. These results provide evidence that the role of the transaminase system in energy metabolism increases with age. Mechanisms underlying weak sensitivity of newborn animals to these inhibitors are discussed.

  12. The effectiveness of health animations in audiences with different health literacy levels: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, C.S.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Haven, C.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective: The aim of this paper

  13. A Review of Different Stunning Methods for Poultry—Animal Welfare Aspects (Stunning Methods for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Berg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical water bath stunning is the most commonly used method for poultry stunning prior to slaughter, but has been questioned on animal welfare and product quality grounds. Controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS methods, involving a variety of gas mixtures, have become increasingly common, at least in Europe. CAS methods have been perceived as an improvement from an animal welfare perspective, partly because birds can be stunned without prior shackling, and are generally considered to result in improved product quality compared to water bath stunning. However, there would still be an interest in alternative stunning methods especially for small to medium size poultry slaughterhouses. This review presents an overview of the modes of action and the technical aspects of poultry stunning methods, including novel and emerging stunning technologies.

  14. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  15. Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy Show Different Patterns of Sarcolemmal Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Volker; Rafael, Jill A.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Campbell, Kevin P.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic defects in a number of components of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC) lead to distinct forms of muscular dystrophy. However, little is known about how alterations in the DGC are manifested in the pathophysiology present in dystrophic muscle tissue. One hypothesis is that the DGC protects the sarcolemma from contraction-induced damage. Using tracer molecules, we compared sarcolemmal integrity in animal models for muscular dystrophy and in muscular dystrophy patient samples. Ev...

  16. Significantly different proliferative potential of oral mucosal epithelial cells between six animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yamato, Masayuki; Takagi, Ryo; Murakami, Daisuke; Namiki, Hideo; Okano, Teruo

    2014-06-01

    There has been an upsurge in regenerative medicine in recent years. In particular, because oral mucosal epithelial cells can be obtained noninvasively, cultured epithelial cell sheets have been used in a number of ectopic transplantations. Additionally, the verification of the properties of experimental animals' cultured cells has accelerated the application of regenerative medicine. In the present study, the properties of oral mucosal epithelial cells were compared between six animal species. The human and pig epithelia were relatively thicker than the epithelia of the other species. The colony-forming efficiency of the rat was the highest, followed by those of the dog, human, rabbit, and pig, whereas the colonies of the mouse cells were all paraclone and uncountable in the colony-forming assay. We also found that the rabbit and pig cells proliferated poorly and were unable to form cell sheets without feeder layers. In contrast, even in the absence of feeder layers and cholera toxin, cultured dog and mouse cells formed contiguous sheets, when the cell seeding density was high. These results indicate that interspecies variation is considerable in oral mucosal epithelial cells and that specific experimental animal or human cells must be chosen according to the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  17. Sources of variation in oxygen consumption of aquatic animals demonstrated by simulated constant oxygen consumption and respirometers of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt

    2016-01-01

    As intermittent-flow respirometry has become a common method for the determination of resting metabolism or standard metabolic rate (SMR), this study investigated how much of the variability seen in the experiments was due to measurement error. Experiments simulated different constant oxygen cons...... oxygen consumption rates of fishes in systems with reasonable RFRs mainly comes from the animal, not from the measuring equipment....

  18. Associating Animations with Concrete Models to Enhance Students' Comprehension of Different Visual Representations in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Hajri, Sheikha H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the impact of associating animations with concrete models on eleventh-grade students' comprehension of different visual representations in organic chemistry. The study used a post-test control group quasi-experimental design. The experimental group (N = 28) used concrete models, submicroscopic…

  19. Suffering in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dildy, S P

    1996-11-01

    Knowledge of the nature, meaning, and impact of suffering from the perspective of people with rheumatoid arthritis is needed to determine what nursing interventions are most helpful in reducing suffering. Grounded theory was used to identify the nature of suffering in 14 people with rheumatoid arthritis. Suffering was found to be a process directed toward regaining normalcy and consisted of three phases: disintegration of self; the shattered self; and reconstruction of self. Experiencing suffering resulted in struggling, lose of dreams, restructuring a future orientation, and withdrawing. Finding meaning through positive life changes was an outcome of suffering. The informants' differentiation between pain and suffering also was examined. The provision of comfort measures along with a caring and empathetic attitude were identified as helpful nursing interventions in reducing suffering.

  20. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  1. A comparison of the different animal models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and their use in studying complex behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Patten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE has been linked to widespread impairments in brain structure and function. There are a number of animal models that are used to study the structural and functional deficits caused by prenatal ethanol exposure, including, but not limited to: invertebrates, fish, rodents and non-human primates. Animal models enable a researcher to control important variables such as the route of ethanol administration, as well as the timing, frequency and amount of ethanol exposure. Each animal model and system of exposure has its place, depending on the research question being undertaken. In this review we will examine the different routes of ethanol administration and the various animal models of FASD that are commonly used in research, emphasizing their strengths and limitations. We will also present an up-to-date summary on the effects of prenatal/neonatal ethanol exposure on behavior across the lifespan, focusing on learning and memory, olfaction, social, executive and motor functions. Special emphasis will be placed where the various animal models best represent deficits observed in the human condition and offer a viable test bed to examine potential therapeutics for humans with FASD.

  2. Comparative evaluation of different anchoring techniques for synthetic cruciate ligaments. A biomechanical and animal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsch, R

    1994-01-01

    Under certain well-defined indications alloplastic material may be used in cruciate ligament surgery. The stability and survival of such a synthetic ligament is to a great extent dependent on the anchorage with which it is fastened to the bone. Most fixation methods have proved to be too weak or have revealed other essential drawbacks, resulting in clinical and experimental failure. A new ligament fixation device (LFD) was developed and tested biomechanically and in animal experiments. In the biomechanic investigation the new LFD was compared to single staples, double staples in the belt-buckle technique, and ligament guidance through additional bone tunnels (Z-technique). The tests were carried out on human cadaver knees, plastic bones, and dog stifle joints. The evaluated parameters were linear and maximum load, stiffness, and elongation. In addition, hysteresis tests were performed to assay the long-term resistance of the fixation. The tests showed a significant superiority of the LFD in all measured variables compared to the other anchorages. The pull-out strength, at 1866 +/- 43 N (cadaver knee), was about four times that for the single staple, and about twice as high as that for the double staple and Z-technique. The animal experiments were performed on German shepherd cross-breed dogs. In six animals the anterior cruciate ligaments were excised bilaterally and replaced by a 6-mm Trevira ligament, on one side anchored with staples in the Z-technique, on the other with the LFD. Postoperatively the dogs were allowed to move freely; no additional protection was employed. After 6 months the animals were sacrificed and the knees examined macroscopically, radiologically, microscopically, and by biomechanical testing. After half a year of implantation, the pull-out strength of the alloplastic ligament was 662 +/- 62 N for the LFD and 531 +/- 67 N for the staples. Three ligaments in the staple group and one in the LFD group had ruptured completely, and two ligaments

  3. Monitoring of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from free-living animals using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syczyło, K; Platt-Samoraj, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Lipczyńska, K; Jabłoński, A; Procajło, Z; Szweda, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor Y. enterocolitica strains from free-living animals captured during 2011-2014 hunting seasons in Poland using warm (ITC) and cold (PSB) enrichment and molecular examination. Over 1600 samples have been cultured. After ITC/PSB enrichment 237 strains presenting features characteristic for Y. enterocolitica were isolated. Molecular examination using multiplex PCR revealed 140 isolates from PSB and 78 from ITC. The concentration of pathogenic Yersinia in asymptomatic carriers is low and the PCR detection should be preceded by bacteriological examination.

  4. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  5. Response of gut hormones after implantation of a reversible gastric restrictive device in different animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaomei; Mattar, Samer G; Navia, Jose A; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-11-01

    Variable responses of gut hormones have been observed after bariatric procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and leptin levels in nonobese canine and obese rat models after weight loss owing to a reversible gastric restriction (RGR) device. Mongrel dogs and obese Zucker rats were submitted to either surgical implantation or a sham operation and were followed up for 6 wk. The serum fasting ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin levels in dogs were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after surgical implantation and after implant removal. The protein expression of mucosa ghrelin, GLP-1, and leptin in the dog and rat stomach were measured using Western blotting. The RGR implant in dogs and rats resulted in a significant decrease in food intake and body weight. In the nonobese dog, the serum ghrelin level and mucosa ghrelin expression were significantly increased after surgical implantation (P animal model. Our results showed that ghrelin levels are downregulated with short-term RGR implantation in obese rats but upregulated in nonobese dogs, implying that the energy balance could be an important determinant of ghrelin level. The marked suppression of leptin in both animal models might contribute to the weight-reducing effect of the RGR implant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex Differences in the Cognitive and Hippocampal Effects of Streptozotocin in an Animal Model of Sporadic AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 95% of Alzheimer's disease (AD belongs to sporadic AD (sAD, and related animal models are the important research tools for investigating the pathogenesis and developing new drugs for sAD. An intracerebroventricular infusion of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ is commonly employed to generate sporadic AD animal model. Moreover, the potential impact of sex on brain function is now emphasized in the field of AD. However, whether sex differences exist in AD animal models remains unknown. Here we reported that ICV-STZ remarkably resulted in learning and memory impairment in the Sprague-Dawley male rats, but not in the female rats. We also found tau hyperphosphorylation, an increase of Aβ40/42 as well as increase in both GSK-3β and BACE1 activities, while a loss of dendritic and synaptic plasticity was observed in the male STZ rats. However, STZ did not induce above alterations in the female rats. Furthermore, estradiol levels of serum and hippocampus of female rats were much higher than that of male rats. In conclusion, sex differences exist in this sporadic AD animal model (Sprague-Dawley rats induced by STZ, and this should be considered in future AD research.

  7. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  8. Annual meeting keynote address: Animal agriculture and emerging social ethics for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, B E

    2004-03-01

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy. A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past three decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. This point can be illustrated with numerous examples across all areas of animal use. These examples reflect society's moral concern having outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform. The meaning of this ethical movement for animal agriculture is examined. Animal agriculture should explore ways to replace the animal husbandry lost to industrialization.

  9. Hunters’ Perspectives on Animal Welfare and Meat Demand: An Application of Maximum Difference and Choice Experiment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Elizabeth; Widmar, Nicole O.; Lee, John; Gramig, Benjamin; Fulton, Joan; Wilcox, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An online survey of 872 outdoor enthusiasts (self-reporting as regularly hunting, fishing, or participating in other outdoor activities) included choice experiment, maximum difference, validation and stated attribute non-attendance questions. Hunters had a statistically lower preference share devoted to animal welfare for meat purchasing and lower willingness to pay for some attributes of pork chops and chicken breasts. Accounting for stated or inferred attribute non-attendance did not change...

  10. Stem cell dynamics in muscle regeneration: Insights from live imaging in different animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Dhanushika; Currie, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, live imaging has been adopted to study stem cells in their native environment at cellular resolution. In the skeletal muscle field, this has led to visualising the initial events of muscle repair in mouse, and the entire regenerative response in zebrafish. Here, we review recent discoveries in this field obtained from live imaging studies. Tracking of tissue resident stem cells, the satellite cells, following injury has captured the morphogenetic dynamics of stem/progenitor cells as they facilitate repair. Asymmetric satellite cell division generated a clonogenic progenitor pool, providing in vivo validation for this mechanism. Furthermore, there is an emerging role of stem/progenitor cell guidance at the injury site by cellular protrusions. This review concludes that live imaging is a critical tool for discovering the distinct processes that occur during regeneration, emphasising the importance of imaging in diverse animal models to capture the entire scope of stem cell functions. Also see the Video Abstract. Link to: https://youtube/tgUHSBD1N0g. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of different technologies and animal manures on solid-liquid separation efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cocolo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid-liquid separation is a widely used manure treatment option. However, little information is available to predict separator performance in a specific operating condition. This study investigates the effect on the separation efficiency of animal species (cattle and swine, use of flocculants, and separator construction and operating characteristics (filtration, pressurised filtration, settling and centrifugation. Using data available from published experiments, we evaluated correlations of the separation efficiencies with the physical and chemical characteristics of the inlet slurries (dry matter, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Dry matter concentration of the input manure was found to be the best parameter used to calculate and validate regression equations. Regres sions for the operating conditions of 7 of the 14 subgroups evaluated were significant (P<0.05 for at least one parameter. Pressurised filtration seems to be the process best represented by these regressions that can predict dry matter and nitrogen efficiency with relative root mean squared errors of less than 50%. However, they could only be used for some of the parameters and separation techniques. Therefore, it was not possible to use the available experimental data to define and validate empirical predictive models for all the conditions. Specific studies are needed to define more precise and physically-based models.

  12. Evaluation of three different methods to establish animal models of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meiyu; Wu, Xinyi

    2010-01-01

    To produce animal models of Acanthamoeba keratitis and to evaluate the advantages and adaptation range of each of the three methods employed. Mice and Wistar rats in three groups of 15 rats and 15 mice each were used to establish the models. Right corneas in group A were scratched and challenged with Acanthamoeba. Those in group B were scratched and covered with contact lenses incubated with Acanthamoeba. Those in group C received an intrastromal injection of Acanthamoeba. Five rats and 5 mice in each group were used for histopathological investigations and the other 10 in each group were used for clinical evaluation. The models were evaluated by slit lamp examination, microscopic examination and culture of corneal scrapings, HE staining of corneal sections, and pathological scoring of the infections. Four rats and 6 mice in group A, 7 rats and 8 mice in group B, and 10 rats and 10 mice in group C developed typical Acanthamoeba keratitis. Corneal scratching alone has the lowest infection rate, while scratching and then covering with contaminated contact lenses has a moderate rate of infection and most closely mimics what happens in most human infections. Intrastromal injection of Acanthamoeba gives a much higher infection rate and more severe Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  13. The phenomenology of suffering in medicine and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenaeus, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    This article develops a phenomenology of suffering with an emphasis on matters relevant to medical practice and bioethics. An attempt is made to explain how suffering can involve many different things-bodily pains, inability to carry out everyday actions, and failure to realize core life values-and yet be a distinct phenomenon. Proceeding from and expanding upon analyses found in the works of Eric Cassell and Elaine Scarry, suffering is found to be a potentially alienating mood overcoming the person and engaging her in a struggle to remain at home in the face of loss of meaning and purpose in life. Suffering involves painful experiences at different levels that are connected through the suffering-mood but are nevertheless distinguishable by being primarily about (1) my embodiment, (2) my engagements in the world together with others, and (3) my core life values. Suffering is in essence a feeling (a mood), but as such, it has implications for and involves the person's entire life: how she acts in the world, communicates with others, and understands and looks upon her priorities and goals in life. Suffering-moods are typically intense and painful in nature, but they may also display a rather subconscious quality in presenting things in the world and my life as a whole in an alienating way. In such situations, we are not focused directly upon the suffering-mood-as in the cases of pain and other bodily ailments-but rather, upon the things that the mood presents to us: not only our bodies, but also other things in the world that prevent us from having a good life and being the persons we want to be. Such suffering may in many cases be transformed or at least mitigated by a person's identifying and changing her core life values and in such a manner reinterpreting her life story to become an easier and more rewarding one to live under the present circumstances.

  14. Measuring animal welfare within a reintroduction: an assessment of different indices of stress in water voles Arvicola amphibius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available Reintroductions are an increasingly common conservation restoration tool; however, little attention has hitherto been given to different methods for monitoring the stress encountered by reintroduced individuals. We compared ten potential measures of stress within four different categories (neuroendocrine, cell function, body condition and immune system function as proxies for animal welfare in water voles being reintroduced to the Upper Thames region, Oxfordshire, UK. Captive-bred voles were assessed pre-release, and each month post-release for up to five months. Wild-born voles were captured in the field and assessed from two months post-release. Plasma corticosteroid, hydration and body condition of captive-bred voles differed between their pre-release measures and both their first ("short-term" recapture, and their final recapture ("long-term" release, however only body condition and immunocompetence measured using the Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT test were significantly different post-release between the first and last recaptures. Captive-bred animals had lower fat reserves, higher weight/length ratios and better immunocompetence (NBT than did wild-born voles. Captive-bred males had higher ectoparasite burdens compared to wild-born males and, as reintroduction site quality decreased, became less hydrated. These observations indicate that some methods can identify changes in the stress response in individuals, highlighting areas of risk in a reintroduction programme. In addition, a single measure may not provide a full picture of the stress experienced; instead, a combination of measures of different physiological systems may give a more complete indication of stress during the reintroduction process. We highlight the need to monitor stress in reintroductions using measures from different physiological systems to inform on possible animal welfare improvements and thus the overall success rate of reintroductions.

  15. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the

  16. Individual differences and the characterization of animal models of psychopathology: a strong challenge and a good opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eArmario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the development of valuable new techniques (i.e. genetics, neuroimage for the study of the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric diseases, there are strong limitations in the information that can be gathered from human studies. It is thus critical to develop appropriate animal models of psychiatric diseases to characterize their putative biological bases and the development of new therapeutic strategies. The present review tries to offer a general perspective and several examples of how individual differences in animals can contribute to explain differential susceptibility to develop behavioural alterations, but also emphasizes methodological problems that can lead to inappropriate or over-simplistic interpretations. A critical analysis of the approaches currently used could contribute to obtain more reliable data and allow taking full advantage of new and sophisticated technologies. The discussion is mainly focused on anxiety-like and to a lower extent on depression-like behaviour in rodents.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sudhaldev; Jha, C B

    2011-10-01

    Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaldev Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite bhasma (SMB has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas . The experimental animals (rats were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  19. Nietzsche and the dilemma of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J S; Johnston, C

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to view a long-held assumption in nursing as mistaken. That is, that patient suffering is something to be overcome. Utilizing Nietzsche's statements on Amor Fati, we carefully examine the cultural assumptions behind our denigration of suffering, look at specific nursing examples of this situation, and attempt the beginnings of a discourse on what it would take for nurses to overcome their own predetermined views of suffering in order to better help their patients "own" their own suffering.

  20. Designing an Interactive Activity to Integrate Animal Physiology in the Context of Different Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Begona M.; Aguera, Estrella I.; Tovar, Pura

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an activity which revolves around three elements (interactivity, team learning, and peer-to-peer instruction) and consists of the drafting of a "newspaper." The different characteristics of each of its sections permits the approach to the teaching/learning process, in the context of physiological…

  1. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the ...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  2. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Rats' Gut Microbiota Composition in Animals with Different Ginsenosides Metabolizing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Wei; Xuan, Fang-Ling; Zhong, Fei-Liang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Songquan; Li, Donghao; Quan, Lin-Hu

    2017-01-18

    Following oral intake of Panax ginseng, major ginsenosides are metabolized to deglycosylated ginsenosides by gut microbiota before absorption into the blood. As the composition of gut microbiota varies between individuals, metabolic activities are significantly different. We selected 6 rats with low efficiency metabolism (LEM) and 6 rats with high efficiency metabolism (HEM) from 60 rats following oral administration of Panax ginseng extract, and analyzed their gut microbiota composition using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The components of gut microbiota between the LEM and HEM groups were significantly different. Between the 2 groups, S24-7, Alcaligenaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae occupied most OTUs of the HEM group, which was notably higher than the LEM group. Furthermore, we isolated Bifidobacterium animalis GM1 that could convert the ginsenoside Rb1 to Rd. The result implies that these specific intestinal bacteria may dominate the metabolism of Panax ginseng.

  4. Anxiety from a Phylogenetic Perspective: Is there a Qualitative Difference between Human and Animal Anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Belzung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems. The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  5. Anxiety from a phylogenetic perspective: is there a qualitative difference between human and animal anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzung, Catherine; Philippot, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems). The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  6. Using the animal to the last bit: Consumer preferences for different beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Corsi, Armando Maria; Casini, Leonardo; Contini, Caterina; Loose, Simone Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Meat is expensive to produce, making it is essential to understand the importance consumers pay to different meat cuts. Previous research on consumers' meat choices has mainly focused on meat species, while consumer preferences for meat cuts has so far only received limited interest. The aim of this study is to shed some light into this relatively unexplored area by answering four research questions. First, this study intends to show the relative importance meat cuts play in relation to other extrinsic product attributes. Secondly, this paper looks into differences in choice criteria between regular and special occasions. Third, consumer segments that differ in their preferences and beef purchase are identified, and, finally, the meat purchase portfolios of these segments are revealed. A stated preference methodology of a discrete choice experiment with cut-specific prices covering several meat cuts simultaneously is proposed to answer the research questions. The sample consists of 1500 respondents representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender and geographic location The results shows that meat cut is the most important factor when choosing bovine meat followed by quality certification (origin), production technique, the type of breed and price. In terms of consumption occasions, we observe significantly lower price sensitivity for marbled steaks and cutlets for special occasions compared to normal occasions. Segmentation analysis shows that while the choices of two segments (comprising about 40% of the sample) are mostly driven by extrinsic product attributes, the remaining segments are mostly driven by meat cuts. These varying preferences are also reflected in the purchase portfolios of the different segments, while less variability is detected from a socio-demographic perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A sensory-motor control model of animal flight explains why bats fly differently in light versus dark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav S Bar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal flight requires fine motor control. However, it is unknown how flying animals rapidly transform noisy sensory information into adequate motor commands. Here we developed a sensorimotor control model that explains vertebrate flight guidance with high fidelity. This simple model accurately reconstructed complex trajectories of bats flying in the dark. The model implies that in order to apply appropriate motor commands, bats have to estimate not only the angle-to-target, as was previously assumed, but also the angular velocity ("proportional-derivative" controller. Next, we conducted experiments in which bats flew in light conditions. When using vision, bats altered their movements, reducing the flight curvature. This change was explained by the model via reduction in sensory noise under vision versus pure echolocation. These results imply a surprising link between sensory noise and movement dynamics. We propose that this sensory-motor link is fundamental to motion control in rapidly moving animals under different sensory conditions, on land, sea, or air.

  8. Plant Richness and Diversity Response to Different Treatments of Animal in Kalashak Rangelands (Case Study: Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sadeghirad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of plant richness and diversity is important in rangeland ecosystems because biological control, conservation of genetic resources and the control of natural ecosystems are possible by identifying diversity. One of the factors affecting the richness and diversity is animals' utilization of the vegetation. Therefore, this research was done to study the plant richness and diversity response to different treatments of animals. To this end, four sites with none, half, equal and twice as much grazing capacity were selected. Treatments were identified due to vegetation cover changes, distance from water, distance from the village and grazing times. Using located transects, samples were (systematic randomization taken from vegetation (transects four and plots 40 and in the area a total of 160 plots were harvested. The results showed that the highest species richness and diversity belonged to sites' grazing capacity equal and grazing capacity half. But this was the least in the without-grazing site. Thus, animals' exploiting the rangelands properly (grazing capacity equal and grazing capacity half can increase the richness and diversity. Lack of rangeland long-term grazing leads to poor plants. So, both severe grazing and long-term exclusion should be avoided. The full protection of rangeland does not necessarily lead to the maximum diversity.

  9. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Morgante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess good and bad welfare in animals. Evidence from psychology is described which demonstrate that many complex actions in humans can be carried out quite unconsciously and that human patients with certain sorts of brain damage can behave and manipulate objects properly while at the same time o consciously denying experience of them. The relevance of these findings with respect to the issue of animal consciousness is discussed. Evidence from animal cognition is described concerning the possibility that animals monitor the state of their own memories, show episodic-like knowledge and exhibit self-medication. Evidence from neuroscience concerning brain lateralization in non-human animals and its relevance to animal welfare is described. It is argued that in animals raised for economic purposes (milk and meat production differences in cognitive abilities and brain lateralization can affect adaptive behavioural, physiological and immune responses to environmental stressors.

  10. Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of different devices for interventional closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Sigler, M; Handt, S; Seghaye, M; von Bernuth, G; Grabitz, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of three different devices following interventional closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an animal model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS—A medical grade stainless steel coil (n = 8), a nickel/titanium coil (n = 10), and a polyvinylalcohol foam plug knitted on a titanium wire frame (n = 11) were used for interventional closure of PDA in a neonatal lamb model. The PDA had been maintained by repetitive angioplasty. Between one and 278 days afte...

  11. Medical expertise, existential suffering and ending life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2014-02-01

    In this article, I assess the position that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) ought not to be accepted in the cases of persons who suffer existentially but who have no medical condition, because existential questions do not fall within the domain of physicians' professional expertise. I maintain that VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions involves existential issues relevantly similar to those confronted in connection with existential suffering. On that basis I conclude that if VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions is taken to fall within the domain of medical expertise, it is not consistent to use the view that physicians' professional expertise does not extend to existential questions as a reason for denying requests for VE and PAS from persons who suffer existentially but have no medical condition.

  12. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszka, Robert; Barłowska, Joanna; Litwińczuk, Zygmunt

    2016-12-31

    Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis) ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk) and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50%) than cow milk (about 20%), and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%), which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l) gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants). Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk) more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the '0' variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  13. Allergenicity of milk of different animal species in relation to human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pastuszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content in cow milk (with over 20 proteins, and peptides may also occur as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis ranges from 2.5% to 4.2% and is about 1.5-2 times higher than in human milk. Its most important allergens are considered to be β-lactoglobulin (absent in human milk and αs1-casein. The most similar in composition to human milk is horse and donkey milk. It contains considerably more whey proteins (35-50% than cow milk (about 20%, and the concentration of the most allergenic casein fraction αs1 is 1.5-2.5 g/l. In comparison, the content of αs1-casein in cow milk is about 10 g/l. β-lactoglobulin present in donkey milk is a monomer, while in milk of ruminants it is a dimer. Like human milk, it contains a substantial amount of lactose (about 7%, which determines its flavour and facilitates calcium absorption. The high lysozyme content (about 1 g/l gives it antibacterial properties (compared to trace amounts in ruminants. Camel milk is also more digestible and induces fewer allergic reactions, because it lacks β-lactoglobulin, and its β-casein has a different structure. It also contains (compared to cow milk more antibacterial substances such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins, and furthermore the number of immunoglobulins is compatible with human ones. Goat milk components have a higher degree of assimilability as compared to cow milk. Its main protein is β-casein, with total protein content depending on the αs1-casein genetic variant. Goats with the ‘0’ variant do not synthesize this allergenic protein. Clinical and immunochemical studies indicate, however, that it cannot be a substitute for cow milk without the risk of an anaphylactic reaction.

  14. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Rafiq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%, solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%, total solids (18.05%±0.05%, protein (5.15%±0.06% and casein (3.87%±0.04% contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%, buffalo (0.68%±0.02% and sheep (0.66%±0.02% milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82, cow (r = 0.88, sheep (r = 0.86 and goat milk (r = 0.98. The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g, camel (96±2.2 mg/g and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  15. PRODUÇÃO ANIMAL EM PASTAGEM DE MILHETO SOB DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE NITROGÊNIO ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN PEARL MILLET PASTURE UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO LONDERO MOOJEN

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em área da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos de três níveis de adubação nitrogenada (0, 150 e 300 kg/ha de N em pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke cv. Comum, sobre a produção animal. Foram utilizados novilhos de corte e avaliados o desempenho por animal, o número de animais.dia/ha e o ganho de peso vivo por área. O sistema de pastejo adotado foi o contínuo, com ajustes de carga para manter uma pressão de pastejo de 10%, caracterizando um resíduo médio de 3.168 kg de matéria seca/ha. As variáveis dependentes mostraram relação linear positiva com os níveis de adubação nitrogenada, o que denota o alto potencial do milheto.An experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effects of three N levels (0, 150 and 300 kg/ha, in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke cv. Comum, on animal production. Beef steers were assayed through daily liveweigh gain, gain per hectare and animals.day/hectare. A continuous grazing system was used, with stocking rate adjustments to maintain a 10% grazing pressure that characterized a medium residue of 3,168 kg of DM/ha. The dependent variables showed a positive linear relationship with the N levels, denoting the high animal production potential of pearl millet.

  16. ANIMAL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-02-28

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables.

  17. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  18. Posthuman Ethics, Violence, Creaturely Suffering and the (Other) Animal: Schnurre’s Postwar Animal Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Kleinhans

    2016-01-01

    The othering of whole groups of people in a biopolitical discourse during the Third Reich has caused many to re-assess ethics that is based on specific categories. Adorno and Horkheimer reckoned with both Enlightenment as well as classical “humanist” discourses to question whether they imply structures that lead to fascism. In the wake of these arguments, classical humanist (or sometimes also called anthropocentric) ethics have also been criticized by philosophers such as Agamben, Derrida, an...

  19. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  20. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  1. Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock: evaluation of different resuscitation strategies in a large animal model of combined insults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; DeMoya, Marc A; Duggan, Michael; Knightly, Thomas; Mejaddam, Ali Y; Hwabejire, John; Lu, Jennifer; Smith, William Michael; Kasotakis, Georgios; Velmahos, George C; Socrate, Simona; Alam, Hasan B

    2012-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of trauma-related mortality and morbidity. Combination of TBI and HS (TBI + HS) is highly lethal, and the optimal resuscitation strategy for this combined insult remains unclear. A critical limitation is the lack of suitable large animal models to test different treatment strategies. We have developed a clinically relevant large animal model of TBI + HS, which was used to evaluate the impact of different treatments on brain lesion size and associated edema. Yorkshire swine (42-50 kg) were instrumented to measure hemodynamic parameters and intracranial pressure. A computer-controlled cortical impact device was used to create a TBI through a 20-mm craniotomy: 15-mm cylindrical tip impactor at 4 m/s velocity, 100-ms dwell time, and 12-mm penetration depth. Volume-controlled hemorrhage was started (40% blood volume) concurrent with the TBI. After 2 h of shock, animals were randomized to one of three resuscitation groups (n = 5/group): (a) normal saline (NS); (b) 6% hetastarch, Hextend (Hex); and (c) fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Volumes of Hex and FFP matched the shed blood, whereas NS was three times the volume. After 6 h of postresuscitation monitoring, brains were sectioned into 5-mm slices and stained with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) to quantify the lesion size and brain swelling. Combination of 40% blood loss with cortical impact and a period of shock (2 h) resulted in a highly reproducible brain injury. Total fluid requirements were lower in the Hex and FFP groups. Lesion size and brain swelling in the FFP group (2,160 ± 202.63 mm and 22% ± 1.0%, respectively) were significantly smaller than those in the NS group (3,285 ± 130.8 mm3 and 37% ± 1.6%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Hex treatment decreased the swelling (29% ± 1.6%) without reducing the lesion size. Early administration of FFP reduces the size of brain lesion and associated swelling in a large animal model of TBI

  2. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in the amount of epsilon-hexosyllysine, UV absorbance, and fluorescence of collagen with age in different animal species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miksik, I.; Deyl, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Skin and aorta collagen specimens of Wistar rats, white mice, beagle dogs, cats, horses, and human necropsies of different ages were examined with respect to the content of glycated products. The data presented show that (a) glycation and accumulation of the chromophore(s) are comparable in collagen samples from different species of comparable age; (b) glycation and pigmented accumulation increase markedly during the first 5-10 years of age; (c) the extent of glycation is different in different tissues (in particular, glycation of aortal collagen is about twice that of skin collagen); and (d) collagen pigmentation as followed by fluorescence is comparable in aortal and skin collagen (except below 10 years); pigmentation measured by absorbance at 350 nm is, on the contrary, lower in aortal than in skin collagen. Based on the assumption of constant blood glucose level during the life span, it appears feasible to conclude that the degree of nonenzymatic collagen glycation reflects the time period for which the protein was exposed to the action of sugars. This period, because of increased cross-linking, is likely to be extended in older animals. Other factors, such as differences in collagen turnover between different tissues and the intensity of the removal process of the glycated products, should be taken into consideration as well

  4. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard E. Rollin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society’s moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  5. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2011-01-19

    Businesses and professions must stay in accord with social ethics, or risk losing their autonomy.A major social ethical issue that has emerged in the past four decades is the treatment of animals in various areas of human use. Society's moral concern has outgrown the traditional ethic of animal cruelty that began in biblical times and is encoded in the laws of all civilized societies. There are five major reasons for this new social concern, most importantly, the replacement of husbandry-based agriculture with industrial agriculture. This loss of husbandry to industry has threatened the traditional fair contract between humans and animals, and resulted in significant amounts of animal suffering arising on four different fronts. Because such suffering is not occasioned by cruelty, a new ethic for animals was required to express social concerns. Since ethics proceed from preexisting ethics rather than ex nihilo, society has looked to its ethic for humans, appropriately modified, to find moral categories applicable to animals. This concept of legally encoded rights for animals has emerged as a plausible vehicle for reform.

  6. Surprised by joy: a journey through suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeef, Majeda; Alkhoulli, Laila

    2010-01-01

    Understanding suffering as possible meaning of cancer for patients and their families is a necessary part of cancer nursing care. Suffering occurs when the intactness or integrity of the individuals is threatened or disrupted (Cassel 1999); the authors believe that exploring cancer patients' suffering is vital to improve patient quality care. This article discusses suffering as a feature for oncology patients at tertiary hospital in Jordan. We are aiming through understanding the three following narratives of cancer patients who experience and witness the suffer during their disease journey to illustrate how the suffering reflect their behavior and day to day life. The first case is a young man of 24 years old who was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma five years ago, treated then relapsed and receiving palliative care up to moment, the narrative focus on his suffering from corrupted relations with his wife due to infected face wound and loss of the financial support. The Second case is a 38 years old female who diagnosed with melanoma 15 years ago, she experience psychological suffering due to changes in her body image. She is taking care of motor handicapped husband in addition to her Kids. The Last case is a 54 years old female who had lung cancer. She is still fighting her disease. Consequently, she is suffering from the disease, cause to affect her job.We found out that their spirituality and beliefs system enables them to endure and fight their disease, alleviate suffering, enhance adaptation and redefine hope. The health care team who provide the care for these cases focus interdisciplinary team approach who affirm that the transcendental is there when disease and mute or expressive suffering are recognized together, they do the work of creating a full meaning for patients and families. Nurses play a crucial role in managing such cases .It is the core of nursing care to presence the mean of listening, touching, acknowledging, honoring patient's wishes

  7. Why do we suffer? Understanding, treatment and processing of suffering in terms of existential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfried Längle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the existential analytical model within which the content of suffering is denoted and structured. The model shows that we suffer from when we suffer. Suffering is diverse in its «how» and «why.» The author highlights the features of various forms of suffering in accordance with their classification in the existential-analytical anthropology and reveals the essence of suffering. Within the framework of existential analysis there is an assumption that experience is perceived as fulfilling with suffering when the fundamental structures of existence are threatened or damaged, and the features of the contents of these structures are considered. Significant attention is paid to the ratio of human suffering and the loss of human sense of life, what is behind the feeling of senselessness of suffering. Suffering and pain fully or partly represent a threat to our very life and throw into question human lust for life. To avoid this, it is necessary to appeal to the vast opportunities of a person, and drawing strength from its sources to meet adequately the destructive factors and the abyss of existence. The paper considers the issue of activity which enables stepwise treatment of suffering. The model of stepwise coping with suffering is proposed. It helps to overcome the stagnation in the condition of suffering and returns to the world and life. Practical steps are suggested. These steps are applicable for all forms of suffering. They lay the basis for gaining inner peace. So we can target our efforts over the suffering and prevent the occurrence of mental illness (e.g., depression, hysteria, addiction, PTSD, etc..

  8. Does the Recent Growth of Aquaculture Create Antibiotic Resistance Threats Different from those Associated with Land Animal Production in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Hansa Y; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-05-01

    Important antibiotics in human medicine have been used for many decades in animal agriculture for growth promotion and disease treatment. Several publications have linked antibiotic resistance development and spread with animal production. Aquaculture, the newest and fastest growing food production sector, may promote similar or new resistance mechanisms. This review of 650+ papers from diverse sources examines parallels and differences between land-based agriculture of swine, beef, and poultry and aquaculture. Among three key findings was, first, that of 51 antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture and agriculture, 39 (or 76%) are also of importance in human medicine; furthermore, six classes of antibiotics commonly used in both agriculture and aquaculture are also included on the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of critically important/highly important/important antimicrobials. Second, various zoonotic pathogens isolated from meat and seafood were observed to feature resistance to multiple antibiotics on the WHO list, irrespective of their origin in either agriculture or aquaculture. Third, the data show that resistant bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and agriculture share the same resistance mechanisms, indicating that aquaculture is contributing to the same resistance issues established by terrestrial agriculture. More transparency in data collection and reporting is needed so the risks and benefits of antibiotic usage can be adequately assessed.

  9. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Le Grand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb. We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  10. Comparison of 5 Different Rat Models to Establish a Standard Animal Model for Research Into Interstitial Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Phil Hyun; Chun, So Young; Chung, Jae-Wook; Kim, Yeon Yong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Jun Nyung; Ha, Yun-Sok; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Kim, Jeongshik; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Bum Soo

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated 5 different rat models using different agents in order to establish a standard animal model for interstitial cystitis (IC) in terms of the functional and pathologic characteristics of the bladder. Five IC models were generated in 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats via transurethral instillation of 0.1M hydrogen chloride (HCl) or 3% acetic acid (AA), intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or subcutaneous injection of uroplakin II (UPK2). After generating the IC models, conscious cystometry was performed on days 3, 7, and 14. All rats were euthanized on day 14 and their bladders were obtained for histological and pro-inflammatory-related gene expression analysis. In the cystometric analysis, all experimental groups showed significantly decreased intercontraction intervals compared with the control group on day 3, but only the LPS and UPK groups maintained significantly shorter intercontraction intervals than the control group on day 14. The histological analysis revealed that areas with severe urothelial erosion (HCl, AA, and UPK) and hyperplasia (CYP and LPS), particularly in the UPK-treated bladders, showed a markedly increased infiltration of toluidine blue-stained mast cells and increased tissue fibrosis. In addition, significantly elevated expression of interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 was observed in the UPK group compared to the other groups. Among the 5 different agents, the injection of UPK generated the most effective IC animal model, showing consequent urothelial barrier loss, inflammatory reaction, tissue fibrosis stimulation, and persistent hyperactive bladder.

  11. Development of the Adolescent Cancer Suffering Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Tremblay, Isabelle; Dupuis, France; Cara, Chantal; Mercier, Geneviève; Vachon, Marie-France; Lachance Fiola, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    While mortality due to pediatric cancer has decreased, suffering has increased due to complex and lengthy treatments. Cancer in adolescence has repercussions on personal and physical development. Although suffering can impede recovery, there is no validated scale in French or English to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. To develop an objective scale to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. A methodological design for instrument development was used. Following a MEDLINE search, semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents 12 to 19 years of age who had undergone four to six weeks of cancer treatment, and with a multidisciplinary cohort of health care professionals. Adolescents with advanced terminal cancer or cognitive impairment were excluded. Enrollment proceeded from the hematology-oncology department⁄clinic in Montreal, Quebec, from December 2011 to March 2012. Content validity was assessed by five health care professionals and four adolescents with cancer. Interviews with 19 adolescents and 16 health care professionals identified six realms of suffering: physical, psychological, spiritual, social, cognitive and global. Through iterative feedback, the Adolescent Cancer Suffering Scale (ACSS) was developed, comprising 41 questions on a four-point Likert scale and one open-ended question. Content validity was 0.98, and inter-rater agreement among professionals was 88% for relevance and 86% for clarity. Adolescents considered the scale to be representative of their suffering. The ACSS is the first questionnaire to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. In future research, the questionnaire should be validated extensively and interventions developed. Once validated, the ACSS will contribute to promote a holistic approach to health with appropriate intervention or referral.

  12. Farmed fish welfare-suffering assessment and impact on product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish welfare, suffering and the perception of pain were debated, together with several factors reducing infra vitam welfare of farmed fish (genetic, environment, density, malnutrition, starvation, cataracts, deformities, vaccination side effects, transport, handling, confinement, crowding, harvesting, killing method. Behavioural and physiological stress responses were considered as indicators of welfare reduction. The effects of pre-slaughter management practices, and the most commonly used stunning/slaughtering methods on welfare and quality reduction of farmed fish were discussed. A number of indicators can be used to assess fish welfare-suffering, both in a scientific and practical context, such as behavioural, haematic, cellular, tissue post mortem fish stress and quality indicators, but none of them are optimal. The best strategy for a reliable assessment of fish welfare/suffering and their impact on product quality is a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account animal behaviour and the different biochemical and physiological ante mortem and post mortem processes involved: several components, all influenced in a similar way by the same condition, suggest real welfare and quality reduction.

  13. Collectivism and the meaning of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel; Landau, Mark J; Kay, Aaron C; Rothschild, Zachary K

    2012-12-01

    People need to understand why an instance of suffering occurred and what purpose it might have. One widespread account of suffering is a repressive suffering construal (RSC): interpreting suffering as occurring because people deviate from social norms and as having the purpose of reinforcing the social order. Based on the theorizing of Emile Durkheim and others, we propose that RSC is associated with social morality-the belief that society dictates morality-and is encouraged by collectivist (as opposed to individualist) sentiments. Study 1 showed that dispositional collectivism predicts both social morality and RSC. Studies 2-4 showed that priming collectivist (vs. individualist) self-construal increases RSC of various types of suffering and that this effect is mediated by increased social morality (Study 4). Study 5 examined behavioral intentions, demonstrating that parents primed with a collectivist self-construal interpreted children's suffering more repressively and showed greater support for corporal punishment of children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Treatment of holistic suffering in cancer: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Aldridge, Lynley; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian; Price, Melanie A; Webster, Fleur

    2015-12-01

    Holistic suffering is a debilitating problem for cancer patients. Although many treatments have been suggested for its alleviation, they have not been compared for effectiveness. This literature review seeks to identify what interventions are effective in treatment of holistic suffering of cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted to identify and evaluate studies of interventions for holistic suffering in adult cancer patients. Search terms were generated iteratively from the literature. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases were searched for the years 1992-2015. Included studies were peer-reviewed, English language reports of either a controlled trial or a randomised controlled trial focusing on therapies aimed at relieving suffering in adult cancer patients. Articles were excluded if focused predominantly on spiritual or existential issues or concerns not leading to suffering. Studies were graded for quality using the QualSyst quantitative checklist. Levels of evidence were ascertained by completing the National Health and Medical Research Council criteria. Results are reported according to AMSTAR guidelines. The studies represented seven intervention types. Meaning-centred, hope-centred and stress-reduction interventions were found to be effective. Results of both psycho-educational and spiritual interventions in improving spiritual well-being were mixed. Supportive-expressive interventions - with the exception of forgiveness therapy - were not efficacious. There was little or no evidence for the efficacy of creative and healing arts and other assessed interventions such as animal therapy and haptotherapy. This systematic review found that spiritual well-being, meaning, hope and benefit finding can be positively impacted by a variety of treatment modalities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Determination of carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances contents in meat from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Giancotti, Valeria; Zunino, Valentina; Meineri, Giorgia

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the content of the histidinic antioxidants, advanced glycation end products (pentosidine) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in the meat from different animal species. Carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine and pentosidine were quantified by HPLC/MS, while TBARS was determined by photometric measurements. The total CRCs (carnosine+anserine+homocarnosine) content was in the increasing order: beef

  16. Application of human and animal viral microbial source tracking tools in fresh and marine waters from five different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Vieira, Carmen; Kern, Anita; Eriksson, Irene; Ziros, Panos; Kay, David; Miagostovich, Marize; Vargha, Marta; Allard, Annika; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2014-08-01

    Integrated river basin management planning to mitigate the impacts of economic, demographic and climate change is an important issue for the future protection of water resources. Identifying sources of microbial contamination via the emerging science of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) plays a key role in risk assessment and the design of remediation strategies. Following an 18-month surveillance program within the EU-FP7-funded VIROCLIME project, specific MST tools were used to assess human markers such as adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) and porcine and bovine markers such as porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) via quantification with real-time PCR to analyze surface water collected from five sites within different climatic zones: the Negro River (Brazil), Glafkos River (Greece), Tisza River (Hungary), Llobregat River (Spain) and Umeälven River (Sweden). The utility of the viral MST tools and the prevalence and abundance of specific human and animal viruses in the five river catchments and adjacent seawater, which is impacted by riverine contributions from the upstream catchments, were examined. In areas where no sanitation systems have been implemented, sewage can directly enter surface waters, and river water exhibited high viral loads; HAdV and JCPyV could be detected at mean concentrations of 10(5) and 10(4) Genome Copies/Liter (GC/L), respectively. In general, river water samples upstream of urban discharges presented lower human viral loads than downstream sampling sites, and those differences appeared to increase with urban populations but decrease in response to high river flow, as the elevated river water volume dilutes microbial loads. During dry seasons, river water flow decreases dramatically, and secondary effluents can represent the bulk of the riverine discharge. We also observed that ice cover that formed over the river during the winter in the studied areas in North Europe could preserve viral stability

  17. Comparison between different methods for biomechanical assessment of ex vivo fracture callus stiffness in small animal bone healing studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Steiner

    Full Text Available For ex vivo measurements of fracture callus stiffness in small animals, different test methods, such as torsion or bending tests, are established. Each method provides advantages and disadvantages, and it is still debated which of those is most sensitive to experimental conditions (i.e. specimen alignment, directional dependency, asymmetric behavior. The aim of this study was to experimentally compare six different testing methods regarding their robustness against experimental errors. Therefore, standardized specimens were created by selective laser sintering (SLS, mimicking size, directional behavior, and embedding variations of respective rat long bone specimens. For the latter, five different geometries were created which show shifted or tilted specimen alignments. The mechanical tests included three-point bending, four-point bending, cantilever bending, axial compression, constrained torsion, and unconstrained torsion. All three different bending tests showed the same principal behavior. They were highly dependent on the rotational direction of the maximum fracture callus expansion relative to the loading direction (creating experimental errors of more than 60%, however small angular deviations (<15° were negligible. Differences in the experimental results between the bending tests originate in their respective location of maximal bending moment induction. Compared to four-point bending, three-point bending is easier to apply on small rat and mouse bones under realistic testing conditions and yields robust measurements, provided low variation of the callus shape among the tested specimens. Axial compressive testing was highly sensitive to embedding variations, and therefore cannot be recommended. Although it is experimentally difficult to realize, unconstrained torsion testing was found to be the most robust method, since it was independent of both rotational alignment and embedding uncertainties. Constrained torsional testing showed small

  18. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity Between Symbiodinium spp.

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    Thomas David Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations. We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1. In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein-1, and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides

  19. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    In What do pictures want? The lives and loves of images (2005) J. W. T. Mitchell writes about pictures as “vital signs”, not signs for living things, but signs as living things (Mitchell 6). With a notion from the German art historian and media theorist Hans Belting this symbolic act can be called...... “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  20. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...

  1. Systemic humiliation as daily social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothbart, Daniel; Poder, Poul

    2017-01-01

    . These instruments may appear innocuous, as when civil-society leaders render “reasonable” decisions, government officials establish “essential” directives, and bureaucrats implement “common sense” policies. But their effect is to promote the collective suffering of marginalized people. In this chapter, we examine...... and capacities of these people. Drawing upon recent developments in social identity theory, moral philosophy, sociological theory, and clinical psychology, we argue that systemic humiliation generates social pain that is experienced as annulment of one’s inherent value; it is an affront to suffering persons...

  2. To Love is to Suffer: Older Adults' Daily Emotional Contagion to Perceived Spousal Suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R; Kane, Heidi S

    2017-05-01

    For older adults coping with a spouse's chronic condition, greater marital satisfaction may not be entirely protective for psychological health. We examined marital satisfaction and gender as moderators of the association between perceived spousal suffering and daily emotional contagion. Based on empathy-altruism and interdependent self-construal theories, we hypothesized that high marital satisfaction and being female would heighten daily emotional contagion, or within-person associations between perceived spouse suffering and distress to spouse suffering. Forty-five older adults who had a spouse with a musculoskeletal condition completed daily interviews. Participants reported their marital satisfaction once in the laboratory and then daily perceptions of their spouse's physical suffering and their own distress to spouse suffering via phone at home for 7 days. Consistent with hypotheses, there were significant within-person effects such that highly satisfied wives experienced heightened emotional contagion on days when they perceived higher than average spouse suffering. Unexpectedly, men who were high in marital satisfaction experienced heightened daily distress irrespective of their perceptions of level of spousal suffering. Marital satisfaction can increase daily emotional contagion to spousal suffering among older couples dealing with chronic conditions. Wives' distress may be more dependent on perceiving high levels of partner suffering compared with husbands' distress.

  3. Exploring the spiritual meaning of suffering: a strategy of self-help, recovery, and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luboshitzky, Dvora

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the meaning of suffering from the spiritual perspective of Anthroposophy, which considers suffering as a powerful force in achieving the inner knowledge necessary for change and transformation. Representing the philosophy of recovery-oriented models, which emphasize healing through empowerment, self-help, and transformation, Anthroposophy can be used as an effective strategy in treating people whose suffering cannot be prevented. The relationships between suffering and inner knowledge, as well as different aspects of the meaning of suffering, are described. Finally, the relevance of this inquiry to occupational therapy philosophy and practice is discussed, and examples of clinical interventions are presented.

  4. Efeitos da agressividade infantil para o sofrimento psíquico de professores em diferentes momentos de carreira Effects of children's aggressiveness for the mental suffering of teachers in different moments of career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Eugênia Fernandes de Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O sofrimento de professores tem sido amplamente considerado pela literatura, em associação com diversos fatores. O presente trabalho investiga esse sofrimento sob o aspecto da agressividade vivenciada em sala de aula. Foram entrevistados doze professores de uma escola pública da cidade de São Paulo - onze do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino - distribuídos em função de três momentos na carreira de ensino: inicial (até seis anos, intermediário (entre doze e dezoito anos e final (últimos cinco anos da carreira. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e os dados categorizados conforme a frequência simples de ocorrência. A comparação das respostas revelou diferenças entre os educadores com menor e maior tempo de carreira no ensino: na percepção da agressividade infantil, nos sentimentos despertados e nas estratégias de manejo utilizadas. Frente à constatação dessas diferenças, foi possível refletir e tecer considerações para o delineamento de intervenções preventivas.Teachers' psychological distress has been widely studied in the literature, concerning several factors. This paper investigates the impact of children´s aggression in classroom as a source of teachers' distress. Twelve public school teachers from São Paulo city were interviewed - 11 female and 1 male - distributed according to three different stages of the career: initial (1 to 6 years, intermediate (12 to 18 years and final phase (last 5 years of the career. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and data were categorized considering the simple frequency of occurrence. Data analysis revealed different perceptions of classroom aggression, feelings and management strategies, depending on the phase of the teaching career. From these findings, it was possible to reflect and to present some considerations for outlining preventive interventions.

  5. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  6. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  7. In vitro evaluation of inorganic and methyl mercury mediated cytotoxic effect on neural cells derived from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Wang, Youwei; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-03-01

    To extend the current understanding of the mercury-mediated cytotoxic effect, five neural cell lines established from different animal species were comparatively analyzed using three different endpoint bioassays: thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT), neutral red uptake assay (NRU), and Coomassie blue assay (CB). Following a 24-hr exposure to selected concentrations of mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (II) chloride (MeHgCl), the cytotoxic effect on test cells was characterized by comparing their 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values. Experimental results indicated that both these forms of mercury were toxic to all the neural cells, but at very different degrees. The IC50 values of MeHgCl among these cell lines ranged from 1.15±0.22 to 10.31±0.70μmol/L while the IC50 values for HgCl2 were much higher, ranging from 6.44±0.36 to 160.97±19.63μmol/L, indicating the more toxic nature of MeHgCl. The IC50 ratio between HgCl2 and MeHgCl ranged from 1.75 to 96.0, which confirms that organic mercury is much more toxic to these neural cells than inorganic mercury. Among these cell lines, HGST-BR and TriG44 derived from marine sea turtles showed a significantly high tolerance to HgCl2 as compared to the three mammalian neural cells. Among these neural cells, SK-N-SH represented the most sensitive cells to both chemical forms of mercury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of simulated microgravity on surfactant and water balance of lung in animals with different resistance to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndina, Irina; Vasilieva, Natalia

    Weightlessness is accompanied by redistribution of blood flow in lung, changes of lung volumes and gas exchange (Prisk et al., 2002; Grigoriev, Baranov, 2003). On the other hand, it is known that microgravity is considered as a kind of moderate stress (Grigoriev et al., 2004). Stress response may differ in animals resistant or vulnerable to stress (Sudakov, 2007). To study the effects of simulated microgravity upon lung, we used 20 male albino rats tested for behavior in the "open field" and than divided into active (stress resistant - SR ) and passive (stress vulnerable - CV) groups. Two mouse lines were used with similar goal - C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice (n=16). According to data obtained earlier, BALB/c mice referred as more stress vulnerable, in contrast to C57BL/6 mice, which are considered to be relatively stress resistant (Flint et al., 2007). We have previously shown that changes in lung surfactant system after psychosocial stress or long-term immobilization are less pronounced in stress resistant rats (Vasilieva, Bryndina, 2012). The aim of this work is to study the properties and biochemical composition of pulmonary surfactant and lung water balance in rats and mice with different stress resistance in antiorthostatic suspension (AOS) of short and long duration. Simulated microgravity was reproduced according to procedure of Ilyin-Novikov in modification of Morey-Holton. The duration of exposure was 10 days for rats and 30 days for mice. The properties of pulmonary surfactant were assessed by the evaluation of surface activity (surface tension - ST), the content of total phospholipids (PL) and their fractions. Simultaneously we calculated the gravimetric water balance indices: lung coefficient, "dry residue" and wet-to-dry ratio. Total and extravascular lung fluid and pulmonary blood supply were estimated as well. The experiments demonstrated that there was a decrease of surface tension of surfactant films after 10-day AOS in both groups of rats (to a greater

  9. Measuring the Experience and Perception of Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Monin, Joan K.; Czaja, Sara J.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Beach, Scott R.; Martire, Lynn M.; Dodds, Angela; Hebert, Randy S.; Zdaniuk, Bozena; Cook, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Assess psychometric properties of scales developed to assess experience and perception of physical, psychological, and existential suffering in older individuals. Design and Methods: Scales were administered to 3 populations of older persons and/or their family caregivers: individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family…

  10. ANIMAL MODELS IN SURGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSEMBLED BY

    1 Dept.of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine 2Veterinary Teaching Hospital Ahmadu Bello University. Zaria .... unnecessary suffering., Administration of poisons .... way that humans are. Vivisection/ Surgical Training And Research. Animal model use: In both the human and veterinary medical practice, there continue to be ...

  11. Study of mcr-1 Gene-Mediated Colistin Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Humans and Animals in Different Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hadjadj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to characterize the genetic environment of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in 25 Escherichia coli and seven Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from different countries and continents. Multilocus sequence typing, conjugation experiments, plasmid typing, and the presence and location of the insertion sequence ISApl1 were investigated. Whole genome sequencing of four E. coli was performed to analyse the genetic environment of the mcr-1 gene. Colistin minimum inhibitory concentration of mcr-1 strains varied from 3 to 32 µg/mL. Six E. coli sequence types were detected: ST 4015, ST 3997, ST 10, ST 93, ST 48, and ST 648. IncHI2, IncI2, and IncP plasmid types were predominant and were unrelated to a specific country of origin. ISApl1 was found in 69% of analysed plasmids that were mainly around the mcr-1 gene. Analysis of four closed mcr-1 plasmids revealed the integration of mcr-1 into hotspots. We found that the spread of mcr-1 gene was due to the diffusion of a composite transposon and not to the diffusion of a specific plasmid or a specific bacterial clone. The ease with which the mcr-1 gene integrates into various regions facilitates its dissemination among bacteria and explains its large diffusion all over the world, both in animals and in humans.

  12. Animal performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats fed diets with different unsaturated plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, A G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L M; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of supplementing a basal diet with 1 of 3 plant oils on productive efficiency and milk fatty acid composition was studied in dairy goats. Sixteen Malagueña goats were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods and 4 goats per treatment. The basal diet comprised 30% alfalfa hay and 70% pelleted concentrate. Experimental treatments were control (basal diet without added oil) and the basal diet supplemented with 48g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), regular sunflower oil (RSFO), or linseed oil (LO). Dry matter intake and body weight were not affected by treatments. Milk production was higher in HOSFO treatment and milk fat content was higher in RSFO and LO treatments, although no differences in milk energy production or milk renneting properties were found. The RSFO and LO treatments increased the proportion of vaccenic acid in milk fat more so than the HOSFO diet, and rumenic acid followed the same pattern. The content of trans10-18:1 remained low in all experimental diets (milk fat substantially decreased with the LO, increased with RSFO, and did not change with HOSFO. The addition of moderate amounts of LO to the diets of dairy goats has favorable effects on milk fatty acid composition from the point of view of the human consumer, without negative effects on animal performance. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review of Clinical Diagnosis, Animal Models, Sex Differences, and A Revised Return-to-Play Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D. Fitzgerald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by debilitating cognitive and behavioral symptoms. CTE is thought to be caused by traumatic brain injuries (TBIs, though it remains unclear how the frequency, duration and intensity of TBIs contribute to CTE vulnerability. It is estimated that as many as 4M sports-related TBIs may occur annually in the US, though mild TBIs are often underreported and/or undiagnosed. As participation in athletics is arguably a voluntary and controllable risk factor for TBI, it is important to identify and understand factors that might affect an athlete’s’ likelihood of developing CTE. This review summarizes CTE symptomology and pathology, reviews relevant findings from animal models of TBI/CTE, discusses clinical criteria and emerging technologies used for diagnosis, reviews the extent to which sex differences may contribute to TBI severity and/or recovery and, finally, presents a data-driven protocol for return-to-play procedures for student athletes in contact sports.

  14. Soy biodiesel and petrodiesel emissions differ in size, chemical composition and stimulation of inflammatory responses in cells and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Naomi K; Li, Muyao; Poynter, Matthew E; Palmer, Brian C; Parker, Erin; Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the biological effects of biodiesel exhaust emissions exists due to variation in methods of exhaust generation and biological models used to assess responses. Because studies in cells do not necessarily reflect the integrated response of a whole animal, experiments were conducted in two human cell lines representing bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages and female mice using identical particle suspensions of raw exhaust generated by a Volkswagen light-duty diesel engine using petrodiesel (B0) and a biodiesel blend (B20: 20% soy biodiesel/80% B0 by volume). Tailpipe particle emissions measurement showed B0 generated two times more particle mass, larger ultrafine particle number distribution modes, and particles of more nonpolar organic composition than the B20 fuel. Biological assays (inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress biomarkers) demonstrated that particulate matter (PM) generated by combustion of the two fuels induced different responses in in vitro and in vivo models. Concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; Interferon-gamma-induced Protein 10, IP-10; Granulocyte-stimulating factor, G-CSF) in the medium of B20-treated cells and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice exposed to B20 were ∼20-30% higher than control or B0 PM, suggesting that addition of biodiesel to diesel fuels will reduce PM emissions but not necessarily adverse health outcomes.

  15. Effects of a Single Bout of Resistance Exercise in Different Volumes on Endothelium Adaptations in Healthy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct; low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions. The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM. Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.

  16. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  17. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-12-01

    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The moral aesthetics of simulated suffering in standardized patient performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janelle S

    2011-06-01

    Standardized patient (SP) performances are staged clinical encounters between health-professional students and people who specialize in role-playing the part of patients. Such performances have in recent years become increasingly central to the teaching and assessment of clinical skills in U.S. medical schools. SP performances are valued for being both "real" (in that they involve interaction with a real person, unlike written examinations) and "not real" (in that the SP does not actually suffer from the condition portrayed, unlike an actual patient). This article considers how people involved in creating SP performances reconcile a moral commitment to avoid suffering (to keep it "not real"), with an aesthetic commitment to realistically portray it (to keep it "real"). The term "moral aesthetic" is proposed, to indicate a sensibility that combines ideas about what is morally right with ideas about what is aesthetically compelling. Drawing on ethnographic research among SPs and SP program staff and medical faculty who work closely with them, this article argues that their work of creating "realism" in simulated clinical encounters encompasses multiple different (and sometimes conflicting) understandings and practices of realism, informed by three different moral aesthetics: (1) a moral aesthetic of induction, in which an accurate portrayal with a well-documented provenance serves to introduce experientially distant forms of suffering; (2) a moral aesthetic of inoculation, in which the authenticity and emotional impact of a performance are meant to inoculate students against the impact of future encounters with suffering; (3) a moral aesthetic of presence, generating forms of voice and care that are born out of the embodied presence of suffering individuals in a clinical space. All are premised on the assumption that risk and suffering can be banished from SP performances. This article suggests, however, that SP performances necessarily raise the same difficult

  19. Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41: Are There Any Differences between Plant and Animal from a Financial Reporting Point of View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the evaluation of appropriateness of different ways for the measurement and reporting of different groups of biological assets. There are two possible ways of their measurement – cost and fair value. The substance of all kinds of biological assets differs significantly, especially for plants and animals. The single way for measurement of all kinds of biological assets is not satisfactory. The most significant difference is observable between bearer plants and biological assets in the form of living animals. The authors took into account a majority of factors influencing quality of individual ways of measurement, and evaluated the application of the above‑mentioned methods for representatives of both kinds of biological assets (apple orchard and dairy cows. The results of the study proved that the historical cost is the suitable way of bearer plants measurement, while the fair value measurement is more suitable for measurement of living animals.

  20. Mental Suffering as a Struggle with Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosfort, René

    2016-01-01

    Human emotional life is structured and to a certain extent constituted by language, and yet making sense of and communicating how we feel is often a challenge. In this article, I will argue that a person’s struggle to make sense of and articulate her suffering plays a major role in the experience......, allows us to explore the significance of the phenomenological ambiguity of anxiety. Of particular importance in Kierkegaard’s theory is the dialectics of imagination and reality at work in anxiety, and in the concluding section, I will look at how this dialectics can help us understand how both...... the patient and the psychiatrist are challenged with the problem of finding a language for mental suffering....

  1. [Suffering and death from a philosopher's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembillo, G

    2008-01-01

    Death is a paradox. Without death we would not be. Heraclitus already knew that we exist because all that lives, ''lives of death and dies of life''. Without death the great chain of being would not exist. The Greeks called humans mortals, but Hegel taught us that to suffer means to undergo a gradual development. Pain is fight and competition, and every individual has his own threshold for pain.

  2. Embryonic stem cells and mice expressing different GFP variants for multiple non-invasive reporter usage within a single animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macmaster Suzanne

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive autofluorescent reporters have revolutionized lineage labeling in an array of different organisms. In recent years green fluorescent protein (GFP from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequoria Victoria has gained popularity in mouse transgenic and gene targeting regimes 1. It offers several advantages over conventional gene-based reporters, such as lacZ and alkaline phosphatase, in that its visualization does not require a chromogenic substrate and can be realized in vivo. We have previously demonstrated the utility and developmental neutrality of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP in embryonic stem (ES cells and mice 2. Results In this study we have used embryonic stem (ES cell-mediated transgenesis to test the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP, two mutant and spectrally distinct color variants of wild type (wt GFP. We have also tested DsRed1, the novel red fluorescent protein reporter recently cloned from the Discostoma coral by virtue of its homology to GFP. To this end, we have established lines of ES cells together with viable and fertile mice having widespread expression of either the ECFP or EYFP GFP-variant reporters. However, we were unable to generate equivalent DsRed1 lines, suggesting that DsRed1 is not developmentally neutral or that transgene expression cannot be sustained constitutively. Balanced (diploid diploid and polarized (tetraploid diploid chimeras comprising combinations of the ECFP and EYFP ES cells and/or embryos, demonstrate that populations of cells expressing each individual reporter can be distinguished within a single animal. Conclusions GFP variant reporters are unique in allowing non-invasive multi-spectral visualization in live samples. The ECFP and EYFP-expressing transgenic ES cells and mice that we have generated provide sources of cells and tissues for combinatorial, double-tagged recombination experiments, chimeras or

  3. Differences among Branded Hyaluronic Acids in Italy, Part 1: Data from and Animal Studies and Instructions for Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Migliore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of hyaluronic acid (HA for intra-articular (IA injection is widespread around the world for patients affected by osteoarthritis. AIM The aim of this study is to identify scientific evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies supporting the use of IA HAs marketed in Italy We also evaluated the accuracy of indications and contraindications reported in the leaflets of such HAs compared with the available scientific evidence. Materials and Methods An extensive literature search was performed to identify all in vitro and in vivo model studies reporting on the effects of various HAs marketed in Italy for IA use. Data reported in the leaflets of different HA-based products for IA use were extracted and analyzed alongside evidence from in vitro and in vivo model studies. Results Nine in vitro studies and 11 studies on animal models were examined. Comparing results with what is reported in the leaflets of HAs marketed in Italy, it was observed that many branded formulations are introduced in the market without any reporting of basic scientific evidence. Only 12.82% and 17.95% of branded products had been shown to be effective with scientific evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. The rationale of use of these products is based on their nature, as if a class effect existed such that all HAs would yield similar effects. Conclusions Data on HAs deriving from in vitro and in vivo studies are scarce and relate to only a small percentage of products marketed in Italy. Many indications and contraindications are arbitrarily reported in Italian HA leaflets without the support of scientific evidence. Larger and brand-specific studies are necessary and should be reported in the leaflets to guide clinicians in making an appropriate choice regarding HA-based IA therapy.

  4. Effect of different spectral transmittances through tinted animal cages on circadian metabolism and physiology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Melissa A; Dauchy, Robert T; Hanifin, John P; Jablonski, Michael R; Warfield, Benjamin; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M; Ooms, Tara G; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus is synchronized by the light:dark cycle and is the master biologic clock that serves as a pacemaker to regulate circadian rhythms. We explored the hypothesis that spectral transmittance (tint) of light through caging alters circadian rhythms of endocrine and metabolic plasma constituents in nonpigmented Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (Crl:SD; n = 12 per group) were housed in a 12:12-h light:dark environment (300 lx; 123.0 μ W/cm(2); lights on, 0600) in either clear-, amber-, blue-, or red-tinted rodent cages. Blood was collected at 0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 and measured for melatonin, total fatty acids, pH, glucose, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin. As expected, plasma melatonin levels were low during the light phase but higher during the dark phase in all groups; however, when compared with the clear-cage group, rats in amber-, blue-, and red-tinted cages had 29%, 74%, and 48%, respectively, greater total daily melatonin levels due to an increased duration and, in some cases, amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin signal. No differences were found in dietary and water intake, body growth rates, total fatty acids, pH, or glucose among groups. Disruptions in circadian rhythms, manifesting as alterations in phase timing, amplitude, or duration, occurred in the melatonin, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin levels of rats in tinted compared with clear cages. Therefore, the use of variously tinted animal cages significantly alters circadian rhythms in plasma measures of metabolism and physiology in laboratory rats, thus potentially altering the outcomes of scientific investigations.

  5. Effect of Different Spectral Transmittances through Tinted Animal Cages on Circadian Metabolism and Physiology in Sprague–Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Melissa A; Dauchy, Robert T; Hanifin, John P; Jablonski, Michael R; Warfield, Benjamin; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M; Ooms, Tara G; Bohm, Rudolf P

    2014-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus is synchronized by the light:dark cycle and is the master biologic clock that serves as a pacemaker to regulate circadian rhythms. We explored the hypothesis that spectral transmittance (tint) of light through caging alters circadian rhythms of endocrine and metabolic plasma constituents in nonpigmented Sprague–Dawley rats. Rats (Crl:SD; n = 12 per group) were housed in a 12:12-h light:dark environment (300 lx; 123.0 μW/cm2; lights on, 0600) in either clear-, amber-, blue-, or red-tinted rodent cages. Blood was collected at 0400, 0800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 and measured for melatonin, total fatty acids, pH, glucose, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin. As expected, plasma melatonin levels were low during the light phase but higher during the dark phase in all groups; however, when compared with the clear-cage group, rats in amber-, blue-, and red-tinted cages had 29%, 74%, and 48%, respectively, greater total daily melatonin levels due to an increased duration and, in some cases, amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin signal. No differences were found in dietary and water intake, body growth rates, total fatty acids, pH, or glucose among groups. Disruptions in circadian rhythms, manifesting as alterations in phase timing, amplitude, or duration, occurred in the melatonin, lactic acid, corticosterone, insulin, and leptin levels of rats in tinted compared with clear cages. Therefore, the use of variously tinted animal cages significantly alters circadian rhythms in plasma measures of metabolism and physiology in laboratory rats, thus potentially altering the outcomes of scientific investigations. PMID:24411779

  6. Ethical issues in animal experimentation--view of the animal rightist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, B

    1986-01-01

    The basic stand-point of the animal rightist is that other animals than man are living beings also capable of feeling pain and distress, pleasure and joy. The capacity for suffering we have in common with other animals. This is quite obvious from the biological point of view and, in point of fact, a prerequisite for a lot of animal experimentation, the results of which would be invalid if the likeness was false. There would be no need for ethics of any kind, if man was not sentient. However, since sentience is a characteristic of other animals as well as man, logically the ethics applied to mankind must be extended to encompass all animals. For the animal rightist it is apparent that not only man, but other animals, too, must be attributed an intrinsic value. Consequently, using animals in procedures to which they would not consent, if they were able to speak for themselves, and which are carried out solely because of the means of power man possesses and the other animals lack, and are used to exploit those who are less powerful, is not good ethics. It is the dirty reality of oppression, based on prejudice, which is of the same brand as racism or sexism, but was given its own name, symptomatically, only 15 years ago, namely speciesism. Power is the key to animal experimentation, on the industrial, university, legislative and individual level. There is a growing public concern about animals being used in experiments, which must be taken into account by animal experimenters, regulation authorities and politicians alike. The question of animal rights is a political issue with wide-reaching implications for man and other animals, if animal experiments were reduced, replaced or totally abolished. The great number of animal experiments do not benefit mankind, only various groups of people, who for different reasons have an interest in experiments on animals being carried out. Would there be a bigger benefit to society as a whole, including man, other animals and nature

  7. CONCENTRATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFLAMMATORY PROCESS IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE UNDER ACTION OF IMMUNOMODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under physiological conditions a formation and a presence of the CEC in liquids is one of the manifestations of the immune response to receipt of antigens and an important factor, which provides immunity. Circulating immune complexes act as agents involved in the regulation of immune response and maintaining communication between the immune system and other regulatory systems of the body and direction to his defense. The intensity of the formation of the CEC may vary under the influence of infectious antigens and immune preparations. Material and methods. Material for the experiment were white male rats 3 months of age ("young" weighing 100 -140gr. (n = 40 and 22-month ("old" weighing 200 -240 g. (n = 40. And the first (n=10 and second (n=10 groups of rats served as controls. Third (n=15 and fourth (n=15 group of animals was injected intraperitoneal daily agar culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa № 27835 ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml suspension of bacteria, which contained 109 CFU/ml. Fifth (n=15 and sixth (n=15 groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally daily agar culture of Escherichia coli number 25592, ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml of bacteria suspension which contain 109 CFU/ml. Control animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation 3rd day – n=20. Control and infected animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation at 3rd day - n=27, 5th day – n=27 and 7th day – n=26. In the second phase of the experiment Ia (n = 6 and IIa (n = 6 were the control group of rats following administration of the experimental composite preparation consisting amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes, vitamins (MF. In two age groups of animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension treated with MF 20 mсl 3- month rats (IIIa group n = 6 and 40 mсl 22-month rats (IVa group n = 6. Ib (n = 6 and IIb (n = 6 were the control group of rats after the injection of comparison, containing mannitol and natural antioxidant betakaroten (PO. In two age

  8. Valores energéticos de diferentes alimentos de origem animal para aves Energetic values of different feedstuffs of animal origin for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2006-08-01

    -product (PBP, three of feather meal (FM, two of meat and bone meal (MBM, two of swine viscera meal (SVM and one of viscera and feather meal (VFM of different origins. Three hundred and sixty male Ross broiler chickens, with 21 days old, were assigned to a randomized block design with eleven treatments and one control, with two replicates per block and five birds per experimental unit. The feedstuffs replaced 20% of the control. The birds were fed ad libitum during 12 days (last five days for total feces collection. During the collection, 30 poultry were allotted to six cages and fasted for 72 hours (the first 24 hours were for the gastrointestinal emptying and the 48 hours remaining for feces collection, that were quantified and extrapolated for five days. The average values of AME and AMEn expressed in kcal/kg on DM basis were as follows: 1,647 and 1,422 for MBM, 2,143 and 1,875 for FP, 3,062 and 2,844 for PBP, 1,889 and 1,779 for SVM and of 2,497 and 2,209 for VFM. The average values of TME and TMEn expressed in kcal/kg of DM, were: 1,753 and 1,462 for MBM, 2,269 and 1,452 for FM, 3,211 and 2,740 for PBM, 2,002 and 1,562 for SVM and 2,615 and 1,944 for VFM.

  9. Examining the antimicrobial activity and toxicity to animal cells of different types of CO-releasing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Lígia S; Jeremias, Hélia; Romão, Carlos C; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-01-28

    Transition metal carbonyl complexes used as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) for biological and therapeutic applications may exhibit interesting antimicrobial activity. However, understanding the chemical traits and mechanisms of action that rule this activity is required to establish a rationale for the development of CORMs into useful antibiotics. In this work the bactericidal activity, the toxicity to eukaryotic cells, and the ability of CORMs to deliver CO to bacterial and eukaryotic cells were analysed for a set of seven CORMs that differ in the transition metal, ancillary ligands and the CO release profile. Most of these CORMs exhibited bactericidal properties that decrease in the following order: CORM-2 > CORM-3 > ALF062 > ALF850 > ALF186 > ALF153 > [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](BF4)2. A similar yet not entirely coincident decreasing order was found for their induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli. In contrast, studies in model animal cells showed that for any given CORM, the level of intracellular ROS generated was negligible when compared with that measured inside bacteria. Importantly, these CORMs were in general not toxic to eukaryotic cells, namely murine macrophages, kidney LLC-PK1 epithelial cells, and liver cell line HepG2. CORM-2 and CORM-3 delivered CO to the intracellular space of both E. coli and the two types of tested eukaryotic cells, yet toxicity was only elicited in the case of E. coli. CO delivered by ALF186 into the intercellular space did not enter E. coli cells and the compound was not toxic to either bacteria or to eukaryotic cells. The Fe(ii) carbonyl complex [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](2+) had the reverse, undesirable toxicity profile, being unexpectedly toxic to eukaryotic cells and non-toxic to E. coli. ALF153, the most stable complex in the whole set, was essentially devoid of toxicity or ROS induction ability in all cells. These results suggest that CORMs have a relevant therapeutic potential as antimicrobial drugs since (i) they

  10. Mitigation strategies for greenhouse gas emissions from animal production systems: synergy between measuring and modelling at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Schils, R.L.M.; Velthof, G.L.; Kuikman, P.J.; Oudendag, D.A.; Oenema, O.

    2008-01-01

    Animal production systems are large and complex sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Emissions from these systems are expected to rise over the coming decades due to the increasing global population and shifting diets, unless appropriate mitigation

  11. Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Shackman, Alexander J; Stodola, Diane E; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Olson, Matthew C; Rogers, Gregory M; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Compassion is a key motivator of altruistic behavior, but little is known about individuals' capacity to cultivate compassion through training. We examined whether compassion may be systematically trained by testing whether (a) short-term compassion training increases altruistic behavior and (b) individual differences in altruism are associated with training-induced changes in neural responses to suffering. In healthy adults, we found that compassion training increased altruistic redistribution of funds to a victim encountered outside of the training context. Furthermore, increased altruistic behavior after compassion training was associated with altered activation in brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion regulation, including the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and in DLPFC connectivity with the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that compassion can be cultivated with training and that greater altruistic behavior may emerge from increased engagement of neural systems implicated in understanding the suffering of other people, executive and emotional control, and reward processing.

  12. Produção de forrageiras de inverno em diferentes espaçamentos entre drenos superficiais sob pisoteio animal em várzea Lowland winter species production under different distances between superficial drainage channels and animal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    1998-09-01

    micranthus. Drainage leveis were evaluated by coilecting plant dry matter on every metter from the drainage channeis to the piot conter. Grazzing began 75 days after plant emergence (DAE with an adequate animal load, each one weighting between 150 and 200kg. No difference was observed on the development of the species due to dijferent distances between superficial drainage channels. In regard to soil physical properties, fhey were ajfected by the animal stepping. It was observed an increase on the soil superficial density and a decrease in microporosity, macroporosity and total porosity.

  13. Specific metabolic pathway in vitro of pinazepam and diazepam by liver microsomal enzymes of different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, V; Fossati, A; Gervasi, G B

    1977-04-01

    The metabolic pathway of Pinazepam and Diazepam in vitro was studied with rat, guinea pig and dog liver microsomes using a chromatographic and spectrophotometric technique. Two main pathways were observed, N1-dealkylation and C3-hydroxylation. N1-dealkylation was shown to be the predominant reaction for Pinazepam in all the animal species studied, while C3-hydroxylation was the major metabolic pathway for Diazepam in the rat. No oxazepam was found when Pinazepam and Diazepam were incubated with liver microsomes.

  14. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Ventura

    Full Text Available Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50 before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation. Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  15. Development, economic viability and attributes of lamb carcass from confined animals fed on different amounts of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Cristine de Almeida Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to assess the effect from crude glycerin inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21% dry matter in the diet of slaughtered lamb on their development, nutrient consumption, biometrical measures, diet economic viability and carcass features. Thirty two (32 non-castrated male Texel lambs were used in the study, they presented mean initial weight 15.9 ± 4.1 kilos and were distributed in casual outlining. They were fed with four treatments, with 8 repetitions. Animals were slaughtered when they reached approximately 35 kilos. The mean total weight gain was 20.72 kilos and mean daily weight gain was 260 grams. No changes resulted from glycerin use. The carcass performance was similar among treatments (P>0.05 and the cold carcass performance (CCP was 44.68%. There were no effects (P>0.05 on the loin eye area (LEA and on fat thickness (FT; they showed averages of 13.66 cm2 and 0.84 mm, respectively. Nutrition cost per animal during the whole confinement period varied between R$82.60 (eighty-two Reais and forty-eight cents to R$92.48. The smallest nutrition amount consisted of 21% crude glycerin. The gross profit ranged from R$30.75 to R$ 34.01 per animal, for feed without glycerin and 21% glycerin, respectively. Animal development was not impacted by glycerin introduction, even with decrease on dry and organic mass consumption. The result showed that crude glycerin inclusion might be used in lambs’ diet. Whenever there are big amounts of feed involved in the process, the 21% crude glycerin addition may be an interesting cost reduction. Seventy eight percent (78% glycerol crude glycerin to replace corn-based feed in confined lambs’ diet appeared to be nutritionally and economically viable. 

  16. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Beth Ann; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  17. Noise exposure of immature rats can induce different age-dependent extra-auditory alterations that can be partially restored by rearing animals in an enriched environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S J; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2016-04-01

    It has been previously shown that different extra-auditory alterations can be induced in animals exposed to noise at 15 days. However, data regarding exposure of younger animals, that do not have a functional auditory system, have not been obtained yet. Besides, the possibility to find a helpful strategy to restore these changes has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to test age-related differences in diverse hippocampal-dependent behavioral measurements that might be affected in noise-exposed rats, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential neuroprotective strategy, the enriched environment (EE), on noise-induced behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats of 7 and 15 days were exposed to moderate levels of noise for two hours. At weaning, animals were separated and reared either in standard or in EE cages for one week. At 28 days of age, different hippocampal-dependent behavioral assessments were performed. Results show that rats exposed to noise at 7 and 15 days were differentially affected. Moreover, EE was effective in restoring all altered variables when animals were exposed at 7 days, while a few were restored in rats exposed at 15 days. The present findings suggest that noise exposure was capable to trigger significant hippocampal-related behavioral alterations that were differentially affected, depending on the age of exposure. In addition, it could be proposed that hearing structures did not seem to be necessarily involved in the generation of noise-induced hippocampal-related behaviors, as they were observed even in animals with an immature auditory pathway. Finally, it could be hypothesized that the differential restoration achieved by EE rearing might also depend on the degree of maturation at the time of exposure and the variable evaluated, being younger animals more susceptible to environmental manipulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Pain and suffering, in the footsteps of Paul Ricoeur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandra, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding pain, enduring it, accepting it or detaching oneself from it: numerous philosophers have tackled this task. For suffering is existing. Suffering is part of life. Paul Ricoeur postulates a distinction between pain and suffering which relates pain to the body and suffering to reflexivity, language or the relationship with oneself. Suffering thereby becomes that through which I recognize myself and I recognize the Other.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of staphylococci from humans, food and different animal species according to data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Jánosi, Sz; Egyed, Zsuzsanna; Agost, Gizella; Semjén, G

    2003-01-01

    Based on data of the Hungarian resistance monitoring system the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus strains of human and animal origin was studied. No methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbouring mecA gene were isolated from animals in 2001. Penicillin resistance, mediated by penicillinase production, was the most frequent among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from humans (96%), from bovine mastitis (55%), from foods (45%) and from dogs. In staphylococci isolated from animals low resistance percentages to aminoglycosides (0-2%), fluoroquinolones (0.5-3%) and sulphonamides (0.5-4%) were found but in strains isolated humans these figures were higher (1-14%, 5-18% and 3-31%, respectively). The most frequent antibiotic resistance profiles of strains isolated from animals and food were penicillin/tetracycline, penicillin/lincomycin and penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline. Penicillin/tetracycline resistance was exhibited by strains from mastitis (3), samples from the meat industry (31), poultry flocks (1), poultry industry (1), noodle (1) and horses (2). Penicillin/lincomycin resistance was found in 10 Staphylococcus strains from mastitis, 1 from the dairy industry, 1 from the meat industry and 6 from dogs. Isolates from mastitis (2), from the dairy industry (2), from pigs (1), from the meat industry (1) and from poultry (1) harboured penicillin/lincomycin/tetracycline resistance pattern. Multiresistant strains were usually isolated only from one and sometimes from two animal species; therefore, the spread of defined resistant strains (clones) among different animal species could not be demonstrated. These results also suggest that the transfer of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus from animals to humans probably occurs less frequently than is generally assumed.

  20. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  1. Frédéric Chopin and his suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsgaard, Ulf E

    2011-04-08

    In 2010 we celebrated the bicentennial of Chopin's birth. He left more than 230 fantastic compositions, often described as romantic, emotional and poetic. Chopin composed almost exclusively for piano solo and has been called the pianists' composer. From his teens he suffered from respiratory tract infections, gradually accompanied by haemoptysis, pronounced breathing problems, diarrhoea and loss of weight. He experienced part of his adult life as a period of great suffering. He was 39 years old when he died. The assumed cause of death was tuberculosis, but other possible differential diagnoses have been suggested in recent years. In order to examine the different diagnostic alternatives, a non-systematic search of the literature was carried out in PubMed, Embase, Current Contents, Google and relevant reference books. The official cause of death was tuberculosis, but the autopsy report has never been found. Both cystic fibrosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency are possible differential diagnoses that can explain his symptoms. In spite of a disabling disease, Chopin was musically creative right to the end of his life. His suffering must have influenced his musical expression, which is characterised by intimacy and sentimentality. It is unlikely that we will ever find the true cause of death.

  2. Progestins in HRT: sufferance or desire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Sven O; Jespersen, Joergen

    2009-01-01

    's International Study of Long-duration (O)estrogen after Menopause the question can be raised: When dealing with optimal hormonal therapy after the menopause, is the progestin component accepted here on sufferance or is it desired? The answer is partly made up by the fact that the recent epidemiological data may...... the progestins result in a variety of tissue transforming changes as well as metabolic and hemostatic changes. Since no single test or algorithm presently serves as golden standard for all desired hormonal effects the least changes or no changes from the premenopausal physiology may often be advantageous. In our....... With special reference to cardiovascular disease this review therefore makes a plea for differentiating between the array of chemically and functionally distinct progestins used therapeutically after the menopause in combination therapy....

  3. [Bilateral acetabulum fracture after suffering sport trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, P; Kollersbeck, C; Pelitz, M; Walcher, T; Genelin, F

    2013-07-01

    This case study describes a 37-year-old male who suffered a bilateral transverse acetabulum fracture with a fracture of the posterior wall and a double-sided dorsal hip dislocation in combination with a left-sided femoral head fracture (Pipkin IV) while skiing in a "fun park". The accurate diagnosis and presurgical planning was made by means of a computed tomography (CT) scan and a subsequent 3D reconstruction. After a primarily executed shielded repositioning of the bilateral hip dislocationearly secondary and anatomical reconstruction of the double-sided acetabulum fracture was possible using the Kocher-Langenbeck approach. A consistent physiotherapy as well as rehabilitation finally led to a positive clinical result for the patient.

  4. Pity, modernity and the spectacle of suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The concept of dignity is often invoked in relation to ideas about a "good" death and, indeed, a "good" life. In this article, I discuss the question of dignity in relation to the rights of the individual in the modern world. This world is one where the relationship of individuals to society is contested in the context of medicine, with all its technologies of treatment and uncertainties of prognosis. For patients who criticize or oppose medicine in order to recover their dignity, it is necessary to articulate or to portray their suffering. In this way, they are able to show not only that they live in spite of illness, but that they also live by virtue of it. From this perspective, dignity is shown to be part of a collective response to a medicalized world in which ideas about illness and health are also being transformed.

  5. Relationship between variations in the level of endogenous thiols and antioxidant activity of lipids and radiosensitivity of animals of different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Graevskaya, B.M.; Ivanenko, G.F.; Shishkina, L.N.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1978-01-01

    Initial levels of total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant activity (AOA) of lipids of the spleen and liver are measured in animals of different species. Radiosensitivity of animals is assessed by the value of LDsub(50/30). No reliable correlation has been revealed between initial levels of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids. There is a positive correlation between AOA of the spleen lipids and LDsub(50/30) as well as between the level of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of the animal species under study. It is likely that the level of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids reflect various aspects of cellular metabolism which is responsible for radioresistance of the organism

  6. Technical note: Characterization of lipid constitution in Fourier transform infrared spectra and spectroscopic discrimination of animal-derived feedstuffs from different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Han, L; Yang, Z; Xu, L; Liu, X

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the current work was to assess the capability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with chemometric methods to discriminate animal-derived feedstuffs from different origins based on the lipid characteristics. A total of 82 lipid samples extracted from animal-derived feedstuffs, comprising porcine, poultry, bovine, ovine, and fish samples, were investigated by gas chromatography and FT-IR. The relationship between the lipid constitutions and the responding FT-IR spectral characteristics were explored. Results indicated that high correlations ( > 0.900) were found between the contents of MUFA and PUFA and FT-IR spectral data. In addition, the peak intensity at about 1,116 and 1,098 cm-1 showed a significant difference ( < 0.05) between ruminant and nonruminant animals; the change of peak ratio (1,116:1,098) was proved consistent with the degree of unsaturation of lipid from different animal species. Successful discrimination was further achieved among porcine, poultry, bovine, and ovine meat and bone meal (MBM) and fishmeal based on lipid characteristics by applying the FT-IR spectra coupled with chemometrics, for which the values of sensitivity and specificity were close to 1 and classification error were almost equal to 0.

  7. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them.

  8. Using 3D Microscopy to Analyze Experimental Cut Marks on Animal Bones Produced with Different Stone Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Moretti; Simona Arrighi; Francesco Boschin; Jacopo Crezzini; Daniele Aureli; Annamaria Ronchitelli

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a combination of digital microscopic analysis and experimental archaeology to assess stone tool cut marks on animal bones. We used two un-retouched flint flakes and two burins to inflict cut marks on fresh, boiled, and dry ungulate  bones. The experiment produced three series of three engravings on each bone with each of the experimental tools. The first series involved one single stroke; the second, two strokes in the same direction; and the third, multiple strokes using a to...

  9. QnrS1- and Aac(6')-Ib-cr-Producing Escherichia coli among Isolates from Animals of Different Sources: Susceptibility and Genomic Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Graça, Rafael; Sampaio, Daniel A; Albuquerque, Teresa; Themudo, Patrícia; Vieira, Luís; Ferreira, Eugénia; Clemente, Lurdes; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli can inhabit humans and animals from multiple origins. These bacteria are often associated with gastroenteritis in animals, being a frequent cause of resistant zoonotic infections. In fact, bacteria from animals can be transmitted to humans through the food chain and direct contact. In this study, we aimed to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of a collection of S. enterica and E. coli recovered from animals of different sources, performing a genomic comparison of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR)-producing isolates detected. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high number of non-wild-type isolates for fluoroquinolones among S. enterica recovered from poultry isolates. In turn, the frequency of non-wild-type E. coli to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was higher in food-producing animals than in companion or zoo animals. Globally, we detected two qnrS1 and two aac(6')-Ib-cr in E. coli isolates recovered from animals of different origins. The genomic characterization of QnrS1-producing E. coli showed high genomic similarity (O86:H12 and ST2297), although they have been recovered from a healthy turtle dove from a Zoo Park, and from a dog showing symptoms of infection. The qnrS1 gene was encoded in a IncN plasmid, also carrying bla TEM-1-containing Tn3. Isolates harboring aac(6')-Ib-cr were detected in two captive bottlenose dolphins, within a time span of two years. The additional antibiotic resistance genes of the two aac(6')-Ib-cr-positive isolates (bla OXA-1, bla TEM-1,bla CTX-M-15, catB3, aac(3)-IIa, and tetA) were enclosed in IncFIA plasmids that differed in a single transposase and 60 single nucleotide variants. The isolates could be assigned to the same genetic sublineage-ST131 fimH30-Rx (O25:H4), confirming clonal spread. PMQR-producing isolates were associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts, which highlight the aptitude of E. coli to act as silent vehicles, allowing the accumulation

  10. Effects of a Single Bout of Resistance Exercise in Different Volumes on Endothelium Adaptations in Healthy Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Macedo, Fabricio Nunes; Mesquita, Thássio Ricardo Ribeiro; Quintans, Lucindo José; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano de; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2017-05-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis. O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doen

  11. Practical wisdom: competencies required in alleviating suffering in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlén, Joakim

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect upon the competencies required to alleviate suffering in palliative care. The knowledge to prudently and wisely act in a situation involving human relationships can be defined in terms of practical abilities and contextual skills. In the setting of the care of the very ill and dying, practical wisdom such as the carer's ability to meet the suffering person and to act with sensitivity and openness, becomes important. From this, learning to alleviate suffering emerges as receiving insight and wisdom from the suffering person's experience of suffering. This means that the testimony of suffering persons--what they have endured, given up and experienced--becomes as significant as theoretical and practical knowledge of suffering. The professional carer needs to learn how to be open to and interpret what the suffering person, living with suffering and death in the midst of life, can teach.

  12. Produção animal e vegetal em pastagem nativa manejada sob diferentes ofertas de forragem por bovinos Animal and vegetal production of a natural pasture under different forage allowances for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Mezzalira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência de diferentes ofertas de forragem e suas combinações ao longo do ano sobre a dinâmica do crescimento da pastagem e o desempenho animal. O experimento foi conduzido em área de pastagem natural com novilhas de sobreano mantidas em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável. Os tratamentos foram ofertas de forragem fixas ao longo do ano: 4; 8; 12 e 16kg de matéria seca 100kg de peso vivo-1 por dia e combinações de 8 na primavera e 12 no outono-inverno-verão (8-12%; 12 na primavera e 8 no outono-inverno-verão (12-8%; 16 na primavera e 12 no outono-inverno-verão (16-12%, constituindo um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. A produção de forragem e o ganho de peso animal foram medidos na estação de crescimento de 2007-2008. Os resultados comprovaram que o uso de oferta de forragem muito baixa, como 4%, prejudica o desempenho animal individual e por área. O manejo combinado de ofertas 8-12% promoveu aumento de 35% no desempenho individual (0,345kg animal-1 aumento de 20% na produção por área (209kg ha-1 de PV em comparação ao manejo 12% ao longo do ano.In this research it was evaluated the influence of different forage allowances and combinations of forage allowances along the year on the pasture accumulation dynamic and animal performance. The experiment was conducted in a natural pasture area with yearling beef heifers maintained in continuous grazing with variable stocking rate. The treatments utilized with fixed forage allowances during the year were 4; 8; 12 e 16kg 100kg-1 of live weight; and the treatments of forage allowance combinations were 8 on Spring and 12 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (8-12%; 12 on Spring and 8 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (12-8%; 16 on Spring and 12 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (16-12%, constituting a experimental design in randomized blocks with two replicates of area. The primary and secondary productions were evaluated on the

  13. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...

  14. Radiation tumorigenesis in inbred laboratory animals and cancer risks in irradiated human populations. Two widely different problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, G.

    1978-01-01

    The mammal has efficient defence mechanisms against the development of tumours. These mechanisms are successively deteriorated by ionizing radiation when the dose increases beyond certain 'borderline levels'. Consequently, most animal strains demonstrate a bi-phasic dose-tumour relationship with a low-dose limb, the slope of which cannot be distinguished from zero, and a high-dose limb that increases with increasing doses. There are four or five exceptions to this 'rule' but in most of these cases the probable reasons for the deviations are known. Some human tumours as observed in epidemiological investigations do not demonstrate a similar clearly bi-phasic dose response. In all probability, this discrepancy does not reflect a higher susceptibility to radiation-induced tumours in man compared with other mammals. It is rather a consequence of a greater statistical variation in radiosensitivity in heterogeneous human populations than among inbred animals living standardized conditions. Accordingly, when maximum permissible dose levels are to be determined one should extrapolate from epidemiological data. Furthermore, these extrapolations should be linear if the data do not clearly deviate from a straight line, and if there are no scientific reasons to assume that a threshold exists. This formal method would not produce a biological description of what may happen in the low-dose area but rather an upper risk limit for the population studied. The real low-dose risk cannot be known. For the same pragmatic reason other radiological or non-radiological risks should be determined in the same manner, particularly when risks are to be compared. (author)

  15. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  16. Noise Trauma Induced Neural Plasticity Throughout the Auditory System of Mongolian Gerbils: Differences between Tinnitus Developing and Non-Developing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziridis, Konstantin; Ahlf, Sönke; Jeschke, Marcus; Happel, Max F. K.; Ohl, Frank W.; Schulze, Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe differences between neural plasticity in auditory cortex (AC) of animals that developed subjective tinnitus (group T) after noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) compared to those that did not [group non-tinnitus (NT)]. To this end, our analysis focuses on the input activity of cortical neurons based on the temporal and spectral analysis of local field potential (LFP) recordings and an in-depth analysis of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in the same animals. In response to NIHL in NT animals we find a significant general reduction in overall cortical activity and spectral power as well as changes in all ABR wave amplitudes as a function of loudness. In contrast, T-animals show no significant change in overall cortical activity as assessed by root mean square analysis of LFP amplitudes, but a specific increase in LFP spectral power and in the amplitude of ABR wave V reflecting activity in the inferior colliculus (IC). Based on these results, we put forward a refined model of tinnitus prevention after NIHL that acts via a top-down global (i.e., frequency-unspecific) inhibition reducing overall neuronal activity in AC and IC, thereby counteracting NIHL-induced bottom-up frequency-specific neuroplasticity suggested in current models of tinnitus development. PMID:25713557

  17. Noise Trauma Induced Neural Plasticity Throughout the Auditory System of Mongolian Gerbils: Differences between Tinnitus Developing and Non-Developing Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziridis, Konstantin; Ahlf, Sönke; Jeschke, Marcus; Happel, Max F K; Ohl, Frank W; Schulze, Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe differences between neural plasticity in auditory cortex (AC) of animals that developed subjective tinnitus (group T) after noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) compared to those that did not [group non-tinnitus (NT)]. To this end, our analysis focuses on the input activity of cortical neurons based on the temporal and spectral analysis of local field potential (LFP) recordings and an in-depth analysis of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in the same animals. In response to NIHL in NT animals we find a significant general reduction in overall cortical activity and spectral power as well as changes in all ABR wave amplitudes as a function of loudness. In contrast, T-animals show no significant change in overall cortical activity as assessed by root mean square analysis of LFP amplitudes, but a specific increase in LFP spectral power and in the amplitude of ABR wave V reflecting activity in the inferior colliculus (IC). Based on these results, we put forward a refined model of tinnitus prevention after NIHL that acts via a top-down global (i.e., frequency-unspecific) inhibition reducing overall neuronal activity in AC and IC, thereby counteracting NIHL-induced bottom-up frequency-specific neuroplasticity suggested in current models of tinnitus development.

  18. Noise trauma induced neural plasticity throughout the auditory system of Mongolian gerbils: Differences between tinnitus developing and non-developing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin eTziridis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe differences between neural plasticity in auditory cortex (AC of animals that developed subjective tinnitus (group T after noise induced hearing loss (NIHL compared to those that did not (group NT. To this end, our analysis focuses on the input activity of cortical neurons based on the temporal and spectral analysis of local field potential recordings (LFP and an in-depth analysis of auditory brainstem responses (ABR in the same animals. In response to NIHL in NT animals we find a significant general reduction in overall cortical activity and spectral power as well as changes in all ABR wave amplitudes as a function of loudness. In contrast, T animals show no significant change in overall cortical activity as assessed by root mean square analysis of LFP amplitudes, but a specific increase in LFP spectral power and in the amplitude of ABR wave V reflecting activity in the inferior colliculus (IC. Based on these results we put forward a refined model of tinnitus prevention after NIHL that acts via a top-down global (i.e. frequency-unspecific inhibition reducing overall neuronal activity in AC and IC, thereby counteracting NIHL induced bottom-up frequency-specific neuroplasticity suggested in current models of tinnitus development.

  19. Effect of different animal fat and plant oil additives on physicochemical, mechanical, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of chitosan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Lalehan; Kaya, Murat; Ilk, Sedef; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Salaberria, Asier M; Labidi, Jalel; Yılmaz, Bahar Akyuz; Sargin, Idris

    2018-05-01

    Practical application of chitosan-essential oil blend films is limited due to the uneconomical extraction procedure of essential oils from plants. This study aimed to produce chitosan films blended with low cost and commercially available oils and fats consumed in daily human diet (olive, corn and sunflower oils, butter and animal fats). The study also focused on how physicochemical, biological and mechanical properties of chitosan blend films were influenced by the incorporation of oils and fats with varying unsaturation degrees. Possible interactions of chitosan film matrix with incorporated oils or fats were investigated. Chitosan-olive oil film showed better surface morphology and higher thermal stability than the films with other unsaturated oils. Tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break were improved by 57.2%, 25.1% and 31.7% for chitosan-olive oil film, respectively. Chitosan-olive oil blend film had the highest antibacterial activity (almost equal to that of commercial antibiotic gentamicin). Edible films obtained from by incorporation of natural oils and fats into chitosan can help produce an environmentally friendly packaging material that is low cost and easily manufactured. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Aly, Magdy; Kheader, Afaf; Mabrok, Khaled

    2012-05-01

    Meat commonly contain the same Aeromonas spp. which occur in human diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal faecal samples. Motile Aeromonas were isolated from 5.6% of total 302 samples. The distribution of the isolates were 5.9 and 5.2% in fresh and frozen samples, respectively. Of the 302 samples taken of the four animal meat species investigated, the genus Aeromonas were isolated in 12.3% of the fresh samples collected from buffalo meat, in 6.5% of the samples collected from sheep meat and 14.0% from the samples collected from the cattle frozen meat samples. The camel meat did not reveal any Aeromonas isolates. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated as the most prevalent species with 6.8%, followed by Aeromonas caviae with 2.7% and Aeromonas sobria with 2.1% from the total meat samples. Aerolysin toxin gene (aerA) was detected in 3/17 isolates of A. hydrophila isolated from contaminated meat. Infection due to bacterial pathogen with such virulent factor through contact with contaminated meat while handling them, poses health hazards to humans.

  1. Using 3D Microscopy to Analyze Experimental Cut Marks on Animal Bones Produced with Different Stone Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Moretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a combination of digital microscopic analysis and experimental archaeology to assess stone tool cut marks on animal bones. We used two un-retouched flint flakes and two burins to inflict cut marks on fresh, boiled, and dry ungulate  bones. The experiment produced three series of three engravings on each bone with each of the experimental tools. The first series involved one single stroke; the second, two strokes in the same direction; and the third, multiple strokes using a to-and-fro movement. We analyzed the striations using a Hirox 3D digital microscope (KH-7700 and collected metric and profile data on the morphology of the cut marks. In order to describe the shape of each cross section, we calculated the ratio between the breadth at the top and the breadth at the floor of cut marks. Preliminary results show that both the tool type and the method of creating the cut mark influence the shape of the resulting groove. In our experiment, morphological parameters can be used to differentiate between marks produced using un-retouched flint flakes and those produced using burins. However, neither morphological nor morphometric analysis allows us to identify the mechanical motion used to produce the cuts, nor the state of the bone (fresh, boiled, or dry at the moment of marking. 

  2. Recognition and assessment of pain in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a complex physiological phenomenon, it is hard to define in a satisfactory manner in human beings, and it is extremely difficult to recognize and interpret in animals. According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP, pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain is an important aspect of life and its prevention and decrease are important as a goal to achieve the well-being of animals. The task of scientists is to recognize the language of pain interpretation which animals use to seek help. For an objective evaluation of pain, it is essential to possess a good knowledge of physiology, etiology and clinical diagnosis. We are obliged to do this also because of the ethic principles to defend the well-being of animals and to eliminate any factor which can cause feelings of pain or suffering. The recognition of pain and its manifestation is especially important in cases of animal abuse, when it could be the only symptom. Animals can be quiet and instinctively hide the presence of pain, which makes the symptoms more subtle, but does not make their injuries any less painful. It is also important to have knowledge of manifestations of pain that appear during different surgical procedures performed by the veterinarinarian in spite of the applied dose of analgetic. Pain significantly contributes to the suffering of animals and in such cases it is important to collect relevant documents, in the form of video recordings or in photodocumentation form, because it is important information in the processing of cases of animal abuse. Veterinary experts have the responsibility to recognize, evaluate, and prevent pain and to relieve animals from the pain, which should be the fourth vital sign, following temperature, pulse and breathing, and participate in the evaluation of the condition of the animal during an examination. Due to all the above mentioned, it is

  3. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A

    2016-01-01

    COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study's focus. Search terms included "COPD exacerbation", "air pollution", "air quality guidelines", "air quality standards", "COPD morbidity and mortality", "chronic bronchitis", and "air pollution control" separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries' socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden.

  4. Impact of air quality guidelines on COPD sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Yan, Shuang; Poh, Karen; Liu, Suyang; Iyioriobhe, Emanehi; Sterling, David A

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both high- and low-income countries and a major public health burden worldwide. While cigarette smoking remains the main cause of COPD, outdoor and indoor air pollution are important risk factors to its etiology. Although studies over the last 30 years helped reduce the values, it is not very clear if the current air quality guidelines are adequately protective for COPD sufferers. Objective This systematic review was to summarize the up-to-date literature on the impact of air pollution on the COPD sufferers. Methods PubMed and Google Scholar were utilized to search for articles related to our study’s focus. Search terms included “COPD exacerbation”, “air pollution”, “air quality guidelines”, “air quality standards”, “COPD morbidity and mortality”, “chronic bronchitis”, and “air pollution control” separately and in combination. We focused on articles from 1990 to 2015. We also used articles prior to 1990 if they contained relevant information. We focused on articles written in English or with an English abstract. We also used the articles in the reference lists of the identified articles. Results Both short-term and long-term exposures to outdoor air pollution around the world are associated with the mortality and morbidity of COPD sufferers even at levels below the current air quality guidelines. Biomass cooking in low-income countries was clearly associated with COPD morbidity in adult nonsmoking females. Conclusion There is a need to continue to improve the air quality guidelines. A range of intervention measures could be selected at different levels based on countries’ socioeconomic conditions to reduce the air pollution exposure and COPD burden. PMID:27143874

  5. Detection of virulence-associated genes in Brucella melitensis biovar 3, the prevalent field strain in different animal species in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud E.R. Hamdy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study involved detection of three virulence genes (bvfA, virB, ure by PCR in 52 isolates of Brucella melitensis biovar 3, recovered from different animal species (28 sheep, 10 goats, 9 cattle and 5 buffaloes. Of the 52 B. melitensis strains; 48 (92.3% isolates carried bvfA genes, 51 (98.1% isolates had virB genes and 50 (96.2% isolates were positive for ure genes. The distribution of the virulence genes is not affected by crossing the original host barriers of the animal species, as the three virulence factors (bvfA, virB and ure detected in 28 B. melitensis isolates obtained from ovine species in a ratio of 26/28 (92.9%, 27/28 (96.4% and 28/28 (100%, respectively. While 10 isolates originating from goats revealed a ratio of 10/10 (100%, 10/10 (100% and 9/10 (90% to the same order of virulence genes. Nearly, similar results of virulence genes detection were obtained in B. melitensis obtained from bovine (8/9, 9/9 and 8/9 and Buffalos (4/5, 5/5 and 5/5, respectively. The high prevalence of virulence-associated genes among the B. melitensis isolates detected from different animal species in Egypt indicates a potential virulence of this bacterium.

  6. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were...

  7. Emotion and Multimedia Learning: An Investigation of the Effects of Valence and Arousal on Different Modalities in an Instructional Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sungwon; Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Previous emotion studies in education have focused mainly on the superiority of positive emotion for learning performance (e.g., enjoyment) over negative emotion (e.g., fear). However, few studies have considered different arousal levels in terms of learners' emotion. For example, the effects of calm positive or negative emotion have not been…

  8. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: I. Animal Performance and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Beldman, G.; Delen, van J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete

  9. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  10. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  11. Personalized symptoms forecasting for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voukantsis, D.; Berger, U.; Tzima, F.; Karatzas, K.; Jaeger, S.; Bergmann, K. C.

    2015-07-01

    Hay fever is a pollen-induced allergic reaction that strongly affects the overall quality of life of many individuals. The disorder may vary in severity and symptoms depending on patient-specific factors such as genetic disposition, individual threshold of pollen concentration levels, medication, former immunotherapy, and others. Thus, information services that improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers must address the needs of each individual separately. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of information services that offer personalized pollen-induced symptoms forecasts. The backbone of these services consists of data of allergic symptoms reported by the users of the Personal Hay Fever Diary system and pollen concentration levels (European Aeroallergen Network) in several sampling sites. Data were analyzed using computational intelligence methods, resulting in highly customizable forecasting models that offer personalized warnings to users of the Patient Hay Fever Diary system. The overall system performance for the pilot area (Vienna and Lower Austria) reached a correlation coefficient of r = 0.71 ± 0.17 (average ± standard deviation) in a sample of 219 users with major contribution to the Pollen Hay Fever Diary system and an overall performance of r = 0.66 ± 0.18 in a second sample of 393 users, with minor contribution to the system. These findings provide an example of combining data from different sources using advanced data engineering in order to develop innovative e-health services with the capacity to provide more direct and personalized information to allergic rhinitis sufferers.

  12. Perception of suffering and compassion experience: brain gender disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E; Díaz, José Luis; Pasaye, Erick H; Barrios, Fernando A

    2011-06-01

    Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27±2.5 y.o.) were acquired in a 3T magnetic resonance scanner while subjects viewed pictures of human suffering previously verified to elicit compassion and indicated their compassionate experience by finger movements. Functional analysis revealed that while women manifested activation in areas involved in basic emotional, empathic, and moral processes, such as basal regions and cingulate and frontal cortices, activation in men was restricted mainly to the occipital cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. These findings suggest that compassion and its moral elements constitute gender-relative subjective phenomena emerging from differently evolved neural mechanisms and socially learned features possibly related to nurturing skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms of illegal aggressive behavior of women suffering from schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z I Kekelidze

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To establish comparative clinical and psychopathological and social factors leading to realization of intrafamilial and extrafamilial aggressive actions of females suffering from schizophrenia when comparing the mechanisms of illegal actions. Methods. The article presents the results of the study of 91 female patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, (F20.0 of continuous and episodic with progressive deficit type of course, who committed aggressive socially dangerous acts and are admitted for involuntary treatment to Kazan psychiatric hospital of specialized type with intensive supervision. Two groups were identified: group 1 included 57 patients committed aggressive criminal acts in the family, and group 2 included 34 patients committed criminal acts against persons outside the family. A comparison was performed between two basic scientific concepts regarding the reasons and conditions of illegal acts committed by mentally ill persons. Statistical significance of the differences between the compared data was determined (using Fisher's angular transformation criterion and Mann-Whitney test. Results. Comparative study of the analysis concepts of illegal behavior in females suffering from schizophrenia demonstrated that the results turned out to be more detailed when using the concept of psychopathological mechanisms. So, in the productive psychotic mechanism imperative hallucinations and automatisms were noted predominantly in women from group 1 - in 59.5% (p1

  14. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  15. [The effect of qualitatively different fatty components of the diet on mitochondrial membranes in animals with experimental anthracosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichkhadze, G M; Daĭker, V R

    1989-01-01

    The diets with qualitatively different content of fat were found to produce structural and functional alternations in liver mitochondria of rats with experimental anthracosis. It was established in particular that the increase of the vegetable oil quota in the diet of rats affected the structure and function of mitochondria whereas the diet whose fat component included butter, lard, sunflower oil, and margarine at a ratio of 1:1, 5:1:0.5 reduced the untoward effect of coal dust and exercise on the mitochondrial membranes.

  16. Exploring the differences between pet and non-pet owners: Implications for human-animal interaction research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jessica; Parast, Layla; Babey, Susan H; Miles, Jeremy V

    2017-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence about whether living with pets results in better mental and physical health outcomes, with the majority of the empirical research evidence being inconclusive due to methodological limitations. We briefly review the research evidence, including the hypothesized mechanisms through which pet ownership may influence health outcomes. This study examines how pet and non-pet owners differ across a variety of socio-demographic and health measures, which has implications for the proper interpretation of a large number of correlational studies that attempt to draw causal attributions. We use a large, population-based survey from California administered in 2003 (n = 42,044) and find that pet owners and non-pet owners differ across many traits, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, living arrangements, and income. We include a discussion about how the factors associated with the selection into the pet ownership group are related to a range of mental and physical health outcomes. Finally, we provide guidance on how to properly model the effects of pet ownership on health to accurately estimate this relationship in the general population.

  17. Exploring the differences between pet and non-pet owners: Implications for human-animal interaction research and policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saunders

    Full Text Available There is conflicting evidence about whether living with pets results in better mental and physical health outcomes, with the majority of the empirical research evidence being inconclusive due to methodological limitations. We briefly review the research evidence, including the hypothesized mechanisms through which pet ownership may influence health outcomes. This study examines how pet and non-pet owners differ across a variety of socio-demographic and health measures, which has implications for the proper interpretation of a large number of correlational studies that attempt to draw causal attributions. We use a large, population-based survey from California administered in 2003 (n = 42,044 and find that pet owners and non-pet owners differ across many traits, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, living arrangements, and income. We include a discussion about how the factors associated with the selection into the pet ownership group are related to a range of mental and physical health outcomes. Finally, we provide guidance on how to properly model the effects of pet ownership on health to accurately estimate this relationship in the general population.

  18. Comparison of Bacteroides-Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers for fecal samples from different animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, L.R.; Voytek, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    To effectively manage surface and ground waters it is necessary to improve our ability to detect and identify sources of fecal contamination. We evaluated the use of the anaerobic bacterial group Bacteroides-Prevotella as a potential fecal indicator. Terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA genes from this group was used to determine differences in populations and to identify any unique populations in chickens, cows, deer, dogs, geese, horses, humans, pigs, and seagulls. The group appears to be a good potential fecal indicator in all groups tested except for avians. Cluster analysis of Bacteroides-Prevotella community T-RFLP profiles indicates that Bacteroides-Prevotella populations from samples of the same host species are much more similar to each other than to samples from different source species. We were unable to identify unique peaks that were exclusive to any source species; however, for most host species, at least one T-RFLP peak was identified to be more commonly found in that species, and a combination of peaks could be used to identify the source. T-RFLP profiles obtained from water spiked with known-source feces contained the expected diagnostic peaks from the source. These results indicate that the approach of identifying Bacteroides-Prevotella molecular markers associated with host species might be useful in identifying sources of fecal contamination in the environment.

  19. The 3Rs and animal welfare - conflict or the way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusche, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The animal experiment is central to the 3R concept. In European law, animal experiments are classed according to their aims. In the German animal protection law, they are classed, e.g. as interventions and treatments for experimental purposes, for further education and training, or for the production, preparation, storage or multiplication of substances, products or organisms and for the fulfillment of legal requirements, and are thus regulated with varying strictness. In contrast, in Switzerland all such measures performed on live animals underlie the same approval requirements. For animal welfarists, the term "animal experiment" includes every intervention and every treatment which is associated with pain, fear and/or suffering and does not directly benefit the respective animal. In the animal experiment, the animal concerned usually suffers as a human would, independent of the experimental goal. Expecting an animal to suffer a treatment one would not want to undergo oneself cannot be in accord with an ethic of respect for fellow creatures. Animal welfarists aim to save animals such suffering. Consequently, they demand the immediate abolition of all animal experiments. From the perspective of those who allow animal experiments to be performed or who perform them themselves, the goal of the experiment is more important than the animal. Therefore, the following question is central to 3R research: "Can I reach my goal while causing the animal less suffering, using fewer animals or without using animals at all?" The starting point is that the ethical responsibility for man is valued higher than that for the animal. The aim is to protect humans from harm caused by substances and products or from unwanted side effects of medication, to understand diseases and to search for a cure or alleviation of these. When a scientist reaches his goals without using animals, the demand of animal welfarists to abolish the animal experiment is fulfilled. These aspects do of course not

  20. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  1. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  2. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  3. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  4. Differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans. Spontaneous micronuclei in 43 species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ramos Ibarra, M L; Martínez-González, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ontiveros-Lira, D; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

    2001-07-25

    In our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the MNE diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. Here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. The number of spontaneous MNE that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and normochromatic. This is our third report on spontaneous MNE in different species. We obtained 189 peripheral blood samples of mammals, birds and reptiles. From 12 species we obtained only one sample, and 16 were reported previously, but now the size of the sample has been increased. The species with the highest spontaneous MNE were the Vietnamese potbelly pig (with the highest MNE number), Bengal tiger, capuchin monkey, puma, ferret, owl, hedgehog, squirrel monkey, pig and white-tailed deer. These species could be used as monitors for genotoxic events.

  5. Comparison of different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the following study is to determine and to compare the different morphological parameters with duration of obstruction created experimentally in unilateral upper ureters of rats. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 60 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after predetermined intervals. Rats were sacrificed and ipsilateral kidneys were subjected for analysis of morphological parameters such as renal height, cranio-caudal diameter, antero-posterior diameter, lateral diameter, volume of the pelvis and average cortical thickness: Renal height. Results: Renal height and cranio-caudal diameter of renal pelvis after ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction started rising as early as 7 days of creating obstruction and were affected earlier than antero-posterior and lateral diameter and also were reversed earlier than other parameters after reversal of obstruction. Renal cortical thickness and volume of the pelvis were affected after prolonged obstruction (> 3 weeks and were the late parameters to be reversed after reversal of obstruction. Conclusions: Cranio-caudal diameter and renal height were the early morphological parameters to be affected and reversed after reversal of obstruction in experimentally created ipsilateral upper ureteric obstruction.

  6. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  7. Effects of supplementing concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition in veal calf diets: I. Animal performance and rumen fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, B J; Van Reenen, C G; Beldman, G; van Delen, J; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments consisted of 1) milk replacer control, 2) pectin-based concentrate, 3) neutral detergent fiber-based concentrate, 4) starch-based concentrate, and 5) mixed concentrate (equal amounts of concentrates of treatments 2, 3, and 4). Concentrate diets were provided as pellets in addition to a commercial milk replacer. Calves were euthanized either at the end of 8 or 12 wk of age. The overall dry matter intake of the concentrate diets varied between 0.37 and 0.52 kg/d. Among the concentrate diets, the dry matter intake was lower in the starch diet (0.37 kg/d of dry matter) and differed between the NDF and pectin diets. The average daily gain for all the dietary treatments varied between 0.70 and 0.78 kg/d. The mixed- and NDF-fed calves had an increased average daily gain (0.78 and 0.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with the starch- and pectin-fed calves (0.70 and 0.71 kg/d, respectively). Rumen fermentation in the calves fed concentrates was characterized by a low pH (4.9 to 5.2), volatile fatty acid concentrations between 100 and 121 mmol/L, and high concentrations of reducing sugars (33 to 66 g/kg of dry matter). The volatile fatty acid concentrations of calves fed concentrates were higher than those of the control calves. All concentrate treatments showed a low acetate-to-propionate ratio in rumen fluid (between 1.3 and 1.9). Among the concentrates, the NDF diet had the highest (55.5%) and starch the lowest (45.5%) molar proportions of acetate. Calves fed the mixed, pectin, and starch diets had significantly higher molar proportions of butyrate (13.1 to 15.8%) than the NDF- and control-fed groups (9

  8. The gendered impact of corruption: Who suffers more? men or women?

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Frédéric; Sierra, Erika

    2015-01-01

    What supports the claim that corruption causes more suffering for women than men? By distinguishing between indirect victimisation and direct victimisation, it is reasonable to assume women suffer more, and differently, than men. A review of the scarce evidence on the direct impacts of corruption qualifies this claim to some extent. Nevertheless, a general reduction of gender inequalities can addresses the root causes of the gendered impacts of corruption. Anti-corruption programming should i...

  9. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zo Young-Gun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx, the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic

  10. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  11. Land mines: the suffering of a nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, C; Holden, R A

    1995-07-01

    For two nursing students, a long summer vacation provided an opportunity to gain some first hand experience of nursing in a developing country. The Kingdom of Cambodia, a country of approximately 9.3 million people in South East Asia, was the chosen destination. Here not only was a different culture encountered but also a hazard to public health which one would not usually encounter in the UK: the land mine.

  12. Suffering and medicalization at the end of life: The case of physician-assisted dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsoho, Hadi; Fishman, Jennifer R; Wright, David Kenneth; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2016-12-01

    'Suffering' is a central discursive trope for the right-to-die movement. In this article, we ask how proponents of physician-assisted dying (PAD) articulate suffering with the role of medicine at the end of life within the context of a decriminalization and legalization debate. We draw upon empirical data from our study of Carter v. Canada, the landmark court case that decriminalized PAD in Canada in 2015. We conducted in-depth interviews with 42 key participants of the case and collected over 4000 pages of legal documents generated by the case. In our analysis of the data, we show the different ways proponents construct relationships between suffering, mainstream curative medicine, palliative care, and assisted dying. Proponents see curative medicine as complicit in the production of suffering at the end of life; they lament a cultural context wherein life-prolongation is the moral imperative of physicians who are paternalistic and death-denying. Proponents further limit palliative care's ability to alleviate suffering at the end of life and even go so far as to claim that in some instances, palliative care produces suffering. Proponents' articulation of suffering with both mainstream medicine and palliative care might suggest an outright rejection of a place for medicine at the end of life. We further find, however, that proponents insist on the involvement of physicians in assisted dying. Proponents emphasize how a request for PAD can set in motion an interactive therapeutic process that alleviates suffering at the end of life. We argue that the proponents' articulation of suffering with the role of medicine at the end of life should be understood as a discourse through which one configuration of end-of-life care comes to be accepted and another rejected, a discourse that ultimately does not challenge, but makes productive use of the larger framework of the medicalization of dying. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional value content, biomass production and growth performance of Daphnia magna cultured with different animal wastes resulted from probiotic bacteria fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endar Herawati, Vivi; Nugroho, R. A.; Pinandoyo; Hutabarat, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Media culture is an important factor for the growth and quality of Daphnia magna nutrient value. This study has purpose to find the increasing of nutritional content, biomass production and growth performance of D. magna using different animal wastes fermented by probiotic bacteria. This study conducted using completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments and 3 replicates. Those media used different animal manures such as chicken manure, goat manure and quail manure mixed by rejected bread and tofu waste fermented by probiotic bacteria then cultured for 24 days. The results showed that the media which used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D.magna about 2111788.9 ind/L for population; 342 grams biomass production and 68.85% protein content. The highest fatty acid profile is 6.37% of linoleic and the highest essential amino acid is 22.8% of lysine. Generally, the content of ammonia, DO, temperature, and pH during the study were in the good range of D. magna’s life. This research has conclusion that media used 50% chicken manure, 100% rejected bread and 50% tofu waste created the highest biomass production, population and nutrition content of D. magna.

  14. Effects of two different rearing systems (organic and barn on production performance, animal welfare traits and egg quality characteristics in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative housing systems for hen eggs production represents clear evidence of the trend in animal housing and husbandry towards extensive rearing methods. Consumer demand is oriented towards healthy foods controlled not only under a safety point of view, but also under a welfare assessment of the animals’ living conditions. Among the different alternative systems deep litter and organic production in recent years have been improved in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different housing systems (barn B and organic O for laying hens may influence productive performance, fear responses and egg quality characteristics. A total of 4,745 birds were housed in the B system and 2,016 in the O system, both of which were commercial facilities. In each system the same strain (Hy-Line Brown was housed and layer performance, external and internal egg characteristics, mortality and feed consumption were recorded weekly. Animal reactivity was recorded monthly with the approaching test. Moreover, the Tonic Immobility test was conducted at 70 weeks of age; feather and foot pad conditions were also investigated at the same time. The peak of laying was reached in both housing systems at 25 weeks of age and was higher in organic hens (94.5% than in barn hens (93.0%. Feed conversion rate during the overall laying period was 2.36 vs 2.20, respectively, in O and B housing systems. There was a significant difference concerning the eggs classified as very dirty, dirty and cracked between the two systems. The dirty eggs were higher in O system probably due to laying eggs in a free range area, while the higher number of cracked eggs in B system may be due to a significantly less shell thickness in this system. Egg weight increased with layer age in both housing systems. Animals reared in O system showed less fearfulness than in B emphasised by the approaching and Tonic Immobility test results. Feather scoring did not evidence any severe plumage

  15. A COMPARISON OF HEADACHE AND NON-HEADACHE SUFFERERS ON MEASURES OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAM CL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 138 headaches sufferers and 138 subjects without headaches were studied to investigate if there were differences between headache and non-headache sufferers in terms of their mental health and social support levels. The overall results of this study indicated that headache sufferers, as compared with non-headache sufferers had slightly more mental health problems, and more social support from their family members. When the results were scrutinised in more detail, it was observed that headache sufferers reported that they felt less capable of making decisions about things, were not always able to face up to their problems, and sometimes thought about themselves as a worthless. Given that the study was based on a community, rather than clinic sample, further research would be required to examine the differing the types of headaches that people are suffering from, and the intensity of the headaches, in relation to mental health problems.

  16. [Apotemnophilia as a contemporary frame for psychological suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baubet, T; Gal, B; Dendoncker-Viry, S; Masquelet, A C; Gatt, M-T; Moro, M R

    2007-09-01

    trouble as an association of a factitious disorder with a borderline personality disorder. In the last part of this paper, we discuss the scientific litterature about apotemnophilia and BIID. We support the idea that BIID can be considered as a culture-bound syndrome, a contemporary frame for psychological suffering. We think that BIID does not have neither intrinsic nor unequivocal psychopathological meaning. It is a (Elliott), a common pathway for the expression of very different kinds of psychological suffering. Apotemnophilia and BIID are raising important ethical and practical issues for psychiatrists: their opinion will probably be requested by patients and surgical teams having to deal with patient asking for healthy limbs amputation.

  17. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    Full Text Available Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae, antler (Cervidae, teeth and bone (humerus across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application.

  18. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L.; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  19. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wetlands are repositories of unique biodiversity. Wetlandorganisms are well adapted to their habitat, lying at theinterface of aquatic and terrestrial environments. In order tounderstand their adaptations in a better way, it is essential tograsp the basic properties of the medium in which variousorganisms live. This is attempted ...

  20. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Fishes, moving in water encounter drag forces, which can be of considerable magnitude. If sudden movement is required to catch prey or escape predators in a viscous medium, it is only possible by the contraction of fast, white muscle fibres, which rely on anaerobic glycolysis pathways. Therefore, it is not surprising that.

  1. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  2. [Evaluation on Ability to Detect the Intracranial Hematoma with Different Density Using C-Arm Cone-beam Computed Tomography Based on Animal Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Zeng, Yongming; Yu, Renqiang; Zhou, Yang; Xu, Rui; Sun, Jingkun; Gao, Zhimei

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the ability of C-arm cone-beam CT to detect intracranial hematomas in canine models. Twenty one healthy canines were divided into seven groups and each group had three animals. Autologous blood and contrast agent (3 mL) were slowly injected into the left/right frontal lobes of each animal. Canines in the first group, the control group, were only injected with autologous blood without contrast agent. Each animal in all the 7 groups was scanned with C-arm cone-beam CT and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) after 5 minutes. The attenuation values and their standard deviations of the hematoma and uniformed brain tissues were measured to calculate the image noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A scale with scores 1-3 was used to rate the quality of the reconstructed image of different hematoma as a subjective evaluation, and all the experimental data were processed with statistical treatment. The results revealed that when the density of hematoma was less than 65 HU, hematomata were not very clear on C-arm CT images, and when the density of hematoma was more than 65 HU, hematomata showed clearly on both C-arm CT and MSCT images and the scores of them were close. The coherence between the two physicians was very reliable. The same results were obtained with C-arm cone-beam CT and MSCT grades in measuring SD value, SNR, and CNR. The reasonable choice of density detection range of intracranial hematoma with C-arm cone-beam CT could be effectively applied to monitoring the intracranial hemorrhage during interventional diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Whole bone testing in small animals: systematic characterization of the mechanical properties of different rodent bones available for rat fracture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Peter M; Foehr, Peter; Bürklein, Dominik; Bissinger, Oliver; Pilge, Hakan; Kreutzer, Kilian; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Tischer, Thomas

    2018-02-14

    animals, light animals showed good consistency in failure loads of the humeri (CV% 7.7). Most consistent results of both sides (left vs. right) in failure loads were provided by the femurs of light animals (mean difference 4.0 ± 2.8%); concerning stiffness, humeri of heavy animals were most consistent (mean difference of 6.2 ± 5%). In general, the failure loads showed strong correlations to the BMC (R 2  = 0.85-0.88) whereas stiffness correlated only moderate, except for the humerus (BMC vs. stiffness: R 2  = 0.79). Altogether, the rat's femur of mature specimens showed the most accurate and consistent radiological and biomechanical results. In synopsis with the common experimental use enabling comparison among different studies, this bone offers ideal biomechanical conditions for three point bending experiments. This can be explained by the combination of a superior aspect ratio and a round and long, straight morphology, which satisfies the beam criteria more than other bones tested.

  4. Role of veterinarians in recognition and prevention of animal abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Criminal law of the Republic of Serbia in 2005 as well as the Law on veterinary medicine, there has been an increasing number of cases that deal with raising criminal charges due to animal killing or torturing. There is also a significant number of forensic cases that are aimed at discovering criminal acts. Animal abuse is a social issue, which includes a range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse, or neglect. Abuse and neglect of animals have a variety of forms and manifestations, but the end result is always the same - animal suffering. The connection between animal abuse, domestic violence, and child abuse indicates that there is a significant role of veterinarians in social contexts and in terms of stopping this vicious cycle by preventing, discovering and turning in suspects involved in these crimes. The help that veterinarians provide to public prosecutors is of great importance. This study shows the role of veterinarians in cases of possible animal abuse, as well as their role in processing that type of cases.

  5. Spiritual Needs in Patients Suffering from Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Offenbaecher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess spiritual needs of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS and to evaluate correlations with disease and health associated variables. Using a set of standardized questionnaires (i.e., Spiritual Needs Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36's Quality of Life, Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, etc., we enrolled 141 patients (95% women, mean age 58 ± 10 years. Here, needs for inner peace and giving/generativity scored the highest, while existential needs and religious needs scored lowest. Particularly inner peace needs and existential needs correlated with different domains of reduced mental health, particularly with anxiety, the intention to escape from illness, and psychosocial restrictions. Thirty-eight percent of the patients stated needs to be forgiven and nearly half to forgive someone from their past life. Therefore, the specific spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases should be addressed in clinical care in order to identify potential therapeutic avenues to support and stabilize their psychoemotional situation.

  6. Hearing Recovey in Patients Suffering Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Eslami

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The study included 80 patients treated for sudden deafness over the last 5-7 years. Case history, laboratory findings, pure-tone audiogram and electronystagmography (ENG findings were noted. If any abnormalities had been recorded in ENG studies, the studies were redone. ORL status was redefined and audiograms were obtained in all patients. When becoming ill, the 80 patients had not differed from the normal population in common cardiovascular risk factors. None of them had had signs of viral infection (paired serum samples had been taken at 2-week intervals; routine examinations had been done for common viral antigens. As many as 31 of the 80 patients with acute hearing loss had had abnormalities such as spontaneous nystagmus (PN, hypoexcitability (HE and directional preponderance (DP in the bithermal caloric tests (+44 degrees C, + 30 degrees C of their ENG studies. Twenty of the 31 patients still had abnormal ENG studies after 5-7 years. Only 1 subject had positional nystagmus, and none had subjective vertigo. Patients with an abnormal ENG study showed a poor recovery of the speech reception threshold, whereas those with a normal ENG study showed slightly significant (p less than 0.05 recovery.

  7. A virtual sleepcoach for people suffering from insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    People suffering from insomnia have problems falling asleep or staying asleep. Insomnia impairs people’s daily life and their quality of life decreases. Approximately 10% of the population suffers from insomnia. The common treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I),

  8. 'You are not alone\\': the discursive construction of the 'suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... system (Martin & Rose, 2003) to analyse how the attitudinal language of the talk show constructs an identifiable victim whose narrative centres on overcoming suffering. The analysis reveals that expressions of Affect, Judgement and Appreciation are powerful mechanisms for legitimising the identity of the suffering victim.

  9. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    Persons suffering from dementia progressively loose language skills, cognitive skills, memory function, perception, etc. Still they seem to respond to music and to interact in the music therapy setting. As part of a Ph.D.-research I have worked with 6 persons suffering from middle to last stages ...

  10. Animal consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Emilie; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier; Calandreau, Ludovic; Delon, Nicolas; Deputte, Bertrand; Desmoulin‐Canselier, Sonia; Dunier, Muriel; Faivre, Nathan; Giurfa, Martin; Guichet, Jean‐Luc; Lansade, Léa; Larrère, Raphaël; Mormède, Pierre; Prunet, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    After reviewing the literature on current knowledge about consciousness in humans, we present a state-of-the art discussion on consciousness and related key concepts in animals. Obviously much fewer publications are available on non-human species than on humans, most of them relating to laboratory or wild animal species, and only few to livestock species. Human consciousness is by definition subjective and private. Animal consciousness is usually assessed through behavioural performance. Beha...

  11. Animal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D A

    1997-01-01

    This article explores the concept of animal therapy. The discussion includes a brief history of animal therapy, its importance, its relationship to rehabilitation, and its usefulness as a tool to influence adaptation, change, power, communication, advocacy, teaching, accountability, responsibility, and locus of control. This theoretical concept is important because of the joy and unconditional love animals can provide their owners. Relationships with animals can promote feelings of self-worth, help offset loneliness, reduce anxiety, provide contact, comfort, security, and the feeling of being needed.

  12. Pain and suffering as viewed by the Hindu religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Sarah M

    2007-08-01

    Religion and spiritual practices are among the resources used by patients to cope with chronic pain. The major concepts of Hinduism that are related to pain and suffering are presented. Ways that Hindu traditions deal with pain and suffering are reviewed, including the concept of acceptance, which has been studied in the pain medicine literature. By becoming more familiar with Hindu views of pain and suffering, pain medicine practitioners can offer potentially helpful concepts to all patients and support Hindus' spirituality as it relates to pain and suffering. Religion or spirituality is often important to patients. This article will inform the pain medicine practitioner how pain and suffering are viewed in Hinduism, the third largest religion in the world. It is hoped that these concepts will prove helpful when treating not only followers of Hinduism but all patients.

  13. Suffering and distress at the end-of-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, Alicia; Limonero, Joaquín T; Maté, Jorge

    2012-08-01

    Suffering frequently occurs in the context of chronic and progressive medical illnesses and emerges with great intensity at end-of-life. A review of the literature on suffering and distress-related factors was conducted to illustrate the integrative nature of suffering in this context. We hope it will result in a comprehensive approach, centered in the patient-family unit, which will alleviate or eliminate unnecessary suffering and provide well-being, when possible. An extensive search of the literature on suffering and distress in end-of-life patients was conducted. While the present review is not a systematic one, an in-depth search using the terms 'Suffering', 'Distress', End-of-Life', 'Palliative Care', and 'Terminal illness' was conducted using search engines such as PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EBSCO-Host, OVID, and SciELO. Taking into account the comprehensive and integrative nature of suffering, factors related to the physical, psychological, spiritual, and social human dimensions are described. As well, some treatment considerations in the palliative care context are briefly discussed. Suffering is individual, unique, and inherent to each person. Assessment processes require keeping in mind the complexity, multi-dimensionality, and subjectivity of symptoms and experiences. Optimal palliative care is based on continuous and multidimensional evaluation and treatment of symptoms and syndromes. It should take place in a clinical context where the psychological, spiritual, and socio-cultural needs of the patient-family unit are taken care of simultaneously. A deep knowledge of the nature of suffering and its associated factors is central to alleviate unnecessary suffering. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli populations isolated from farm animals with different exposure to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Justyna; Pusz, Paweł; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the presence or the absence of antibiotic input on the emergence and maintenance of resistance in commensal bacteria from food producing animals. The research material constituted E. coli isolates from two animal species: swine at different age from one conventional pig farm with antibiotic input in young pigs and from beef and dairy cattle originated from organic breeding farm. The sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested, and the presence of 15 resistance genes was examined. In E. coli from swine, the most prevalent resistance was resistance to streptomycin (88.3%), co-trimoxazole (78.8%), tetracycline (57.3%) ampicillin (49.3%) and doxycycline (44.9%) with multiple resistance in the majority. The most commonly observed resistance genes were: bla(TEM) (45.2%), tetA (35.8%), aadA1 (35.0%), sul3 (29.5%), dfrA1 (20.4%). Differences in phenotypes and genotypes of E. coli between young swine undergoing prevention program and the older ones without the antibiotic pressure occurred. A disparate resistance was found in E. coli from cattle: cephalothin (36.9%), cefuroxime (18.9%), doxycycline (8.2%), nitrofurantoin (7.7%), and concerned mainly dairy cows. Among isolates from cattle, multidrug resistance was outnumbered by resistance to one or two antibiotics and the only found gene markers were: bla(SHV), (3.4%), tetA (1.29%), bla(TEM) (0.43%) and tetC (0.43%). The presented outcomes provide evidence that antimicrobial pressure contributes to resistance development, and enteric microflora constitutes an essential reservoir of resistance genes.

  15. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  16. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  17. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  18. Presentation of pain in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a chronic autoimmune disease with very heterogeneous clinical manifestations. There are not many studies which directly research the pain experienced by patients with SSc. Aim: Evaluation of pain in patients with verified systemic sclerosis; making comparison in the two subsets of SSc (diffuse and limited and in the anti-centromere antibodies (ACA and anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies (ATA detected in patients. Material and methods: The study group included 42 patients with SSc. The research was conducted at the Institute of Rheumatology in Belgrade. Each patient was asked to complete the questionnaire, which included the questions about frequency, location and intensity of the pain. Two statistical methodologies were used in the data analysis: descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: Most of the patients (93% confirmed they had some kind of pain . Arthralgia was the most common pain symptom (78,6%, 29 (69% suffered from pain during Raynaud phenomenon, the back pain was found in 20 (47,6%, a headache in 13 (31%, the chest pain in 10 (23,8%, odynophagia in 9 (21,4% and in 8 (19% patients painful digital ulcers. The pain from digital ulcers was rated as the most intensive with the average value of 8,5/10. The patients with diffuse subset of SSc had a higher average intensity score of arthralgia (7,6, compared to those with limited SSc (5,5. The statistically significant difference in the frequency and intensity of the pain in the patients with anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies and the patients with anti-centromere antibodies was not found. Conclusion: Most of the patients suffer from some kind of pain. The most common pain was arthralgia, and the most intensive one was from digital ulcers, although it was the rarest. The pain frequency and intensity were not significantly different in patients with anti-topoisomerase-I and anti-centromere antibodies. There was a statisticaly significant difference in the

  19. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  20. The impact of commercialisation on public perceptions of stem cell research: exploring differences across the use of induced pluripotent cells, human and animal embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine R; Bruce, Gordana; Farrugia, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The development of pluripotent cells that enable stem cell research (SCR) without destroying human embryos is now a leading priority for science. Public and political controversies associated with human embryonic SCR experienced in the recent past should be alleviated if scientists no longer need to harvest cells from human embryos. This research suggests however additional issues needing attention in order to gain the public's trust and support: the use of mouse embryos and the commercialisation of research. Using a representative sample of 2,800 Australians, and an experimental telephone survey design, this research compared levels and predictors of public support for stem cell research across three cell source conditions: human embryo (HE), mouse embryo (ME) and induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). The results revealed that the public were significantly more likely to support research using iPSCs than HE and ME cells and public compared to private research (regardless of the cell source). There was no significant difference in support for HE compared to ME research, but the former was viewed as more likely to lead to accessible health care benefits and to be associated with more trustworthy scientists. The results of a multimediation structural equation model showed that the primary reason support for SCR significantly dropped in a private compared to public context (i.e., the commercialisation effect) was because public scientists were trusted more than private scientists. This effect was consistent across all three SCR materials, suggesting that the use of mouse embryos or even iPSCs will not reduce the publics' concern with commercialised science. The implications these results have for public acceptance of stem cell and animal research are discussed in relation to possible solutions such as increasing public awareness of the regulation of animal research and benefit sharing.

  1. `So, What Do Men and Women Want? Is It any Different from What Animals Want?' Sex Education in an Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to discuss and problematise notions of femininity and masculinity constructed in teaching situations among 16-year-old upper-secondary students studying science. The empirical examples originate from a teaching session with the theme of `sex and relationships'. The analysis is focused on metaphors inherent in a lesson that has its origins in the animal world. The findings show that the lesson `sex in the animal world' is full of anthropomorphism, metaphors that humanise animal behaviour. Teachers and students compare the animals' sexual behaviour with human behaviour, with the result that the animal world can be perceived as representative of natural sexual behaviour. The survey illustrates problems with how the examples are permeated by cultural values in the presentation of the animal world and how these examples form constructions of femininity and masculinity in the classroom.

  2. Soy Allergy in Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmila, Čelakovská; Květuše, Ettlerová; Karel, Ettler; Jaroslava, Vaněčková; Josef, Bukač

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The evaluation of soy allergy in patients over 14 years of age suffering from atopic dermatitis. The evaluation of the correlation to the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy. Materials and Methods: Altogether 175 persons suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: Specific IgE, skin prick tests, atopy patch tests to soy, history and food allergy to peanut and pollen allergy were evaluated. Results: The early allergic reaction to soy was recorded in 2.8% patients. Sensitization to soy was found in another 27.2% patients with no clinical manifestation after soy ingestion. The correlation between the positive results of examinations to soy and between the occurence of peanut and pollen allergy was confirmed in statistics. Conclusion: Almost one third of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis are sensitized to soy without clinical symptoms. The early allergic reaction to soy occur in minority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:23919016

  3. (The Alliance Programme) for patients suffering from schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    educational material (The Alliance Programme) for patients suffering from schizophrenia in the South African context. Method: A qualitative research approach was used. Fifteen Setswana speaking participants, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia ...

  4. To do good might hurt bad: exploring nurses' understanding and approach to suffering in forensic psychiatric settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Mattias; Fredriksson, Lennart; Wiklund Gustin, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Patients in forensic psychiatric settings not only have to deal with their mental illness, but also memories of criminal activities and being involuntarily hospitalized. The aim of the present study was to explore how nurses working in forensic psychiatric services understand and approach patients' experiences of suffering. Data were generated by semistructured interviews with psychiatric nurses from two different forensic psychiatric units in Sweden. Data were analysed by means of a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's hermeneutics. The findings are reflected in four main themes: (i) ignoring suffering; (ii) explaining suffering as a natural and inevitable part of daily life in the forensic context; (iii) ascribing meaning to suffering; and, (iv) being present in suffering. To engage in alleviating suffering is a struggle that demands courage and the strength to reflect on its character and consequences. To encounter suffering means that nurses are not only confronted with patients' suffering, but also their own reactions to those patients. If suffering is not recognized or encountered, there is a risk that actions may have a negative impact on patients. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  6. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  7. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  8. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  9. Control of oncologic pain in relief of suffering. Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Barón, M; Lacasta Reverte, M A; Ordóñez Gallego, A; Belda-Iniesta, C

    2006-07-01

    Pain and suffering are not synonymous terms. The concept of suffering is wider than just physical pain. People can suffer for multiple causes, pain among them, but it is not the only reason since . If our main objective is the achievement of the well-being and the relief of pain, it will be necessary, according to Lazarus, Folkman, Chapman, Gravin, Bayés and Labrador, to reduce or eliminate the physical (cancer, pain and so on) and psychosocial harm (loneliness, culpability, etc.) perceived like a threat and to increase the perception of control about this situation. The main objectives of our work were: First: to evaluate the efficacy of a tool that allows the identification of the symptoms perceived by the patient as a threat in order to reduce or suppress them and empower their resources at the same time; and secondly to evaluate the incidence of pain in the suffering. Our tool includes the following groups of variables: subjective perception of the time course, emotional aspects, concerns and confrontation strategies, perception of adaptation and sense of life, perceived support and pain. This tool has been tested in 73 oncologic patients, 31 men and 42 women, mean aged 55, 41 (SD = 14, 54) visited at the Medical Oncology Service of La Paz Hospital. Mainly, people who refers great suffering are those with more pain (p < 0.05); while patients with less suffering and higher well-being are those that use strategies to face their situation (p < 0.05). Our tool reduces perceived threats and that reflects the need for a good control of pain and at the same time to empower the resources to relieve the suffering as much as possible. The referred tool seems to be effective in order to easy the intervention to relieve the suffering.

  10. A virtual sleepcoach for people suffering from insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch, C.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    People suffering from insomnia have problems falling asleep or staying asleep. Insomnia impairs people’s daily life and their quality of life decreases. Approximately 10% of the population suffers from insomnia. The common treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), mostly delivered by a therapist that people see once a week. A disadvantage of the current practice of insomnia treatment is the limited accessibility of insomnia treatment. Moreover, adherence to...

  11. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  12. Groundwater animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  13. Intravenous iron isomaltoside treatment of women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars L; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To explore if intravenous iron isomaltoside (Monofer®) leads to a better relief of fatigue than current treatment practice with oral iron in women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a subanalysis of a single......-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted in women suffering from postpartum hemorrhage. Participants were randomized 1:1 to 1200 mg iron isomaltoside or current treatment practice with oral iron. We measured fatigue by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and Edinburgh Postnatal...... isomaltoside. Significant differences in other fatigue and depression scores and hematological parameters were observed and all in favor of iron isomaltoside. There were no differences in side effects between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women suffering from severe fatigue after postpartum hemorrhage, a single...

  14. Nutritional status (BMI in children suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research encompassed 708 children of both genders, aged 6 to 15. Three hundred and fifty four of the total number had been diagnosed with Asthma bronchiale, whereas the other half of the children were healthy and served as a control group. Their nutritional condition was determined on the basis of the percentile value of their BMI. Recent studies on the level of nutrition and its connection to asthma have shown contradictory results. This paper was aimed at estimating the nutritional level of sick children in relation to healthy ones. The data were analyzed in relation to group, gender and age by means of descriptive methods, univariate (analysis of variance - ANOVA and multivariate (multivariate analysis of variance - MANOVA, whereas the results were tested by Roy’s test (Pearson contingency coefficient χ, coefficient of multiple correlation R. It was determined that male children more frequently suffer from this disease than female children do. Both healthy and sick children were normally nourished. However, as regards the sick, the number of normally nourished was considerably lower, whereas the number of underweight was considerably higher, as well as those that were overweight. Intergroup differences in the distribution of certain levels of nutrition of male and female children occurred in only two non-sequential age groups, being later in boys than in girls. This uneven distribution is probably a consequence of the joint effects of environment factors, sickness and therapy.

  15. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  16. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  17. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n=1195) and to all scientific experts serving on Ethical Review Boards in Sweden (n=364), with response rates of 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Results show that patients hold a positive stance towards animal testing, but with many caveats, and the level...

  18. Resistance to antimicrobial agents used for animal therapy in pathogenic , zoonotic and indicator bacteria isolated from different food animals in Denmark: A baseline study for the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (DANMAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bager, Flemming; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    , Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter coli/jejuni, Salmonella enterica, Yelsinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). A total of 3304 bacterial isolates...... was found. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. In general, resistance was observed more frequently among isolates from pigs than from cattle and broilers. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed......This study describes the establishment and first results of a continuous surveillance system of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from pigs, cattle and broilers in Denmark. The three categories of bacteria tested were: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis...

  19. The human-animal bond with laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyan-Norwalt, Melissa R

    2009-04-01

    In the author's experience, a bond--whether intentional or not--is often established between humans and animal research subjects. Behavioral theorists suggest that human-animal relationships can take several different forms. The author discusses several occasions in which she perceived one type of relationship with a research animal and was later surprised when the animal's behavior suggested that the bond was actually of a different nature. In the author's opinion, laboratory staff should be aware of the potential of bonding and should work to ensure that the desired human-animal relationships are developed. This may enhance the well-being of animals and staff and improve research efficacy.

  20. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, Richard M; Keku, Emmanuel O; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness.

  1. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keku, Emmanuel O.; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J.

    2010-01-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness. PMID:21113109

  2. Investigation of the differences between the "Cold" and "Hot" nature of Coptis chinensis Franch and its processed materials based on animal's temperature tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, CanPing; Wang, JiaBo; Zhang, XueRu; Zhao, YanLing; Xia, XinHua; Zhao, HaiPing; Ren, YongShen; Xiao, XiaoHe

    2009-11-01

    The description and differentiation of the so-called "Cold" and "Hot" natures, the primary "Drug Naure" of Chinese medicine, is the focus of theoretical research. In this study, the divergency between the "Cold" and the "Hot" natures was investigated through examining the temperature tropism of mice affected by Coptis chinensis Franch and its processed materials by using a cold/hot plate differentiating technology. After exposure to C. chinensis Franch, the macroscopic behavioral index of the remaining rate (RR) on a warm pad (40 degrees C) significantly increased (Ptropism. The internal indexes of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and oxygen consuming volume decreased significantly (Ptropism might reflect the internal Cold nature of C. chinensis Franch. However, the processed materials of C. chinensis Franch exhibited a different Cold nature in temperature tropism compared with crude C. chinensis Franch (CC): the Cold nature of bile-processed C. chinensis Franch (BC) enhanced while the ginger-processed C. chinensis Franch (GC) changed inversely. The changing sequence was consistent with the theoretical prognostication. It is indicated that the external Cold & Hot natures of Chinese medicine may possibly reflect in an ethological way for the changes of animal's temperature tropism which might be internally regulated by the body's energy metabolism.

  3. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  4. Empathy and the application of the 'unbearable suffering' criterion in Dutch euthanasia practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Donald G; Rietjens, Judith A C; van der Heide, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    A pivotal due care criterion for lawful euthanasia in the Netherlands is that doctors must be convinced that a patient requesting for euthanasia, suffers unbearably. Our study aims to find out how doctors judge if a patient suffers unbearably. How do doctors bridge the gap from 3rd person assessment to 1st person experience? We performed a qualitative interview study among 15 physicians, mainly general practitioners, who participated earlier in a related quantitative survey on the way doctors apply the suffering criterion. Results show that doctors follow different 'cognitive routes' when assessing a patients suffering in the context of a euthanasia request. Sometimes doctors do this imagining how she herself would experience the situation of the patient ('imagine self'). Doctors may also try to adopt the perspective of the patient and imagine what the situation is like for this particular patient ('imagine other'). Besides this we found that the (outcome of the) assessment is influenced by a doctor's private norms, values and emotions considering (the performance of) euthanasia. We conclude by arguing why doctors should be aware of both the 'cognitive route' followed as well as the influence of their own personal norms on the assessment of suffering in the context of euthanasia requests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia (experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kaluzhina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system in newborns with chronic hypoxia is affected in 40–70%. Aim. To investigate morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Methods and results. Aortic wall was investigated with modern morphological methods in 34 laboratory animals in order to identify the morphological features of the fetuses and newborns’ vessel affected by this pathogenic factor. It was established that chronic hypoxia leads to endothelial trophics deterioration, its flattening, dystrophic processes with following cells desquamation, density reduction of smooth muscle cells, thickening of the intima-media. Conclusion. It shows alterative-sclerotic changes in aorta in cases with chronic hypoxia influence.

  6. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  7. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  8. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  9. Canadian bishops' letter presents theology of healing, suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigeler, H W

    1984-11-01

    With board input from theologians, health personnel, patients, and others interested in health care, the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops released its pastoral letter on sickness and healing in September 1983. Acknowledging that suffering and healing are mysteries beyond complete understanding, the letter illuminates the connection between caring for one's own health, helping the sick, and following Christ. The letter's first major section reviews suffering and healing as presented in the Bible, and asserts that the act of healing should help to restore not only the body but also the sufferer's relationship with God and with the community. The letter's second section surveys the history of the healing tradition within the Church and notes that, because the great healers often suffered themselves, their example can help people to integrate suffering into their own quest for wholeness and spiritual growth. In the pastoral's third section the bishops suggest attitudes and practices for those who wish to be healers today. They apply theological teaching to five practical levels of pastoral concern: individual actions, parish communities, Catholic and other health care institutions, and the social, economic, and political community. Each level, the bishops stress, must play an important role in healing and salvation.

  10. Functional lymphatic alterations in patients suffering from lipedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancini, S; Lucchi, M; Tucci, S; Eleuteri, P

    1995-04-01

    Lipedema is a chronic vascular disease almost exclusively of female sex, characterized by the deposit of fat on the legs, with an "Egyptian column" shape, orthostatic edema, hypothermia of the skin, alteration of the plantar support, and negativity of Stemmer's sign. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disease are still the object of study, and therapy is very difficult. Various authors have described morphologic and functional alterations of prelymphatic structures and of lymphatic vessels. The big veins remain untouched in the phlebograms and an alteration of the skin elasticity is demonstrated. The present authors have studied by dynamic lymphoscintigraphy 12 women patients suffering from lipedema, and compared the results with those of 5 normal subjects and 5 patients suffering from idiopathic lymphedema who were sex and age matched with the patients suffering from lipedema. The patients suffering from lipedema showed an abnormal lymphoscintigraphic pattern with a slowing of the lymphatic flow that presented some analogies to the alterations found in the patients suffering from lymphedema. A frequent asymmetry was also noticed in the lymphoscintigraphic findings that is in contrast to the symmetry of the clinical profile.

  11. Hidden Suffering and the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fulford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand suffering is to understand what it means to be human. Suffering focuses our attention on our vulnerability, which we would rather ignore or deny. As health care professionals (HCP we need to be able to listen, to attune and be empathic to the suffering patient. If we act as an “enlightened witness” we provide a safe place for a suffering patient to grieve their loss and be vulnerable. This is skilled and demanding work, it is also important to tend to our own needs through a practice of self-care and reflection to prevent burn-out and compassion fatigue. The topic of adverse childhood experiences (ACE, which are common in the general population, are addressed in the second part of this paper. Their effects are profound, and increase with the degree of maltreatment. The maltreatment and suffering of these children usually remains hidden into adulthood beneath years of shame and denial. One aspect of our job in health care is to help patients acknowledge, experience, and bear the reality of life with all its pleasures and heartache. In order to do this well, we need to keep in touch with our own humanity, but also continue to take care of ourselves.

  12. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  13. [The investigation of blood cells of middle and old age in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by atomic force microscopy. Similarities and differences with the biological animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabiniakov, N A; Prashchayeu, K I; Ryzhak, G A; Poltorackij, A N; Anosova, E I; Azarow, K S

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of reactive changes of blood cells in such diseases as COPD or asthma in people of different age groups is the very difficult problem. Simulating the same conditions in animals that occur in humans with these diseases can serve as a reliable practical model. It is possible because the changes which take places at the cellular level in animals might reflect a similar trend in the human body.

  14. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  15. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  16. Suffering in the mystical traditions of Buddhism and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the mystical approaches to suffering characteristic of both Buddhism and Christianity. Through the analysis of the meanings, the two traditions in question ascribe to suffering as a ‘component’ of mystical experience; it challenges the somewhat oversimplified understanding of the dichotomy ’sage-the-robot versus saint-the-sufferer’. Thus it contributes to the ongoing discussion on the theological–spiritual dimensions of the human predicament, as interpreted by various religious traditions. It also illustrates (though only implicitly in what sense – to use the Kantian distinction – the mystical experience offers boundaries (Schranken without imposing limits (Grenzen to interfaith encounter and dialogue. Man [sic] is ready and willing to shoulder any suffering, as soon and as long as he can see a meaning in it. (Frankl 1967:56

  17. Peran People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (Peta) Dalam Kasus Animal Testing Terhadap Hewan Luwak Di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harto, Syafri; Ambarrini, Tantin

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 million animals every year suffer and die by fierce chemical test, medical, food, and cosmetic by giving poisonous, blinding and killing million animals every year for irresponsible companies. In medical world, all procedures that are done against the animals called animal testing.Animal testing happens in Indonesia against civet cat animal. The animal eats coffee fruit and digests it to be coffee fruit seed that is put out with its feces. This seed that has unique taste and hig...

  18. Neutralising the meat paradox: Cognitive dissonance, gender, and eating animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Elisha; Semmler, Carolyn; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel A; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Meat eating is a common behaviour, despite many people claiming to like, love, and care about animals. The apparent disconnection between not wanting animals to suffer, yet killing them for food, has been termed the 'meat paradox.' In this experimental study (N = 460), participants completed pre-affect, post-affect, meat attachment, and attitude towards animals questionnaires, under two conditions: exposure to the life of an Australian meat lamb, and information about the nutritional benefits of meat. A factorial MANOVA revealed that negative affect was significantly greater when participants were exposed to the meat-animal connection; however, more entrenched attitudes towards animals and attachment to meat remained unaffected. Significant gender effects were found across all variables: most notably, meat attachment differed according to gender, decreasing in women and increasing in men when exposed to the meat-animal condition. Open-ended responses were subjected to content analysis to understand participants' future meat-consumption preferences and accompanying reasoning strategies. Findings from the present study contribute to understanding how cognitive dissonance and inconsistencies are rationalised by meat consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol consumption and hangover patterns among migraine sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Zlotnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Alcohol hangover is a poorly understood cluster of symptoms occurring following a heavy consumption of alcohol. The term "delayed alcohol-induced headache" is often used synonymously. Our objective was to compare alcohol hangover symptoms in migraine sufferers and nonsufferers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, university students were asked to fill structured questionnaires assessing headache history, alcoholic consumption, and hangover symptoms (using the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS. Subjects were classified as suffering from migraine with or without aura and nonsufferers according the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2 nd Edition (ICHD-II. The 13 hangover symptoms were divided by the researches into migraine-like and other nonmigraine-like symptoms. Results: Hangover symptoms among 95 migraine sufferers and 597 nonsufferers were compared. Migraine sufferers consumed less alcohol compared with the nonsufferers (mean drinks/week 2.34 ± 4.11 vs. 2.92 ± 3.58, P = 0.038 and suffered from higher tendency to migraine-like symptoms after drinking (mean 2.91 ± 3.43 vs. 1.85 ± 2.35, P = 0.002 but not to other hangover symptoms (mean 5.39 ± 6.31 vs. 4.34 ± 4.56, P = 0.1. Conclusions: Migraine sufferers consume less alcohol, especially beer and liquors, and are more vulnerable to migraine-like hangover symptoms than nonsufferers. The finding that the tendency to develop migraine attacks affects the hangover symptomatology may suggest a similarity in pathophysiology, and possibly in treatment options.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers: a study on 1311 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthieu; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Loas, Gwénolé; Hubain, Philippe; Linkowski, Paul

    2017-07-06

    Several studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insomnia in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a large sample of insomnia sufferers. Data from 1311 insomnia sufferers who were recruited from the research database of the sleep laboratory of the Erasme Hospital were analysed. An apnea-hypopnea index of ≥15 events per hour was used as the cut-off score for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine clinical and demographic risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. The prevalence of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in our sample of insomnia sufferers was 13.88%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, lower maintenance insomnia complaint, presence of metabolic syndrome, age ≥ 50 & 30 kg/m 2 , and CRP >7 mg/L were significant risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common pathology in insomnia sufferers. The identification of these different risk factors advances a new perspective for more effective screening of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers.

  1. Nonmotor symptoms in patients suffering from motor neuron diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Günther

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis has gained much attention, especially for Parkinson’s disease (PD. The various nonmotor symptoms (NMS in neurodegenerative diseases would be much better explained by this hypothesis than by the degeneration of disease-specific cell populations. Motor neuron disease (MND is primarily known as a group of diseases with a selective loss of motor function. Recent evidence, however, suggests disease spreading into nonmotor brain regions also in MND. The aim of this study was to comprehensively detect NMS in patients suffering from MND.Methods: We used a self-rating questionnaire including 30 different items of gastrointestinal, autonomic, neuropsychiatric and sleep complaints (NMSQuest which is an established tool in PD patients. 90 MND patients were included and compared to 96 controls.Results: In total, MND patients reported significantly higher NMS scores (median: 7 points in comparison to controls (median: 4 points. Dribbling, impaired taste/smelling, impaired swallowing, weight loss, loss of interest, sad/blues, falling and insomnia were significantly more prevalent in MND patients compared to controls. Interestingly excessive sweating was more reported in the MND group. Correlation analysis revealed an increase of total NMS score with disease progression.Conclusions: NMS in MND patients seemed to increase with disease progression which would fit with the recently postulated disease spreading hypothesis. The total NMS score in the MND group significantly exceeded the score for the control group, but only 8 of the 30 single complaints of the NMSQuest were significantly more often reported by MND patients. Dribbling, impaired swallowing, weight loss and falling could primarily be connected to motor neuron degeneration and declared as motor symptoms in MND.

  2. The Future of Music Therapy with Persons Suffering from Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents important research concerning music therapy with persons suffering from schizophrenia. It further presents the most Applied theories and models concerning clinical practice individual and in Groups with this population. It offers ideas as to why music therapy Works...... with persons suffering from schizophrenia. These ideas are divided into 1) possible positions of the music therapist, 2) the function of the music. Finally a discussion on the questions:´ Should music therapy focus on symptoms, resources - or both?´, is unfodled....

  3. Experiences of well-being and suffering after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during rehabilita...... whole. Conclusion: The meta-synthesis provided evidence that both the sufferings and the possibilities of older people need to be addressed during rehabilitation to support experiences of well-being, independency and confidence after a hip fracture. The study contributed with evidence...

  4. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to animal testing required by law to guarantee minimum safety standards for the licensing of drugs and chemicals, there are no regulations in basic research forcing scientists to perform animal tests. By (usually) free choice, questions are posed and hypotheses are examined which, in many cases, can only be answered by means of animal tests. Just as easily, different questions could be asked or different hypotheses could be examined which do not require animal tests. The only criterion for the choice of a topic is its relevance which cannot necessarily be judged in the short-term. Thus, it is up to the individual scientist to judge what is worth studying and therefore worth animal consumption. The educated mind will consider ethical aspects of this choice. However, on the other hand, this decision is largely influenced by questions of efficacy or (in a negative sense) by the obstacles posed to an animal consuming approach. Here, peer review and general attitude will strongly influence the methodology chosen. Availability and awareness of adequate in vitro techniques represent the prerequisites for the use of alternative methods. The least one can do in basic research is to avoid tests which cause severe suffering to animals, as is required in Switzerland and other European countries by binding ethical principles and guidelines. The increasing standard of approval and control procedures has improved the situation over the years. There are many examples of successful alternative methods in basic research. But, the application of such methods is in most cases limited to the laboratories in which they were developed, calling for technology transfer. Exceptions are procedures that are used worldwide, like the production of monoclonal antibodies, which instead of using the ascites mouse can also be performed in vitro with some good will. In these cases, commercialisation of the techniques has aided their spread within the scientific community. Sadly, many

  5. Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, and pain assessments in dogs suffering from traumatic bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithunyarat, Thanikul; Hagman, Ragnvi; Höglund, Odd V; Stridsberg, Mats; Olsson, Ulf; Hanson, Jeanette; Nonthakotr, Chalermkwan; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Pettersson, Ann

    2017-03-21

    Traumatic bone fractures cause moderate to severe pain, which needs to be minimized for optimal recovery and animal welfare, illustrating the need for reliable objective pain biomarkers for use in a clinical setting. The objectives of this study were to investigate catestatin (CST) and vasostatin (VS) concentrations as two new potential biomarkers, and cortisol concentrations, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF), and visual analog scale (VAS) in dogs suffering from traumatic bone fractures before and after morphine administration in comparison with healthy dogs. Fourteen dogs with hind limb or pelvic fractures and thirty healthy dogs were included. Dogs with fractures were divided into four groups according to analgesia received before participation. Physical examination, CMPS-SF, pain and stress behavior VAS scores were recorded in all dogs. Saliva and blood were collected once in healthy dogs and in dogs with fractures before and 35-70 min after morphine administration. Blood samples were analyzed for CST, VS, and cortisol. Saliva volumes, however, were insufficient for analysis. Catestatin and cortisol concentrations, and CMPS-SF, and VAS scores differed significantly between dogs with fractures prior to morphine administration and healthy dogs. After morphine administration, dogs with fractures had significantly decreased CMPS-SF and VAS scores and, compared to healthy dogs, CST concentrations, CMPS-SF, and VAS scores still differed significantly. However, CST concentrations remained largely within the normal range. Absolute delta values for CST significantly correlated with delta values for CMPS-SF. Catestatin and cortisol did not differ significantly before and after morphine administration. Vasostatin concentrations did not differ significantly between groups. Catestatin and cortisol concentrations, CMPS-SF, and VAS scores differed significantly in the dogs with traumatic bone fractures compared to the healthy dogs

  6. Produção animal e de forragem em pastagem nativa submetida a distintas ofertas de forragem Animal and forage production on native pasture under different herbage allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brugnara Soares

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em área de pastagem natural da Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre-RS, no período de 25/10/2000 a 13/09/2001, com objetivo de avaliar os tratamentos: 8%, 12%, 16% de oferta de forragem (OF durante todo ano, 8% de OF na primavera e 12% no verão, outono e inverno (8-12%; 12% de OF na primavera e 8% no verão, outono e inverno (12-8%; 16% de OF na primavera e 12% no verão, outono e inverno (16-12%, com novilhos em pastejo contínuo com lotação variável. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos completamente casualizados com duas repetições. O maior ganho médio diário (GMD ao longo do ano (0,466 kg an-1 dia-1 foi obtido no tratamento que teve sua oferta aumentada (8-12%. Este também foi o único manejo em que os animais ganharam peso no inverno. A produtividade animal (kg ha-1 de peso vivo foi menor nos tratamentos de 16% e 16-12%. A variação da OF ao longo das estações do ano, como procedimento de manipulação da estrutura e composição da vegetação para promover maior produção de MS e GMD dos animais foi eficiente, sendo que seu efeito sobre a produção de MS e animal estende-se por todas as estações do ano.This trial was conducted in natural pasture area of the Agronomic Experimental Station of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre-RS, from 10/25/2000 to 09/13/2001, with the objective of evaluating the treatments: 8%, 12%, 16% of dry matter allowance (DMA over the year, 8% of DMA at spring and 12% at summer, autumn and winter (8-12%; 12% of DMA at spring and 8% at summer, autumn and winter (12-8% e 16% of DMA at spring and 12% at summer, autumn and winter (16-12%, using steers on continuous grazing with variable stocking rate. The experimental design used was blocks randomised with two replications. The biggest average daily weight gain over the year (0.466 kg/an/day was obtained in the increased DMA treatment

  7. The opportunistic Sarcoptes scabiei: a new episode from giraffe in the drought-suffering Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, S; Ndeereh, D; Rossi, L; Bornstein, S; Permunian, R; Soriguer, R C; Gakuya, F

    2012-04-30

    The ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite is unexplainable emerging and re-emerging parasite, threatening biodiversity and human health. When a new outbreak occurs, it is not clear if it is a genuine emergence resulting from a new incidence or apparent emergence resulting from increased detection. In this paper we report, for the first time to our knowledge, an outbreak of sarcoptic mange in giraffes in the wild. Three decaying carcasses and five free-ranging subadult reticulated giraffes were observed to have mange-like lesions in the drought-suffering Wajir Region in North Eastern Kenya, while apparently all sympatric wild and domestic animals were mange-free. Affected giraffes were captured and successfully treated. The possible relations between this outbreak and annual seasons, animal age-classes and sex, and spatial distribution are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  9. Animal Assisted Therapy and Trauma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Debra; Waddell, Rhondda

    2016-01-01

    Animal therapy is making strides in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For years, animals have been used with great benefit in the treatment of the aged and the terminally ill. Now animal assisted therapy is benefitting sufferers of PTSD. The results of animal assisted therapy in the treatment of PTSD patients have seen significant results. In one study of the effect of dogs with patients, psychologists noted an 82% reduction in symptoms. One particular case noted that interacting with the dog for as little as one week, enabled a patient to decrease the amount of anxiety and sleep medications by half.

  10. Qigong therapy for physiotherapists suffering from burnout: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganha, Joao Pedro; Doenitz, Christoph; Greten, Tobias; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry J

    2012-11-01

    The study was carried out in order to evaluate the prevalence of burnout in physiotherapists, and to assess whether "White Ball" Qigong exercises may be effective in burnout. This was aimed to provide preliminary data for the preparation and development of a larger study. Physiotherapists completed a demographic questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) questionnaire. For the intervention and the control groups, the authors selected those physiotherapists with the highest levels of burnout on the most important subscale. The intervention group (eight physiotherapists) performed a specific qigong intervention as developed by the Heidelberg School of Chinese Medicine; the control group consisted of eight physiotherapists on a waiting list. At the end of a three-week period of treatment or waiting list, both groups repeated the MBI for the comparison of results. Of 106 physiotherapists (36 males and 70 females) assessed by the MBI, Emotional Exhaustion subscale was seen in 52 (49.1%), Depersonalization subscale in 36 (33.9%), and Burnout in the Personal Accomplishment subscale in 33 (31.2%), of whom 4 (3.8%) suffered to a severe degree and 29 (27.4%) moderately. Within the study group qigong lowered the mean values of Emotional Exhaustion subscale from 38.0 to 31.4, whereas in the control group the values rose from 33.9 to 37.9. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P=0.023). Qigong lowered the mean value of Depersonalization subscale from 10.8 to 6.8. In controls the value rose from 7.3 to 10.6. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.013). The mean values of Personal Accomplishment subscale decreased in both groups: from 35.4 to 33.9 in the intervention group, and from 37.5 to 37.1 in the control group. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. The effects of "White Ball" Qigong on burnout symptoms are measurable by the MBI. The results are compatible with

  11. All about Animal Adaptations. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Animals change to better adapt to their environment. Over long periods of time, nature helps the animals adapt by changing their body shape and color as well as adjusting their methods of getting and eating food, defending themselves, and caring for their young. In this videotape, students learn what changes different animals go through in order…

  12. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  13. Socio-economic Determinants of Domestic Violence Suffered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...

  14. 153 Socio-economic Determinants of Domestic Violence Suffered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebay

    effects of domestic violence. Key Words: Socio-economic determinants of women voilence, women, domestic violence. .... communities of the nation, this study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by .... study area fall under emotional/psychological violence. This agrees with the findings.

  15. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo S. Tilvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from loneliness was assessed with one question and participants were categorized as lonely or not lonely. Total mortality was retrieved from the National Population Information System. Results. Of 3687 respondents, 39% suffered from loneliness. Lonely people were more likely to be deceased during the 57-month follow-up (31% than subjects not feeling lonely (23%, <.001. Excess mortality (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.21-1.57 of lonely people increased over time. After controlling for age and gender, the mortality risk of the lonely individuals was 1.33 (95% CI=1.17-1.51 and after further controlling for subjective health 1.17 (CI=1.02-1.33. The excess mortality was consistent in all major subgroups. Conclusion. Suffering from loneliness is common and indicates significant mortality risk in old age.

  16. Sociable Weavers Increase Cooperative Nest Construction after Suffering Aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M Leighton

    Full Text Available The major transitions in evolution rely on the formation of stable groups that are composed of previously independent units, and the stability of these groups requires both cooperation and reduced conflict. Conflict over group resources may be common, as suggested by work in both cichlids and humans that has investigated how societies resolve conflict regarding investment in group resources, i.e. public goods. We investigated whether sociable weavers (Philetairus socius use aggressive behaviors to modulate the cooperative behavior of group mates. We find that the individuals that build the communal thatch of the nest, i.e. the individuals most at risk of exploitation, are the most aggressive individuals. We show that individuals that invest in interior chamber maintenance, possibly a more selfish behavior, suffer relatively more aggression. After suffering aggression individuals significantly increase cooperative construction of the communal nest thatch. We show that cooperative individuals target aggression towards selfish individuals, and the individuals suffering aggression perform cooperative behaviors subsequent to suffering aggression. In addition to other evolutionary mechanisms, these results suggest that aggression, possibly via the pay-to-stay mechanism, is possibly being used to maintain a public good.

  17. The Joy of Suffering: Nietzsche, theodicy and women's | Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    explore how, through a process of creative deception, this suffering comes to be experienced as pleasure. That is, the women reconstruct their bodies using two dominant stories to which they have access: Christianity and glamorous. Brazilian soap operas. South African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 26 (1) 2007: pp. 31-43 ...

  18. Leprosy Sufferers' Perception Of Social Stigma As A Determinant Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at relating leprosy sufferers perception of social stigma to their lifestyles. Eighty leprosy affected persons comprising males and females drawn from Delta State Government Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Center participated in this study. A focus group discussion schedule containing information about ...

  19. Evaluation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in nigerians suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are conflicting reports on the role of plasma lipids in depressive illness. Very little is known about the lipid and lipoprotein status in Nigerian adults suffering from depression. One hundred subjects consisting of sixty (60) depressed patients with mean age (40.3±12.3 yrs) and forty (40) apparently healthy controls ...

  20. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  1. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  2. Might Avatar-Mediated Interactions Rehabilitate People Suffering from Aphasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Many people suffering from communication disabilities after a brain injury have difficulties coming to terms with their new self as disabled persons. Being unable to deal with these problems verbally exacerbates the condition. As a result they often isolate socially and develop low self-esteem...

  3. Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

  4. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  5. Suffering of childless women in Bangladesh: the intersection of social identities of gender and class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; Richters, Annemiek

    2011-12-01

    Research has documented that, around the world, women who are childless against their will suffer from an array of social, economic and emotional difficulties. The causes of this suffering are primarily related to their gender position in society and their gender identity. This paper addresses the impact of class differences on the gender-related suffering of childless women in the socially very hierarchically structured society of Bangladesh. The main method was gathering life histories of illiterate rural poor childless women and educated urban middle-class childless women. The rural childless women experience strong stigma in society, as their identity is devalued due to their inability to produce children. As a result, they suffer from feelings of guilt, role failure, loss of self-esteem, abandonment by the family, social isolation, and impoverishment. In contrast, because of their relatively high socio-economic status and good educational background, urban childless women have more opportunities to avail themselves of alternative social identities and thus avoid social isolation. Despite these differences, both groups of women lead frustrated lives, burdened with a deep sense of guilt for not being able to produce children.

  6. [Violence and mental suffering among men in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Fernando Pessoa de; Barros, Claudia Renata dos Santos; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the association between male mental health problems and violence experienced. Cross sectional study with 477 males aged between 18 and 60, users of two primary healthcare centers in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The selection for the sample was based on a sequentiality criterion, according to the order of arrival of the users. Sociodemographic and health characteristics and reports of having experienced violence at any time and/or having witnessed violence in childhood were collected. Information was also collected on the use of mental health services and/or psychological complaints/diagnoses during consultation at medical clinics by reading medical records, to categorize the dependent variable "mental suffering". The variables were described as absolute and relative frequencies. The association was tested using a confirmatory Poisson model with robust variance adjusted for age, marital status, education, violence witnessed in childhood and psychoactive substance use. The prevalence of mental suffering was 29.4%. Mental suffering was associated with experiencing repeated physical and/or sexual violence (RP 1.75, 95%CI 1.13;2.72). The association with a single episode of violence lost significance after the inclusion of psychoactive substance use in the model. Analysis of the fraction attributable to repetitive physical and/or sexual violence for the mental suffering of the men, verified it as 30.4%. The relationship between violence and mental suffering, already highlighted in studies with women, is also relevant to men's health, drawing attention to the similar need of identification, in the health services, of situations of violence experienced by the male population. For men, this relationship was shown to be influenced by the presence of psychoactive substance use; a situation which must be dealt with, more and in a better way, by the health care service.

  7. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  8. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  9. Attitudes towards treatment among patients suffering from sleep disorders. A Latin American survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloret Santiago

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sleep disorders are common, they frequently remain unnoticed by the general practitioner. Few data are available about the willingness and reasons of patients with sleep disturbances to seek for medical assistance. Methods The results of a cross-sectional community-based multinational survey in three major Latin American urban areas, i.e. Buenos Aires, Mexico City and Sao Paulo, are reported. Two-hundred subjects suffering sleep disturbances and 100 non-sufferers were selected from the general population in each city (total number: 600 sufferers vs. 300 non-sufferers. A structured interview was conducted, sleep characteristics, feelings about sleep disturbances and strategies to cope with those problems being recorded. Data were analyzed by employing either t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA to the Z-transformed proportions. Results 22.7 ± 3.5 % (mean ± SEM of subjects reported to suffer from sleep disturbances every night. About 3 out of 4 (74.2 ± 2.0 % considered their disorder as mild and were not very concerned about it. Only 31 ± 2 % of sufferers reported to have sought for medical help. Although 45 ± 2 % of sufferers reported frequent daily sleepiness, trouble to remember things, irritability and headaches, they did not seek for medical assistance. Among those patients who saw a physician with complaints different from sleep difficulties only 1 out of 3 (33 ± 2 % of patients were asked about quality of their sleep by the incumbent practitioner. Strategies of patients to cope with sleep problems included specific behaviors (taking a warm bath, reading or watching TV (44 ± 1.6 %, taking herbal beverages (17 ± 1.2 % or taking sleeping pills (10 ± 1.1 %. Benzodiazepines were consumed by 3 ± 0.6 % of sufferers. Conclusion Public educational campaigns on the consequences of sleep disorders and an adequate training of physicians in sleep medicine are needed to educate both the public and the general

  10. Lead Level in Pregnant Women Suffering from Pre- Ec-lampsia in Baghdad City- Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assala G. H. Al-Shammery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on the number of pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia who live in different areas in Baghdad city. These areas were suffering from air pol-lution by different pollutants in high rates and it was chosen from among these pollutants lead metal which is a high percentage of air pollution where it was observed by measuring the level of lead in blood serum which taken from pregnant women by 40 pregnant women suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia and 20 pregnant women don't suffering from any abnormal symptoms during pregnancy period and classified as control group , so we found marked a significant rise in lead level in comparison with control group reaching ratio of lead in blood of pregnant women which suffering from symptoms of preeclampsia 38.44 mg/dl ± 3.0 mg/dl in comparison with con-trol group which 14.56 mg/d l± 2.50 mg/dl,this increase may refer to the amount of lead which found in the air and in excess of the normal limit which exposed pregnant women like all people through the overcrowding of roads and use fuel non-environmentally friendly through breathing which effect on pregnant women health, it has been shown on symptoms of preeclampsia from measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure and measuring of urea in blood, T-test was used at possibility of(0.001to see the difference between infected samples and control group, therefore this study suggested that a lead is one of the causes of preeclampsia because live in polluted and unhealthy environment. (pt space line

  11. Marketing animal-friendly products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  12. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  13. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.

  14. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    , and even whole genomes, has brought a new stability to the field. The book brings together the information from these varied fields, and demonstrates that it is indeed now possible to build a phylogenetic tree from a combination of both morphology and gene sequences. This thoroughly revised third edition......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  15. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  16. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  17. Violence against wives: a silent suffering in northern Saudi community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Elfetoh, Nagah M; Abd El-Mawgod, Mohamed M

    2015-09-01

    Violence against women is a worldwide epidemic. It may take different forms depending on history, culture, background, and experiences, but it causes great suffering for women, their families, and the communities in which they live. Despite its high prevalence, no previous studies that have been conducted in Arar, northern area of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), addressing this issue could be traced. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and determinants of violence experienced by ever-married women attending primary health centers in Arar city, Northern Border, KSA. This study is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period from January to June 2014 in Arar city in the Northern Province of the KSA. Data were collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 208 wives (184 currently married, 16 divorced, and eight widowed) attending five randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Arar, KSA, were interviewed. Collected data provided information on both physical and emotional violence. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence in the studied group was 80.7 and 100.0% for physical and psychological violence, respectively. On studying the reasons for physical violence, half (50%) of the participants reported no clear cause, 19.2% reported failure to adequately care for children (such as cleaning, feeding, and dressing), and 7.8% reported causes related to poor scholastic achievement and couple conflict about appropriate approaches of upbringing of children. Suspicion on wife's fidelity was the most common form of psychological violence (21%). The perpetrator was the husband in 76.9% of cases and the husband's family was the perpetrator in 3.8% of cases. Physical violence was significantly higher during the first 10 years of marriage compared with other durations. University-educated husbands showed significantly lower percentage of physical violence against women compared with those of other

  18. Everyday suffering outside prison walls: a legacy of community justice in post-genocide Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutayisire, Théoneste; Richters, Annemiek

    2014-11-01

    Twenty years after the 1994 genocide, Rwanda shows all indications of moving quickly towards socio-economic prosperity. Rwanda's community justice system, Gacaca, was to complement this prosperity by establishing peace and stability through justice, reconciliation and healing. Evaluations of the Gacaca courts' achievements from 2002 to 2012 have had widely differing conclusions. This article adds to previous evaluations by drawing attention to specific forms of relatively neglected suffering (in literature and public space) that have emerged from the Gacaca courts or were amplified by these courts and jeopardize Gacaca's objectives. The ethnographic study that informs the article was conducted in southeastern Rwanda from September 2008-December 2012 among 19 ex-prisoners and 24 women with husbands in prison including their family members, friends and neighbors. Study findings suggest that large scale imprisonment of genocide suspects coupled with Gacaca court proceedings have tainted the suffering of ex-prisoners and women with imprisoned husbands in unique ways, which makes their plight unparalleled in other countries. We argue that the nature and scale of this suffering and the potentially detrimental impact on families and communities require humanitarian action. However, in Rwanda's post-genocide reality, the suffering of these two groups is overwhelmed by that of other vulnerable groups, such as genocide survivors and orphaned children; hence it is rarely acknowledged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  20. Understanding philosophical animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Una

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the Predrag Krstić's book Philosophical Animal author is trying to find hers way through a broad and complex web of philosophies and roles that different animals play in them. The main question is how to understand philosophy itself in a present day context, which philosophy is supposed to think and rethink through. Animals as presented in concepts, more precisely philosophical contexts, open one interesting and innovative way to deal with this question, balancing between tradition of philosophy and its presence, structure of philosophical arguments and questioning of language of philosophy, abstract and individual. In this frame philosopher as the true philosophical animal is revealed as the main symbol that requires analysis in his philosophical strategies.

  1. Engendering social suffering: a Chinese diasporic community in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how reproducing Chineseness has become a source of social suffering through the case study of a group of Yunnan Chinese who escaped Chinese communist rules in the Mainland in 1949 or shortly after and settled in northern Thailand in the 1960s. As self-proclaimed carriers of traditional Chinese culture, they worked arduously to replicate whatever they considered 'authentic' Chinese through a narrow interpretation of the Confucian moral tenets in daily life. The (re)establishment of a patriarchal social order in Thailand - a society with a relatively high level of gender-equality, has inflicted tremendous pain and suffering among women and youth in this reified society. Ethnographic fieldwork, upon which this paper was based, was conducted in Maehong Village, Chiang Mai Province, between 2002 and 2007.

  2. [Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maissiat, Greisse da Silveira; Lautert, Liana; Pai, Daiane Dal; Tavares, Juliana Petri

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT) and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST). Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Organization (91.3%) and work conditions (64%) received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%), freedom of expression (62.4%) and recognition (59.9%). However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (psatisfaction.

  3. Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greisse da Silveira Maissiat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST. Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. RESULTS: Organization (91.3% and work conditions (64% received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%, freedom of expression (62.4% and recognition (59.9%. However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The workers evaluated their work context as inappropriate and complained of exhaustion, although they claimed their work affords some satisfaction.

  4. Swedish ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Ricard; Engström, Åsa

    2013-04-01

    Effective pre-hospital treatment of a person suffering cardiac arrest is a challenging task for the ambulance nurses. The aim of this study was to describe ambulance nurses' experiences of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrest. Qualitative personal interviews were conducted during 2011 in Sweden with seven ambulance nurses with experience of nursing patients suffering cardiac arrests. The interview texts were analyzed using qualitative thematic content analysis, which resulted in the formulation of one theme with six categories. Mutual preparation, regular training and education were important factors in the nursing of patients suffering cardiac arrest. Ambulance nurses are placed in ethically demanding situations regarding if and for how long they should continue cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to accord with pre-hospital cardiac guidelines and patients' wishes. When a cardiac arrest patient is nursed their relatives also need the attention of ambulance nurses. Reflection is one way for ambulance nurses to learn from, and talk about, their experiences. This study provides knowledge of ambulance nurses' experiences in the care of people with cardiac arrest. Better feedback about the care given by the ambulance nurses, and about the diagnosis and nursing care the patients received after they were admitted to the hospital are suggested as improvements that would allow ambulance nurses to learn more from their experience. Further development and research concerning the technical equipment might improve the situation for both the ambulance nurses and the patients. Ambulance nurses need regularly training and education to be prepared for saving people's lives and also to be able to make the right decisions. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Did Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky suffer from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian R; Novikov, Vladimir P I; Regard, Marianne; Siegel, Adrian M

    2005-07-01

    Many scientific authors--among them famous names such as Henri Gastaut or Sigmund Freud--dealt with the question from what kind of epilepsy Fyodor Mikhailovitch Dostoevsky (1821-1881) might had suffered. Because of the tight interplay between Dostoevsky's literary work and his own disease we throw light on the author's epilepsy against the background of his epileptic fictional characters. Moreover, we attempt to classify Dostoevsky's epilepsy on the basis of his bibliography, language, and literary work.

  6. Suffering transaction: a process of reflecting and understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Shyh-Heng

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the transaction of the lived experience of ‘suffering’ in the process of psychotherapy. ‘Suffering’ is conceptualised as having its weight and value transacted between a psychotherapist and his or her client. As a psychotherapist from a family with a disabled member, my fieldwork in a hospital with the parents of disabled children was conducted in Taiwan. The development of our therapeutic relationship was discovered as the process of ‘suffering transaction’...

  7. Drug Abuse In Women suffering from Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Krankusová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...

  8. Hospitalized patients experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2005-09-01

    The concept 'suffering' has been central within nursing since Florence Nightingale. But few researchers have made empirical studies about the lived phenomenon. Several researchers within nursing agree that more research concerning individual groups of patients has to be initiated. Within research about patients with incurable cancer focus has been on death, the terminal period and patients experience of being dying. This qualitative study was initiated to describe the characteristics of a group of Danish hospitalized patients' experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were arranged with 12 patients ones a week within a period of 4 weeks. In week 2 and 4, the interviews were supplemented by questions developed on the basis of the potential signs of suffering which appeared during the participant observations that took place the day before each interview. C. S. Peirce's semiotic and phenomenological grounded theory of signs was used in order to identify the potential signs. A phenomenological methodology developed by A. Giorgi was used to develop and describe the general structure of the phenomenon. The phenomenon is described as: 'The experience of living in an increasingly unpredictable existents at the mercy of the body, the consciousness, the illness, the death, the treatment, the professionals, one's articulateness, the past, the present and the future, influenced by increasing powerlessness, loneliness and isolation, and the experience of existing in an persistent, and with time, unconquerable struggle to maintain and regain control'.

  9. Mental suffering and the DSM-5: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn; Devisch, Ignaas

    2014-12-01

    The definition of mental disorder included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), indicates that mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress. However, the handbook is vague with respect to whether distress is crucial to the diagnosis of mental disorders, and a conceptual framework on the precise nature of distress is lacking. As a result, it remains vague how the term 'distress' is to be taken into account in actual diagnostic situations: the DSM-5 provides no operational framework for diagnosing distress. The authors argue that the work of Georges Canguilhem, who focuses on the topic of abnormality and pathology, and Paul Ricoeur's philosophical reflections on the theme of mental suffering may provide a structure for conceptualizing and evaluating distress. Ricoeur's phenomenological model of mental suffering is discussed. Here, mental suffering can be thought of in terms of the relationship between self and other, and also in terms of the continuum made up by, what he terms, languishing and acting. Ricoeur suggests that distress is not a quantity that can be measured, but a characteristic that should be studied qualitatively in interpersonal and narrative contexts. Consequently, diagnosticians should describe and document how individuals experience subjective distress. On a practical level, this means that clinicians' ideas about patients' distress should be embedded in case formulations. A detailed evaluation of an individual's pathos-experience should be made before conclusions are drawn with regard to diagnosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. MLVA genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates from different animal species and humans and identification of Brucella suis vaccine strain S2 from cattle in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Jiang

    Full Text Available In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3 is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82 belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the 'East Mediterranean' group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the 'Americas' group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal. The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70 were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs.

  11. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and The Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization[1].Animal experimentation is fundamental to the biomedical sciences, not only for the advancement of specific vital processes, but also for the improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease both in man and in animals. The use of animals is also indispensable for testing the potency and safety of biological substances used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for determining the toxicity of the rapidly growing number of molecules that never existed before in nature and which may represent a hazard to health. This extensive exploitation by man of animals implies philosophical and moral problems that are not peculiar to their use for scientific purposes, and there are no objective ethical criteria by which to judge claims and counterclaims in such matters[2]. However, there is a consensus that „deliberate cruelty is repugnant”.While many countries have general laws or regulations imposing penalties for ill-treatment of animals, relatively few make specific provision for their use for scientific purposes. Because of differing legal systems and cultural backgrounds there are varying approaches to the use of

  12. The substance of love when encountering suffering: an interpretative research synthesis with an abductive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kari Marie; Eriksson, Katie; Råholm, Maj-Britt

    2013-06-01

    This study presents the results of an interpretative research synthesis undertaken to explore the essence of love when encountering suffering. The idea of caring as an expression of love and compassion belongs with ideas that have shaped caring for hundreds of years. Love and suffering are the core concepts in caring science and thus demand a basic research approach. The synthesis was undertaken by the interpretation of 15 articles focusing on love in different aspects, but within a caring science perspective. The research process was guided by a hermeneutical perspective with an abductive approach. The substance of love, when encountering suffering, reveals itself in three themes: love as a holy power, love as fundamental for being and love as an ethical act, which are to be found, respectively, within three dimensions: love as holiness, love as a communion and love as an art. Love is a holy power and encompasses everything; it is the well of strength that heals. No human can exist without love: this points to the ethical responsibility one has as a neighbour. In the ethical act, love is evident in concrete caring actions. The core of the substance of love within the three dimensions can be understood as agape. Agape connects and mirrors the dimensions, while at the same time it is clear that agape stems from and moves towards holiness, enabling love to be the ethical foundation when encountering suffering. Through the dimensions of love as communion and love as an art agape intertwine with eros forming caritas enabling the human being to move towards the dimension of holiness, which signifies becoming through suffering. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation of Antimicrobial ...

  14. Assessment of the Personal Losses Suffered by Correctional Officers due to Burnout Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    RG Stoyanova; SN Harizanova

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professional burnout is defined as a state of depletion and loss of motivation accompanied by different mental and physical symptoms. Objective: To assess personal losses suffered by correctional officers due to burnout. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted between June and December 2012 included 201 correctional officers in two Bulgarian prisons. The mean age of the whole group was 41.2 (SD 8.0) years. The respondents was mostly male (56.7%), married (72.6%), had...

  15. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  16. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...... control for private good attributes such as food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that altruistic motives may play an important role in the demand for agricultural products....

  17. MLVA Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus Isolates from Different Animal Species and Humans and Identification of Brucella suis Vaccine Strain S2 from Cattle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liqing; Hu, Guiying; Ma, Junying; Xiao, Pei; Fan, Weixing; Di, Dongdong; Tian, Guozhong; Fan, Mengguang; Mi, Jingchuan; Yu, Ruiping; Song, Litao; Zhao, Hongyan; Piao, Dongri; Cui, Buyun

    2013-01-01

    In China, brucellosis is an endemic disease and the main sources of brucellosis in animals and humans are infected sheep, cattle and swine. Brucella melitensis (biovars 1 and 3) is the predominant species, associated with sporadic cases and outbreak in humans. Isolates of B. abortus, primarily biovars 1 and 3, and B. suis biovars 1 and 3 are also associated with sporadic human brucellosis. In this study, the genetic profiles of B. melitensis and B. abortus isolates from humans and animals were analyzed and compared by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Among the B. melitensis isolates, the majority (74/82) belonged to MLVA8 genotype 42, clustering in the ‘East Mediterranean’ group. Two B. melitensis biovar 1 genotype 47 isolates, belonging to the ‘Americas’ group, were recovered; both were from the Himalayan blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, a wild animal). The majority of B. abortus isolates (51/70) were biovar 3, genotype 36. Ten B. suis biovar 1 field isolates, including seven outbreak isolates recovered from a cattle farm in Inner Mongolia, were genetically indistinguishable from the vaccine strain S2, based on MLVA cluster analysis. MLVA analysis provided important information for epidemiological trace-back. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to associate Brucella cross-infection with the vaccine strain S2 based on molecular comparison of recovered isolates to the vaccine strain. MLVA typing could be an essential assay to improve brucellosis surveillance and control programs. PMID:24124546

  18. Anxiety and depression in patients suffering from chronic low backache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.R.; Saleem, B.; Ahsin, S.; Farooqi, A.Z.; Farooqi, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with chronic low backache and to document other co-morbidities among these patients presenting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from July 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 170 chronic low backache patients were administered urdu translated Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scales. Scoring was done on Likert-type scale of 1-4 (based on these replies: a little of the time, some of the time, good part of the time, most of the time) with overall assessment by cumulative score ranging from 20 to 80, where 20-44 was normal range, 45-59 mildly depressed/anxious, 60-69 moderately depressed / anxious and 70 and above severely depressed / anxious. Results: Out of 170 patients, 157 patients above 18 years of age with male to female ratio 2:3 completed the study. Among study sample 72.2% had mild depression, 21.6% had mild anxiety, 32% had mixed mild anxiety and depression, 0.8% had severe depression, 1.6% had severe anxiety while 2.4% suffered from severe mixed symptoms. Overall, 125 (79.6%) patients were suffering from mild to severe form of depression and anxiety both alone or mixed. Obesity was present in 34 (21.66%) of patients with chronic backache and out of these 29 (85.3%) had psychological co-morbidity. Conclusion: Two thirds of the chronic backache patients reporting at rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital were suffering from mild to severe degree of depression and anxiety. This worrying situation calls for thorough systematic evaluation of all chronic backache patient arriving at rheumatology clinic for mood disorders and psychological ailment. (author)

  19. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  20. [Cultural structures that determine suffering among various populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagés Larraya, F

    1986-09-01

    The cross-cultural consideration of our Psychiatric Epidemiology Program outlined the profile of the madman and his discourse as both mirror and enigma of his cultural community. This enigma occurs as a result of the suffering, the violence and the slyness inherent to creativity, in the sense that his own accomplishments are inexorably questionable because of the ubiquitous presence of the tragic and das Unheimliche. The madman "malgré soi" becomes a perfect interpreter of the cultural crisis and is a real key to his deepest structural interpretation. Therefore, we uphold a "tragic erasmism" and from then on discuss the hermeneutics of Nietzsche, Freud and Heidegger.

  1. [Difficulties at work and work motivation of ulcerative colitis suffers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Ayami; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2015-01-01

    Because ulcerative colitis (UC) repeats remission and relapse, it is necessary to keep the condition at the relapse time in mind when considering support to provide UC suffers with at the workplace. The aim of this survey was to clarify the difficulties at work and work motivation that UC suffers feel at present and experience at the worsening time, and the factors for maintaining work motivation. We carried out an anonymous questionnaire survey of patients with present or past work experience. The difficulties at work (17 items) and work motivation (4 items) in the past week and at the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work were investigated using a newly designed questionnaire. We regarded the time in the past week as the present, and the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work as the worsening time. There were 70 respondents (response rate 32.0%). Their mean age was 43.8 years, and their mean age at onset was 33.8 years. All subjects, except 2 subjects after surgery, took medicine. Fifty-three (75.7%) of the subjects were in remission at the present, and most of them (91.4%) managed their physical condition well. Difficulties at work that many subjects worried about at the present were relevant to work conditions, such as "Others at workplace do not understand having an intractable and relapsing disease" (41.4%) or "Feel delayed or lack of chance of promotion or career advancement due to the disease" (38.6%). At the worsening time, the management of physical condition went wrong, and the frequency of hospital visits was increased, but few subjects consulted with superiors or colleagues at workplace. Difficulties at work that many subjects underwent at the worsening time were relevant to symptoms, such as "Feel physically tired" (80.0%) or "Decline foods or alcoholic beverages offered at business parties" (72.9%). Those who maintained work motivation even at the worsening time received no work-related consideration and had an

  2. Correlates of perceptions of elder’s suffering from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Kane

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated social work students’ perceptions of elders as depressed and suffering (N= 156. Four predictor variables were identified from a standard regression analysis that account for 32% of the model’s adjusted variance: (a perceptions of elders as vulnerable, (b perceptions about elders as oppressed. Overall, respondents perceived elders as being depressed, vulnerable, members of an oppressed group, abusive of substances, and only moderately resilient in response to mental health services. Implications are discussed for social work education.

  3. Impact of culture on the expression of pain and suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Simon

    2011-10-01

    A primary human challenge is how to alleviate suffering and loss. One way is through culture. The core characteristics of culture are symbols, sharing and groups. These three factors enable society to help the individual cope with loss. In the modern age traditional culture is disintegrating and is being replaced. Often it is outstanding individuals who provide the impetus and tools with which to change the culture and to adapt to new challenges. One lesson to be drawn from the discussion is the idea of using our culture more pro-actively to routinely contemplate loss, ageing and death.

  4. Quantitative resistance level (MIC) of Escherichia coli isolated from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis: national resistance monitoring by the BVL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, Ulrike; Kaspar, Heike; Wallmann, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    National Resistance Monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL), which was put into service in 2001, has made it possible to implement a valid and representative database on the basis of which the resistance situation, development and spread in animal pathogens can be evaluated. Escherichia coil (E. coli) strains originating from calves and pigs suffering from enteritis were first included in the investigations in the 2004/2005 study. A total of 258 bovine and 492 porcine E. coli strains were tested using the broth microdilution method to determine the in vitro susceptibility (minimum inhibitory concentration) to 23 (fattening pigs) and 28 (calves, piglets, weaners) different antimicrobial substances. Considerable prevalences of resistance were found for some antimicrobials. The strains originating from both animal species displayed high prevalences of resistance for tetracycline, trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline and ampicillin. Reduced susceptibility was detected particularly in the E. coli strains from calves. The data reveal that the resistance level of E. coli strains isolated from cases of enteric disease in calves and pigs is altogether higher than has so far been reported in pathogens causing different diseases and in other food-producing animal species. Based on the results presented, it is possible to assess the current resistance situation for E. coli strains in calves and pigs in Germany. This in turn helps to deduce the necessary management measures that can be taken in order to minimise resistance to antibiotics. Furthermore, the data help to decide on adequate therapy of E. coli infections of the intestinal tract in calves and pigs and encourage the responsible use of antibiotics in the interests of animal health and consumer protection.

  5. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare

  6. Specificity and generalization of attentional bias in sexual trauma victims suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurkens, Pascal; Rinck, Mike; van Minnen, Agnes

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated specificity of attentional biases for trauma-related stimuli using an Emotional Stroop Task. Participants were 14 women suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who had experienced a sexual trauma and 24 healthy non-traumatized women. They were asked to name print colors of 4 different word types: threatening sexual violence words and non-threatening sexual words, threatening accident trauma words, and positive words. Compared to control participants, PTSD patients displayed increased interference by threatening trauma-related, but not by accident trauma and positive words. Interference by non-threatening sexual words occurred as well, but only in those patients who suffered from more severe PTSD arousal symptoms. These findings suggest graded generalization of the attentional bias across stimuli of varying emotional valence, but specificity regarding the trauma topic. Results are discussed in light of current cognitive models of PTSD, and clinical implications are suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Narrating Trauma and Suffering: Towards Understanding Intersubjectively Constituted Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan K. Coetzee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Remembering is a complex and notoriously fallible process. This is partly because memory is not an exclusively individual act. Not only what we remember, but the way we remember is influenced by social circumstances and co-constructed worldviews, as well as by our personal needs and perspectives. In the context of the research interview, the researcher-participant relationship also mediates how experience is re-membered and narrated. All these factors need to be taken into account when, as social researchers, we attempt to unpack the meanings and motives that underlie what research participants say. This paper aims to show how interviewees who have endured traumatic experiences for prolonged periods of time remember, reflect on and articulate their suffering. To illustrate how personal memories of lived, real experiences intertwine with socially and contextually embedded values and relationships we draw on the narratives of former political prisoners in South Africa and in erstwhile Czechoslovakia. We also present narratives of South African street children, and women living with HIV/AIDS. When interpreting the in-depth data that show how participants remember their experience of suffering, we find that the very nature of memory poses a hermeneutical challenge. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902144

  8. Cyberhugs: creating a voice for chronic pain sufferers through technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karin L

    2013-02-01

    Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined.

  9. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  10. Animal continuities. Arguments against human/non-human animal dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ignacio Vernal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is still a deep need to differentiate the members of the species Homo sapiens from the individuals belonging to the rest of the animal kingdom. As a consequence of this need arises the dichotomy human/non-human animal based on artificial and groundless differences that leads to actions always harmful to the non-human animals. In this work we want to show, on the one hand, that many of the characteristics proposed as specifically human are shared by at least some non-human animal species, and on the other hand, that specifically human characteristics do exist, but from this fact does not follow that we should draw a sharp line between human and non-human animals. We reject the speciesist and segregationist perspective that establishes that only human beings possess a singular position in nature. Every animal species has its own characteristics and, therefore, there would be no place for a human exception, but there would be as many exceptions as animal species exist in the nature. Instead of the abyss established between human animals and non-human animals, we defend the perspective of the animal continuum, which allows recognizing the characteristics that we share with other animal species and, therefore, promotes the end of the speciesism.

  11. Animal intelligence as encephalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerison, H J

    1985-02-13

    There is no consensus on the nature of animal intelligence despite a century of research, though recent work on cognitive capacities of dolphins and great apes seems to be on one right track. The most precise quantitative analyses have been of relative brain size, or structural encephalization, undertaken to find biological correlates of mind in animals. Encephalization and its evolution are remarkably orderly, and if the idea of intelligence were unknown it would have to be invented to explain encephalization. The scientific question is: what behaviour or dimensions of behaviour evolved when encephalization evolved? The answer: the relatively unusual behaviours that require increased neural information processing capacity, beyond that attributable to differences among species in body size. In this perspective, the different behaviours that depend on augmented processing capacity in different species are evidence of different intelligences (in the plural) that have evolved.

  12. Aquatic animals promote antibiotic resistance gene dissemination in water via conjugation: Role of different regions within the zebra fish intestinal tract, and impact on fish intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jialun; Yang, Dong; Jin, Min; Liu, Weili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Chenyu; Zhao, Tianyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Gao, Zhixian; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Li, Jun-Wen

    2017-10-01

    The aqueous environment is one of many reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Fish, as important aquatic animals which possess ideal intestinal niches for bacteria to grow and multiply, may ingest antibiotic resistance bacteria from aqueous environment. The fish gut would be a suitable environment for conjugal gene transfer including those encoding antibiotic resistance. However, little is known in relation to the impact of ingested ARGs or antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) on gut microbiota. Here, we applied the cultivation method, qPCR, nuclear molecular genetic marker and 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing technologies to develop a plasmid-mediated ARG transfer model of zebrafish. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the dissemination of ARGs in microbial communities of zebrafish guts after donors carrying self-transferring plasmids that encode ARGs were introduced in aquaria. On average, 15% of faecal bacteria obtained ARGs through RP4-mediated conjugal transfer. The hindgut was the most important intestinal region supporting ARG dissemination, with concentrations of donor and transconjugant cells almost 25 times higher than those of other intestinal segments. Furthermore, in the hindgut where conjugal transfer occurred most actively, there was remarkable upregulation of the mRNA expression of the RP4 plasmid regulatory genes, trbBp and trfAp. Exogenous bacteria seem to alter bacterial communities by increasing Escherichia and Bacteroides species, while decreasing Aeromonas compared with control groups. We identified the composition of transconjugants and abundance of both cultivable and uncultivable bacteria (the latter accounted for 90.4%-97.2% of total transconjugants). Our study suggests that aquatic animal guts contribute to the spread of ARGs in water environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Developing a microbiological growth inhibition screening assay for the detection of 27 veterinary drugs from 13 different classes in animal feedingstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Torsten; Pellet, Terence; Boscher, Aurore; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    Many regulations prohibit using veterinary drugs in feedingstuffs to protect consumers and animals alike. Within this investigation we developed a simple, cost-efficient primary screening method for detecting antibiotics and coccidiostats in animal feeds. Thirty-two veterinary drugs were originally considered. Following matrix-free testing to optimise detection, an assay based on matrix extraction with methanol/acetonitrile/phosphate buffer followed by inoculation and diffusion in agar plates was developed. Final validation was performed with 14 representative drugs (one per drug class) and four bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC11303 and ATCC27166, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538P, Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341) in bovine, lamb and swine fodder, measuring growth inhibition zones. Of the original drugs tested, 27 remained detectable in feed matrices at or below 20 mg kg(-1). Of the 14 validated representatives, two had estimated minimum detectable concentrations of 10-11 mg kg(-1), others of 5 mg kg(-1) or lower, an earlier minimum European Union inclusion rate for many veterinary drugs. No significant matrix effect on inhibition zones was detected. Per cent wrong negative deviations ranged from 0% (nine of 14 compounds) to 20-27% (two of 14), while inter-day precision based on inhibition zones had relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 6-109% (mean of 40%). When setting a 1 mm inhibition zone, the maximum observed for negative controls, as a cut-off level, no false-positives were found. While not all targeted antibiotics were detectable in complex matrices, the majority of veterinary drugs were detected with reasonable sensitivity, indicating that this method could be suitable for screening feedingstuffs prior to further confirmatory investigation of positive findings such as by LC-MS/MS.

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  15. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  16. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  17. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  18. Improving Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation In Rats Suffering From Zinc Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E is a membrane-bound soluble lipid and naturally occurring antioxidant which protects animal tissues against oxidative damage. Several studies have suggested a possible interaction between zinc status and vitamin E in animals. The current investigation was conduced to elucidate the improving effect of vitamin E supplementation on some selected biochemical variables in the blood and tissues of albino rats suffering from zinc deficiency.Zinc deficiency was induced in rats by feeding male rats a low zinc diet for 6 weeks. Dietary vitamin E and zinc, separated or combined, were used to ameliorate the impacts of zinc deficiency in the last two weeks of the experiment. Fifty male albino rats weighing 70-80g in 5 equal groups were given for 6 weeks five semi purified diets different in their contents of vitamin E and zinc / kg diet as follows: Zn adequate diet (Zn =35 ppm) for group (I) served as control, Zn deficient diet (Zn = 3 ppm) for group (II), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc (Zn = 84 ppm) for group (III), Zn deficient diet plus supplemental vitamin E (50 IU) for group (IV) and Zn deficient diet plus supplemental zinc and vitamin E (Zn = 84 ppm + i.p. 50 IU vitamin E) for group (V). Supplemental zinc and vitamin E were only given on the last two weeks of the experiment.The obtained results revealed that Zn deficiency led to a significant (P 4 , T 3 and testosterone levels were declined significantly in Zn deficient rats as well as a significant (P < 0.05) rise in TSH level as compared with their levels in the Zn deficient rats supplemented with Zn and vitamin E.In contrast, the concentration of serum total cholesterol (T.Chol) and triglycerides (TG) in Zn deficient rats were significantly increased than those recorded in control group. On the other hand, the activities of cytochrome P450 reductase and microsomal NADPH reductase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in liver homogenates while significant increase was recorded in their corresponding

  19. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  20. RESTRAINING OF WILD ANIMALS WITH CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedad Škapur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal restrainment technique is one of the most complex procedures in the veterinary practice. Restraining of wild, zoo and exotic animals is completly different from restraining of domestic animals. The restraining and anesthesia processes of the wild animals are often conducted by using a dart gun and blow pipe with the automatic syringes and gas guns, and with application of different chemical preparation/drugs. Key words: restraning, wild, zoo, exotic, animals

  1. Representation of victims’ suffering in violent conflicts: scope, obstacles and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila De Gamboa Tapias

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to analyze the types of moral feelings that victims’ testimonies should arouse among members of a political community that purports to be democratic, inclusive and respective of human rights. Hand in hand with Avishai Margalit, Tzvetan Todorov, Peter Strawson, Martha Nussbaum, Elizabeth Spelman and Manuel Reyes Mate, throughout the text we defend the thesis that the narrations and representations of the victims’ unfair suffering should be able to arouse indignation and informed compassion among citizens. To demonstrate the scope and meaning of this thesis, we will analyze two of the most serious problems faced by a policy that privileges the victims. The first is related to the distortions that may take place when the victims’ narrations are heard and that are largely associated with a kind of sacredness that is assigned to those who testify on the violence they have suffered. The second issue we will analyze is related to the manner in which the members of a political community represent said suffering. Specifically, we will discuss the different forms of trivialization that citizens may give the narrations that represent the damage. In the last part of the text, we shall analyze the exemplary testimony of Harriet Jacobs with the intention of showing how a testimony may generate informed indignation and compassion among the audience.

  2. Utilization of donors who have suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation in intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Cal S; Kaufman, Stuart S; Girlanda, Raffaele; Little, Cheryl M; Rekhtman, Yuliya; Raofi, Vandad; Laurin, Jaqueline M; Shetty, Kirti; Fennelly, Erin M; Johnson, Lynt B; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2008-10-15

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of a person destined to become an organ donor has been associated with overall poor donor quality, especially for the intestinal donor, as splanchnic vasoconstriction that is intended to preserve coronary and cerebral blood flow may result in clinically relevant intestinal ischemia. Outcomes of recipients who receive intestine grafts that have suffered CPR are unknown. We sought to analyze our clinical experience in using intestinal grafts from donors who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation and to evaluate the outcome of recipients of organs coming from resuscitated donors when compared with recipients of nonresuscitated donors. We retrospectively analyzed the donor and recipient charts of all of our intestinal transplants with regard to the performance of donor CPR. Sixty-seven intestinal transplants were performed in 65 patients from November 2003 to December 2007. Twelve donors (18%) were identified as having suffered cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. Mean duration of CPR was 19.3+/-12.7 min. Terminal laboratory profiles of CPR donors and non-CPR donors were similar. Of the 12 resuscitated grafts, two were used for multivisceral, one for a modified multivisceral, seven for liver-intestine, and two for isolated intestinal transplant. There were no significant differences in outcome parameters such as operative time, blood use, ventilation days, length of stay, time to enteral independence, rejection, enteric bacteremia, and survival between the 12 resuscitated grafts and the 55 nonresuscitated grafts. A donor history of cardiac arrest should not automatically exclude the use of the intestine graft for transplantation.

  3. Resources for hyperhidrosis sufferers, patients, and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Lisa J

    2014-10-01

    The excessive sweating of hyperhidrosis creates profound psychosocial, professional, and financial burdens on the individual sufferer; it contributes to impaired self-worth and self-efficacy, decreased satisfaction in all relationships, avoidance of specific careers, and increased expenditures on everything from clothing to medical treatment. Despite morbidity equal to other well-known dermatologic conditions, hyperhidrosis has historically been underacknowledged and undertreated because of the lack of accessible, scientifically accurate information and dispersal of that information within patient and medical communities. Thankfully, the development of the Internet and the work of the not-for-profit International Hyperhidrosis Society (IHHS) have increased awareness of hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bearded ladies: females suffer fitness consequences when bearing male traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierk, Lindsey; Langkilde, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    A central assumption in evolutionary biology is that females of sexually dimorphic species suffer costs when bearing male secondary sexual traits, such as ornamentation. Nevertheless, it is common in nature to observe females bearing rudimentary versions of male ornaments (e.g. 'bearded ladies'), as ornaments can be under similar genetic control in both sexes. Here, we provide evidence that masculinized females incur both social and reproductive costs in nature. Male fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) discriminated against ornamented females during mate choice. Ornamented females had lower reproductive output, and produced eggs that were laid and hatched later than those of non-ornamented females. These findings support established theories of the evolution of sexual dimorphism and intralocus sexual conflict, and raise questions regarding the persistence of masculinizing ornamentation in females.

  5. The suffering witness: a missiological reading of Lamentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Wielenga

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibilities of a missiological reading of the book of Lamentations. Based upon a historical understanding of Lamentations, Christological conclusions are drawn from it with a view on formulating some missiologically relevant guidelines for missionary praxis. This article contends that Lamentations was composed to be used pastorally in an unprecedented crisis in Jerusalem in 586 BCE. In a situation of utter powerlessness and otherlessness the lamenting population was shown a way to rebuild their shattered universe by, paradoxically, reaching out to their God who was not there for them anymore. The suffering witness of Lamentations 3 is used as a Christological model, which is applied to missionary praxis. In the fields of worship and liturgy, aid and assistance and prophetic analysis the church has to continue the witnessing ministry of her Lord, empowered by his Spirit.

  6. Nursing in family environment: caring for person in mental suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Amaral Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the experience of nursing care to person in mental suffering (PMS in the family context. Developed by nursing academic during home attendance, in the 2008.2 semester. The results showed that: is undeniable the family function of the PMS care, becoming the main partner of the heath teams, the care in the perspective of psychosocial rehabilitation influences the attitudes, patterns of response and participation in treatment, resulting in the empowerment of PMS and family. It’s concluded that home attendance contributes to the process of psychosocial rehabilitation of the PMS and assessment of mental health services, subsidizing the formulation of public policies for the sector, especially, in regard to care in perspective of the whole human life.

  7. Doll therapy for dementia sufferers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Koh, Shawn Shao Hong; Tan, Wei Chuan; Chan, Hwei Wuen

    2017-02-01

    Dementia affects more than 47.5 million people worldwide, and the number is expected to continue to increase as the population ages. Doll therapy is an emerging nonpharmacologic management strategy for patients with advanced dementia, especially in patients with challenging behaviours. A total of 12 published studies (mainly cohort and observational studies) were identified and discussed in this systematic review. In most instances, cognitive, behavioural and emotional symptoms were alleviated and overall wellbeing was improved with doll therapy, and dementia sufferers were found to be able to better relate with their external environment. Despite the relative paucity of empirical data and ethical concerns, we are of the opinion that doll therapy is effective for dementia care, is well-aligned with the ethos of person-centred care and should be applied in the management of dementia patients. Future research should include more robust randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Nutritional management of patients suffering of chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Opizzi, A; Bonisio, A; Lingua, S; Cena, H; Giacosa, A; Roggi, C

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional support constitutes a fundamental approach to favour the management of chronic renal failure and to postpone the need of kidney dialysis. The specific goals of the nutrition intervention are: control of protein intake, control of phosphate and of calcium intake, control of potassium intake, control of energy intake, control of lipid intake with clear identification of the polyunsaturated vs monounsaturated vs saturated fatty acid rate, control of vitamin intake, prevention of malnutrition and intervention with oral supplements or artificial nutrition (even if for short time) if malnutrition occurs. The proper management of the nutritional problems of patients with chronic renal failure slows the disease progression, prevents or controls symptoms associated with uremia and postpones the beginning of substitutive treatment that is of hemodialysis or of peritoneal dialysis, thus allowing a better quality of life either in the short or long term for patients suffering of chronic renal failure.

  9. Cornual pregnancy in a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onilda Labrada Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ectopic pregnancy is a pathological entity of great incidence, which is increased, among other things, by each time earlier sexual relations. Cornual pregnancy is as a result of the implantation of the blastocyte within the segment of the fallopian tube that goes into the uterus wall or between the tubal ostium and the proximal portion of the isthmus. This is a case of a cornual pregnancy in which the use of ultrasonography played an essential role for its diagnosis, since it is about a patient suffering from sickle cell anemia, where it was not possible to clinically eliminate the possibility of an occlusive vessel crisis as the cause of abdominal pain. Subtotal hysterectomy of the right tube was performed. The patient’s evolution is satisfactory.

  10. Kumbhakarna : Did he suffer from the disorder of the hypothalamus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om J Lakhani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kumbhakarna was brother of the evil Raavana in the mythological tale of Ramayana. According the legend, Kumbhakarna had an insatiable appetite and thirst and used to sleep for great lengths of time. He also had an uncontrollable temper, which was feared by many. It is our assessment that Kumbhakarna possibly suffered from hypothalamic obesity. Hypothalamic obesity can be defined as significant polyphagia and weight gain that occurs because of structural or function involvement of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus bilaterally. The characteristic features are obesity associated with polyphagia. Somnolence is present in 40% of cases. Sham rage is a characteristic behavioral abnormality seen in these patients. All these symptoms are described in the mythological text while describing Kumbhakarna. The episodic nature of Kumbhakarna′s symptoms can also be explained by another hypothalamic syndrome called Klein-Levine syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by with periodic episodes of somnolence, hyperphagia and hypersexuality along with other behavioral and cognitive difficulties.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  14. [COMMUNICATION AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriček, G; Cerovečki, V; Adžić, Z Ožvačić

    2015-11-01

    Although survey results indicate clear connection between the physician-patient communication and health outcomes, mechanisms of their action are still insufficiently clear. The aim was to investigate the specificity of communication with patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and the impact of good communication on measurable outcomes. We performed PubMed (Medline) search using the following key words: communication, health outcomes, and gastrointestinal diseases. Seven pathways through which communication can lead to better health include increased access to care, greater patient knowledge and shared understanding, higher quality medical decisions, enhanced therapeutic alliances, increased social support, patient agency and empowerment, and better management of emotions. Although these pathways were explored with respect to cancer care, they are certainly applicable to other health conditions as well, including the care of patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Although proposing a number of pathways through which communication can lead to improved health, it should be emphasized that the relative importance of a particular pathway will depend on the outcome of interest, the health condition, where the patient is in the illness trajectory, and the patient’s life circumstances. Besides, research increasingly points to the importance of placebo effect, and it is recommended that health professionals encourage placebo effect by applying precisely targeted communication skills, as the unquestionable and successful part of many treatments. It is important that the clinician knows the possible positive and negative effects of communication on health outcomes, and in daily work consciously maximizes therapeutic effects of communication, reaching its proximal (understanding, satisfaction, clinician-patient agreement, trust, feeling known, rapport, motivation) and intermediate outcomes (access to care, quality medical decision, commitment to

  15. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  16. Demographic Features, Beliefs And Socio–Psychological Impact Of Acne Vulgaris Among Its Sufferers In Two Towns In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaraoha CI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available There is paucity of reports in the demographic knowledge, belief and socio-psychological impact of acne vulgaris sufferers towards the disorder in a black population. This is the first study from Nigeria designed to address this issue. A total of 174 facial acne sufferers completed a self-administered questionnaire, which contained several items mentioning different areas in their belief, knowledge, perception, severity, socio-psychological impact and medication attention. The findings were discussed and compared to those of the Caucasians. The occurrence of the disorder was higher in females (65.0% compared to the males (35.0%. About 54.0% of the female subjects indicated increase in severity of the disorder during their pre-menstrual period. Also 64.9% of acne sufferers indicated increase in severity during the rainy season, while 93.1% of the population implicated stress to perpetuate the severity of the disorder. Most (75.7% of the acne sufferers believed that it is caused by oily diet, 40.8% thought that it is hereditary, while barely 5.2% had at sometime sought doctor's attention. Non- prescription products used by acne sufferers were cleansers and cream/lotions. Psychological abnormalities experienced by the sufferers included social inhibition, depression and anxiety. Pain and discomfort are the psychosomatic symptoms. No major differences were found in the beliefs, misconception and socio-psychological impact of acne sufferers in a black population (Nigeria compared to the Caucasians. There is need to improve the understanding of the disorder in Nigeria through health education programmes

  17. biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naser, H.F.O.

    2004-01-01

    this study investigates the biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases.100 women in premenopausal period (between 30-45 years) were divided into 5 groups:group(1) control, group(2) obese,group (3) HCV non-obese, group(4) HCV obese and group (5) other liver diseases. the obtained results indicated that, for all female-studied groups there were very highly significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist ,hip circumferences, while ,there were non-significant differences in height and waist hip ratio.also there were very highly significant differences in AST, ALT,Alkaline phosphatase,GGT,bilirubin, these results may be due to hepatic injury and metabolic dysfunction. there were very highly significant differences in HDL,triglycerides and total lipids, whereas it was significant difference in cholesterol and non-significant for LDL, these differences might be contributed to obesity and hepatitis virus C infection

  18. Validation of the Explorer® 2.0 test coupled to e-Reader® for the screening of antimicrobials in muscle from different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Luis; Sanz, David; Razquin, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The Explorer(®) 2.0 tube test is a microbial inhibition test for the screening of antimicrobial residues in food samples. The new e-Reader(®) device coupled to Explorer(®) 2.0 operates by incubation at a selected temperature, determination of the endpoint of the assay and interpretation to generate results. This system was validated for muscle samples according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Sensitivity towards 25 substances from several groups of antimicrobials was investigated in a first step. Detection capabilities for six substances representing the six major antimicrobial groups were also determined in bovine muscle. The detection capabilities for amoxicillin (10 µg l(-1)), cefalexin (200 µg l(-1)), doxycyclin (100 µg l(-1)), sulfamethazine (100 µg l(-1)), tylosin (100 µg l(-1)) and neomycin (200 µg l(-1)) were in all cases at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). Specificity and applicability of the test were demonstrated with muscle samples from four animal species (bovine, porcine, ovine and poultry) and results were found to be satisfactory. Ruggedness was evaluated on negative and spiked samples with sulfamethazine as a representative antimicrobial. Neither false-positives nor false-negatives were detected when varying the sample volume, the time of pre-incubation, the temperature of incubation and the batch of the test. These results prove that Explorer(®) 2.0 coupled to e-Reader(®) is a valuable tool for the screening of a broad range of antimicrobials in muscle. This new methodology simplifies the analysis and increases the accuracy of interpretation of the test results since the endpoint of the assay is automatically determined and results are interpreted objectively.

  19. Animal metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on placental transport included the following: clearance of tritiated water as a baseline measurement for transport of materials across perfused placentas; transport of organic and inorganic mercury across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation; and transport of cadmium across the perfused placenta of the guinea pig in late gestation. Studies on cadmium absorption and metabolism included the following: intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal rats; uptake and distribution of an oral dose of cadmium in postweanling male and female, iron-deficient and normal rats; postnatal viability and growth in rat pups after oral cadmium administration during gestation; and the effect of calcium and phosphorus on the absorption and toxicity of cadmium. Studies on gastrointestinal absorption and mineral metabolism included: uptake and distribution of orally administered plutonium complex compounds in male mice; gastrointestinal absorption of 144 Ce in the newborn mouse, rat, and pig; and gastrointestinal absorption of 95 Nb by rats of different ages. Studies on iodine metabolism included the following: influence of thyroid status and thiocyanate on iodine metabolism in the bovine; effects of simulated fallout radiation on iodine metabolism in dairy cattle; and effects of feeding iodine binding agents on iodine metabolism in the calf

  20. Animal Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim Slaughtered at 16 and 22 Months Old, and Three Different Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current study aimed to evaluate the performance of bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim slaughtered at two ages and three different weights. One hundred and thirteen bulls were divided into two slaughter ages (16 and 22 months and three different slaughter weights (light, 422 kg; medium, 470 kg; and heavy, 550 kg. The body weight was higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Daily gain, carcass weight and dressing were higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Feed intake was higher for bulls slaughtered at 22 months although feed efficiency was better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Carcass characteristics were better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. The percentages of muscle, fat and bone and meat characteristics were similar between two slaughter ages. Feed intake and animal performance was lower for lighter animals. Feed conversion and carcass dressing were similar in the three slaughter weights. Muscle percentage was higher for heavier animals but fat and bone percentages were lower. Slaughter weight had no effect on meat characteristics.

  1. Different healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects by endoscopic mucosal dissection between with and without steroid injection in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Ban, Shinichi; Aikawa, Masayasu; Akimoto, Naoe; Koyama, Isamu; Kita, Hiroto

    2013-04-25

    Stricture formation is one of the major complications after endoscopic removal of large superficial squamous cell neoplasms of the esophagus, and local steroid injections have been adopted to prevent it. However, fundamental pathological alterations related to them have not been well analyzed so far. The aim of this study was to analyze the time course of the healing process of esophageal large mucosal defects resulting in stricture formation and its modification by local steroid injection, using an animal model. Esophageal circumferential mucosal defects were created by endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD) for four pigs. One pig was sacrificed five minutes after the ESD, and other two pigs were followed-up on endoscopy and sacrificed at the time of one week and three weeks after the ESD, respectively. The remaining one pig was followed-up on endoscopy with five times of local steroid injection and sacrificed at the time of eight weeks after the ESD. The esophageal tissues of all pigs were subjected to pathological analyses. For the pigs without steroid injection, the esophageal stricture was completed around three weeks after the ESD on both endoscopy and esophagography. Histopathological examination of the esophageal tissues revealed that spindle-shaped α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myofibroblasts arranged in a parallel fashion and extending horizontally were identified at the ulcer bed one week after the ESD, and increased contributing to formation of the stenotic luminal ridge covered with the regenerated epithelium three weeks after the ESD. The proper muscle layer of the stricture site was thinned with some myocytes which seemingly showed transition to the myofibroblast layer. By contrast, for the pig with steroid injection, esophageal stricture formation was not evident with limited appearance of the spindle-shaped myofibroblasts, instead, appearance of stellate or polygocal SMA-positive stromal cells arranged haphazardly in the persistent granulation

  2. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement, "five freedoms" for animals and "Solna principles". "Replacement" means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material. "Reduction" means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount and precision. "Refinement" means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. The "five freedoms" are: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from adverse environmental impacts, freedom from disease and injury, freedom to exhibit normal behavior and freedom from adverse mental states. "Solna principles" state that tests for regulatory purposes need to reflect the following: biological Relevance (meaningfulness and usefulness of a test for a particular purpose, Reliability (reproducibility of results within and between laboratories, and Regulatory acceptability (suitability of a test for risk assessment purposes (human health /environment.

  3. Analysis of suffering at work in Family Health Support Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Débora Dupas Gonçalves do; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the work process in the Family Health Support Center. An exploratory, descriptive case study using a qualitative approach. Focus groups were conducted with 20 workers of a Family Health Support Center, and the empirical material was subjected to content analysis technique and analyzed in light of Work Psychodynamics. The category of suffering is presented herein as arising from the dialectical contradiction between actual work and prescribed work, from resistance to the Family Health Support Center's proposal and a lack of understanding of their role; due to an immediatist and curative culture of the users and the Family Health Strategy; of the profile, overload and identification with work. The dialectical contradiction between expectations from Family Health Strategy teams and the work in the Family Health Support Center compromises its execution and creates suffering for workers. Analisar o processo de trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Estudo de caso exploratório, descritivo e de abordagem qualitativa. Grupos focais foram realizados com 20 trabalhadores do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família, o material empírico foi submetido à técnica de análise de conteúdo e analisado à luz da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Apresenta-se aqui a categoria sofrimento que neste estudo decorre da contradição dialética entre o trabalho real e o trabalho prescrito, da resistência à proposta do Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família e da falta de compreensão de seu papel; da cultura imediatista e curativa do usuário e da Estratégia Saúde da Família; do perfil, sobrecarga e identificação com o trabalho. A contradição dialética entre expectativas das equipes da Estratégia Saúde da Família e o trabalho no Núcleo de Apoio à Saúde da Família compromete sua efetivação e gera sofrimento aos trabalhadores.

  4. Sacrifice: an ethical dimension of caring that makes suffering meaningful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Kaija; Lindström, Unni A

    2003-07-01

    transformation to achieve atonement and healing. Atonement then implies finding meaningfulness in one's suffering. The concept of sacrifice, understood in a novel way, opens up a deeper dimension in the understanding of suffering and makes caring in 'the patient's world' possible.

  5. Psychological responses of terminally ill patients who are experiencing suffering: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Juarez, Rafael; Garcia-Caro, María Paz; Campos-Calderon, Concepcion; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Gomez-Chica, Antonio; Marti-García, Celia; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Suffering is not only characterized by the feeling of being threatened, but also by the feeling of impotence to deal with such a threat. Literature identifies a terminal illness as a period during which several experiences implying an intense suffering are endured, but little attention has been paid to the psychological responses when reacting to threats. Identify the psychological responses that terminally ill patients put in place to face up to the demands of the end of life, as a foundation for future nursing interventions. Qualitative methodology with an interpretative phenomenological approach. Different hospitals health centers around the region of Granada (Spain). Twenty-four participants were finally chosen to take part in the research. The sampling procedure was intentional, and it was made taking into account exclusion and inclusion criteria. Patients with a cognitive impairment, who had been diagnosed with psychiatric alterations, who at that time suffered from uncontrollable symptoms such as intense pain were excluded from the sample. The patients were interviewed following a script (semistructured interview) carried out using the suggested theoretical framework. The interviews were analyzed using the sequence suggested by Strauss and Corbin: Open, axial and selective codification. The analysis of the participants' answers to the different questions of the semi-structured interview has allowed us to identify a main category "To realize that life is short". There are three categories where the different ways of facing up to the end of life concentrate: "Re-Evaluation of life", "Opportunity for growth", "Resignation/Acceptance". Nurses, have to try to alleviate the impact the terminal illness has on the subject, not only by controlling the symptoms but also encouraging the patients responses, by promoting the feeling of satisfaction in life, providing honest and sensitive information, establishing with the patient realistic goals, and facilitating a

  6. Animal models of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, the animal models that have been used for this purpose have often yielded misleading findings. It is likely that there are multiple reasons for the discrepancies between the results obtained in tests of pharmacological agents in animal models of sepsis and the outcomes of human clinical trials. One of important reason may be that the changes in gene expression, which are triggered by trauma or infection, are different in mice, a commonly used species for preclinical testing, and humans. Additionally, many species, including mice and baboons, are remarkably resistant to the toxic effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, whereas humans are exquisitely sensitive. New approaches toward the use of animals for sepsis research are being investigated. But, at present, results from preclinical studies of new therapeutic agents for sepsis must be viewed with a degree of skepticism.

  7. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in Xenopus eggs: Regional differences related to animal/vegetal polarity become extreme upon fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1984-01-01

    Regional differences in the lateral mobility properties of plasma membrane lipids have been studied in unfertilized and fertilizedxaqpus eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements. Out of a variety of commonly used lipid probes only the aminofluorescein-labeled fatty acids

  8. Zoonoses and poverty – a long road to the alleviation of suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarchos Seimenis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations living in poverty in the developing world suffer a heavy burden caused by infectious diseases, most of them zoonoses. The poorer populations also tend to be marginalised from the health sector and so are many of the diseases that affect them. The poor in every society, and particularly in developing countries, bear a disproportionately high share of the disease burden. There is a broad range of viral, bacterial, mycotic, chlamydial, rickettsial and parasitic diseases of global and regional importance given their major impact on the health and socio-economic development of many populations. Endemic infectious diseases, including zoonoses, together with emerging and re-emerging diseases, are mostly shouldered by poor and vulnerable populations. Livestock are important in supporting the livelihoods of poor farmers, consumers and traders throughout the developing world. The animals of poor people are particularly vulnerable to disease because of costs, absence or unsuitability of the animal health sector, etc. The impact of endemic animal diseases are mainly felt at the farm level, while a broader economic impact can occur with these diseases through the restriction of trade in livestock and their products. Addressing comprehensive and sustainable solutions to public health problems created by endemic infections cannot be achieved solely by the public health sector alone. Partnerships with other sectors, particularly agriculture, environment, education, local administration, will be necessary to contain and effectively control zoonotic and foodborne diseases that affect mainly the poor. International organisations could support developing countries by coordinating national intersectoral activities, promoting appropriate technology and public health education, community participation and encouraging decision-makers to commit themselves. This is the only perspective for improved quality of life of poor and marginalised populations.

  9. [Oversight and monitoring of fundamental rights of people suffering mental disorder: the Canadian experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    This paper has as its objective the generation of a debate over different alternatives of models of oversight and monitoring of fundamental rights of people suffering mental disorder. The Consent and Capacity Board of the province of Ontario, Canada will be considered. The Board is one of the oldest and leading administrative tribunals in the area of mental health. The paper will analyse the place of the Board in the Canadian legal system and the fundamental distinctions with similar Canadian mental health tribunals. The Board's administrative structure and jurisdiction will be examined, as well as its procedures and mechanisms of review of its decisions.

  10. Nutritional variations during chemotherapy for patients suffering from a locally advanced oesophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duclos, A.; Blondin, V.; Quiesse, M.; Iwanicki-Caron, I.; Lecleire, S.; Michel, P.; Di Fiore, F.; Dubray, B.; Di Fiore, F.

    2010-01-01

    As de-nutrition is frequently noticed for patients suffering from a locally advanced oesophagus cancer, the authors report a study of the variations of nutritional parameters during chemotherapy and of their impacts of the treatment process and efficiency. Thus, different parameters have been studied at the beginning, during and at the end of the treatment: weight, albumin range, body weight index, calorie survey, and the nutritional support type. The authors observe very important variations with a significant impact on treatment tolerance and efficiency. Short communication

  11. Cranial MRI of neurologically impaired children suffering from neonatal hypoglycaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshihiko; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro [Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan); Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Okudera, Toshio [Department of Neuroradiology, St. Mary`s Hospital, Kurume City, Fukuoka (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeo [Department of Neonatology, St. Mary`s Hospital, Kurume City, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Metabolic disturbances such as anoxia and hypoglycaemia are important in causing maldevelopment of the neonatal brain. While there have been some pathology studies of the effects of neonatal hypoglycaemia on brain development, reports of MRI findings in such infants have been rare. Objectives. To describe the MRI findings in neurologically handicapped children who had suffered from neonatal hypoglycaemia and to evaluate the relationship between the neurological impairment and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Materials and methods. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI findings in eight full-term infants with neonatal symptomatic hypoglycaemia who later exhibited neurological handicap. The age at which the MRI scans were obtained ranged from 9 months to 8 years 10 months (mean 4 years 1 month, median 4 years). Results. The most striking findings were prolonged T1 weighting and T2 weighting in the parieto-occipital periventricular deep white matter in six patients, suggesting abnormal or delayed myelination. Dilatation of the lateral ventricles, especially of the trigones, was observed in five patients in whom the distance between the posterior horns of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent sulci was reduced. The volume of white matter relative to grey matter was reduced in two patients. In addition, four patients exhibited cerebral cortical atrophy, mainly in the occipital lobe. Conclusions. These findings suggest that neonatal hypoglycaemia may cause delayed or abnormal myelination, especially in the parieto-occipital, periventricular, deep white matter, and may cause cerebral cortical atrophy, especially in the occipital lobe. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  12. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICAL METHODS FOR WORK WITH CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM CEREBRAL PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivajlo PETROV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapy in somatopedy is always viewed in the light of the ‘initial theoretical conception’ about the unity of the mental and the somatic (neurophysiological, both in the genesis of the physical and mental disturbances and in the system of therapeutic treatments. The body and the soul, or the physical and the mental represent an unbreakable unity.The psychotherapy is especially adequate method for work with children suffering from cerebral palsy.According to our research work connected with the studying of the utilization of various forms of psychotherapy in the rehabilitation schools for children with cerebral palsy in some places in Bulgaria, as well as our own long-range experiments, we can claim with certainty that the following methods give very good results:1. Music therapy2. Art therapy3. Puppet therapy4. Cultural therapy5. Biblio therapy6. Rational psychotherapy of P. Dubois7. Family therapy8. Cognitive-behavioural therapy9. Suggestion while awake10.Autogen training of J. Schlitz

  13. Ventilation therapy for patients suffering from obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Sven A; Heidelmann, Lena M; Westerfeld, Andreas; Frickmann, Hagen; Körber, Mareike K; Zautner, Andreas E

    2014-01-01

    Severe bronchial obstruction due to one of the major pulmonary diseases: asthma, COPD, or emphysema often requires mechanical ventilation support. Otherwise, patients are at risk of severe hypooxygenation with consecutive overloading and dilatation of the right cardiac ventricle with subsequent failure. This review focuses on how to manage a calculated ventilation therapy of patients suffering from bronchial obstruction and relevant patents. Options and pitfalls of invasive and non-invasive ventilation in the intensive care setting regarding clinical improvement and final outcome are discussed. The non-invasive ventilation is very efficient in treating acute or chronic respiratory failure in COPD patients and is capable of shortening the duration of hospitalization. Further non-invasive ventilation can successfully support the weaning after a long-lasting ventilation therapy and improve the prognosis of COPD patients. "Permissive hypercapnia" is unequivocally established in invasive ventilation therapy of severe bronchial obstruction in situations of limited ventilation. When intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and elevated airways resistance are present PEEP may be useful although external-PEEP application relieves over-inflation only in selected patients with airway obstruction during controlled mechanical ventilation. Upper limit of airways peak pressure used in "protective ventilation" of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients can be exceeded under certain circumstances.

  14. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  15. THE SUFFERING OF PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISORDERS DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Lech

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Assumption : Respiratory disorders during sleep involving the occurrence of sleep apnoea leading to a reduction in arterial oxygen saturation are classified as: obstructive sleep apnoea, central sleep apnoea and sleep-related hypoventilation with hypoxaemia. A close correlation has been proved between the occurrence of apnoea and obesity. This problem concerns 2–4% of the population, and is more likely to affect men. Aim : Presentation of the problem of respiratory disorders during sleep as a chronic disease causing much suffering. Its symptoms may lead to sleep fragmentation and somatic consequences (such as dysfunction of the cardiovascular system as well as mental consequences (personality changes. Method : An analysis of literature concerning the subject-matter from the perspective of a doctor conducting ventilation therapy of patients with respiratory sleep disorders. Summary : The problem of sleep apnoea is most often diagnosed and treated too late due to the number of symptoms with a simultaneous absence of pathognomonic symptoms. Despite its commonness, recognition of this disease is still insufficient.

  16. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathekge, Mike; Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de; Maes, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  17. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    OpenAIRE

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the s...

  18. Distinct behavioral and brain changes after different durations of the modified multiple platform method on rats: An animal model of central fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Han

    Full Text Available The modified multiple platform method (MMPM is a classical sleep deprivation model. It has been widely used in behavioral and brain research, due to its effects on physical and mental functions. However, different MMPM protocols can promote distinct effects in rats. Although the MMPM has been proved to induce central fatigue, the effects of different durations of subjection to the MMPM remain undetermined. This study aims to investigate the changes in behavior, N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor 1 (NR1 and 2A (NR2A, as well as the ultrastructural alteration in the hippocampus after different MMPM modelling, to compare the central fatigue effect induced by dynamic MMPM. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: 5-, 14- and 21- day MMPM groups, and a control group. Each MMPM group underwent a 14-hour daily MMPM modelling. After each training session, open field and elevated plus maze tests were performed. Corticosterone levels were detected by ELISA, and the hippocampal NR1 and NR2A were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, ultrastructural changes in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1(CA1 region were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The findings showed that the 5 and 14 days of MMPM induced a high-stress state, while the 21 days of MMPM induced anxiety and degenerative alteration in the hippocampal morphology. Additionally, hippocampal NR1 and NR2A gene expression decreased in all MMPM groups, whereas the protein expression only decreased in the 21-day group. Overall, different durations of MMPM caused distinct behavioral and brain changes, and the 21 days of MMPM could induce central fatigue.

  19. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  20. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery improves the quality of life in children suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetta, Melina; Tsilis, Nikolaos S; Segas, John V; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P; Vlastarakos, Petros V

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of FESS in children with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, regarding their overall postoperative quality-of-life (QoL) and constituent QoL domains. Potential differences between cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers and non-sufferers, or cases with recurrent sinonasal polyposis versus single-operations were also explored. 39 children were studied. The mean patient age was 10.9 years; four children suffered from cystic fibrosis. The children (or parents) completed the Glasgow Benefit Inventory for Children (GCBI) at least six months after their operation. The Mann-Whitney test compared the GCBI scores between non- and CF sufferers, as well as children with and without recurrent polyposis. The median overall QoL score was 98. There were no statistically significant differences between CF sufferers and non-sufferers regarding their overall QoL, or the respective individual QoL domains, apart from their physical postoperative activity (p = 0.04). Twelve children demonstrated recurrent polyposis (30.7%); among them three were cystic fibrosis sufferers. No statistically significant differences were identified in the overall QoL score, or individual GCBI subscale scores between children with recurrent polyposis versus single-operations. Children with recurrent polyposis but not CF performed better regarding their overall QoL (p = 0.021) and medical status (p = 0.015), compared to their CF counterparts. FESS performed for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in children is associated with improved postoperative QoL, irrespective of the presence of CF (although the latter needs to be confirmed in larger patient cohorts). The absence of appreciable differences in the overall QoL, or its constituent domains, between single and re-operated children, indicate that the positive effect of FESS outweighed the burden of re-operation. Appropriate preoperative informed consent in cases of recurrent sinonasal polyposis necessitates acknowledging worse