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Sample records for animal studies molecular

  1. Reviews: The Molecular Animator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provided is a review of a chemical software package. The package makes possible an instructional technique that is not effective by any other means, namely the ability to view molecular shapes in three dimensions. The program can be used with either IBM or Apple hardware. (RH)

  2. FMT-XCT: in vivo animal studies with hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Herzog, Eva; Cohrs, Christian; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-06-01

    The development of hybrid optical tomography methods to improve imaging performance has been suggested over a decade ago and has been experimentally demonstrated in animals and humans. Here we examined in vivo performance of a camera-based hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) system for 360° imaging combined with X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Offering an accurately co-registered, information-rich hybrid data set, FMT-XCT has new imaging possibilities compared to stand-alone FMT and XCT. We applied FMT-XCT to a subcutaneous 4T1 tumor mouse model, an Aga2 osteogenesis imperfecta model and a Kras lung cancer mouse model, using XCT information during FMT inversion. We validated in vivo imaging results against post-mortem planar fluorescence images of cryoslices and histology data. Besides offering concurrent anatomical and functional information, FMT-XCT resulted in the most accurate FMT performance to date. These findings indicate that addition of FMT optics into the XCT gantry may be a potent upgrade for small-animal XCT systems.

  3. Molecular imaging of small animals with dedicated PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biological discovery has moved at an accelerated pace in recent years, with a considerable focus on the transition from in vitro to in vivo models. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the need to adapt clinical imaging methods, as well as for novel imaging technologies for biological research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. The imaging procedure can be repeatedly performed before and after interventions, thereby allowing each animal to be used as its own control. Positron-labeled compounds that target a range of molecular targets have been and continue to be synthesized, with examples of biological processes ranging from receptors and synthesis of transmitters in cell communication, to metabolic processes and gene expression. In animal research, PET has been used extensively in the past for studies of non-human primates and other larger animals. New detector technology has improved spatial resolution, and has made possible PET scanning for the study of the most important modern molecular biology model, the laboratory mouse. This paper presents the challenges facing PET technology as applied to small animal imaging, provides a historical overview of the development of small animal PET systems, and discusses the current state of the art in small animal PET technology. (orig.)

  4. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  5. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

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    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  6. What makes an animal? The molecular quest for the origin of the Animal Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paps, Jordi

    2018-05-29

    What makes an animal? To find the answer we need to integrate data from disciplines such as phylogenetics, palaeontology, ecology, development, anatomy and physiology, as well as molecular biology and genomics. Knowledge of which groups branched before and after the origin of animals is essential. Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics, together with the discovery of new eukaryotic lineages, have drawn a new picture of the ancestry of animals. The nature of the early diverging animal lineages and the timing of the transition are in a state of flux. Various factors have been linked to this striking transition to multicellularity, including changes in environmental conditions and the ecological interactions between unicellular eukaryotes. The current wealth of genomic data has also shed new light on this question. The analysis of the genome of various close relatives of animals has revealed the importance that recycling of ancient genes into metazoan biological functions played into animal origins. A recent study reconstructing the genome of the last common ancestor of extant animals has unveiled an unprecedented emergence of new genes, highlighting the role of genomic novelty in the origin of metazoans.

  7. Increasing the Dose of Autologous Chondrocytes Improves Articular Cartilage Repair: Histological and Molecular Study in the Sheep Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-García, Pedro; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Guillén-Vicente, Isabel; Caballero-Santos, Rosa; Guillén-Vicente, Marta; Abelow, Stephen; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one. We compared the implantation of different doses of chondrocytes: 1 million (n = 5), 5 million (n = 5), or 5 million mesenchymal cells (n = 5) in the femoral condyle of 15 sheep. Tissue generated by microfracture at the trochlea, and normal cartilage from a nearby region, processed as the tissues resulting from the implantation, were used as references. Histological and molecular (expression of type I and II collagens and aggrecan) studies were performed. The features of the cartilage generated by implantation of mesenchymal cells and elicited by microfractures were similar and typical of a poor repair of the articular cartilage (presence of fibrocartilage, high expression of type I collagen and a low mRNA levels of type II collagen and aggrecan). Nevertheless, in the samples obtained from tissues generated by implantation of chondrocytes, hyaline-like cartilage, cell organization, low expression rates of type I collagen and high levels of mRNA corresponding to type II collagen and aggrecan were observed. These histological features, show less variability and are more similar to those of the normal cartilage used as control in the case of 5 million cells implantation than when 1 million cells were used. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes in type I/III collagen membranes at high density could be a promising tool to repair articular cartilage.

  8. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  9. Thermoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

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    Robert A. Kruger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, constructed, and tested a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT scanner for imaging optical absorption in small animals in three dimensions. The device utilizes pulsed laser irradiation (680–1064 nm and a unique, 128-element transducer array. We quantified the isotropic spatial resolution of this scanner to be 0.35 mm. We describe a dual-wavelength subtraction technique for isolating optical dyes with TCT. Phantom experiments demonstrate that we can detect 5 fmol of a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green, ICG in a 1-ML volume using dual-wavelength subtraction. Initial TCT imaging in phantoms and in two sacrificed mice suggests that three-dimensional, optical absorption patterns in small animals can be detected with an order of magnitude better spatial resolution and an order of magnitude better low-contrast detectability in small animals when compared to fluorescence imaging or diffusion optical tomography.

  10. Medulloblastoma: Molecular Genetics and Animal Models

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    Corey Raffel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a primary brain tumor found in the cerebellum of children. The tumor occurs in association with two inherited cancer syndromes: Turcot syndrome and Gorlin syndrome. Insights into the molecular biology of the tumor have come from looking at alterations in the genes altered in these syndromes, PTC and APC, respectively. Murine models of medulloblastoma have been constructed based on these alterations. Additional murine models that, while mimicking the appearance of the human tumor, seem unrelated to the human tumor's molecular alterations have been made. In this review, the clinical picture, origin, molecular biology, murine models of medulloblastoma are discussed. Although a great deal has been discovered about this tumor, the genetic alterations responsible for tumor development in a majority of patients have yet to be described.

  11. The endogenous and reactive depression subtypes revisited: integrative animal and human studies implicate multiple distinct molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Keers, Robert; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Carboni, Lucia; Domenici, Enrico; Uher, Rudolf; McGuffin, Peter; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2014-05-07

    Traditional diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggested that the presence or absence of stress prior to onset results in either 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes of the disorder, respectively. Several lines of research suggest that the biological underpinnings of 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes may also differ, resulting in differential response to treatment. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the gene-expression profiles of three animal models of 'reactive' and 'endogenous' depression. We then translated these findings to clinical samples using a human post-mortem mRNA study. Affymetrix mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure gene expression from hippocampal tissues of 144 mice from the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. The study used four inbred mouse strains and two depressogenic 'stress' protocols (maternal separation and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress) to model 'reactive' depression. Stress-related mRNA differences in mouse were compared with a parallel mRNA study using Flinders Sensitive and Resistant rat lines as a model of 'endogenous' depression. Convergent genes differentially expressed across the animal studies were used to inform candidate gene selection in a human mRNA post-mortem case control study from the Stanley Brain Consortium. In the mouse 'reactive' model, the expression of 350 genes changed in response to early stresses and 370 in response to late stresses. A minimal genetic overlap (less than 8.8%) was detected in response to both stress protocols, but 30% of these genes (21) were also differentially regulated in the 'endogenous' rat study. This overlap is significantly greater than expected by chance. The VAMP-2 gene, differentially expressed across the rodent studies, was also significantly altered in the human study after correcting for multiple testing. Our results suggest that 'endogenous' and 'reactive' subtypes of depression are associated with largely

  12. [Crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel with different ratio of molecular weight for subcutaneous injection: animal experimental study and clinical trials subcutaneous injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Weizhi; Wang, Xiaoli; Hu, Yuefei; Gao, Songying; Yang, Yahong; Sun, Jian; Sun, Shuming; Liu, Zhongmei; Wang, Jiangling

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the biocompatibility and degradation rate of crosslinking sodium hyaluronate gel with different ratio of molecular weight, so as to choose the effective, safe and totally degraded hyaluronate gel for aesthetic injection. (1) Compound colloid was formed by cross-linking the divinyl sulphone and sodium hyaluronate with different molecular weight (4 x 10(5), 8 x 10(5), 10 x 10(5), 12 x 10(5)). (2) Healthy level KM mice was randomly divided into two groups to receive hyaluronic acid gel or liquid injection. Each group was subdivided into three subgroup to receive hyaluronic acid with different molecular weight. The biocompatibility and degradation rate, of hyaluronate were observed at 7, 90, 180 days after injection. At the same time, different molecular weight of sodium hyaluronate gel is sealed or exposed respectively under the low temperature preservation to observe its natural degradation rate. (3) The most stable colloid was selected as aesthetic injector for volunteers to observe the aesthetic effect. The sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular of 4 x 10(5) was completely degraded 90 days later. The sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular of 8 x 10(5) was completely degraded 180 days later. The sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular of 10 x 10(5) was degraded to 90.0% after 180 days. The sodium hyaluronate liquid can be degraded completely within 7 days. The colloid could be kept for at least 12 months when sealed under low temperature, but was totally degraded when exposed for I d. Sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular 10 x 10(5) was confirmed to be kept for at least 6 months in animal experiment and clinical trials. Under the same condition of material ratio, the higher the molecular weight is, the lower the degradation rate is. But the liquidity of gel is not good for injection when molecular weight is too large. It suggests that Sodium hyaluronate gel with molecular 10 x 10(5) maybe the best choice in cosmetic injections.

  13. The Modulatory Properties of Chronic Antidepressant Drugs Treatment on the Brain Chemokine – Chemokine Receptor Network: A Molecular Study in an Animal Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trojan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that the chemokine system may be the third major communication system of the brain. Therefore, the role of the chemokine system in the development of brain disorders, including depression, has been recently proposed. However, little is known about the impact of the administration of various antidepressant drugs on the brain chemokine – chemokine receptor axis. In the present study, we used an animal model of depression based on the prenatal stress procedure. We determined whether chronic treatment with tianeptine, venlafaxine, or fluoxetine influenced the evoked by prenatal stress procedure changes in the mRNA and protein levels of the homeostatic chemokines, CXCL12 (SDF-1α, CX3CL1 (fractalkine and their receptors, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, the impact of mentioned antidepressants on the TGF-β, a molecular pathway related to fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1, was explored. We found that prenatal stress caused anxiety and depressive-like disturbances in adult offspring rats, which were normalized by chronic antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, we showed the stress-evoked CXCL12 upregulation while CXCR4 downregulation in hippocampus and frontal cortex. CXCR7 expression was enhanced in frontal cortex but not hippocampus. Furthermore, the levels of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 were diminished by prenatal stress in the both examined brain areas. The mentioned changes were normalized with various potency by chronic administration of tested antidepressants. All drugs in hippocampus, while tianeptine and venlafaxine in frontal cortex normalized the CXCL12 level in prenatally stressed offspring. Moreover, in hippocampus only fluoxetine enhanced CXCR4 level, while fluoxetine and tianeptine diminished CXCR7 level in frontal cortex. Additionally, the diminished by prenatal stress levels of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in the both examined brain areas were normalized by chronic tianeptine and partially fluoxetine

  14. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  15. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level. However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features…

  16. The Effect That Comparing Molecular Animations of Varying Accuracy Has on Students' Submicroscopic Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Akaygun, Sevil; Hansen, Sarah J. R.; Villalta-Cerdas, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we examined how a group of seventeen first semester General Chemistry students responded when they were shown contrasting molecular animations of a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction between solid copper and aqueous silver nitrate for which they first viewed a video of the actual experiment. The animations contrasted…

  17. Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

  18. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Microcystin Toxicity in Animal Cells

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    Alexandre Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MC are potent hepatotoxins produced by the cyanobacteria of the genera Planktothrix, Microcystis, Aphanizomenon, Nostoc and Anabaena. These cyclic heptapeptides have strong affinity to serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs thereby acting as an inhibitor of this group of enzymes. Through this interaction a cascade of events responsible for the MC cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in animal cells may take place. Moreover MC induces oxidative stress in animal cells and together with the inhibition of PPs, this pathway is considered to be one of the main mechanisms of MC toxicity. In recent years new insights on the key enzymes involved in the signal-transduction and toxicity have been reported demonstrating the complexity of the interaction of these toxins with animal cells. Key proteins involved in MC up-take, biotransformation and excretion have been identified, demonstrating the ability of aquatic animals to metabolize and excrete the toxin. MC have shown to interact with the mitochondria. The consequences are the dysfunction of the organelle, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell apoptosis. MC activity leads to the differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and protein kinases involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation and tumor promotion activity. This activity may result from the direct inhibition of the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. This review aims to summarize the increasing data regarding the molecular mechanisms of MC toxicity in animal systems, reporting for direct MC interacting proteins and key enzymes in the process of toxicity biotransformation/excretion of these cyclic peptides.

  20. EXPLORING THE DESIGN AND USE OF MOLECULAR ANIMATIONS THAT CONFLICT FOR UNDERSTANDING CHEMICAL REACTIONS

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    Resa M. Kelly

    Full Text Available Understanding chemical reactions conceptually involves recognizing characteristics of observable phenomena and envisioning how atoms, ions and molecules move and interact to cause the macroscopic changes. Our research focuses on the development of effective strategies for designing and presenting visualizations (videos and animations to assist students with making connections between macroscopic and molecular level behaviors of chemical reactions. Specifically, we study how students, who view videos of a redox reaction that exhibits obvious signs of macroscopic chemical change, can determine which molecular animation of a set of contrasting animations is best supported by its fit with experimental evidence. Herein we describe how we develop our videos and animations, and how students are learning from this animation task. Students who select inaccurate animation models are often enticed by a model that is easier to explain and fits with their understanding of reaction equations. We note that even though students indicate a preference for one animation over another, they often revise their drawn representations to fit with features from multiple animations. With the assistance of eye tracking research, we are gaining a better understanding of what students view and how they make sense of it.

  1. Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom.

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    Bourlat, Sarah J; Nielsen, Claus; Economou, Andrew D; Telford, Maximilian J

    2008-10-01

    The new animal phylogeny inferred from ribosomal genes some years ago has prompted a number of radical rearrangements of the traditional, morphology based metazoan tree. The two main bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia and Protostomia, find strong support, but the protostomes consist of two sister groups, Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, not seen in morphology based trees. Although widely accepted, not all recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have supported the tripartite structure of the new animal phylogeny. Furthermore, even if the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) based phylogeny is correct, there is a frustrating lack of resolution of relationships between the phyla that make up the three clades of this tree. To address this issue, we have assembled a dataset including a large number of aligned sequence positions as well as a broad sampling of metazoan phyla. Our dataset consists of sequence data from ribosomal and mitochondrial genes combined with new data from protein coding genes (5139 amino acid and 3524 nucleotide positions in total) from 37 representative taxa sampled across the Metazoa. Our data show strong support for the basic structure of the new animal phylogeny as well as for the Mandibulata including Myriapoda. We also provide some resolution within the Lophotrochozoa, where we confirm support for a monophyletic clade of Echiura, Sipuncula and Annelida and surprising evidence of a close relationship between Brachiopoda and Nemertea.

  2. Molecular basis of pathogenesis of emerging viruses infecting aquatic animals

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    Lang Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates are very abundant in the world, and they are of tremendous importance in providing global food security and nutrition. However, emergent and resurgent viruses, such as ranavirus (e.g., Rana grylio virus, RGV and Andriasd avidianus ranavirus, ADRV, herpesvirus (e.g., Carassius carassius herpesvirus, CaHV, reovirus (e.g., grass carp reovirus 109, GCRV-109, Scophthal musmaximus reovirus, SMReV and Micropterus salmoides reovirus, MsReV, and rhabdovirus (e.g., Siniper cachuatsi rhabdovirus, SCRV and Scophthal musmaximus rhabdovirus, SMRV can cause severe diseases in aquaculture animals and wild lower vertebrates, such as frogs, giant salamanders, fish, and so on. Here, we will briefly describe the symptoms produced by the aforementioned viruses and the molecular basis of the virus–host interactions. This manuscript aims to provide an overview of viral diseases in lower vertebrates with an emphasis on visible symptomatic manifestations and pathogenesis.

  3. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

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    Sposito Garrison

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  4. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-01

    Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers) provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  5. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations

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    Cekanova M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cekanova, Kusum Rathore Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Keywords: mouse cancer model, companion animal cancer model, dogs, cats, molecular targets

  6. Potential of luminescence based molecular animal imaging in research areas pertaining to cancer biology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena G.; Balla Murali, M.S.; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal imaging is getting tremendous importance in biomedical research areas including drug delivery, radiobiology and cancer research. Even though, imaging techniques like CT, PET, SPECT, MRI are available for experimental animals, luminescence-based molecular imaging is still considered as crucial and common tool for biomedical laboratories due to easy handling/maintenance, cost effectiveness and various strategies available to manipulate the molecules/cells employed for imaging purposes. The Molecular Animal Imaging System available in our laboratory is being utilized for various cancer research activities including measurement of tumor growth kinetics, angiogenesis, therapeutic efficacy evaluation and metastasis studies. Moreover, the imaging system is also been used for radio-luminescence imaging based on Cherenkov radiation of radio-pharmaceuticals. (author)

  7. Molecular imaging of retinal endothelial injury in diabetic animals

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    Sonja Frimmel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that molecular imaging can be used to detect subtle changes in the diabetic retina prior to the occurrence of irreversible pathology. Thus, ICAM-1 could serve as a diagnostic target in patients with diabetes. This study provides a proof of principle for non-invasive subclinical diagnosis in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Further development of this technology could improve management of diabetic complications.

  8. Molecular studies of achondroplasia

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    Nahar Risha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achondroplasia (ACH is the most frequent form of short-limbed dwarfi sm, caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene. It follows an autosomal dominant inheritance, though most cases are sporadic. The molecular techniques are the only available methods to confi rm the diagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. Clinical and radiological features are only suggestive and not confi rmatory. The present study was conducted to fi nd out how often the clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia is verifi ed on molecular studies. Materials and Methods: From 1998 through 2007, we carried out molecular analysis for the two common mutations in the FGFR3 gene in 130 cases clinically suspected to have ACH. Results: A diagnostic mutation was identifi ed in 53 (40.8% cases. The common mutation (1138G>A was present in 50 (94.7% of the positive cases, while the rare 1138 G>C substitution was found in three (5.3%. Conclusion: This study shows that confi rmation of clinical diagnosis of ACH by molecular genetic testing is essential to distinguish it from other skeletal dysplasias, to plan therapeutic options, and to offer genetic counseling. Management (medical and surgical in patients confi rmed to have ACH, is briefl y discussed.

  9. Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2012-02-23

    My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

  10. Direct molecular analysis of whole-body animal tissue sections by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyzer, Michelle L; Chaurand, Pierre; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization of various compounds in a whole animal is valuable for many applications, including pharmaceutical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies and biomarker discovery. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for localizing compounds of biological interest with molecular specificity and relatively high resolution. Utilizing imaging mass spectrometry for whole-body animal sections offers considerable analytical advantages compared to traditional methods, such as whole-body autoradiography, but the experiment is not straightforward. This chapter addresses the advantages and unique challenges that the application of imaging mass spectrometry to whole-body animal sections entails, including discussions of sample preparation, matrix application, signal normalization, and image generation. Lipid and protein images obtained from whole-body tissue sections of mouse pups are presented along with detailed protocols for the experiments.

  11. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-05-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials.

  12. Severe childhood asthma and allergy to furry animals: refined assessment using molecular-based allergy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Jon R; Nordlund, Björn; Onell, Annica; Borres, Magnus P; Grönlund, Hans; Hedlin, Gunilla

    2014-03-01

    Allergy to cats and dogs and polysensitization towards these animals are associated with severe childhood asthma. Molecular-based allergy diagnostics offers new opportunities for improved characterization and has been suggested to be particularly useful in patients with polysensitization and/or severe asthma. The aim was to use extract- and molecular-based allergy diagnostics to compare patterns of IgE sensitization towards aeroallergens in children with problematic severe and controlled asthma. Children with a positive ImmunoCAP towards any furry animal (cat, dog or horse) were recruited from a Nationwide Swedish study on severe childhood asthma. Severe (n = 37, age 13 years) and controlled (n = 28, age 14 years) asthmatics underwent assessment of allergic sensitization by ImmunoCap (kUA /l) and immunosolid-phase allergen chip (ISAC). In addition, Asthma Control Test, spirometry and a methacholine challenge were performed. Children with severe asthma had lower asthma control (p Molecular-based allergy diagnostics revealed a more complex molecular spreading of allergen components in children with the most severe disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    the infectivity of infectious clones of HCV without chimpanzees. Chimpanzees became infected when RNA transcripts from molecular clones were inoculated directly into the liver. The infection generated by such transfection did not differ significantly from that observed in animals infected intravenously with wild-type HCV. It furthermore permits true homologous challenge in studies of protective immunity and in testing the efficacy of vaccine candidates.

    Finally, this in vivo transfection system has made it possible to test for the first time the importance of genetic elements for HCV infectivity.

    Although chimpanzees are the only animals fully permissive for HBV infection, their use for research purpose is severely limited by the high costs and strong ethical constrains. The only alternative source of HBV-permissive hepatocytes is the Asian tree shrew Tupaia belangeri. Though experimental infection of these squirrel-like mammals, phylogenetically related to primates, results only in a mild, transient replication, primary hepatocytes isolated from T. belangeri turned out to be a reliable tool for in vitro HBV infection experiments.

    Along with invaluable infection studies in chimpanzees, avian and mammalian HBV-related viruses continue to offer ample opportunities for studies in naturally occurring hosts. In general, most of our progresses in hepatitis B virus research are based on infection studies with two HBV-related animal viruses: the woodchuck HBV (WHV, which infects the Eastern American woodchuck (Marmota monax, and the duck HBV (DHBV, which infects Peking ducks. Both animal models have been essential for understanding various steps of viral life-cycle and factors involved in establishment of virus

  14. Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

  15. Small animal SPECT and its place in the matrix of molecular imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, Steven R; Kench, Peter; Kassiou, Michael; Banati, Richard B

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging refers to the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to detect signals that originate from molecules, often in the form of an injected tracer, and observe their interaction with a specific cellular target in vivo. Differences in the underlying physical principles of these measurement techniques determine the sensitivity, specificity and length of possible observation of the signal, characteristics that have to be traded off according to the biological question under study. Here, we describe the specific characteristics of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) relative to other molecular imaging technologies. SPECT is based on the tracer principle and external radiation detection. It is capable of measuring the biodistribution of minute ( -10 molar) concentrations of radio-labelled biomolecules in vivo with sub-millimetre resolution and quantifying the molecular kinetic processes in which they participate. Like some other imaging techniques, SPECT was originally developed for human use and was subsequently adapted for imaging small laboratory animals at high spatial resolution for basic and translational research. Its unique capabilities include (i) the ability to image endogenous ligands such as peptides and antibodies due to the relative ease of labelling these molecules with technetium or iodine (ii) the ability to measure relatively slow kinetic processes (compared with positron emission tomography, for example) due to the long half-life of the commonly used isotopes and (iii) the ability to probe two or more molecular pathways simultaneously by detecting isotopes with different emission energies. In this paper, we review the technology developments and design tradeoffs that led to the current state-of-the-art in SPECT small animal scanning and describe the position SPECT occupies within the matrix of molecular imaging technologies. (topical review)

  16. In vivo animal studies with sugammadex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, L.H.D.J.; Egmond, J. van; Driessen, J.J.; Boer, H.D. de

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of animal studies of the selective steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug binding agent sugammadex. These studies demonstrate that sugammadex is faster in onset than the currently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, has no muscarinic effects, and is characterised by lack of

  17. Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; hoen, Peter Ac; Venema, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    molecular pathways that are consistently associated with OPMD, we performed an integrated high-throughput transcriptome study in affected muscles of OPMD animal models and patients. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be the most consistently and significantly OPMD-deregulated pathway across...

  18. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagirita, Atek Atwiine; Owalla, Tonny Jimmy; Majalija, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in <5% of isolates from both human epidemic and animal origins whereas it occurred in 80% of clinical isolates. This study reveals that serogroup D is the predominant Salmonella serogroup in circulation and it is widely shared among animals and humans and calls for joint and coordinated surveillance for one health implementation in Uganda. PMID:28634597

  19. Molecular studies by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansteen, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in experimental nuclear physics has played a large role in the development of electron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for studying chemical systems. The use of ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) for the mapping of molecular properties connected with inner as well as outer electron shells is reviewed, mainly from a phenomological point of view. Molecular Auger electron spectroscopy is described as a means of gaining information on details in molecular structure, simultaneously being extensively applied for surface studies. Future highly promising research areas for molecular electron spectroscopy are suggested to be (e,2e) processes as well as continued exploitation of synchrotron radiation from high energy nuclear devices. (Auth.)

  20. Animal studies on growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that no plausible biological mechanism has yet been identified how electromagnetic fields below recommended exposure limits could negatively affect health of animals or humans, many experiments have been performed in various animal species, mainly mice and rats, to investigate the possible effects on growth and development. While older studies often suffered from sub-optimal exposure conditions, recent investigations, using sophisticated exposure devices and thus preventing thermal effects, have been performed without these limitations. In principle, two types of studies can be addressed: those which have investigated the carcinogenic or co-carcinogenic effects of exposure in developing animals, and those which have been done in developing animals without the focus on carcinogenic or co-carcinogenic effects. In both areas, the vast majority of publications did not show adverse effects. The largest study so far has been done in normal mice which have been chronically exposed to UMTS signals up to 1.3 W/kg SAR, thus 16 times higher than the whole-body exposure limit for humans. Even after four generations, no systematic or dose-dependent alterations in development or fertility could be found, supporting the view that negative effects on humans are very unlikely. Ongoing experiments in our laboratory investigate the effects of head-only exposure in rats (up to 10 W/kg local SAR) which are exposed from 14 days of age daily for 2 h. A battery of behavioral tests is performed in young, adult, and pre-senile animals. The results will help to clarify possible effects of exposure on brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Molecular Tools for Gut Health of Pet Animals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipismita Samal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is an important facet of well being of pet animals; it is in this context, various nutritional and biotechnological approaches have been proposed to manipulate the gut health by specifically targeting the colonic microbiota. Nutritional approaches include supplementation of antioxidants and phytochemicals like flavonoids, isoflavonoids and carotenoids. Biotechnological approaches include supplementation of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics in the diet and potential application of molecular tools like fluorescent in situ hybridization, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative dot blot hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism etc. in studying the fecal microbiota composition. Post-genomic and related technologies, i.e. genomics, nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics in the study of gastrointestinal tract also put forward challenges for nutritionists and microbiologists to elucidate the complex interactions between gut microbiota and host.

  2. Glioblastoma, a brief review of history, molecular genetics, animal models and novel therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly E; Wolf, Amparo; Jalali, Sharzhad; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2013-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor. Over the past few years tremendous genomic and proteomic characterization along with robust animal models of GBM have provided invaluable data that show that "GBM", although histologically indistinguishable from one another, are comprised of molecularly heterogenous diseases. In addition, robust pre-clinical models and a better understanding of the core pathways disrupted in GBM are providing a renewed optimism for novel strategies targeting these devastating tumors. Here, we summarize a brief history of the disease, our current molecular knowledge, lessons from animal models and emerging concepts of angiogenesis, invasion, and metabolism in GBM that may lend themselves to therapeutic targeting.

  3. PMG: online generation of high-quality molecular pictures and storyboarded animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Ludovic; Tufféry, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The Protein Movie Generator (PMG) is an online service able to generate high-quality pictures and animations for which one can then define simple storyboards. The PMG can therefore efficiently illustrate concepts such as molecular motion or formation/dissociation of complexes. Emphasis is put on the simplicity of animation generation. Rendering is achieved using Dino coupled to POV-Ray. In order to produce highly informative images, the PMG includes capabilities of using different molecular representations at the same time to highlight particular molecular features. Moreover, sophisticated rendering concepts including scene definition, as well as modeling light and materials are available. The PMG accepts Protein Data Bank (PDB) files as input, which may include series of models or molecular dynamics trajectories and produces images or movies under various formats. PMG can be accessed at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/PMG.html. PMID:17478496

  4. Why do we study animal toxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Venom (toxins) is an important trait evolved along the evolutionary tree of animals. Our knowledges on venoms, such as their origins and loss, the biological relevance and the coevolutionary patterns with other organisms are greatly helpful in understanding many fundamental biological questions, i.e., the environmental adaptation and survival competition, the evolution shaped development and balance of venoms, and the sophisticated correlations among venom, immunity, body power, intelligence, their genetic basis, inherent association, as well as the cost-benefit and trade-offs of biological economy. Lethal animal envenomation can be found worldwide. However, from foe to friend, toxin studies have led lots of important discoveries and exciting avenues in deciphering and fighting human diseases, including the works awarded the Nobel Prize and lots of key clinic therapeutics. According to our survey, so far, only less than 0.1% of the toxins of the venomous animals in China have been explored. We emphasize on the similarities shared by venom and immune systems, as well as the studies of toxin knowledge-based physiological toxin-like proteins/peptides (TLPs). We propose the natural pairing hypothesis. Evolution links toxins with humans. Our mission is to find out the right natural pairings and interactions of our body elements with toxins, and with endogenous toxin-like molecules. Although, in nature, toxins may endanger human lives, but from a philosophical point of view, knowing them well is an effective way to better understand ourselves. So, this is why we study toxins. PMID:26228472

  5. Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Il; Kim, Hyeon Sik; Jeong, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyung Jae; Moon, Seung Min; Kwon, Seung Young; Jeong, Shin Young; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon; Choi, Eun Seo

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging is providing great advance and improvement in genetic and molecular imaging of animals and humans. Optical imaging system consists of optical imaging devices, which carry out major function for monitoring, tracing, and imaging in most of molecular in-vivo researches. In bio-luminescent imaging, small animals containing luciferase gene locally irradiate light, and emitted photons transmitted through skin of the small animals are imaged by using a high sensitive charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In this paper, we introduced optical imaging system for the image acquisition of bio-luminescent signals emitted from small animals. In the system, Nikon lens and four LED light sources were mounted at the inside of a dark box. A cooled CCD camera equipped with a control module was used. We tested the performance of the optical imaging system using effendorf tube and light emitting bacteria which injected intravenously into CT26 tumor bearing nude mouse. The performance of implemented optical imaging system for bio-luminescence imaging was demonstrated and the feasibility of the system in small animal imaging application was proved. We anticipate this system could be a useful tool for the molecular imaging of small animals adaptable for various experimental conditions in future

  6. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Animal imaging studies of potential brain damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley, S. J.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rice, O.

    To date, animal studies have not been able to predict the likelihood of problems in human neurological health due to HZE particle exposure during space missions outside the Earth's magnetosphere. In ongoing studies in mice, we have demonstrated that cocaine stimulated locomotor activity is reduced by a moderate dose (120 cGy) of 1 GeV 56Fe particles. We postulate that imaging experiments in animals may provide more sensitive and earlier indicators of damage due to HZE particles than behavioral tests. Since the small size of the mouse brain is not well suited to the spatial resolution offered by microPET, we are now repeating some of our studies in a rat model. We anticipate that this will enable us to identify imaging correlates of behavioral endpoints. A specific hypothesis of our studies is that changes in the metabolic rate for glucose in striatum of animals will be correlated with alterations in locomotor activity. We will also evaluate whether the neuroprotective drug L-deprenyl reduces the effect of radiation on locomotor activity. In addition, we will conduct microPET studies of brain monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B in rats before and at various times after irradiation with HZE particles. The hypothesis is that monoamine oxidase A, which is located in nerve terminals, will be unchanged or decreased after irradiation, while monoamine oxidase B, which is located in glial cells, will be increased after irradiation. Neurochemical effects that could be measured using PET could in principle be applied in astronauts, in terms of detecting and monitoring subtle neurological damage that might have occurred during long space missions. More speculative uses of PET are in screening candidates for prolonged space missions (for example, for adequate reserve in critical brain circuits) and in optimizing medications to treat impairments after missions.

  8. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  9. Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; hoen, Peter Ac; Venema, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset progressive muscle disorder caused by a poly-alanine expansion mutation in the Poly(A) Binding Protein Nuclear 1 (PABPN1). The molecular mechanisms that regulate disease onset and progression are largely unknown. In order to identify...... molecular pathways that are consistently associated with OPMD, we performed an integrated high-throughput transcriptome study in affected muscles of OPMD animal models and patients. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be the most consistently and significantly OPMD-deregulated pathway across...

  10. Small animal positron emission tomography imaging and in vivo studies of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a growing health challenge globally, and despite our knowledge of the disease has increased over the last couple of decades, many unanswered questions remain. As molecular imaging can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellu...... knowledge obtained from in vivo positron emission tomography studies of atherosclerosis performed in small animals....

  11. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  12. Molecular and comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg from humans and animals using PFGE, MLST and NARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Shana R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella species are recognized worldwide as a significant cause of human and animal disease. In this study the molecular profiles and characteristics of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg isolated from human cases of illness and those recovered from healthy or diagnostic cases in animals were assessed. Included in the study was a comparison with our own sequenced strain of S. Senfteberg recovered from production turkeys in North Dakota. Isolates examined in this study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS panel which tested susceptibility to 15 different antimicrobial agents. The molecular profiles of all isolates were determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and the sequence types of the strains were obtained using Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST analysis based on amplification and sequence interrogation of seven housekeeping genes (aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, and thrA. PFGE data was input into BioNumerics analysis software to generate a dendrogram of relatedness among the strains. Results The study found 93 profiles among 98 S. Senftenberg isolates tested and there were primarily two sequence types associated with humans and animals (ST185 and ST14 with overlap observed in all host types suggesting that the distribution of S. Senftenberg sequence types is not host dependent. Antimicrobial resistance was observed among the animal strains, however no resistance was detected in human isolates suggesting that animal husbandry has a significant influence on the selection and promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion The data demonstrates the circulation of at least two strain types in both animal and human health suggesting that S. Senftenberg is relatively homogeneous in its distribution. The data generated in this study could be used towards defining a pathotype for this serovar.

  13. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  14. Effects of selective bile duct ligation on liver parenchyma in young animals: histologic and molecular evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina A; Coelho, Maria Cecília M; de Oliveira Gonçalves, Josiane; Santos, Maria Mercês; Ferraz da Silva, Luiz Fernando; Bendit, Israel; Tannuri, Uenis

    2012-03-01

    The mechanisms of increased collagen production and liver parenchyma fibrosis are poorly understood. These phenomena are observed mainly in children with biliary obstruction (BO), and in a great number of patients, the evolution to biliary cirrhosis and hepatic failure leads to the need for liver transplantation before adolescence. However, pediatric liver transplantation presents with biliary complications in 20% to 30% of cases in the postoperative period. Intra- or extrahepatic stenosis of bile ducts is frequent and may lead to secondary biliary cirrhosis and the need for retransplantation. It is unknown whether biliary stenosis involving isolated segments or lobes may affect the adjacent nonobstructed lobes by paracrine or endocrine means, leading to fibrosis in this parenchyma. Therefore, the present study aimed to create an experimental model of selective biliary duct ligation in young animals with a subsequent evaluation of the histologic and molecular alterations in liver parenchyma of the obstructed and nonobstructed lobes. After a pilot study to standardize the surgical procedures, weaning rats underwent ligation of the bile ducts of the median, left lateral, and caudate liver lobes. The bile duct of the right lateral lobe was kept intact. To avoid intrahepatic biliary duct collaterals neoformation, the parenchymal connection between the right lateral and median lobes was clamped. The animals were divided into groups according to the time of death: 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after surgical procedure. After death, the median and left lateral lobes (with BO) and the right lateral lobe (without BO [NBO]) were harvested separately. A group of 8 healthy nonoperated on animals served as controls. Liver tissues were subjected to histologic evaluation and quantification of the ductular proliferation and of the portal fibrosis. The expressions of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), desmin, and transforming growth factor β1 genes were studied by molecular analyses

  15. Facile Fabrication of Animal-Specific Positioning Molds For Multi-modality Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Oh, Ji Eun; Woo, Seung Tae

    2008-01-01

    Recently multi-modal imaging system has become widely adopted in molecular imaging. We tried to fabricate animal-specific positioning molds for PET/MR fusion imaging using easily available molding clay and rapid foam. The animal-specific positioning molds provide immobilization and reproducible positioning of small animal. Herein, we have compared fiber-based molding clay with rapid foam in fabricating the molds of experimental animal. The round bottomed-acrylic frame, which fitted into microPET gantry, was prepared at first. The experimental mice was anesthetized and placed on the mold for positioning. Rapid foam and fiber-based clay were used to fabricate the mold. In case of both rapid foam and the clay, the experimental animal needs to be pushed down smoothly into the mold for positioning. However, after the mouse was removed, the fabricated clay needed to be dried completely at 60 .deg. C in oven overnight for hardening. Four sealed pipe tips containing [ 18 F]FDG solution were used as fiduciary markers. After injection of [ 18 F]FDG via tail vein, microPET scanning was performed. Successively, MRI scanning was followed in the same animal. Animal-specific positioning molds were fabricated using rapid foam and fiber-based molding clay for multimodality imaging. Functional and anatomical images were obtained with microPET and MRI, respectively. The fused PET/MR images were obtained using freely available AMIDE program. Animal-specific molds were successfully prepared using easily available rapid foam, molding clay and disposable pipet tips. Thanks to animal-specific molds, fusion images of PET and MR were co-registered with negligible misalignment

  16. Using Computational and Mechanical Models to Study Animal Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura A.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Tytell, Eric D.; Wang, Z. Jane; Yen, Jeannette; Alben, Silas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in computational methods have made realistic large-scale simulations of animal locomotion possible. This has resulted in numerous mathematical and computational studies of animal movement through fluids and over substrates with the purpose of better understanding organisms’ performance and improving the design of vehicles moving through air and water and on land. This work has also motivated the development of improved numerical methods and modeling techniques for animal locomotion that is characterized by the interactions of fluids, substrates, and structures. Despite the large body of recent work in this area, the application of mathematical and numerical methods to improve our understanding of organisms in the context of their environment and physiology has remained relatively unexplored. Nature has evolved a wide variety of fascinating mechanisms of locomotion that exploit the properties of complex materials and fluids, but only recently are the mathematical, computational, and robotic tools available to rigorously compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods of locomotion in variable environments. Similarly, advances in computational physiology have only recently allowed investigators to explore how changes at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels might lead to changes in performance at the organismal level. In this article, we highlight recent examples of how computational, mathematical, and experimental tools can be combined to ultimately answer the questions posed in one of the grand challenges in organismal biology: “Integrating living and physical systems.” PMID:22988026

  17. SketchBio: a scientist's 3D interface for molecular modeling and animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon, Shawn M; Thompson, Peter M; Hahn, Patrick J; Taylor, Russell M

    2014-10-30

    Because of the difficulties involved in learning and using 3D modeling and rendering software, many scientists hire programmers or animators to create models and animations. This both slows the discovery process and provides opportunities for miscommunication. Working with multiple collaborators, a tool was developed (based on a set of design goals) to enable them to directly construct models and animations. SketchBio is presented, a tool that incorporates state-of-the-art bimanual interaction and drop shadows to enable rapid construction of molecular structures and animations. It includes three novel features: crystal-by-example, pose-mode physics, and spring-based layout that accelerate operations common in the formation of molecular models. Design decisions and their consequences are presented, including cases where iterative design was required to produce effective approaches. The design decisions, novel features, and inclusion of state-of-the-art techniques enabled SketchBio to meet all of its design goals. These features and decisions can be incorporated into existing and new tools to improve their effectiveness.

  18. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  19. ePMV embeds molecular modeling into professional animation software environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham T; Autin, Ludovic; Goodsell, David S; Sanner, Michel F; Olson, Arthur J

    2011-03-09

    Increasingly complex research has made it more difficult to prepare data for publication, education, and outreach. Many scientists must also wade through black-box code to interface computational algorithms from diverse sources to supplement their bench work. To reduce these barriers we have developed an open-source plug-in, embedded Python Molecular Viewer (ePMV), that runs molecular modeling software directly inside of professional 3D animation applications (hosts) to provide simultaneous access to the capabilities of these newly connected systems. Uniting host and scientific algorithms into a single interface allows users from varied backgrounds to assemble professional quality visuals and to perform computational experiments with relative ease. By enabling easy exchange of algorithms, ePMV can facilitate interdisciplinary research, smooth communication between broadly diverse specialties, and provide a common platform to frame and visualize the increasingly detailed intersection(s) of cellular and molecular biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Tricholoma equestre--animal toxicity study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek; Waldman, Wojciech; Ronikier, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Animal toxicity study of Tricholoma equestre mushrooms stored for 12 months at (-)20 degrees C was performed using 30 male BALB/c mice. Three groups of 5 mice each were given suspension of T. equestre powder in water, boiled aqueous extract and chloroform-methanol extract dissolved in Miglyol 812 by gavage for three consecutive days. Mice in control groups were given water, Miglyol 812 and p-phenylenediamine (CAS 106-50-3). Creatine kinase activity was determined in serum collected 72 hours after the final dose. Mean activity of serum creatine kinase in mice treated with T. equestre powder, aqueous extract, chloroform-methanol extract and Miglyol 812 were 157 +/- 93, 129 +/- 30, 96 +/- 38, 111 +/- 66 U/L respectively and did not differ significantly from mean activity in mice which were given water (107 +/- 38 U/L). Mean serum creatine kinase activity in p-phenylenediamine group (265 +/- 63 U/L) was significantly higher than in group treated with water (p<0.01). Extracts of Tricholoma equestre mushrooms stored for 12 months at (-)20 degrees C did not cause rhabdomyolysis in male BALB/c mice.

  1. Luminescence studies of molecular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular materials have been widely studied for their potential uses in novel semiconductor devices. They occupy the intellectually interesting area between molecular and bulk descriptions of matter, and as such often have unique and useful characteristics. The design and engineering of these structures is inter-disciplinary in its nature, embracing the fields of physics, electrical engineering and both synthetic and physical chemistry. In this thesis luminescence studies of molecular materials will be presented that probe the nature of the excited states in two promising semiconductor systems. Luminescence techniques provide a powerful and sensitive tool in the investigation of kinetic pathways of radiative and non-radiative emission from these samples. This is particularly appropriate here, as the materials being studied are of potential use in electroluminescent devices. The suitability of photoluminescence techniques comes from both the electroluminescence and photoluminescence sharing the same emitting state. The first class of material studied here is an organic semiconducting polymer, cyano-substituted polyphenylenevinylene (CN-PPV). Conjugated polymers combine semiconducting electronic properties with favourable processing properties and offer the possibility of tuning their optical and electronic properties chemically. The cyanosubstitution increases the electron affinity of the polymer backbone, facilitating electron injection in light-emitting diodes. The polymers are soluble in solvents such as toluene and chloroform due the presence of alkoxy sidegroups. CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals are the other class of material characterised in this work. Semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit interesting size-tunable optical properties due to the confinement of the electronic wave functions. Characterisation of samples produced by different synthetic routes has been carried out to demonstrate the advantages of a novel synthetic method in terms of physical and

  2. Molecular Approaches to Studying Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Denitrification is carried out by a diverse array of microbes, mainly as an alternative mode of respiration that allows the organisms to respire using oxidized N compounds instead of oxygen. A common approach in biogeochemistry to the study of the regulation of denitrification is to assess activity by mass balance of substrates and products or direct rate measurements and has intrinsically assumed resource regulation of denitrification. Reported rates can vary significantly even among ecosystems characterized by similar environmental conditions, thus indicating that direct control by abiotic factors often is not sufficient to predict denitrification rates accurately in natural environments. Alternatively, a microbiological approach would proceed with the identification of the organisms responsible and an evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on the biochemical pathways involved. Traditional studies have relied on culturing techniques, such as most probable number enrichments, and have failed to assess the role of the predominately uncultivable members of the microbial community. A combination of biogeochemical measurements and the assessment of the microbial community is necessary and becoming increasingly possible with the development and application of molecular techniques. In order to understand how the composition and physiological behavior of the microbial community affects denitrification rates, we use a suite of molecular techniques developed for phylogenetic and metabolic characterization of denitrifying communities. Molecular tools available for quantifying denitrifying bacteria and assessing their diversity and activity are summarized. Their application is illustrated with examples from marine and freshwater environments. Emerging techniques and their application to ground water studies will be discussed.

  3. Nonculture molecular techniques for diagnosis of bacterial disease in animals: a diagnostic laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, H Y; Caswell, J L; Prescott, J F

    2014-03-01

    The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease.

  4. Animal models to study plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapira, K.; Heeneman, S.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The need to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in humans has lead to the development of various animal models of plaque vulnerability. In this review, current concepts of the vulnerable plaque as it leads to an acute coronary event are described, such as plaque rupture,

  5. Farm workers’ perception of animal welfare – A Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...

  6. Molecular characterization of Giardia intestinalis haplotypes in marine animals: variation and zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Welch, David Mark; Ellis, Julie C; Sogin, Mitchell L; Moore, Michael J

    2008-08-19

    Giardia intestinalis is a microbial eukaryotic parasite that causes diarrheal disease in humans and other vertebrates worldwide. The negative effect on quality of life and economics caused by G. intestinalis may be increased by its potential status as a zoonosis, or a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. The zoonotic potential of G. intestinalis has been implied for over 2 decades, with human-infecting genotypes (belonging to the 2 major subgroups, Assemblages A and B) occurring in wildlife and domesticated animals. There are recent reports of G. intestinalis in shellfish, seals, sea lions and whales, suggesting that marine animals are also potential reservoirs of human disease. However, the prevalence, genetic diversity and effect of G. intestinalis in marine environments and the role that marine animals play in transmission of this parasite to humans are relatively unexplored. Here, we provide the first thorough molecular characterization of G. intestinalis in marine vertebrates. Using a multi-locus sequencing approach, we identify human-infecting G. intestinalis haplotypes of both Assemblages A and B in the fecal material of dolphins, porpoises, seals, herring gulls Larus argentatus, common eiders Somateria mollissima and a thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. Our results indicate that G. intestinalis is prevalent in marine ecosystems, and a wide range of marine hosts capable of harboring zoonotic forms of this parasite exist. The presence of G. intestinalis in marine ecosystems raises concerns about how this disease might be transmitted among different host species.

  7. Animal models as tools to study the pathophysiology of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Abelaira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of depressive illness is high worldwide, and the inadequacy of currently available drug treatments contributes to the significant health burden associated with depression. A basic understanding of the underlying disease processes in depression is lacking; therefore, recreating the disease in animal models is not possible. Popular current models of depression creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral assays with the latest technological advances in molecular biology. Within this context, this study aims to evaluate animal models of depression and determine which has the best face, construct, and predictive validity. These models differ in the degree to which they produce features that resemble a depressive-like state, and models that include stress exposure are widely used. Paradigms that employ acute or sub-chronic stress exposure include learned helplessness, the forced swimming test, the tail suspension test, maternal deprivation, chronic mild stress, and sleep deprivation, to name but a few, all of which employ relatively short-term exposure to inescapable or uncontrollable stress and can reliably detect antidepressant drug response.

  8. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  9. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  10. Stargardt disease: clinical features, molecular genetics, animal models and therapeutic options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Preena; Strauss, Rupert W; Fujinami, Kaoru; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1; MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4. Significant advances have been made over the last 10 years in our understanding of both the clinical and molecular features of STGD1, and also the underlying pathophysiology, which has culminated in ongoing and planned human clinical trials of novel therapies. The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease, conventional and novel imaging findings, current knowledge of animal models and pathogenesis, and the multiple avenues of intervention being explored. PMID:27491360

  11. Molecular epidemiology of feline bordetellosis in two animal shelters in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E; Rand, Courtney; Bannasch, Mike J; Norris, Carol R; Milan, Joy

    2002-06-25

    "Kennel cough" in dogs in animal shelters is readily transmissible, reduces adoption rates, and commonly leads to the euthanasia of affected dogs. In cats, tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia have been associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection-but most cases of upper-respiratory infection (URI) probably are caused by herpesvirus and calicivirus, and many B. bronchiseptica culture-positive cats are clinically normal. Our prospective observational study was undertaken to document the contribution of B. bronchiseptica to disease in cats and dogs from two animal shelters undergoing outbreaks of canine kennel cough, to evaluate whether cross-species transmission might have occurred, and to determine if the presence of infected cats represented a risk to dogs. Clinically defined cases of kennel cough in dogs and URI in cats were investigated in two shelters by calculating clinical-disease incidence, alveolar-lavage cytological examination, bacterial and viral cultures, antibiotic-susceptibility testing, and molecular fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In a 40-cat and 40-dog "no-kill" shelter, the prevalences of culture positivity were 47% for B. bronchiseptica and 36% for calicivirus at the same time as two resident dogs demonstrated clinical cough. When no dogs had kennel cough 3 months later, 10% of cats were B. bronchiseptica-culture-positive and 63% calicivirus positive. In a large traditional shelter, the incidence of kennel cough in dogs increased over 12 weeks to a maximum of 19 cases/week/120 dogs, during which time the culture prevalence was 23% for B. bronchiseptica in dogs and 47% in cats. Three to 6 months before the kennel-cough epidemic, no dogs or cats were B. bronchiseptica positive. Very little genetic variability was detected in isolates from these shelters; all isolates except one corresponded to a single strain type which was identical to the pattern in a vaccine used in these shelters. Isolates from other cats

  12. Molecular dynamics study of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, J.I.; Yaldram, K.; Ahmad, W.; Khan, M.K.; Rehman, T.S.

    1995-03-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics study using the embedded atom potential to examine the equilibrium bulk properties of Ag. We calculate the total energy and the lattice parameters as a function of temperature. From these we determine the specific heat and linear coefficient of thermal expansion. The comparison with experimental results of these two quantities is found to be excellent. We have also calculated the mean square displacement of the atoms in the three directions. As expected because of symmetry the displacements in the three directions are comparable and increase with increasing temperature. (author) 5 figs

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2008-01-01

    Rissen isolates recovered from humans, food products, and animals in Denmark and Thailand. Additionally, risk factors due to travel and consumption of specific food products were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 112 Salmonella Rissen isolates were included in this study from Thailand and Denmark. Thai...... isolates were recovered from humans, uncooked food, and ready-to-eat food. Danish isolates were obtained from humans (with and without a history of travel to Thailand prior to the infection), Danish pig or pork products, imported pig or pork products, turkeys, and animal feed. A total of 63 unique Xba...... was detected in tetracycline-resistant isolates. Statistical analysis and molecular subtyping identified the combination of travel to Thailand and consumption of imported pig or pork products as well consumption of as pig or pork products produced in Denmark as risk factors for Salmonella Rissen infection...

  14. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mutian; Huang Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ling, C Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A; Humm, John L; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S; Martin, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ∼0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ∼0.8 mm could be obtained.

  15. 'Next-Generation' Surveillance: An Epidemiologists' Perspective on the Use of Molecular Information in Food Safety and Animal Health Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, P; Stärk, K D C; Dufour, S; Zadoks, R N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the availability and affordability of molecular and genomic data are transforming human health care. Surveillance aimed at supporting and improving food safety and animal health is likely to undergo a similar transformation. We propose a definition of 'molecular surveillance' in this context and argue that molecular data are an adjunct to rather than a substitute for sound epidemiological study and surveillance design. Specific considerations with regard to sample collection are raised, as is the importance of the relation between the molecular clock speed of genetic markers and the spatiotemporal scale of the surveillance activity, which can be control- or strategy-focused. Development of standards for study design and assessment of molecular surveillance system attributes is needed, together with development of an interdisciplinary skills base covering both molecular and epidemiological principles. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many birds' species such as Japanese quail, sex determination in young and many adult birds is very difficult. Nowadays, sex identification of animals throughout their lives is possible by molecular genetic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of Japanese ...

  17. Application of Model Animals in the Study of Drug Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Drug safety is a key factor in drug research and development, Drug toxicology test is the main method to evaluate the safety of drugs, The body condition of an animal has important implications for the results of the study, Previous toxicological studies of drugs were carried out in normal animals in the past, There is a great deviation from the clinical practice.The purpose of this study is to investigate the necessity of model animals as a substitute for normal animals for toxicological studies, It is expected to provide exact guidance for future drug safety evaluation.

  18. Using Computational and Mechanical Models to Study Animal Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Laura A.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Tytell, Eric D.; Wang, Z. Jane; Yen, Jeannette; Alben, Silas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in computational methods have made realistic large-scale simulations of animal locomotion possible. This has resulted in numerous mathematical and computational studies of animal movement through fluids and over substrates with the purpose of better understanding organisms’ performance and improving the design of vehicles moving through air and water and on land. This work has also motivated the development of improved numerical methods and modeling techniques for animal locom...

  19. Expression profiling of a genetic animal model of depression reveals novel molecular pathways underlying depressive-like behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Blaveri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression.In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7 and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL.These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research.

  20. Stargardt disease: clinical features, molecular genetics, animal models and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Preena; Strauss, Rupert W; Fujinami, Kaoru; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1; MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4 Significant advances have been made over the last 10 years in our understanding of both the clinical and molecular features of STGD1, and also the underlying pathophysiology, which has culminated in ongoing and planned human clinical trials of novel therapies. The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease, conventional and novel imaging findings, current knowledge of animal models and pathogenesis, and the multiple avenues of intervention being explored. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. [Pharmacokinetic study of rifampicin in the body of pregnant animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, N A; Griaznov, N S; Beliavskaia, I V; Chugunova, V I; Sazykin, Iu O

    1979-09-01

    The study on distribution of 14C-rifampicin administered intramuscularly to pregnent animals showed that its concentrations in the blood, liver, kidneys, lungs and other organs did not practically change from those in nonpregnant animals. The concentration of 14C-rifampicin in the fetus organs was much lower than that in the organs of the adult animals. The liver and kidneys of the pregnant animals, as well as the fetus though to a less extent had a capacity for metabolism of 14C-rifampicin. The following products of biotransformation were detected: N-oxide of rifampicin, 25-deacetylrifampicin, 3-formylrifamycin SV and rifamycin SV.

  2. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  3. Animal subjectivity : a study into philosophy and theory of animal experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijmbach, S.

    1998-01-01

    For many people, laypeople as well as animal scientists and philosophers, animal welfare involves animal feelings. Scientifically, however, animal feelings are problematic. In the concluding remarks of a conference about the welfare of domestic animals in 1994, for example, two questions

  4. Molecular evolution of multiple-level control of heme biosynthesis pathway in animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Chu, Ying; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Lin, Han-Jia; Cases, Ildeofonso; Rojas, Ana; Sanchez, Mayka; You, Zong-Ye; Hsu, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of enzymes in a metabolic pathway can occur not only through changes in amino acid sequences but also through variations in transcriptional activation, mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. The heme biosynthesis pathway, a linear pathway comprised of eight consecutive enzymes in animals, provides researchers with ample information for multiple types of evolutionary analyses performed with respect to the position of each enzyme in the pathway. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that the protein-coding sequences of all enzymes in this pathway are under strong purifying selection, from cnidarians to mammals. However, loose evolutionary constraints are observed for enzymes in which self-catalysis occurs. Through comparative genomics, we found that in animals, the first intron of the enzyme-encoding genes has been co-opted for transcriptional activation of the genes in this pathway. Organisms sense the cellular content of iron, and through iron-responsive elements in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs and the intron-exon boundary regions of pathway genes, translational inhibition and exon choice in enzymes may be enabled, respectively. Pathway product (heme)-mediated negative feedback control can affect the transport of pathway enzymes into the mitochondria as well as the ubiquitin-mediated stability of enzymes. Remarkably, the positions of these controls on pathway activity are not ubiquitous but are biased towards the enzymes in the upstream portion of the pathway. We revealed that multiple-level controls on the activity of the heme biosynthesis pathway depend on the linear depth of the enzymes in the pathway, indicating a new strategy for discovering the molecular constraints that shape the evolution of a metabolic pathway.

  5. Model systems to study immunomodulation in domestic food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J A; Flaming, K P

    1990-01-01

    Development of immunomodulators for use in food producing animals is an active area of research. This research has generally incorporated aspects of immunosuppression in model systems. This methodology is appropriate because most of the research has been aimed at developing immunomodulators for certain economically significant diseases in which immunosuppression is believed to be an important component of their pathogenesis. The primary focus has been on stress-associated diseases (especially bovine respiratory disease), infectious diseases in young animals, and mastitis. The model systems used have limitations, but they have demonstrated that immunomodulators are capable of significantly increasing resistance to these important infectious disease syndromes. As our understanding of molecular immunology increases and as more potential immunomodulators become available, the use of relevant model systems should greatly aid advancement in the field of immunomodulation.

  6. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus among coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin based on conventional and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Velizarova Rusenova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus among other coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin by using conventional methods (biochemical tests and latex agglutination and a molecular method, based on the nuc gene, as the gold standard and to assess the usefulness of these methods. For this purpose, total of 344 staphylococcal isolates were collected and analysed. A total of 156 isolates suspicious for S. aureus were detected by a conventional biochemical method – 88 from cows, 18 from goats, 7 from pigs, 17 from poultry, 7 from rabbits and 19 from dogs. The majority of S. aureus strains gave typical biochemical reactions with the exception of 30 (19.2% and 25 (16% that were VP negative and weak positive in fermenting mannitol, respectively. Twelve strains were found to be non-haemolytic (7.7% and four strains did not ferment trehalose (2.6%. Other staphylococci were identified as S. pseudintermedius (n = 103, S. hyicus (n = 23 and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Latex agglutination test resulted in rapid positive reactions with S. aureus with exception of 5 strains (3.2% from cow mastitis milk. Positive agglutination reactions were also established with S. pseudintermedius, and S. hyicus. PCR confirmed all strains that were preliminary identified as S. aureus by amplification of 270 bp fragment of nuc gene specific for this species. The atypical reactions in certain strains established in this study have shown that the precise detection of S. aureus from animal origin should be done by combination of conventional and molecular methods.

  7. Radiotracer studies on molecular mechanisms of death and resuscitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, V.J.; Pogossova, A.V.; Konikova, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Tracer techniques and artificial circulation were applied to rabbits after death by anoxia and deep hypothermia in order to study molecular mechanisms. 60 min after death the biosynthesis and disintegration of protein RNA and DNA practically stopped in all organs. In animals cooled post mortem the process of biosynthesis and degradation of protein, RNA and DNA, as well as the physiological functions of the whole organism, were restored. (author)

  8. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO)/sub 2/, ArICl, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO)/sub 2/, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO/sup +/, Ar/sub 2//sup +/, Kr/sub 2//sup +/, and Xe/sub 2//sup +/ have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed.

  9. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C 2 H 2 and CH 3 I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO) 2 , ArICl, Ar 2 , Kr 2 and Xe 2 have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO) 2 , Ar 2 , Kr 2 and Xe 2 van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO + , Ar 2 + , Kr 2 + , and Xe 2 + have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed

  10. Progress on dedicated animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography, as the leading technology providing molecular imaging of biological processes, is widely used on living laboratory animals. High-resolution dedicated animal PET scanners have been developed. Although the dedicated animal PET faces obstacles and challenges, this advanced technology would play an important role in molecular biomedicine researches, such as diseases study, medicine development, and gene therapy

  11. Neutron Scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboussant, G.

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with inelastic neutron scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets and focuses on their magnetic properties at low temperature and low energies. Several molecular magnets (Mn 12 , V 15 , Ni 12 , Mn 4 , etc.) are reviewed. Inelastic neutron scattering is shown to be a perfectly suited spectroscopy tool to -a) probe magnetic energy levels in such systems and -b) provide key information to understand the quantum tunnel effect of the magnetization in molecular spin clusters. (author)

  12. Fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    For several years the authors have performed fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization (MPI). We will present a potpourri of techniques and results chosen to illustrate the interesting complexities of molecular MPI. Techniques used include time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, supersonic expansion cooling of molecular beams, harmonic generation, two-color laser MPI, and polarization spectroscopy. Whenever possible the relevance of these results to resonance ionization spectroscopy schemes will be delineated. 23 references, 10 figures

  13. High-resolution emission tomography of small laboratory animals: physics and gamma-astronomy meet molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, F.J.; Colijn, A.P.; Vastenhouw, B.; Wiegant, V.M.; Gerrits, M.A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging can be defined as the characterization and measurement of biological processes in living animals, model systems and humans at the cellular and molecular level using remote imaging detectors. An example concerns the mapping of the distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in laboratory animals which is of crucial importance for life sciences. Tomographic methods like Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) offer a possibility to visualize distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in living animals. Miniature tomography systems, derived from their clinical counterparts, but with a much higher image resolution are under development in several institutes. An example is U-SPECT that will be discussed in the present paper. Such systems are expected to accelerate several biomedical research procedures, the understanding of gene and protein function, as well as pharmaceutical development

  14. The Potential of Adaptive Design in Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Majid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are the backbone of medical research, and are often the last step in the development of new therapies for use in patients. Prior to human testing, however, preclinical studies using animal subjects are usually performed in order to provide initial data on the safety and effectiveness of prospective treatments. These studies can be costly and time consuming, and may also raise concerns about the ethical treatment of animals when potentially harmful procedures are involved. Adaptive design is a process by which the methods used in a study may be altered while it is being conducted in response to preliminary data or other new information. Adaptive design has been shown to be useful in reducing the time and costs associated with clinical trials, and may provide similar benefits in preclinical animal studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize various aspects of adaptive design and evaluate its potential for use in preclinical research.

  15. The Potential of Adaptive Design in Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam; Redgrave, Jessica; Teare, Dawn; Ali, Ali; Zemke, Daniel

    2015-10-12

    Clinical trials are the backbone of medical research, and are often the last step in the development of new therapies for use in patients. Prior to human testing, however, preclinical studies using animal subjects are usually performed in order to provide initial data on the safety and effectiveness of prospective treatments. These studies can be costly and time consuming, and may also raise concerns about the ethical treatment of animals when potentially harmful procedures are involved. Adaptive design is a process by which the methods used in a study may be altered while it is being conducted in response to preliminary data or other new information. Adaptive design has been shown to be useful in reducing the time and costs associated with clinical trials, and may provide similar benefits in preclinical animal studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize various aspects of adaptive design and evaluate its potential for use in preclinical research.

  16. A Study of Sasin-Animal Sky Map on Chonmunryucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jin Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chon-Mun-Ryu-Cho, written (edited by Lee Sun-Ji during the period of King Se-Jong, is a representative astronomy book of Cho-Sun (A.D. 1392 -1910 Dynasty. We find and study in the first page of the book; the description of 28 oriental constellations as a Sasin (four mythical oriental animals-animal sky map which is not widely known yet. The map consists of four groups of constellations, each of which represents the Sasin: Chang-Ryong (dragon, Baek-Ho (tigers with Ki-Rin [Oriental giraffe], Ju-Jak (Chinese phoenix, Hyun-Mu (a tortoise interwined with a snake. Each group (animals spans 2˜7 of 28 oriental constellations As we know from the illustration of the Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do a representative sky map of Cho-Sun Dynasty, astronomy in Cho-Sun Dynasty is closely related to that in Go-Gu-Ryer (B.C. 37 -A.D. 668 Dynasty. Since these Sasin-animals appear in most mural paintings of Go-Gu-Ryer tombs, visualization of sky with these animal constellations could have been established as early as in Go-Gu-Ryer Dynasty. We also reconstruct this ''A Sasin-animal Korean sky map'' based on the shapes of the Sasin and Ki-Rin from Go-Gu-Ryer paintings and 28 oriental constellations in Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do.

  17. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  18. Where are we in the study of animal emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Amber J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2016-09-01

    The study of emotion is rife with debate over issues as fundamental as how to define emotion, and such disputes are particularly common in the nonhuman animal emotion literature. Here, we seek to address some of these issues, especially in terms of how they relate to animal research. Definitional issues are prevalent; clear definitions are often not given of crucial terms, including 'emotion,' and even where provided, such terms may be used inconsistently throughout a single paper. Further disagreement over the structure of emotions, and the nature of conscious experiences involved, leads to consistent differences in authors' criteria for emotions. We concur with those who believe that animals experience emotions and believe that animal emotions should be studied in their own right, not only as they compare to those of humans. We also propose several avenues for future research that we believe will further our understanding of animal emotions. First, the use of multiple measurement methods to assess emotional responses is most likely to provide the information necessary to distinguish between various states and opens the field to more research in harder-to-study species, such as marine mammals. Second, researchers should also endeavor to increase the range of emotions studied, particularly positive ones, in order to move toward a more balanced range of studied states. Finally, we believe that several aspects of personality research would prove beneficial to the study of animal emotions, particularly the distinction between trait and state emotion and the use of the rating method. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:354-362. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1399 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Childhood Cruelty to Animals: A Tri-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Yeow, James; Hapidzal, Noor Fizlee Mohd; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yokoyama, Akimitsu; Nobuzane, Yosuke

    2009-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is a symptom of conduct disorder that has been linked to the perpetration of violence in later life. Research has identified several factors associated with its etiology, including social factors. However, no cross-cultural studies on this phenomenon have been reported. This study investigated childhood cruelty to…

  20. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli, Bovicola bovis (B. bovis and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001 higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1% and keds (86.4% including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001. Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001. Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  1. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. Aim To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Methods Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Main Outcomes Measures Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. Results The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women’s sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain

  2. Endoscopic colostomy with percutaneous colopexy: an animal feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Lopez, Leonardo Alfonso; Sulbaran, Marianny; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; de Moura, Eduardo Guimaraes Horneaux; Nahas, Caio Sergio; Marques, Carlos Frederico; Sakai, Christiano; Cecconello, Ivan; Sakai, Paulo

    2017-04-01

    Indications for colostomy in colorectal diseases are obstruction of the large bowel, such as in cancer, diverticular disease in the acute phase, post-radiotherapy enteritis, complex perirectal fistulas, anorectal trauma and severe anal incontinence. Some critically ill patients cannot tolerate an exploratory laparotomy, and laparoscopic assisted colostomy also requires general anesthesia. To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of performing colostomy assisted by colonoscopy and percutaneous colopexy. Five pigs underwent endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy. Animals were evaluated in post-operative days 1, 2, 5 and 7 for feeding acceptance and colostomy characteristics. On day 7 full colonoscopy was performed on animals followed by exploratory laparotomy. Average procedure time was 27 minutes (21-54 min). Postoperative mobility and feeding of animals were immediate after anesthesia recovery. Position of the colostomy, edges color, appearance of periostomal area, as well as its function was satisfactory in four animals. Retraction of colostomy was present in one pig. The colonoscopy and laparotomy control on the seventh day were considered as normal. A bladder perforation that was successfully repaired through the colostomy incision occurred in one pig. The main limitation of this study is its experimental nature. Endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy proves to be a safe and effective method with low morbidity for performing colostomy in experimental animals, with possible clinical application in humans.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Nanofluidic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano Rodriguez, Harvey Alexander

    of such devices. Computational nanofluidics complements experimental studies by providing detailed spatial and temporal information of the nanosystem. In this thesis, we conduct molecular dynamics simulations to study basic nanoscale devices. We focus our studies on the understanding of transport mechanism...... to drive fluids and solids at the nanoscale. Specifically, we present the results of three different research projects. Throughout the first part of this thesis, we include a comprenhensive introduction to computational nanofluidics and to molecular simulations, and describe the molecular dynamics...... in opposite direction to the imposed thermal gradient also we measure higher velocities as higher thermal gradients are imposed. Secondly, we present an atomistic analysis of a molecular linear motor fabricated of coaxial carbon nanotubes and powered by thermal gradients. The MD simulation results indicate...

  4. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  5. Study on gastro intestinal parasite of cattle at Horoguduru Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing ... Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department.

  6. Are animal models useful for studying human disc disorders / degeneration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alini, M.; Eisenstein, S.M.; Ito, K.; Little, C.; Kettler, A.A.; Masuda, K.; Melrose, J.; Ralphs, J.; Stokes, I.; Wilke, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is an often investigated pathophysiological condition because of its implication in causing low back pain. As human material for such studies is difficult to obtain because of ethical and government regulatory restriction, animal tissue, organs and in vivo

  7. Comparative Study of Biogas Yield Pattern in Some Animal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...

  8. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the application of F-RNA coliphages and faecal sterols to distinction between human and animal excreta has .... in a shaking water bath (LABOTEC) at 100 r·min-1. .... calibration standards that were plotted using Microsoft Excel.

  9. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  10. The contribution of animal models to the study of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John; Hambly, Catherine; Mitchell, Sharon; Król, Elzbieta

    2008-10-01

    Obesity results from prolonged imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure. Animal models have provided a fundamental contribution to the historical development of understanding the basic parameters that regulate the components of our energy balance. Five different types of animal model have been employed in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of obesity. The first models reflect single gene mutations that have arisen spontaneously in rodent colonies and have subsequently been characterized. The second approach is to speed up the random mutation rate artificially by treating rodents with mutagens or exposing them to radiation. The third type of models are mice and rats where a specific gene has been disrupted or over-expressed as a deliberate act. Such genetically-engineered disruptions may be generated through the entire body for the entire life (global transgenic manipulations) or restricted in both time and to certain tissue or cell types. In all these genetically-engineered scenarios, there are two types of situation that lead to insights: where a specific gene hypothesized to play a role in the regulation of energy balance is targeted, and where a gene is disrupted for a different purpose, but the consequence is an unexpected obese or lean phenotype. A fourth group of animal models concern experiments where selective breeding has been utilized to derive strains of rodents that differ in their degree of fatness. Finally, studies have been made of other species including non-human primates and dogs. In addition to studies of the physiological and genetic basis of obesity, studies of animal models have also informed us about the environmental aspects of the condition. Studies in this context include exploring the responses of animals to high fat or high fat/high sugar (Cafeteria) diets, investigations of the effects of dietary restriction on body mass and fat loss, and studies of the impact of candidate pharmaceuticals on components of energy

  11. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50 first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety as-sessment of drugs and chemicals, LD50 values are no longer used. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to investigating the relevance of LD50 in development and assessment of drugs and chemicals. The findings revealed that in the past, many animals had been used for LD50 determination. OECD has reduced the number of test animals to 5–15 and presently it is further re-duced to 2–6. Acute toxicity study is being carried out in medicinal plants research and in the study of patent medicine. Although the application of LD50 has been drastically reduced, it is still applied and accepted in some parts of the world. Moreover, animals on which LD50 tests are conducted, should be allowed to die to see the end effect of the test drug or chemical because euthanisia of test animals may mask some toxicity signs of the test agents. Therefore, toxicity study of drugs and chemicals is a sci-entific process necessary for discovery and development of drugs as well as identification of potential toxicants.

  12. STUDY OF THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mehmood Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the toxic effects of a commercially available pesticide, cypermethrin (CM, on animals. This pesticide was administered in the form of aerosol spray through a nebulizer. The study was performed in four different groups and a constant dose of the pesticide was administered once, twice, thrice and four times a day to the respective group for a period of 30 days. The animals were then dissected to study the pesticide effects on different organs. The organs were preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed by basic histopathological method and the slides were prepared for observation. The results were recorded on a performa and were quantified by a unique scoring system. It is concluded that the injurious effects to the mentioned organs were dose and frequency dependent.

  13. Trends and molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in clinical staphylococci isolated from companion animals over a 16 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Natacha; Monchique, Cláudia; Belas, Adriana; Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís T; Pomba, Constança

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the evolution of resistance to antimicrobials, corresponding mechanisms and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus spp., between 1999 and 2014. Susceptibility to 38 antimicrobials was determined for 632 clinical staphylococcal isolates obtained from companion animals (dogs, cats, horses and other animals). Twenty antimicrobial resistance genes, including mecA and mecC, were screened by PCR. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were characterized by spa (Staphylococcus aureus), SCCmec, MLST and PFGE typing. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS v9.3 and differences were considered relevant if P ≤ 0.05. The mecA gene was identified in 74 staphylococcal isolates (11.6%): 11 MRSA (40.7%), 40 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP; 8.7%) and 23 methicillin-resistant CoNS (26.7%). Resistance to the majority of antimicrobials and the number of mecA-positive isolates increased significantly over time. Eighteen spa types were identified, including two new ones. MRSA isolates were divided into three PFGE clusters that included ST22-IV, ST105-II, ST398-V and ST5-VI. Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were of clonal complex (CC) 5, including a new ST, and clustered in eight PFGE clusters. MRSP were grouped into five PFGE clusters and included ST45-NT, ST71-II-III, ST195-III, ST196-V, ST339-NT, ST342-IV and the new ST400-III. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus clustered in two PFGE clusters. The significant increase in antimicrobial-resistant and mecA-positive isolates in recent years is worrying. Furthermore, several isolates are MDR, which complicates antimicrobial treatment and increases the risk of transfer to humans or human isolates. Several clonal lineages of MRSA and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis circulating in human hospitals and the community were found, suggesting that companion animals can become infected with and contribute to the

  14. Outstanding animal studies in allergy I. From asthma to food allergy and anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Roth-Walter, Franziska

    2017-06-01

    Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results. Instead of model antigens, gradually relevant allergens such as house dust mite in asthma, and food allergens like peanut, apple and peach in food allergy research were used. Novel engineered mouse models such as a mouse with a T-cell receptor for house dust mite allergen Der p 1, or with transgenic human hFcγR genes, facilitated the investigation of single molecules of interest. Whole-body plethysmography has become a state-of-the-art in-vivo readout in asthma research. In food allergy and anaphylaxis research, novel techniques were developed allowing real-time monitoring of in-vivo effects following allergen challenge. Networks to share tissues were established as an effort to reduce animal experiments in allergy which cannot be replaced by in-vitro measures. Natural and artificial animal models were used to explore the pathophysiology of asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis and to improve prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Especially the novel mouse models mimicking molecular aspects of the complex immune network in asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis will facilitate proof-of-concept studies under controlled conditions.

  15. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  16. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cian

    Full Text Available Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human

  18. Understanding the genetic and molecular pathogenesis of Friedreich’s ataxia through animal and cellular models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Alain; Napierala, Marek; Puccio, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease. These advances were the subject of the 4th International Friedreich’s Ataxia Conference held on 5th–7th May in the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France. More than 200 scientists gathered from all over the world to present the results of research spanning all areas of investigation into FRDA (including clinical aspects, FRDA pathogenesis, genetics and epigenetics of the disease, development of new models of FRDA, and drug discovery). This review provides an update on the understanding of frataxin function, developments of animal and cellular models of the disease, and recent advances in trying to uncover potential molecules for therapy. PMID:22382366

  19. Drug induced acute kidney injury: an experimental animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.W.A.; Khan, B.T.; Qazi, R.A.; Ashraf, M.; Waqar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent of drug induced nephrotoxicity in laboratory animals for determining the role and extent of iatrogenic kidney damage in patients exposed to nephrotoxic drugs in various clinical setups. Study Design: Randomized control trail. Place and Duration of study: Pharmacology department and animal house of Army Medical College from Jan 2011 to Aug 2011. Material and Methods: Thirty six mixed breed rabbits were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of six rabbits in each. Groups were named A, B, C, D, E and F. Group A was control group. Group B was given 0.9% normal saline. Group C rabbits were given acute nephrotoxic single dose of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Group D received 0.9% normal saline 10ml/kg followed by amphotericin B infusion. Group E was injected acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Group F received saline loading along with acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significant kidney injury in rabbits exposed to acute nephrotoxic doses of amphotericin B and cyclosporine. Toxicity was additive when the two drugs were administered simultaneously. Group of rabbits with saline loading had significantly lesser kidney damage. Conclusion: Iatrogenic acute kidney damage is a major cause of morbidity in experimental animals exposed to such nephrotoxic drugs like amphotericin B and cyclosporine, used either alone or in combination. Clinical studies are recommended to assess the extent of iatrogenic renal damage in patients and its economic burden. Efficient and cost effective protective measure may be adopted in clinical setups against such adverse effects. (author)

  20. Comparative studies on different molecular methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.

  1. Study on Romanian Consumers’ Opinion Regarding the Animal Welfare Labelling of Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate the influence some factors on the consumers’ opinion regarding the animal welfare labelling of animal products. The analysed question was: “When purchasing eggs, meat or milk can you easily identify from the label those products sourced from animal welfare friendly production systems?” Respondents chosen only one answer out of the five offered: yes, most of the time; yes, some of the time; no, very rarely; no, never; and don’t know. Thirty three percent of females considered they could find sometime information regarding the animal welfare on the labels, while males considered that this information could be found very rarely. Up to 55 years of age, 50% of the consumers consider that the labels do not contain the information about animal welfare, while after this age most of consumers consider they found this information on the labels. Over 50% of Orthodox and Roman Catholic responders considered that the information on animal welfare on the labels was found some of the time or very rarely. Respondents, irrespective of their living area or monthly income, considered that there is scarce information regarding animal welfare on the labels. Internet access significantly influenced the consumers regarding the availability of the information on the labels.

  2. Thermally driven molecular linear motors - A molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial carbon nanotubes with a long outer carbon nanotube confining and guiding the motion of an inner short, capsule-like nanotube. The simulations indicate that the motion of the capsule can be controlled by th...

  3. Estimating animal abundance in ground beef batches assayed with molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Sheng Hu

    Full Text Available Estimating animal abundance in industrial scale batches of ground meat is important for mapping meat products through the manufacturing process and for effectively tracing the finished product during a food safety recall. The processing of ground beef involves a potentially large number of animals from diverse sources in a single product batch, which produces a high heterogeneity in capture probability. In order to estimate animal abundance through DNA profiling of ground beef constituents, two parameter-based statistical models were developed for incidence data. Simulations were applied to evaluate the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE of a joint likelihood function from multiple surveys, showing superiority in the presence of high capture heterogeneity with small sample sizes, or comparable estimation in the presence of low capture heterogeneity with a large sample size when compared to other existing models. Our model employs the full information on the pattern of the capture-recapture frequencies from multiple samples. We applied the proposed models to estimate animal abundance in six manufacturing beef batches, genotyped using 30 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, from a large scale beef grinding facility. Results show that between 411∼1367 animals were present in six manufacturing beef batches. These estimates are informative as a reference for improving recall processes and tracing finished meat products back to source.

  4. Pharmaco-EEG Studies in Animals: A History-Based Introduction to Contemporary Translational Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H I M; Ahnaou, Abdallah; Ruigt, Gé S F

    2015-01-01

    Current research on the effects of pharmacological agents on human neurophysiology finds its roots in animal research, which is also reflected in contemporary animal pharmaco-electroencephalography (p-EEG) applications. The contributions, present value and translational appreciation of animal p-EEG-based applications are strongly interlinked with progress in recording and neuroscience analysis methodology. After the pioneering years in the late 19th and early 20th century, animal p-EEG research flourished in the pharmaceutical industry in the early 1980s. However, around the turn of the millennium the emergence of structurally and functionally revealing imaging techniques and the increasing application of molecular biology caused a temporary reduction in the use of EEG as a window into the brain for the prediction of drug efficacy. Today, animal p-EEG is applied again for its biomarker potential - extensive databases of p-EEG and polysomnography studies in rats and mice hold EEG signatures of a broad collection of psychoactive reference and test compounds. A multitude of functional EEG measures has been investigated, ranging from simple spectral power and sleep-wake parameters to advanced neuronal connectivity and plasticity parameters. Compared to clinical p-EEG studies, where the level of vigilance can be well controlled, changes in sleep-waking behaviour are generally a prominent confounding variable in animal p-EEG studies and need to be dealt with. Contributions of rodent pharmaco-sleep EEG research are outlined to illustrate the value and limitations of such preclinical p-EEG data for pharmacodynamic and chronopharmacological drug profiling. Contemporary applications of p-EEG and pharmaco-sleep EEG recordings in animals provide a common and relatively inexpensive window into the functional brain early in the preclinical and clinical development of psychoactive drugs in comparison to other brain imaging techniques. They provide information on the impact of

  5. Performance characteristics of a small animal PET camera for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.L.; Reader, A.J.; Julyan, P.J.; Zweit, J.; Jeavons, A.P.; Jones, T.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a novel type of animal PET camera, the quad High-Density Avalanche Chamber (HIDAC) was assessed for a non-rotating 16-module system. Spatial resolution was 1.0 mm, and invariant within a standard deviation ≤5%. Absolute sensitivity was 0.95%, and the scatter-background corrected sensitivity was 0.75%. The count rate capability was linear at typical activities used in animal imaging, with a 20% loss at 11.5 MBq. The camera demonstrates small regions of radiotracer uptake with excellent detail in the mouse

  6. Molecular identification of Trichinella isolates from wildlife animals of the Russian Arctic territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goździk K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematodes of genus Trichinella are infective to a wide range of hosts, including humans, and have global distribution from tropic to arctic areas. Muscle samples from animals, collected in two areas of the Russian Federation, Chukotka Peninsula and Arkhangelsk Oblast, were tested for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae. Trichinella spp. larvae were recovered from tissues of eleven wild and domestic animals: 1 polar bear, 1 wolverine, 3 arctic foxes, 1 ringed seal, 1 brown bear, 1 cat, 1 sled dog, 1 domestic pig and 1 northern sea lion.

  7. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Comparative studies on the ossification in several experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Fukuda, Shun

    1978-01-01

    For estimating the risk of the bone seeking radionuclides in man, it is necessary to extrapolate the data of experimental animals to those of man. Detailed information on the biological stages of development, especially on bone growth of several experimental animals and of man is required for better extrapolation. Multi-species comparison of bone growth and ossification was carried out in several mammalian species such as mouse, rat, dog and monkey. The appearance, ossifying process and fusion of the secondary ossification centers in extremities were selected as indicators of the biological stage of bone. The observation of the secondary ossification centers was made by radiography. The maturity process of the secondary ossification centers in each animal was illustrated. The ossifying process of the secondary ossification center could be divided into the following three categories; (1) the acute ossification observed in mouse, rat, dog and monkey (2) the delayed ossification observed in mouse, rat, dog and monkey, (3) the incomplete ossification without complete fusion which is specific in mouse and rat, appeared and continued up to at least 27 weeks in mouse and up to 134 weeks in rat. The results of the study suggested that a mouse 17 weeks old, a rat 17 - 21 weeks old, a dog (beagle) 14 months old and a monkey about 6 years old may correspond to a man about 20 years old. (author)

  9. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50) first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety ...

  10. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  11. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, G. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Pisciotta, P., E-mail: pietro.pisciotta@ibfm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Acquaviva, R. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Gilardi, M.C. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Cuttone, G. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy)

    2017-02-21

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  12. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G. I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M. C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  13. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F.; Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V.; Acquaviva, R.; Gilardi, M.C.; Cuttone, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  14. A Molecular Dynamics Study of Lunasin | Singh | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Molecular Dynamics Study of Lunasin. ... profile of lunasin,using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at the time scale of 300 ns. ... Keywords: Lunasin, molecular dynamics, amber, CLASICO, α-helix, β-turn, PTRAJ, RGD, RMSD ...

  15. Nonlinear spectroscopic studies of interfacial molecular ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superfine, R.

    1991-07-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful new probes of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the nonlinear susceptibility. In particular, infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) can obtain the vibrational spectrum of sub-monolayer coverages of molecules. In this thesis, we explore the unique information that can be obtained from SFG. We take advantage of the sensitivity of SFG to the conformation of alkane chains to study the interaction between adsorbed liquid crystal molecules and surfactant treated surfaces. The sign of the SFG susceptibility depends on the sign of the molecular polarizability and the orientation, up or down, of the molecule. We experimentally determine the sign of the susceptibility and use it to determine the absolute orientation to obtain the sign of the molecular polarizability and show that this quantity contains important information about the dynamics of molecular charge distributions. Finally, we study the vibrational spectra and the molecular orientation at the pure liquid/vapor interface of methanol and water and present the most detailed evidence yet obtained for the structure of the pure water surface. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Depression and substance use comorbidity: What we have learned from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Enoch; Browne, Caleb J; Samsom, James N; Wong, Albert H C

    2017-07-01

    Depression and substance use disorders are often comorbid, but the reasons for this are unclear. In human studies, it is difficult to determine how one disorder may affect predisposition to the other and what the underlying mechanisms might be. Instead, animal studies allow experimental induction of behaviors relevant to depression and drug-taking, and permit direct interrogation of changes to neural circuits and molecular pathways. While this field is still new, here we review animal studies that investigate whether depression-like states increase vulnerability to drug-taking behaviors. Since chronic psychosocial stress can precipitate or predispose to depression in humans, we review studies that use psychosocial stressors to produce depression-like phenotypes in animals. Specifically, we describe how postweaning isolation stress, repeated social defeat stress, and chronic mild (or unpredictable) stress affect behaviors relevant to substance abuse, especially operant self-administration. Potential brain changes mediating these effects are also discussed where available, with an emphasis on mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuits. Postweaning isolation stress and repeated social defeat generally increase acquisition or maintenance of drug self-administration, and alter dopamine sensitivity in various brain regions. However, the effects of chronic mild stress on drug-taking have been much less studied. Future studies should consider standardizing stress-induction protocols, including female subjects, and using multi-hit models (e.g. genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stress).

  17. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang RB

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renbao Chang,1 Xudong Liu,1 Shihua Li,2 Xiao-Jiang Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner. Keywords: transgenic animal models, Huntington’s disease, pathogenesis, therapy

  18. Animal Models in Sexual Medicine: The Need and Importance of Studying Sexual Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aquino, Elisa; Paredes, Raúl G

    2017-01-01

    Many different animal models of sexual medicine have been developed, demonstrating the complexity of studying the many interactions that influence sexual responses. A great deal of effort has been invested in measuring sexual motivation using different behavioral models mainly because human behavior is more complex than any model can reproduce. To compare different animal models of male and female behaviors that measure sexual motivation as a key element in sexual medicine and focus on models that use a combination of molecular techniques and behavioral measurements. We review the literature to describe models that evaluate different aspects of sexual motivation. No single test is sufficient to evaluate sexual motivation. The best approach is to evaluate animals in different behavioral tests to measure the motivational state of the subject. Different motivated behaviors such as aggression, singing in the case of birds, and sexual behavior, which are crucial for reproduction, are associated with changes in mRNA levels of different receptors in brain areas that are important in the control of reproduction. Research in animal models is crucial to understand the complexity of sexual behavior and all the mechanisms that influence such an important aspect of human well-being to decrease the physiologic and psychological impact of sexual dysfunctions. In other cases, research in different models is necessary to understand and recognize, not cure, the variability of sexuality, such as asexuality, which is another form of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-10-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. What do animals learn in artificial grammar studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2017-10-01

    Artificial grammar learning is a popular paradigm to study syntactic ability in nonhuman animals. Subjects are first trained to recognize strings of tokens that are sequenced according to grammatical rules. Next, to test if recognition depends on grammaticality, subjects are presented with grammar-consistent and grammar-violating test strings, which they should discriminate between. However, simpler cues may underlie discrimination if they are available. Here, we review stimulus design in a sample of studies that use particular sounds as tokens, and that claim or suggest their results demonstrate a form of sequence rule learning. To assess the extent of acoustic similarity between training and test strings, we use four simple measures corresponding to cues that are likely salient. All stimulus sets contain biases in similarity measures such that grammatical test stimuli resemble training stimuli acoustically more than do non-grammatical test stimuli. These biases may contribute to response behaviour, reducing the strength of grammatical explanations. We conclude that acoustic confounds are a blind spot in artificial grammar learning studies in nonhuman animals. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Stargardt disease: clinical features, molecular genetics, animal models and therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Tanna, P.; Strauss, R. W.; Fujinami, K.; Michaelides, M.

    2017-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1; MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4 Significant advances have been made over the last 10 years in our understanding of both the clinical and molecular features of STGD1, and also the underlying pathophysiology, which has culminated in ongoing and planned human clinical trials of novel therapies. The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and genot...

  2. Stargardt disease: clinical features, molecular genetics, animal models and therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Tanna, Preena; Strauss, Rupert W; Fujinami, Kaoru; Michaelides, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Stargardt disease (STGD1; MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4. Significant advances have been made over the last 10?years in our understanding of both the clinical and molecular features of STGD1, and also the underlying pathophysiology, which has culminated in ongoing and planned human clinical trials of novel therapies. The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and geno...

  3. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in animal and human hosts from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Ditrich, Oleg; Šlapeta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2004), s. 183-192 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6022006 Grant - others:GA MŠk1(CZ) 1260/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * molecular identification * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  4. Boophilus microplus: BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF ACARICIDE RESISTANCE AND THEIR IMPACT ON ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Inés Dominguez-García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Application of Ixodicidas has been considered for a long time the alternative for control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, however, its use is currently limited in reducing tick infestations, due to the appearance of resistant field tick populations. Ixodicide resistance is a growing problem that needs to be attended, because, it is currently affecting the competitiveness of the Mexican Cattle industry in general and in particular the income of cattle producers. The solution to this problem needs to increase the budget dedicated to basic research in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ixodicide resistance leading to the discovery of new molecular targets for ixodicide resistance detection and recombinant vaccine development. The recent use of new genomic tools, as well as reverse genetics approaches, will provide an extraordinary contribution to the improvement of tick control strategies and ixodicide resistance mitigation programs. The aim of the present review is to make a compilation of different topics related with acaricide resistance in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, starting with some biological and molecular considerations on its new classification, to the analysis of ixodicide resistance, its impact on the Mexican cattle industry and the perspective of the genomic research in order to solve the problems associated to tick control, new diagnostic tools and development of tick vaccines.

  5. Preclinical molecular imaging: development of instrumentation for translational research with small laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Jorge; Miranda, Ana Claudia Camargo; Durante, Ana Claudia Ranucci; Oliveira, Larissa Rolim de; Barboza, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de; Rosell, Katerin Taboada; Jardim, Daniele Pereira; Campos, Alexandre Holthausen; Reis, Marilia Alves Dos; Catanoso, Marcela Forli; Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth; Cabral, Francisco Romero

    2016-01-01

    To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. The combined system was characterized, determining operational parameters, such as spatial resolution, magnification, maximum acceptable target size, number of projections, and acquisition and reconstruction times. Images were obtained with 0.5mm spatial resolution, with acquisition and reconstruction times between 30 and 45 minutes, using iterative reconstruction with 10 to 20 iterations and 4 projection subsets. The system was validated acquiring in vivo tomographic images of the heart, kidneys and brain of normal animals (mice and adult rats), using the radiopharmaceuticals technetium-labeled hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-Sestamibi), technetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-labeled hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). This kind of application, which consists in the adaptation for an alternative objective of already existing instrumentation, resulted in a low-cost infrastructure option, allowing to carry out large scale in vivo studies with enhanced quality in several areas, such as neurology, nephrology, cardiology, among others. Apresentar o resultado da adaptação de uma gama câmara clínica para uso dedicado na obtenção de imagens tomográficas in vivo de órgãos de pequenos animais de experimentação, e de sua aplicação na obtenção de imagens cardíacas, renais e neurológicas. Foi construída uma versão atualizada do dispositivo de adapta

  6. Animal studies with the Carmat bioprosthetic total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrémouille, Christian; Duveau, Daniel; Cholley, Bernard; Zilberstein, Luca; Belbis, Guillaume; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Meleard, Denis; Bruneval, Patrick; Adam, Clovis; Neuschwander, Arthur; Perles, Jean-Christophe; Jansen, Piet; Carpentier, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The Carmat bioprosthetic total artificial heart (TAH) contains bioprosthetic blood-contacting surfaces, and is designed for orthotopic cardiac replacement. In preparation for clinical studies, we evaluated the TAH performance and its effects on end-organ function in an animal model. Twelve female Charolais calves, 2-3 months of age and weighing 102-122 kg, were implanted with the TAH through a mid-sternotomy to ensure an adequate anatomic fit. The intended support duration was 4-10 days. Haematological values, creatinine, bilirubin and lactate levels were measured and mean arterial and central venous pressure, central venous oxygen saturation and TAH parameters were monitored. The calves were placed in a cage immediately postoperatively, and extubated on postoperative day 1 in most cases. Average support duration was 3 days, with 4 of 12 calves supported for 4, 4, 8 and 10 days. The initial procedures were used to refine surgical techniques and postoperative care. Pump output ranged from 7.3 to 10 l/min. Haemodynamic parameters and blood analysis were within acceptable ranges. No device failures occurred. No anticoagulation was used in the postoperative phase. The calves were euthanized in case of discomfort compromising the animal well-being, such as respiratory dysfunction, severe blood loss and cerebral dysfunction. Device explant analysis showed no thrombus formation inside the blood cavities. Histological examination of kidneys showed isolated micro-infarction in 2/12 animals; brain histology revealed no thromboembolic depositions. The Carmat bioprosthetic TAH implanted in calves up to 10 days provided adequate blood flow to organs and tissues. Low levels of haemolysis and no visible evidence of thromboembolic depositions in major organs and device cavities, without the use of anticoagulation, may indicate early-phase haemocompatibility of the TAH. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  7. Towards ethically improved animal experimentation in the study of animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, D; Martin, G B; Maloney, S K

    2008-07-01

    The ethics of animal-based research is a continuing area of debate, but ethical research protocols do not prevent scientific progress. In this paper, we argue that our current knowledge of the factors that affect reproductive processes provides researchers with a solid foundation upon which they can conduct more ethical research and simultaneously produce data of higher quality. We support this argument by showing how a deep understanding of the genetics, nutrition and temperament of our experimental animals can improve compliance with two of the '3 Rs', reduction and refinement, simply by offering better control over the variance in our experimental model. The outcome is a better experimental design, on both ethical and scientific grounds.

  8. Discrete tomography in an in vivo small animal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Casteele, Elke; Perilli, Egon; Van Aarle, Wim; Reynolds, Karen J; Sijbers, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the feasibility of a discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) to be used in in vivo small animal bone studies. The advantage of discrete tomography is the possibility to reduce the amount of X-ray projection images, which makes scans faster and implies also a significant reduction of radiation dose, without compromising the reconstruction results. Bone studies are ideal for being performed with discrete tomography, due to the relatively small number of attenuation coefficients contained in the image [namely three: background (air), soft tissue and bone]. In this paper, a validation is made by comparing trabecular bone morphometric parameters calculated from images obtained by using DART and the commonly used standard filtered back-projection (FBP). Female rats were divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) and a sham-operated group. In vivo micro-CT scanning of the tibia was done at baseline and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. The cross-section images were reconstructed using first the full set of projection images and afterwards reducing them in number to a quarter and one-sixth (248, 62, 42 projection images, respectively). For both reconstruction methods, similar changes in morphometric parameters were observed over time: bone loss for OVX and bone growth for sham-operated rats, although for DART the actual values were systematically higher (bone volume fraction) or lower (structure model index) compared to FBP, depending on the morphometric parameter. The DART algorithm was, however, more robust when using fewer projection images, where the standard FBP reconstruction was more prone to noise, showing a significantly bigger deviation from the morphometric parameters obtained using all projection images. This study supports the use of DART as a potential alternative method to FBP in X-ray micro-CT animal studies, in particular, when the number of projections has to be drastically minimized, which directly reduces

  9. George Herbert Mead on Humans and Other Animals: Social Relations After Human-Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoda Wilkie; Andrew McKinnon

    2013-01-01

    The turn towards nonhuman animals within sociology has shed a critical light on George Herbert Mead, his apparent prioritisation of language and the anthropocentric focus of Symbolic Interactionism (SI). Although Herbert Blumer canonised Mead as the founder of this perspective he also played a key role in excising the evolutionary and 'more-than-human' components in Mead's work. This intervention not only misrepresented Mead's intellectual project, it also made symbols the predominant concern...

  10. Kinetic parametric estimation in animal PET molecular imaging based on artificial immune network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuting; Ding Hong; Lu Rui; Huang Hongbo; Liu Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop an accurate,reliable method without the need of initialization in animal PET modeling for estimation of the tracer kinetic parameters based on the artificial immune network. Methods: The hepatic and left ventricular time activity curves (TACs) were obtained by drawing ROIs of liver tissue and left ventricle on dynamic 18 F-FDG PET imaging of small mice. Meanwhile, the blood TAC was analyzed by sampling the tail vein blood at different time points after injection. The artificial immune network for parametric optimization of pharmacokinetics (PKAIN) was adapted to estimate the model parameters and the metabolic rate of glucose (K i ) was calculated. Results: TACs of liver,left ventricle and tail vein blood were obtained.Based on the artificial immune network, K i in 3 mice was estimated as 0.0024, 0.0417 and 0.0047, respectively. The average weighted residual sum of squares of the output model generated by PKAIN was less than 0.0745 with a maximum standard deviation of 0.0084, which indicated that the proposed PKAIN method can provide accurate and reliable parametric estimation. Conclusion: The PKAIN method could provide accurate and reliable tracer kinetic modeling in animal PET imaging without the need of initialization of model parameters. (authors)

  11. High resolution color raster computer animation of space filling molecular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The ATOMLLL system efficiently produces realistic photographs of ball-and-stick or space-filling molecular models, with color shading, highlights, shadows, and transparency. The hidden surface problem for a scene composed of intersecting spheres and cylinders is solved on a CDC-7600, which outputs onto magnetic tape the outlines of the visible parts of each object. The outlines are then rendered, at up to 4096 x 4096 resolution, by a Dicomed D-48 color film recorder, controlled by a Varian V-75 minicomputer. The Varian computes the shading and highlights for each pixel in a fast microcoded loop. Recent modifications to give shadows and transparency are described.

  12. High resolution color raster computer animation of space filling molecular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The ATOMLLL system efficiently produces realistic photographs of ball-and-stick or space-filling molecular models, with color shading, highlights, shadows, and transparency. The hidden surface problem for a scene composed of intersecting spheres and cylinders is solved on a CDC-7600, which outputs onto magnetic tape the outlines of the visible parts of each object. The outlines are then rendered, at up to 4096 x 4096 resolution, by a Dicomed D-48 color film recorder, controlled by a Varian V-75 minicomputer. The Varian computes the shading and highlights for each pixel in a fast microcoded loop. Recent modifications to give shadows and transparency are described

  13. Maintaining the clinical relevance of animal models in translational studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Matar, Michael A; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is conditional on directly experiencing or witnessing a significantly threatening event and the presence of a certain minimal number of symptoms from each of four symptom clusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognition and mood, and hyperarousal) at least one month after the event (DSM 5) (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Only a proportion of the population exposed develops symptoms fulfilling the criteria. The individual heterogeneity in responses of stress-exposed animals suggested that adapting clearly defined and reliably reproducible "diagnostic", i.e. behavioral, criteria for animal responses would augment the clinical validity of the analysis of study data. We designed cut-off (inclusion/exclusion) behavioral criteria (CBC) which classify study subjects as being severely, minimally or partially affected by the stress paradigm, to be applied retrospectively in the analysis of behavioral data. Behavioral response classification enables the researcher to correlate (retrospectively) specific anatomic, bio-molecular and physiological parameters with the degree and pattern of the individual behavioral response, and also introduces "prevalence rates" as a valid study-parameter. The cumulative results of our studies indicate that, by classifying the data from individual subjects according to their response patterns, the animal study can more readily be translated into clinical "follow-up" studies and back again. This article will discuss the concept of the model and its background, and present a selection of studies employing and examining the model, alongside the underlying translational rationale of each. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evidence of lung cancer risk from animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-03-01

    Human epidemiological data provide the most important basis for assessing risks of radon exposures. However, additional insight into the nature of exposure-response relationships is provided by animal experimentation and dosimetric determinations. Animal studies have now been conducted for more than 50 years to examine the levels of pollutants in underground mines that were responsible for the respiratory effects observed among miners. This work has emphasized respiratory cancer and the interaction of radon with other agents, such as ore dust, diesel-engine-exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. The more recent data on radon-daughter inhalation exposures were provided by two American research centers, The University of Rochester (UR) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and by the Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA) laboratory in France. Approximately 2000 mice, 100 rats and 80 dogs were employed in the completed UR studies, begun in the mid 1950s; 800 hamsters, 5000 rats and 100 dogs in the ongoing PNL studies, begun in the late 1960s; and 10,000 rats in the ongoing COGEMA studies, also begun in the late 1960s. More complete updated biological effects, data resulting from chronic radon-daughter inhalation exposures of mice, hamsters, rats and beagle dogs were examined. Emphasis on the carcinogenic effects of radon-decay product exposure, including the influences of radon-daughter exposure rate, unattached fraction and disequilibrium, and co-exposures to other pollutants. Plausible values for the radon (radon-daughter) lifetime lung-cancer risk coefficients are also provided. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the virulence of bacterial lung pathogens. Because non-mammalian models have less ethical and cost constraints as a subjects for experimentation, in some cases would be appropriated to include these models as valuable tools to explore host–pathogen interactions. Numerous scientific data have been argued to the more extensive use of several kinds of alternative models, such as, the vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio), and non-vertebrate insects and nematodes (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) in the study of diverse infectious agents that affect humans. Here, we review the use of these vertebrate and non-vertebrate models in the study of bacterial agents, which are considered the principal causes of lung injury. Curiously none of these animals have a respiratory system as in air-breathing vertebrates, where respiration takes place in lungs. Despite this fact, with the present review we sought to provide elements in favor of the use of these alternative animal models of infection to reveal the molecular signatures of host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25699030

  16. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriguer Ramón C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya, which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey" of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  17. A Molecular Genetic Classification of Zooxanthellae and the Evolution of Animal-Algal Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Rob; Powers, Dennis A.

    1991-03-01

    Zooxanthellae are unicellular algae that occur as endosymbionts in many hundreds of marine invertebrate species. Because zooxanthellae have traditionally been difficult to classify, little is known about the natural history of these symbioses. Zooxanthellae were isolated from 131 individuals in 22 host taxa and characterized by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear genes that encode small ribosomal subunit RNA (ssRNA). Six algal RFLPs, distributed host species specifically, were detected. Individual hosts contained one algal RFLP. Zooxanthella phylogenetic relationships were estimated from 22 algal ssRNA sequences-one from each host species. Closely related algae were found in dissimilar hosts, suggesting that animal and algal lineages have maintained a flexible evolutionary relation with each other.

  18. WE-H-206-02: Recent Advances in Multi-Modality Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, B. [Johns Hopkins University (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin). Ultrasonic imaging, on the contrary, provides fine spatial resolution but suffers from both poor contrast in early-stage tumors and strong speckle artifacts. In PAT, pulsed laser light penetrates tissue and generates a small but rapid temperature rise, which induces emission of ultrasonic waves due to thermoelastic expansion. The ultrasonic waves, orders of magnitude less scattering than optical waves, are then detected to form high-resolution images of optical absorption at depths up to 7 cm, conquering the optical diffusion limit. PAT is the only modality capable of imaging across the length scales of organelles, cells, tissues, and organs (up to whole-body small animals) with consistent contrast. This rapidly growing technology promises to enable multiscale biological research and accelerate translation from microscopic laboratory discoveries to macroscopic clinical practice. PAT may also hold the key to label-free early detection of cancer by in vivo quantification of hypermetabolism, the quintessential hallmark of malignancy. Learning Objectives: To understand the contrast mechanism of PAT To understand the multiscale applications of PAT Benjamin M. W. Tsui: Multi-modality molecular imaging instrumentation and techniques have been major developments in small animal imaging that has contributed significantly

  19. WE-H-206-02: Recent Advances in Multi-Modality Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.

    2016-01-01

    Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin). Ultrasonic imaging, on the contrary, provides fine spatial resolution but suffers from both poor contrast in early-stage tumors and strong speckle artifacts. In PAT, pulsed laser light penetrates tissue and generates a small but rapid temperature rise, which induces emission of ultrasonic waves due to thermoelastic expansion. The ultrasonic waves, orders of magnitude less scattering than optical waves, are then detected to form high-resolution images of optical absorption at depths up to 7 cm, conquering the optical diffusion limit. PAT is the only modality capable of imaging across the length scales of organelles, cells, tissues, and organs (up to whole-body small animals) with consistent contrast. This rapidly growing technology promises to enable multiscale biological research and accelerate translation from microscopic laboratory discoveries to macroscopic clinical practice. PAT may also hold the key to label-free early detection of cancer by in vivo quantification of hypermetabolism, the quintessential hallmark of malignancy. Learning Objectives: To understand the contrast mechanism of PAT To understand the multiscale applications of PAT Benjamin M. W. Tsui: Multi-modality molecular imaging instrumentation and techniques have been major developments in small animal imaging that has contributed significantly

  20. Design of laboratory and animal housing unit for radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a combined analytical laboratory and animal housing facility is discussed. By having sample processing facilities in close proximity to the experimental animals, the necessity for transporting biological specimens long distances has been curtailed. In addition, complete radionuclide counting equipment has been installed so that samples need not leave the animal housing site for analysis, a feature based on radiological health requirements. (U.S.)

  1. Two new animal models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.A.; Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) have tenacious retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium. The retention following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution ranged from 20 to 47% (liver) and 19 to 42% (skeleton), relatively independent of post-injection times, varying from 30 to 125 days. Based on observations extended to 125 days post-injection, the biological half-times appeared to be long. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived (median lifespans of approximately 1400 days), breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium is partitioned between the skeleton and liver in a manner similar to that of man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  2. Small Animal [18F]FDG PET Imaging for Tumor Model Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Kyeong Min; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2008-01-01

    PET allows non-invasive, quantitative and repetitive imaging of biological function in living animals. Small animal PET imaging with [ 18 F]FDG has been successfully applied to investigation of metabolism, receptor, ligand interactions, gene expression, adoptive cell therapy and somatic gene therapy. Experimental condition of animal handling impacts on the biodistribution of [ 18 F]FDG in small animal study. The small animal PET and CT images were registered using the hardware fiducial markers and small animal contour point. Tumor imaging in small animal with small animal [ 18 F]FDG PET should be considered fasting, warming, and isoflurane anesthesia level. Registered imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of tumor. Small animal experimental condition of animal handling and registration method will be of most importance for small lesion detection of metastases tumor model

  3. A retrospective study on incidence of lameness in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohsina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of lameness among different species of animals presented to the Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Materials and Methods: Outpatient department (OPD records for the period from January 2006 to December 2010 were referred and information was collected regarding number of lameness in different species, breeds, type of injury, limb affected, gender, age at onset, treatment offered, outcome and any reoccurrence. In this study, fractured cases were not included. Results: The incidence of lameness among different species were recorded: canine (56%, equine (21%, caprine (7%, feline (3%, cattle (7%, buffalo (5.47%, sheep (0.6%, monkey (0.39% and swine (0.19%. In dog, the different conditions were reported with hind quarter weakness recording 55% of lameness followed by right hind limb lameness (14.7%, left hind limb lameness (12.6%, left forelimb lameness (12%, hip dislocation (6.3% and hip dysplasia (4.2%. In caprines, important causes of lameness were right forelimb lameness (23%, right hind limb lameness (12%, left forelimb lameness (12%, posterior paresis (9%, left shoulder dislocation (14% and right shoulder dislocation (6%. In cattle, 34.28% of cases with right hind limb lameness, 28.5% cases were due to HQW, 14.28% had hip dysplasia, 8.57% suffered left hind limb lameness, 6% cases were recorded with obturator nerve paralysis and 8.57% cases suffered contracted tendon in calves. In buffaloes, cases reported were right carpal arthritis, foot rot and left hind limb lameness (14.28% each, due to bilateral upward luxation of patella and due bilateral purulent wound in stifle (18% each and hip dislocation (21.4%. In equines, lameness were reported with right hind limb affection (13%, left forelimb affection (11%, right forelimb affection (17%, 4% each due to disease of right shoulder, HQW and both forelimb affection, lateral dislocation of patella (3%, affection of both hind limbs (9%, 5

  4. Molecular beam studies and hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Lee, Y.T.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the crossed molecular beam technique to the study of hot atom chemistry has provided significant insights into the dynamics of hot atom reaction. To illustrate this, two recent studies are discussed. Those are the study on the influence of translational energy in 0.6 to 1.5 eV range on endoergic reaction, and the experimental study on the detailed dynamics of elementary reaction at translational energy of 0.53 and 1.01 eV. The first example illustrates the contribution that molecular beam experiment can make in the understanding of the dynamics of endoergic substitution reaction. The second example illustrates the role that such studies can play in evaluating exact three-dimensional quantum scattering calculation and ab initio potential energy surfaces for chemical reaction. In the case of endoergic reaction of halogen substitution, it was observed that the reactive collision involved short lived collision complexes. It is suggested that energetic effect alone cannot account for the difference in cross sections, and dynamic effect most play a large role. In atom-diatom reaction, the differential cross section measurement of D+H 2 →DH+H reaction was carried out, and the results are discussed. (K.I.)

  5. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  6. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  7. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  8. Monitoring the Spatiotemporal Activities of miRNAs in Small Animal Models Using Molecular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.

  9. Monitoring the spatiotemporal activities of miRNAs in small animal models using molecular imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Patrick; Ezzine, Safia; Pichon, Chantal

    2015-03-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.

  10. Molecular dynamics studies of actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) calculation was performed for actinide nitrides (UN, NpN, and PuN) in the temperature range from 300 to 2800 K to evaluate the physical properties viz., the lattice parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and heat capacity. The Morse-type potential function added to the Busing-Ida type potential was employed for the ionic interactions. The interatomic potential parameters were determined by fitting to the experimental data of the lattice parameter. The usefulness and applicability of the MD method to evaluate the physical properties of actinide nitrides were studied. (author)

  11. Characteristics studies of molecular structures in drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In theoretical medicine, topological indices are defined to test the medicine and pharmacy characteristics, such as melting point, boiling point, toxicity and other biological activities. As basic molecular structures, hexagonal jagged-rectangle and distance-regular structure are widely appeared in medicine, pharmacy and biology engineering. In this paper, we study the chemical properties of hexagonal jagged-rectangle from the mathematical point of view. Several vertex distance-based indices are determined. Furthermore, the Wiener related indices of distance-regular structure are also considered.

  12. Molecular identification and polymorphism determination of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis agents isolated from human and animal hosts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjaran, Homa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mamishi, Setareh; Vasigheh, Farzaneh; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Teimouri, Aref; Edrissian, Gholam Hossein; Zarei, Zabiholah

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of internal transcript spacer 1 of ribosomal RNA (ITS1-RNA) gene followed by RFLP analysis and sequencing was used to identify the causing agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL) in humans and animal reservoir hosts from various geographical areas in Iran. We also used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) to obtain polymorphisms among isolates of Leishmania spp. Totally, 362 suspected human and animal cases including 173 CL, 49 VL, 60 rodents, and 80 domestic dogs were examined for Leishmania infection. From 112 culture-positive samples prepared from CL cases, 75 (67%) were infected with L. major and 37 (33%) with L. tropica. Of the 60 rodents examined, 25 (41.6%) harbored the Leishmania infection; 21 were infected with L. major and 4 with L. turanica. From 49 suspected VL, 29 were positive by direct agglutination test (DAT), whereas microscopy detected parasite in bone marrow of 25 and culture in 28 of the patients. Two VL patients were infected with L. tropica and 26 with L. infantum. Of the 80 domestic dogs, 56 showed anti-Leishmania antibodies with DAT. Of these, 55 were positive by both microscopy and culture. Molecular identity, obtained only for 47 samples, revealed L. infantum in 43 and L. tropica in 4 dogs. The polymorphisms among L. tropica and L. major isolates were 3.6% and 7.3%; the rate among human and canine VL isolates was 2.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Our results showed that at least four different Leishmania species with various polymorphisms circulate among humans and animal hosts in Iran.

  13. Molecular Identification and Polymorphism Determination of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis Agents Isolated from Human and Animal Hosts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Hajjaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of internal transcript spacer 1 of ribosomal RNA (ITS1-RNA gene followed by RFLP analysis and sequencing was used to identify the causing agents of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL in humans and animal reservoir hosts from various geographical areas in Iran. We also used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR to obtain polymorphisms among isolates of Leishmania spp. Totally, 362 suspected human and animal cases including 173 CL, 49 VL, 60 rodents, and 80 domestic dogs were examined for Leishmania infection. From 112 culture-positive samples prepared from CL cases, 75 (67% were infected with L. major and 37 (33% with L. tropica. Of the 60 rodents examined, 25 (41.6% harbored the Leishmania infection; 21 were infected with L. major and 4 with L. turanica. From 49 suspected VL, 29 were positive by direct agglutination test (DAT, whereas microscopy detected parasite in bone marrow of 25 and culture in 28 of the patients. Two VL patients were infected with L. tropica and 26 with L. infantum. Of the 80 domestic dogs, 56 showed anti-Leishmania antibodies with DAT. Of these, 55 were positive by both microscopy and culture. Molecular identity, obtained only for 47 samples, revealed L. infantum in 43 and L. tropica in 4 dogs. The polymorphisms among L. tropica and L. major isolates were 3.6% and 7.3%; the rate among human and canine VL isolates was 2.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Our results showed that at least four different Leishmania species with various polymorphisms circulate among humans and animal hosts in Iran.

  14. 125I-β-CIT biodistribution study in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ping

    2000-01-01

    The purpose is to study the preparation and biodistribution in animal of dopamine transporter imaging agent 125 I-β-CIT. β-CIT was 125 I radioiodinated with Iodogen method, the dynamic distribution of 125 I-β-CIT in brain and critical organs were studied with SD rat (autoradiography) and NIH mice respectively. The radiolabelling yield of 125 I-β-CIT was 84%, the radiochemical purity was better than 98%. Blood clearance could be explained by two-compartment model with a duration of 12h, (α = 3.87, T 1/2α = 0.179, β = 0.162, T 1/2β = 4.276) and three-compartment model in 24 h, (Pi = 5.28, T 1/2Pi = 0.131, α = 0.403, T 1/2α = 1.719, β 0.040, T 1/2β = 17.298). The maxim uptake rate of brain (9.1% +- 1.0%) was reaches at 1h, while at 24h, the target/noise ratio was higher . Critical organs liver, lung, spleen and kidney had high uptake rate [(9.88 +- 1.43) - (16.29 +- 1.72)], except liver, other organs showed quick clearance (T 1/2 125 I-β-CIT has a high striatum uptake and good stability in vivo, can provide good SPECT images, the best acquisition time of SPECT may be about 20h after i.v

  15. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Animal models for the study of arterial hypertension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Research in Biological Sciences - NUPEB, 2Department of Foods, School of Nutrition, Ouro Preto University, ..... ical (large) doses of drug required, (2) the requirement for .... Animal models can lead to understanding of the interactions.

  17. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    OpenAIRE

    William Irvin Sellers; Eishi Hirasaki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional na...

  18. Animal health economics: an aid to decisionmaking on animal health interventions - case studies in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T L; Pendell, D; Knippenberg, R

    2017-04-01

    For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors. The authors discuss the economic measurement of animal disease outbreaks and interventions and how measurement is used in private and public decision-making. Two illustrative case studies in the United States of America are provided: a hypothetical outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle, and the 2014-2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

  19. Evaluation the virulence of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from milk samples through histopathological study in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqur, I M; Al-Thwani, A N; Al-Attar, I M; Al-Mashhadani, M S

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium bovis has a broad host range, and it is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in bovine, domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects human, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cow's milk. It is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. The aims of this study were, to isolate and identified M. bovis from raw milk samples by different methods, and evaluate the virulence of M. bovis in laboratory animals (Rabbit). To conduct the study, ninety three cow's milk samples were collected from farms around Baghdad governorate. The decontamination of milk samples was firstly carried out, then samples were subjected to routine tests which include, direct smear for Ziehl Neelsen acid fast stain, culture, each sample was cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media with Sodium pyruvite (All cultures incubated on 37°C for 4-10weeks with continuous observation), and biochemical testes as Nitrate reduction test, Niacin paper strip test and pyrazinamidase test, were employed to diagnose and identified the bacteria. Beside molecular assay was used to confirm the identification of the isolates by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primers for M. bovis. The virulence of these isolates were investigated through inoculate it in group of laboratory animals consist of 8 rabbit in addition to other group of 4 animals as control (inoculate with Phosphate Buffer Saline). The animals were scarified after 6weeks of inoculation, post- mortem examination was carried out, smears were taken from lesions, and tissue samples were collected from lymph nodes and different organs. The results revealed five isolates of M. bovis in direct smear by acid fast Ziehl-Neelsen stain, while eight isolates observed by culture, the colonies appeared with

  20. Molecular genetic studies of bacteroides fragilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    This study aimed at providing a means for probing the molecular genetic organization of B.fragilis, particularly those strains where the DNA repair mechanisms had been described. The following routes of investigation were followed: the bacteriocin of B.fragilis BF-1; the investigation of any plasmids which might be discovered, with the aim of constructing a hybrid plasmid which might replicate in both E.coli and B.fragilis; and the preparation of a genetic library which could be screened for Bacteroides genes which might function in E.coli. Should any genes be isolated by screening the library they were to be studied with regard to their expression and regulation in E.coli. The above assays make use of radioactive markers such as 14 C, 35 S, 32 P, and 3 H in the labelling of RNA, plasmids and probes

  1. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of superionic conductors AgI and CuI are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. The model of these superionic conductors is based on the use of effective pair potentials. To determine the constants in these potentials, cohesive energy and bulk modulus are used as input: in addition one uses notions of ionic size based on the known crystal structure. Salient features of the MD technique are outlined. Methods of treating long range Coulomb forces are discussed in detail. This includes the manner of doing Ewald sum for MD cells of arbitrary shape. Features that can be incorporated to expedite the MD calculations are also discussed. A novel MD technique which allows for a dynamically controlled variation of the shape and size of the MD cell is described briefly. The development of this novel technique has made it possible to study structural phase transitions in superionic conductors. 68 references, 17 figures, 2 tables

  2. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  3. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiation on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the present study primarily concerned with the effects of ionizing radiations on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals (mice). Different radiation intensities and different exposure schemes were used to irradiate both healthy and schistosoma mansoni infected animals. A group of uninfected and unirradiated animals were used as controls. Follow up studies were performed every 6 weeks for 30 weeks. These included histopathological studies of the liver damage at every observation periods for all animal groups

  4. Automated interactive video playback for studies of animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkowski, Trisha; Yan, Wei; Gray, Aaron M; Cui, Rongfeng; Verzijden, Machteld N; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2011-02-09

    Video playback is a widely-used technique for the controlled manipulation and presentation of visual signals in animal communication. In particular, parameter-based computer animation offers the opportunity to independently manipulate any number of behavioral, morphological, or spectral characteristics in the context of realistic, moving images of animals on screen. A major limitation of conventional playback, however, is that the visual stimulus lacks the ability to interact with the live animal. Borrowing from video-game technology, we have created an automated, interactive system for video playback that controls animations in response to real-time signals from a video tracking system. We demonstrated this method by conducting mate-choice trials on female swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni. Females were given a simultaneous choice between a courting male conspecific and a courting male heterospecific (X. malinche) on opposite sides of an aquarium. The virtual male stimulus was programmed to track the horizontal position of the female, as courting males do in the wild. Mate-choice trials on wild-caught X. birchmanni females were used to validate the prototype's ability to effectively generate a realistic visual stimulus.

  5. The Quantitative and Molecular Genetics of Individual Differences in Animal Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, V.; van Oers, K.; Vonk, Jennifer; Weiss, Alexander; Kuczaj, Stan

    2017-01-01

    One of the main goals in current personality research is to identify genes behind the measured behavioral variations. This is important in order to study how, under the influence of the environment, gene expression changes are translated into the observed phenotypes. The advances, especially in

  6. Molecular Imaging with Quantum Dots Probing EMT and Prostate Cancer Metastasis in Live Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Yuanyuan Cui, Shari Kelly and Carol Phillips for technical supports and Gary Mawyer for editing. The study was supported by R01...589-596. 47. Mendez O, Fernandez Y, Peinado MA, et al. Anti-apoptotic proteins induce non- random genetic alterations that result in selecting breast

  7. Animal experimentation in Japan: regulatory processes and application for microbiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2007-07-01

    We have conducted animal experimentation as a highly effective technique in biological studies. Also in microbiological studies, we have used experimentation to prevent and treat many infectious diseases in humans and animals. In Japan, the 'Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals', which covers the consideration of the three R principles, refinement, replacement and reduction for an international humane approach to animal experimentation came into effect in June 2006. Looking towards the straightforward operation of the law in animal experimentation, three government ministries established new basic guidelines for experimentation performed in their jurisdictional research and testing facilities. For future microbiological studies involving animals in Japan, we need to perform animal experiments according to the basic guidelines in association with overseas management systems. In this report, we discussed essential actions for the management of animal experimentation in microbiological studies in Japan.

  8. The minipig as an animal model to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and natural transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants and children with tuberculosis (TB) account for more than 20% of cases in endemic countries. Current animal models study TB during adulthood but animal models for adolescent and infant TB are scarce. Here we propose that minipigs can be used as an animal model to study adult, adolescent and ...

  9. Animal models for the study of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Miszczyk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter pylori is widely recognized as a major etiologic agent responsible for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, the development of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. Still, little is known about the natural history of H. pylori infection, since patients usually after many years of not suffering from symptoms of the infection are simply asymptomatic. Since the research investigators carried out on human models has many limitations, there is an urgent need for the development of an animal model optimal and suitable for the monitoring of H. pylori infections. This review summarizes the recent findings on the suitability of animal models used in H. pylori research. Several animal models are useful for the assessment of pathological, microbiological and immunological consequences of infection, which makes it possible to monitor the natural

  10. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  11. Molecular dynamic simulation study of molten cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganegi Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study thermodynamics and structural properties of expanded caesium fluid. Internal pressure, radial distribution functions (RDFs, coordination numbers and diffusion coefficients have been calculated at temperature range 700–1600 K and pressure range 100–800 bar. We used the internal pressure to predict the metal–non-metal transition occurrence region. RDFs were calculated at wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The coordination numbers decrease and positions of the first peak of RDFs slightly increase as the temperature increases and pressure decreases. The calculated self-diffusion coefficients at various temperatures and pressures show no distinct boundary between Cs metallic fluid and its expanded fluid where it continuously increases with temperature.

  12. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the Indian Population. Single gene disorders. Complex eye diseases. Genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular diagnostics.

  13. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  14. Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T, Joe Francis [Computational Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode (India); Sathian, Sarith P. [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-12-09

    Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

  15. The use of GRADE approach in systematic reviews of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dang; Tang, Kun; Wang, Qi; Estill, Janne; Yao, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Chen, Yaolong; Yang, Kehu

    2016-03-15

    The application of GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) in SR of animal studies can promote the translation from bench to bedside. We aim to explore the use of GRADE in systematic reviews of animal studies. We used a theoretical analysis method to explore the use of GRADE in SR of animal studies and applied in a SR of animal studies. Meanwhile, we presented and discussed our results in two international conferences. Five downgrade factors were considered as follows in systematic reviews of animal studies: 1) Risk of bias: the SYRCLE tool can be used for assessing the risk of bias of animal studies. 2) Indirectness: we can assess indirectness in systematic reviews of animal studies from the PICO. 3) Inconsistency: similarity of point estimates, extent of overlap of confidence intervals and statistical heterogeneity are also suitable to evaluate inconsistency of evidence from animal studies. 4) Imprecision: optimal information size (OIS) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are also suitable for systematic reviews of animal studies, like those of clinical trials. 5) Publication bias: we need to consider publication bias comprehensively through the qualitative and quantitative methods. The methods about the use of GRADE in systematic review of animal studies are explicit. However, the principle about GRADE in developing the policy based on the evidence from animal studies when there is an emergency of public health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium orygis isolates from wild animals of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Jeewan; Nakajima, Chie; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Poudell, Ajay; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Mycobacterium orygis, a new member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, was isolated from a captive spotted deer (Axis axis) and a blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) in Nepal. Analyses by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing, region of difference and single nucleotide polymorphism of genes gyrB, mmpL6, TbD1, PPE55 and Rv2042c confirmed the isolates as M. orygis. Moreover, analyses by spoligotyping (SIT587) as well as MIRU-VNTR showed that the isolates shared a similar pattern with many reported isolates. From previous and the present studies, it can be inferred that South Asia is one of the endemic regions for M. orygis. Further investigation including a larger sample size and different host interaction will help to understand the ecology and epidemiology of M. orygis in Nepal.

  17. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Amer

    Full Text Available Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28, sheep (n=7 and buffalos (n=2. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1 genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato from Farm Animals in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B.; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt. PMID:25760944

  19. Studying the Mammalian Intestinal Microbiome Using Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenholtz, F.; Zhang, J.; O'Toole, P.W.; Smidt, H.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and animals is colonized by microorganisms immediately after birth. The composition of the GI tract microbiota undergoes remarkable alterations during early age, reaches a relative stable status in adulthood, and is driven by external factors such as

  20. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  1. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Irvin Sellers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective.

  2. Simple models for studying complex spatiotemporal patterns of animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutyunov, Yuri V.; Titova, Lyudmila I.

    2017-06-01

    Minimal mathematical models able to explain complex patterns of animal behavior are essential parts of simulation systems describing large-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of trophic communities, particularly those with wide-ranging species, such as occur in pelagic environments. We present results obtained with three different modelling approaches: (i) an individual-based model of animal spatial behavior; (ii) a continuous taxis-diffusion-reaction system of partial-difference equations; (iii) a 'hybrid' approach combining the individual-based algorithm of organism movements with explicit description of decay and diffusion of the movement stimuli. Though the models are based on extremely simple rules, they all allow description of spatial movements of animals in a predator-prey system within a closed habitat, reproducing some typical patterns of the pursuit-evasion behavior observed in natural populations. In all three models, at each spatial position the animal movements are determined by local conditions only, so the pattern of collective behavior emerges due to self-organization. The movement velocities of animals are proportional to the density gradients of specific cues emitted by individuals of the antagonistic species (pheromones, exometabolites or mechanical waves of the media, e.g., sound). These cues play a role of taxis stimuli: prey attract predators, while predators repel prey. Depending on the nature and the properties of the movement stimulus we propose using either a simplified individual-based model, a continuous taxis pursuit-evasion system, or a little more detailed 'hybrid' approach that combines simulation of the individual movements with the continuous model describing diffusion and decay of the stimuli in an explicit way. These can be used to improve movement models for many species, including large marine predators.

  3. Disrupting self-assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic protein oligomers by "molecular tweezers" - from the test tube to animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aida; Bitan, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, therapy for diseases caused by abnormal protein folding and aggregation (amyloidoses) is limited to treatment of symptoms and provides only temporary and moderate relief to sufferers. The failure in developing successful disease-modifying drugs for amyloidoses stems from the nature of the targets for such drugs - primarily oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins, which are distinct from traditional targets, such as enzymes or receptors. The oligomers are metastable, do not have well-defined structures, and exist in dynamically changing mixtures. Therefore, inhibiting the formation and toxicity of these oligomers likely will require out-of-the-box thinking and novel strategies. We review here the development of a strategy based on targeting the combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are key to the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins using lysine (K)-specific "molecular tweezers" (MTs). Our discussion includes a survey of the literature demonstrating the important role of K residues in the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins and the development of a lead MT derivative called CLR01, from an inhibitor of protein aggregation in vitro to a drug candidate showing effective amelioration of disease symptoms in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  4. Improving the Translation of Animal Ischemic Stroke Studies to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Despite testing more than 1026 therapeutic strategies in models ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendation...

  5. Relevance of animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations, though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and that host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types, and they can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors, risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. Animal experiments must remain a major approach to the investigation of mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 22 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  6. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments

  7. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  8. Modality comparison for small animal radiotherapy: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova, Magdalena, E-mail: bazalova@stanford.edu; Nelson, Geoff; Noll, John M.; Graves, Edward E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Small animal radiation therapy has advanced significantly in recent years. Whereas in the past dose was delivered using a single beam and a lead shield for sparing of healthy tissue, conformal doses can be now delivered using more complex dedicated small animal radiotherapy systems with image guidance. The goal of this paper is to investigate dose distributions for three small animal radiation treatment modalities. Methods: This paper presents a comparison of dose distributions generated by the three approaches—a single-field irradiator with a 200 kV beam and no image guidance, a small animal image-guided conformal system based on a modified microCT scanner with a 120 kV beam developed at Stanford University, and a dedicated conformal system, SARRP, using a 220 kV beam developed at Johns Hopkins University. The authors present a comparison of treatment plans for the three modalities using two cases: a mouse with a subcutaneous tumor and a mouse with a spontaneous lung tumor. A 5 Gy target dose was calculated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. Results: All treatment modalities generated similar dose distributions for the subcutaneous tumor case, with the highest mean dose to the ipsilateral lung and bones in the single-field plan (0.4 and 0.4 Gy) compared to the microCT (0.1 and 0.2 Gy) and SARRP (0.1 and 0.3 Gy) plans. The lung case demonstrated that due to the nine-beam arrangements in the conformal plans, the mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, spinal cord, and bones were significantly lower in the microCT plan (2.0, 0.4, and 1.9 Gy) and the SARRP plan (1.5, 0.5, and 1.8 Gy) than in single-field irradiator plan (4.5, 3.8, and 3.3 Gy). Similarly, the mean doses to the contralateral lung and the heart were lowest in the microCT plan (1.5 and 2.0 Gy), followed by the SARRP plan (1.7 and 2.2 Gy), and they were highest in the single-field plan (2.5 and 2.4 Gy). For both cases, dose uniformity was greatest in the single-field irradiator plan followed by

  9. Phylogenomic Insights into Animal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Budd, Graham E; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-10-05

    Animals make up only a small fraction of the eukaryotic tree of life, yet, from our vantage point as members of the animal kingdom, the evolution of the bewildering diversity of animal forms is endlessly fascinating. In the century following the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, hypotheses regarding the evolution of the major branches of the animal kingdom - their relationships to each other and the evolution of their body plans - was based on a consideration of the morphological and developmental characteristics of the different animal groups. This morphology-based approach had many successes but important aspects of the evolutionary tree remained disputed. In the past three decades, molecular data, most obviously primary sequences of DNA and proteins, have provided an estimate of animal phylogeny largely independent of the morphological evolution we would ultimately like to understand. The molecular tree that has evolved over the past three decades has drastically altered our view of animal phylogeny and many aspects of the tree are no longer contentious. The focus of molecular studies on relationships between animal groups means, however, that the discipline has become somewhat divorced from the underlying biology and from the morphological characteristics whose evolution we aim to understand. Here, we consider what we currently know of animal phylogeny; what aspects we are still uncertain about and what our improved understanding of animal phylogeny can tell us about the evolution of the great diversity of animal life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular beam studies of stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa Anne

    1998-12-01

    Photochemistry of chlorine oxide containing species plays a major role in stratospheric ozone depletion. This thesis discusses two photodissociation studies of the key molecules ClONO2 and ClOOCl which were previously thought to only produce Cl-atom (ozone depleting) products at wavelengths relevant to the stratosphere. The development of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl and the photodissociation dynamics of the model system Cl2O are also discussed. In the first chapter, the photochemistry of ClONO2 is examined at 308 nm using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. Two primary decomposition pathways, leading to Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2, were observed, with a lower limit of 0.33 for the relative yield of ClO. The angular distributions for both channels were anisotropic, indicating that the dissociation occurs within a rotational period. Chapter two revisits the photodissociation dynamics of Cl2O at 248 and 308 nm, on which we had previously reported preliminary findings. At 248 nm, three distinct dissociation pathways leading to Cl + ClO products were resolved. At 308 nm, the angular distribution was slightly more isotropic that previously reported, leaving open the possibility that Cl2O excited at 308 nm lives longer than a rotational period. Chapter three describes the development and optimization of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl. We utilized pulsed laser photolysis of ClA2O to generate ClO radicals, and cooled the cell to promote three body recombination to form ClOOCl. The principal components in the beam were Cl2, Cl2O, and ClOOCl. In the fourth chapter, the photodissociation dynamics of ClOOCl are investigated at 248 and 308 nm. We observed multiple dissociation pathways which produced ClO + ClO and 2Cl + O2 products. The relative Cl:ClO product yields are 1.0:0.13 and 1.0:0.20 for ClOOCl photolysis at 248 and 308 nm, respectively. The upper limit for the relative yield of the ClO + ClO channel was 0.19 at 248 nm and 0.31 at 308 nm

  11. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1991-03-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation

  12. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  13. Molecular Transport Studies Through Unsupported Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, William; Parekh, Sapun; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-03-01

    Dendrimers, spherical polymeric nanoparticles made from branched monomers around a central core, show great promise as drug delivery vehicles. Dendrimer size, core contents, and surface functionality can be synthetically tuned, providing unprecedented versatility. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been shown to enter cells; however, questions remain about their biophysical interactions with the cell membrane, specifically about the presence and size of transient pores. We monitor dendrimer-lipid bilayer interactions using unsupported black lipid membranes (BLMs) as model cell membranes. Custom bilayer slides contain two vertically stacked aqueous chambers separated by a 25 μm Teflon sheet with a 120 μm aperture where the bilayer is formed. We vary the composition of model membranes (cholesterol content and lipid phase) to create biomimetic systems and study the interaction of PAMAM G6 and G3 dendrimers with these bilayers. Dendrimers, dextran cargo, and bilayers are monitored and quantified using time-lapse fluorescence imaging. Electrical capacitance measurements are simultaneously recorded to determine if the membrane is porous, and the pore size is deduced by monitoring transport of fluorescent dextrans of increasing molecular weight. These experiments shed light on the importance of cholesterol content and lipid phase on the interaction of dendrimer nanoparticles with membranes.

  14. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  15. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Obtained from Animal Fecal Samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs producing E. coli in animals and different methods of identifications from Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were investigated. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples, collected from apparently healthy cattle and pigs, were cultured and identified following standard procedures. ESBL phenotypic detection was carried out using combination disc test, double disc synergism test, and ESBL brilliance agar screening. Molecular detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes was carried out using standard molecular method. One hundred and fourteen E. coli isolates were recovered from the 350 samples processed, out of which 72 (63.2% isolates were positive for ESBLs with multiple resistance to the antibiotics used. Eighty-one (71% isolates were positive for ESBL by combination disc test, 90 (78.9% were positive for double disc synergism test, and 93 (81.6% were positive for ESBL brilliance agar. TEM and CTX-M genes were detected in 48 (42.1% and 51 (44.7% isolates, respectively. SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates while TEM and CTX-M were detected in 33 (28.9% isolates. This study showed high resistance of E. coli to antibiotics, particularly to the third generation cephalosporins. Regular monitoring and regulated use of antibiotics in livestock should be encouraged.

  16. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, wild primates, and domesticated animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Michele B; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Lipende, Iddi; Roellig, Dawn M; Roellig, Dawn M Anthony; Collins, Anthony; Kamenya, Shadrack; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite globally. Few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural tropical systems characterized by high rates of overlap among humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. We investigated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and assessed cross-species transmission potential among people, non-human primates, and domestic animals in the Gombe Ecosystem, Kigoma District, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was designed to determine the occurrence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in humans, domestic animals and wildlife living in and around Gombe National Park. Diagnostic PCR revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 4.3% in humans, 16.0% in non-human primates, and 9.6% in livestock. Local streams sampled were negative. DNA sequencing uncovered a complex epidemiology for Cryptosporidium in this system, with humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees infected with C. hominis subtype IfA12G2; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all positive goats and sheep infected with C. xiaoi. For humans, residence location was associated with increased risk of infection in Mwamgongo village compared to one camp (Kasekela), and there was an increased odds for infection when living in a household with another positive person. Fecal consistency and other gastrointestinal signs did not predict Cryptosporidium infection. Despite a high degree of habitat overlap between village people and livestock, our results suggest that there are distinct Cryptosporidium transmission dynamics for humans and livestock in this system. The dominance of C. hominis subtype IfA12G2 among humans and non-human primates suggest cross-species transmission. Interestingly, a subset of chimpanzees was infected with C. suis. We hypothesize that there is cross-species transmission from bush pigs (Potaochoerus larvatus) to chimpanzees in Gombe forest, since domesticated pigs are regionally absent. Our

  17. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10 -4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  18. Hemodynamic changes induced by preventive exposure to terahertz radiation at a frequency range corresponding to molecular emission and absorption spectrum of nitric oxide in animals under conditions of acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuck, V F; Velikanova, T S; Ivanov, A N

    2011-06-01

    We studied the influence of preventive irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves at frequencies corresponding to nitric oxide emission and absorption molecular spectrum (150,176-150,664 GHz) on hemodynamic parameters in arteries of albino rats upon acute immobilization stress. We showed that exposure to the specified frequencies can produce adaptogenic effect manifesting in the absence of post-stress changes in the linear, systolic, and diastolic blood flow velocities and pressure gradient in various blood vessels of experimental animals.

  19. Molecular beam studies of adsorption dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumainayagam, C.R.; McMaster, M.C.; Madix, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the trapping dynamics of C 1 -C 3 alkanes and Xe on Pt(111) using supersonic molecular beams and a direct technique to measure trapping probabilities. We have extended a one-dimensional model based on classical mechanics to include trapping and have found semiquantitative agreement with experimental results for the dependence of the initial trapping probability on incident translational energy at normal incidence. Our measurements of the initial trapping probability as a function of incident translational energy at normal incidence are in agreement with previous mean translational energy measurements for Xe and CH 4 desorbing near the surface normal, in accordance with detailed balance. However, the angular dependence of the initial trapping probability shows deviations from normal energy scaling, demonstrating the importance of parallel momentum in the trapping process and the inadequacy of one-dimensional models. The dependence of the initial trapping probability of Xe on incident translational energy and angle is quite well fit by three-dimensional stochastic classical trajectory calculations utilizing a Morse potential. Angular distributions of the scattered molecules indicate that the trapping probability is not a sensitive function of surface temperature. The trapping probability increases with surface coverage in quantitative agreement with a modified Kisliuk model which incorporates enhanced trapping onto the monolayer. We have also used the direct technique to study trapping onto a saturated monolayer state to investigate the dynamics of extrinsic precursor adsorption and find that the initial trapping probability onto the monolayer is higher than on the clean surface. The initial trapping probability onto the monolayer scales with total energy, indicating a highly corrugated interaction potential

  20. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Depauw, S.; Bosch, G.; Hesta, M.; Whitehouse-Tedd, K.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kaandorp, J.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a s...

  1. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  2. Molecular adaptation in the world's deepest-living animal: Insights from transcriptome sequencing of the hadal amphipod Hirondellea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yi; Sun, Jin; Tian, Renmao; Bartlett, Douglas H; Li, Runsheng; Wong, Yue Him; Zhang, Weipeng; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Xu, Ting; He, Li-Sheng; Tabata, Harry G; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the oceans of our planet. Understanding how animals adapt to this harsh environment characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, food limitation, dark and cold is of great scientific interest. Of the animals dwelling in the Challenger Deep, amphipods have been captured using baited traps. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the amphipod Hirondellea gigas collected at a depth of 10,929 m from the East Pond of the Challenger Deep. Assembly of these sequences resulted in 133,041 contigs and 22,046 translated proteins. Functional annotation of these contigs was made using the go and kegg databases. Comparison of these translated proteins with those of four shallow-water amphipods revealed 10,731 gene families, of which 5659 were single-copy orthologs. Base substitution analysis on these single-copy orthologs showed that 62 genes are positively selected in H. gigas, including genes related to β-alanine biosynthesis, energy metabolism and genetic information processing. For multiple-copy orthologous genes, gene family expansion analysis revealed that cold-inducible proteins (i.e., transcription factors II A and transcription elongation factor 1) as well as zinc finger domains are expanded in H. gigas. Overall, our results indicate that genetic adaptation to the hadal environment by H. gigas may be mediated by both gene family expansion and amino acid substitutions of specific proteins. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A new generation of PET scanners for small animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyesi, G.; Imrek, J.; Kalinka, G.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Valastyan, I.; Balkay, L.; Emri, M.; Kis, S.; Tron, L.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Research on small animal PET scanners has been a hot topic in recent years. These devices are used in the preclinical phases of drug tests and during the development of new radiopharmaceuticals. They also provide a cost efficient way to test new materials, new design concepts and new technologies that later can be used to build more efficient human medical imaging devices. The development of a PET scanner requires expertise on different fields, therefore a consortium was formed that brought together Hungarian academic and industrial partners: the Nuclear Research Institute (which has experience in the development of nuclear detectors and data acquisition systems), the PET Center of the University of Debrecen (which has clinical experience in the application of nuclear imaging devices and background in image processing software), Mediso Ltd. (which has been developing, manufacturing, selling and servicing medical imaging devices since 1990) and other academic partners. This consortium has been working together since 2003: the knowledge base acquired during the development of our small animal PET scanners (miniPET-I and miniPET-II) is now being utilized to build a commercial multimodal human PET scanner. The operation of a PET scanner is based on the simultaneous detection ('coincidence') of two gamma photons originating from a positron annihilation. In traditional PET scanners coincidence is detected by a central unit during the measurement. In our system there is no such central module: all detected single gamma events are recorded (list mode data acquisition), and the list of events are processed using a computer cluster (built from PCs). The usage of independent detector modules and commercial components reduce both development and maintenance costs. Also, this mode of data acquisition is more suitable for development purposes, since once the data is collected and stored it can be used many times to test different signal

  4. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

  5. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  6. Of Fighting Flies, Mice, and Men: Are Some of the Molecular and Neuronal Mechanisms of Aggression Universal in the Animal Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amanda L; Davis, Shaun M; Dierick, Herman A

    2015-08-01

    Aggressive behavior is widespread in the animal kingdom, but the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is still unclear. Recent reports suggest that at least some of the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex behavior in flies show remarkable similarities with such mechanisms in mice and even humans. Surprisingly, some aspects of neuronal control of aggression also show remarkable similarity between these distantly related species. We will review these recent findings, address the evolutionary implications, and discuss the potential impact for our understanding of human diseases characterized by excessive aggression.

  7. Study of molecular movements in some organic crystals by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.

    1971-01-01

    After a discussion on molecular crystals (generalities, movements within molecular solids, study of movements, complexes by charge transfer) and some specific ones (molecular complexes of trinitrobenzene or TNB), this research thesis reports the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study molecular movements: generalities on broadband NMR, spin relaxation and strong field network, observation of the absorption signal and measurement of the second moment. The last part reports and discusses experimental results obtained on TNB-naphthalene, on TNB-azulene, on TNB-benzothiophene, and on TNB-indole

  8. [Formal sample size calculation and its limited validity in animal studies of medical basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B; Muche, R

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies are highly relevant for basic medical research, although their usage is discussed controversially in public. Thus, an optimal sample size for these projects should be aimed at from a biometrical point of view. Statistical sample size calculation is usually the appropriate methodology in planning medical research projects. However, required information is often not valid or only available during the course of an animal experiment. This article critically discusses the validity of formal sample size calculation for animal studies. Within the discussion, some requirements are formulated to fundamentally regulate the process of sample size determination for animal experiments.

  9. Molecular and Morphological Characterizations of Echinococcus granulosus from Human and Animal Isolates in Kashan, Markazi Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARBABI, Mohsen; PIRESTANI, Majid; DELAVARI, Mahdi; HOOSHYAR, Hossein; ABDOLI, Amir; SARVI, Shahab

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the most important zoonotic helminths in the world is known as Echinococcus granulosus. Different strains of the E. granulosus have been described based on morphological and molecular characterizations, however, there is limited information regarding the characteristics of the phenotypes and genotypes of E. granulosus in Iran. Methods: The present study was prepared to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of E. granulosus isolates collected from human, goat, sheep, and cattle based on 19 standard morphometric parameters and mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1, ND1, and ITS1) in Kashan, Markazi Province, Iran during 2013–2014. Results: The biometric analysis for the 19 characters revealed that the 19 morphometric values of cattle isolates were exceptionally higher than human, goat, and sheep isolates (Pgranulosus travels between humans and other intermediate hosts of this parasite in the area study. PMID:28761477

  10. Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of Hypersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10744 TITLE: Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of Hypersonic Flows...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP010736 thru ADPO10751 UNCLASSIFIED 5-1 Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of

  11. The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Wever, Kimberley E.; Avey, Marc T.; Stephens, Martin L.; Sena, Emily S.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified. PMID:25541545

  12. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; van der Gugten, A C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study of factors that influence prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Semi-structured interviews with eleven farm animal veterinarians were conducted, which were taped, transcribed and iteratively analysed. This preliminary analysis was further discussed and refined in an expert meeting. A final conceptual model was derived from the analysis and sent to all the respondents for validation. Many conflicting interests are identifiable when it comes to antimicrobial prescribing by farm animal veterinarians. Belief in the professional obligation to alleviate animal suffering, financial dependency on clients, risk avoidance, shortcomings in advisory skills, financial barriers for structural veterinary herd health advisory services, lack of farmers' compliance to veterinary recommendations, public health interests, personal beliefs regarding the veterinary contribution to antimicrobial resistance and major economic powers are all influential determinants in antimicrobial prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Interventions to change prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians could address attitudes and advisory skills of veterinarians, as well as provide tools to deal with (perceived) pressure from farmers and advisors to prescribe antimicrobials. Additional (policy) measures could probably support farm animal veterinarians in acting as a more independent animal health consultant. © 2014 Blackwell

  13. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

  14. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

    2013-11-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable.

  15. A comparative approach to the study of Keeper-Animal Relationships in the zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy

    2009-11-01

    Research on intensively farmed animals over the past 25 years has shown that human-animal interactions, by affecting the animal's fear of humans, can markedly limit the productivity and welfare of farm animals. This article begins to explore some of the factors that need to be considered to investigate Keeper-Animal Relationships (KARs) in the zoo. In the mid-1990s, a large body of multi-institutional data on zookeepers and animals was collected from 46 Zoos. Using standardized questionnaires, 82 keepers rated how they behaved towards animals, their husbandry routine, how the animal responds to them and to other people, and provided information about themselves. These data include 219 individuals of four endangered species: black rhinoceros, cheetah, maned wolf, and great hornbill. At each zoo, keepers were also videotaped calling to their animals in order to directly observe animal responses to keeper behaviors. Principle Components Analysis reduced eight animal variables to three components and ten keeper variables to five components. Scores for animals and for keepers were calculated on these components and compared, according to five predictions based on models of human-animal interactions in the literature. Animal responses to keepers varied along three dimensions: Affinity to Keeper, Fear of People, and Sociable/Curious. Animal scores of Fear of People were significantly and positively correlated with independent measures of poor welfare from two later studies: fecal corticoid concentrations for 12 black rhinos and "tense-fearful" scores for 12 cheetahs. (1) Significant species differences were found for Affinity to Keeper and Fear of People, and the interaction of these two dimensions of animal response to keepers appears to be species-specific. (2) The quality of KAR is influenced by whether the zookeeper goes in the enclosure with the animal or not, the frequency and time of feeding, and keeper visibility to the animal. Among keepers who go in with their

  16. Flaws in animal studies exploring statins and impact on meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moja, Lorenzo; Pecoraro, Valentina; Ciccolallo, Laura; Dall'Olmo, Luigi; Virgili, Gianni; Garattini, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    Animal experiments should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported to increase their scientific validity and maximise the knowledge gained from each experiment. This systematic review of animal experiments investigating statins evaluates their quality of reporting and methodological aspects as well as their implications for the conduction of meta-analyses. We searched medline and embase for studies reporting research on statins in mice, rats and rabbits. We collected detailed information about the characteristics of studies, animals and experimental methods. We retrieved 161 studies. A little over half did not report randomisation (55%) and most did not describe blinding (88%). All studies reported details on the experimental procedure, although many omitted information about animal gender, age or weight. Four percent did not report the number of animals used. None reported the sample size. Fixed- and random-effects models gave different results (ratio of effect size increased by five folds). Heterogeneity was consistently substantial within animal models, for which accounting for covariates had minimal impact. Publication bias is highly suspected across studies. Although statins showed efficacy in animal models, preclinical studies highlighted fundamental problems in the way in which such research is conducted and reported. Results were often difficult to interpret and reproduce. Different meta-analytic approaches were highly inconsistent: a reliable approach to estimate the true parameter was imperceptible. Policies that address these issues are required from investigators, editors and institutions that care about the quality standards and ethics of animal research. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  17. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  19. Towards informed metrics for examining the role of human-induced animal responses in tag studies on wild animals

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Rory P.; Holton, Mark; Wilson, Vianney L.; Gunner, Richard; Tysse, Brenda; Wilson, Gwendoline I; Quintana, Flavio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Scantlebury, D. Michael

    2018-01-01

    Two prime issues can detrimentally affect animals that have been equipped with tags; (i) the effect of the capture and restraint process and (ii) the effect of the tag itself. This work examines some of the issues surrounding quantification of tag effects on wild animals for both restrained and free-living animals. A new method to quantify stress effects based on monitoring ventilation rates in relation to activity is suggested for restrained animals which may help improve the practice of handling animals. It is also suggested that various metrics, many derived from accelerometers, can be examined in tagged wild animals to examine the change in behaviours over time with a view to having a better understanding of welfare issues, assuring the quality of recorded data and informing best practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards informed metrics for examining the role of human-induced animal responses in tag studies on wild animals

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Rory P.

    2018-05-31

    Two prime issues can detrimentally affect animals that have been equipped with tags; (i) the effect of the capture and restraint process and (ii) the effect of the tag itself. This work examines some of the issues surrounding quantification of tag effects on wild animals for both restrained and free-living animals. A new method to quantify stress effects based on monitoring ventilation rates in relation to activity is suggested for restrained animals which may help improve the practice of handling animals. It is also suggested that various metrics, many derived from accelerometers, can be examined in tagged wild animals to examine the change in behaviours over time with a view to having a better understanding of welfare issues, assuring the quality of recorded data and informing best practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  2. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

    2012-12-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value.

  3. Renaissance of morphological studies: the examination of functional structures in living animal organs using the in vivo cryotechnique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Medical and biological scientists wish to understand the in vivo structures of the cells and tissues that make up living animal organs, as well as the locations of their molecular components. Recently, the live imaging of animal cells and tissues with fluorescence-labeled proteins produced via gene manipulation has become increasingly common. Therefore, it is important to ensure that findings derived from histological or immunohistochemical tissue sections of living animal organs are compatible with those obtained from live images of the same organs, which can be assessed using recently developed digital imaging techniques. Over the past two decades, we have performed immunohistochemical and morphological studies of the cells and tissues in living animal organs using a novel in vivo cryotechnique. The use of a specially designed liquid cryogen system with or without a cryoknife during this cryotechnique solved the technical problems that inevitably arise during the conventional preparation methods employed prior to light or electron microscopic examinations. Our in vivo cryotechnique has been found to be extremely useful for arresting transient physiological processes in cells and tissues and for maintaining their functional components-such as rapidly changing signaling molecules, membrane channels, or receptors-in situ. The purpose of the present review is to describe the basic mechanism underlying cryotechniques and the significance of our in vivo cryotechnique. In addition, it describes various morphological or immunohistochemical findings, observations made using quantum dots, and a Raman cryomicroscopy-based method for assessing oxygen saturation in the erythrocytes flowing through intestinal tissues.

  4. Elements of societal perception of farm animal welfare: A quantitative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    To study societal perception of animal welfare in The Netherlands and to search for intervention possibilities to influence this perception, 1074 randomly selected Dutch respondents completed a questionnaire on animal welfare. We analysed 15 propositions (4-point Likert scale) and through factor

  5. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  7. The value of animations in biology teaching: a study of long-term memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a primary and critical issue in studies of teaching and learning. In this study, involving 393 student responses, three different animations and two graphics-one with and one lacking a legend-were used to determine the long-term retention of information. The results show that students retain more information 21 d after viewing an animation without narration compared with an equivalent graphic whether or not that graphic had a legend. Students' comments provide additional insight into the value of animations in the pedagogical process, and suggestions for future work are proposed.

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Song, Tae Yong; Choi, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Small animal models are extensively utilized in the study of biomedical sciences. Current animal experiments and analysis are largely restricted to in vitro measurements and need to sacrifice animals to perform tissue or molecular analysis. This prevents researchers from observing in vivo the natural evolution of the process under study. Imaging techniques can provide repeatedly in vivo anatomic and molecular information noninvasively. Small animal imaging systems have been developed to assess biological process in experimental animals and increasingly employed in the field of molecular imaging studies. This review outlines the current developments in nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations including fused multi-modality imaging systems for small animal imaging

  9. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Biotelemetry, the remote detection and measurement of an animal function or activity, is widely used in animal research. Biotelemetry devices transmit physiological or behavioural data and may be surgically implanted into animals, or externally attached. This can help to reduce animal numbers and improve welfare, e.g., if animals can be group housed and move freely instead of being tethered to a recording device. However, biotelemetry can also cause pain and distress to animals due to surgery, attachment, single housing and long term laboratory housing. This article explains how welfare and science can be improved by avoiding or minimising these harms. Abstract Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as

  10. Molecular models of zinc phthalocyanines: semi-empirical molecular orbital computations and physicochemical properties studied by molecular mechanics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, Tsvetan G.; van Lier, Johan E.; Hunting, Darel J.

    2005-01-01

    To build 3D-molecular models of Zinc-phthalocyanines (ZnPc) and to study their diverse chemical and photosensitization properties, we performed quantum mechanical molecular orbital (MO) semi-empirical (AM1) computations of the ground, excited singlet and triplet states as well as free radical (ionic) species. RHF and UHF (open shell) geometry optimizations led to near-perfect symmetrical ZnPc. Predicted ionization potentials (IP), electron affinities (EA) and lowest electronic transitions of ZnPc are in good agreement with the published experimental and theoretical data. The computation-derived D 4h /D 2h -symmetry 3D-structures of ground and excited states and free radicals of ZnPc, together with the frontier orbital energies and Mulliken electron population analysis enabled us to build robust molecular models. These models were used to predict important chemical-reactivity entities such as global electronegativity (χ), hardness (η) and local softness based on Fukui-functions analysis. Examples of molecular mechanics (MM) applications of the 3D-molecular models are presented as approaches to evaluate solvation free energy (ΔG 0 ) solv and to estimate ground- and excited- state oxidation/reduction potentials as well as intermolecular interactions and stability of ground and excited state dimers (exciplexes) and radical ion-pairs

  11. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Paul S.; Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals

  12. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  13. Molecular packing in 1-hexanol-DMPC bilayers studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Westh, P.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and molecular packing density of a “mismatched” solute, 1-hexanol, in lipid membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the average location and orientation of the hexanol molecules matched earlier experimental data...... on comparable systems. The local density or molecular packing in DMPC–hexanol was elucidated through the average Voronoi volumes of all heavy (non-hydrogen) atoms. Analogous analysis was conducted on trajectories from simulations of pure 1-hexanol and pure (hydrated) DMPC bilayers. The results suggested...... of the alcohol upon partitioning and an even stronger loosening in the packing of the lipid. Furthermore, analysis of Voronoi volumes along the membrane normal identifies a distinctive depth dependence of the changes in molecular packing. The outer (interfacial) part of the lipid acyl chains (up to C8...

  14. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Some aspects of mineral nutrition in animals and the use of radioisotope techniques for its study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Much work has been done to determine the physiological function of mineral nutrients in animals and to establish the dietary mineral requirements for optical growth, health, and productivity. These studies were directed towards: (a) the definition of mineral levels required in animal food under different circumstances, (b) mineral responsive diseases in livestock, and (c) the many interrelationships between minerals in their physiological functions in the animal body. Many diseases caused by deficiences and/or imbalances of essential minerals in animal food and pastures have been reported to occur in various regions of the world. This review examines some aspects of mineral nutrition in animals and describes some particular studies in which radioisotope techniques were used. (author)

  16. Challenges and solutions for studying collective animal behaviour in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Lacey F; Hein, Andrew M; Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-05-19

    Mobile animal groups provide some of the most compelling examples of self-organization in the natural world. While field observations of songbird flocks wheeling in the sky or anchovy schools fleeing from predators have inspired considerable interest in the mechanics of collective motion, the challenge of simultaneously monitoring multiple animals in the field has historically limited our capacity to study collective behaviour of wild animal groups with precision. However, recent technological advancements now present exciting opportunities to overcome many of these limitations. Here we review existing methods used to collect data on the movements and interactions of multiple animals in a natural setting. We then survey emerging technologies that are poised to revolutionize the study of collective animal behaviour by extending the spatial and temporal scales of inquiry, increasing data volume and quality, and expediting the post-processing of raw data.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Isotopic study of liver function after narcosis in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Qui Cuong; Kiss, Bela; Jakab, Tivadar; Szilvasi, Istvan; Spett, Borbala

    1984-01-01

    Dinamic functional study of the liver was performed by sup(99m)Tc-TECHIDA in narcotized (Halothane) mice and rabbits. Hepatic uptake of the radiopharmaceutical decreased in narcotized group significantly. Excretion also decreased but statistically insignificantly. These alterations in the liver function could be attributed to the hypotensive effect of Halothane. (author)

  18. Reproducibility of preclinical animal research improves with heterogeneity of study samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lucile; Sena, Emily S.; Würbel, Hanno

    2018-01-01

    Single-laboratory studies conducted under highly standardized conditions are the gold standard in preclinical animal research. Using simulations based on 440 preclinical studies across 13 different interventions in animal models of stroke, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer, we compared the accuracy of effect size estimates between single-laboratory and multi-laboratory study designs. Single-laboratory studies generally failed to predict effect size accurately, and larger sample sizes rendered effect size estimates even less accurate. By contrast, multi-laboratory designs including as few as 2 to 4 laboratories increased coverage probability by up to 42 percentage points without a need for larger sample sizes. These findings demonstrate that within-study standardization is a major cause of poor reproducibility. More representative study samples are required to improve the external validity and reproducibility of preclinical animal research and to prevent wasting animals and resources for inconclusive research. PMID:29470495

  19. Sci-Sat AM(1): Imaging-08: Small animal APD PET detector with submillimetric resolution for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, P; Bergeron, M; Pepin, C M; Cadorette, J; Tétrault, M-A; Viscogliosi, N; Fontaine, R; Dautet, H; Davies, M; Lecomte, R

    2008-07-01

    Visualization and quantification of biological processes in mice, the preferred animal model in most preclinical studies, require the best possible spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET). A new 64-channel avalanche photodiode (APD) detector module was developed to achieve submillimeter spatial resolution for this purpose. The module consists of dual 4 × 8 APD arrays mounted in a custom ceramic holder. Individual APD pixels having an active area of 1.1 × 1.1 mm2 at a 1.2 mm pitch can be fitted to an 8 × 8 LYSO scintillator block designed to accommodate one-to-one coupling. An analog test board with four 16-channel preamplifier ASICs was designed to be interfaced with the existing LabPET digital processing electronics. At a standard APD operating bias, a mean energy resolution of 27.5 ± 0.6% was typically obtained at 511 keV with a relative standard deviation of 13.8% in signal amplitude for the 64 individual pixels. Crosstalk between pixels was found to be well below the typical lower energy threshold used for PET imaging applications. With two modules in coincidence, a global timing resolution of 5.0 ns FWHM was measured. Finally, an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.8 mm FWHM was measured by sweeping a 22Na point source between two detector arrays. The proposed detector module demonstrates promising characteristics for dedicated mouse PET imaging at submillimiter resolution. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Cytogenetical evaluation of a new animal model for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Gimenez, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The response of a New World monkey species (Cebus apella paraguayanus) lymphocytes to various doses of 60 Co gamma-rays has been studied using dicentrics + rings frequency in first mitosis and compared to that of man. Results have shown that differences between both species are no significant. The distribution of 200 breakpoints in G-banded metaphases has been scored showing an excess of breaks in chromosomes 1, 11, 12 and 16. Terminal heterochromatin blocks differ from intercalar heterochromatin in the response to gamma radiation being the former more affected. (author)

  1. Cytogenetical evaluation of a new animal model for radiobiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasazzi, N.; Taja, M.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nagle, C. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigaciones Clinicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gimenez, J.C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    The response of a New World monkey species (Cebus apella paraguayanus) lymphocytes to various doses of 60 Co gamma-rays has been studied using dicentrics + rings frequency in first mitosis and compared to that of man. Results have shown that differences between both species are no significant. The distribution of 200 breakpoints in G-banded metaphases has been scored showing an excess of breaks in chromosomes 1, 11, 12 and 16. Terminal heterochromatin blocks differ from intercalar heterochromatin in the response to gamma radiation being the former more affected. (author)

  2. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, M. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    We previously reported that proton beam inhibited angiogenic vessels in zebrafish and that proton induced cancer cell apoptosis via p53 induction as well as caspase-3 activity. In this study, we performed to identity the effect of candidate chemicals on the angiogenic inhibition in vitro and in vivo (zebrafish Flk1:EGFP transgenic fish). And we treated small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549 cells with proton beam in combination with angiogenic inhibitors we found in this study. By the MTT assay, we performed cell viability assay with cancer cells and we investigated that HIF-1α induction by proton beam by the western blot analysis. We found novel anti-angiogenic chemicals from traditional herb. That is decursin, and glyceollins from the Angelica gigas, and soy bean. Decrusin and glyceollins inhibited VEGF- or bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and zebrafish microvessel development. Moreover, glyceollins inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α in a dose dependent manner. However, proton beam itself did not induce HIF-1α whereas it increased HIF-1α stability under hypoxia. Even proton beam induced cell death of A549 small cell lung carcinoma cells but the combination of decrusin or glyceollins did not increase the cancer cell death

  3. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. M.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, M. J.; Choi, J. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We previously reported that proton beam inhibited angiogenic vessels in zebrafish and that proton induced cancer cell apoptosis via p53 induction as well as caspase-3 activity. In this study, we performed to identity the effect of candidate chemicals on the angiogenic inhibition in vitro and in vivo (zebrafish Flk1:EGFP transgenic fish). And we treated small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549 cells with proton beam in combination with angiogenic inhibitors we found in this study. By the MTT assay, we performed cell viability assay with cancer cells and we investigated that HIF-1{alpha} induction by proton beam by the western blot analysis. We found novel anti-angiogenic chemicals from traditional herb. That is decursin, and glyceollins from the Angelica gigas, and soy bean. Decrusin and glyceollins inhibited VEGF- or bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and zebrafish microvessel development. Moreover, glyceollins inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1{alpha} in a dose dependent manner. However, proton beam itself did not induce HIF-1{alpha} whereas it increased HIF-1{alpha} stability under hypoxia. Even proton beam induced cell death of A549 small cell lung carcinoma cells but the combination of decrusin or glyceollins did not increase the cancer cell death

  4. Experimental animal study of a novel radiofrequency endovascular occlusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Lazoura, Olga; Rountas, Christos; Katsimboulas, Michael; Mantzianas, George; Tzovaras, George; Habib, Nagy

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a radiofrequency (RF) endovascular occlusion device (ie, Habib VesCoag Catheter; EMcision Ltd, London, UK) and to evaluate safety and efficacy of the device for complete occlusion of normal porcine vessels. The study included 20 pigs. In each pig, a segmental branch of the right hepatic artery, a branch of the splenic artery, and a branch of one of the renal arteries were catheterized. A single or multiple applications of RF energy were performed until vessel occlusion was achieved. Fifteen days later, angiography was repeated to assess vessel patency. The vessels were then excised for pathological analysis. Vessels 2.5 to 6 mm in diameter were treated. Complete occlusion with a single attempt was achieved using a mean amount of energy of 110.67 J in vessels 2.5 to 3 mm, 111.67 J in vessels 3.5 to 4 mm, and 116.63 J in vessels 5 to 6 mm in diameter and was confirmed by angiography at the 15-day follow-up. Vascular occlusion can be effectively and safely achieved by endovascular application of RF energy to normal porcine arteries using the Habib VesCoag catheter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of Animal Bites in Azarshahr town: A Cross-sectional Study of Key Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jafari-Khounigh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Animal bites are among the most significant public health problems due to the risk of rabies. Because of high mortality rate and economic damages, rabies is of very importance. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of animal bites in Azarshahr in 2010 and 2011. Material and Methods : In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, all cases of animal bites in 2010 and 2011 that were recorded in rabies treatment centers of Azarshahr were included in the study using census method according to the existing data recorded in animal bites registry. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS software. Results : During 2010 and 2011, a total number of 630 animal bites cases occurred that 86.5% of the cases were male. In 51.7% of the cases, animal bites occurred in urban areas. The incidence rate of animal bites was calculated as 291.0 in 100000. The average age and the standard deviation of cases was 31.52±16.73. The main biting animal was domesticated dog (66.3% and most of the bites happened during summer (28.4%. The most injured body organ was hand (47.6%. The association between animal type and injured organ was statistically significant (P Conclusion : Due to the high costs of vaccination and immunoglobulin expenses, prevention strategies seem to be necessary. Since most of the bites were caused by domestic dogs, health education interventions with the aim of more controls on domestic animals could be a cost-effective approach.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Low Temperature Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has achieved rapid and significant progress in recent years, the low temperature techniques in particular having proved very useful for the study of reactive species, phase transitions, molecular clusters and crystals, superconductors and semiconductors, biochemical systems, astrophysical problems, etc. The widening range of applications has been accompanied by significant improvements in experimental methods, and low temperature molecular spectroscopy has been revealed as the best technique, in many cases, to establish the connection between experiment and theoretical calculations. This, in turn, has led to a rapidly increasing ability to predict molecular spectroscopic properties. The combination of an advanced tutorial standpoint with an emphasis on recent advances and new perspectives in both experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy contained in this book offers the reader insight into a wide range of techniques, particular emphasis being given to supersonic jet and matri...

  7. Evaluation of an animation tool developed to supplement dental student study of the cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, M; McKenna, J P; Cryan, J F; Vagg, T; Toulouse, A; Downer, E J

    2017-12-30

    The structure/function of the cranial nerves is a core topic for dental students. However, due to the perceived complexity of the subject, it is often difficult for students to develop a comprehensive understanding of key concepts using textbooks and models. It is accepted that the acquisition of anatomical knowledge can be facilitated by visualisation of structures. This study aimed to develop and assess a novel cranial nerve animation as a supplemental learning aid for dental students. A multidisciplinary team of anatomists, neuroscientists and a computer scientist developed a novel animation depicting the cranial nerves. The animation was viewed by newly enrolled first-year dental students, graduate entry dental students (year 1) and dental hygiene students (year 1). A simple life scenario employing the use of the cranial nerves was developed using a cartoon-type animation with a viewing time of 3.58 minutes. The animation was developed with emphasis on a life scenario. The animation was placed online for 2 weeks with open access or viewed once in a controlled laboratory setting. Questionnaires were designed to assess the participants' attitude towards the animation and their knowledge of the cranial nerves before and after visualisation. This study was performed before the delivery of core lectures on the cranial nerves. Our findings indicate that the use of the animation can act as a supplemental tool to improve student knowledge of the cranial nerves. Indeed, data indicate that a single viewing of the animation, in addition to 2-week access to the animation, can act as a supplemental learning tool to assist student understanding of the structure and function of cranial nerves. The animation significantly enhanced the student's opinion that their cranial nerve knowledge had improved. From a qualitative point of view, the students described the animation as an enjoyable and useful supplement to reading material/lectures and indicated that the animation was a

  8. Molecular genetic studies on irradiated wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2002-01-01

    Composite genotype(octamer hybrid) was obtained from crossing among eight Egyptian hexaploid wheat cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought stress to produce a genotype, which can economize on the irrigation water requirements or can tolerate drought stress. Gamma irradiation with 10-Krad was used to induce mutations, which could improve drought tolerance for this composite. From eight Egyptian wheat cultivars, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G-160 and Sk-61, respectively. They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield-related traits. Bulked segregating analysis developed some RAPD and SSR markers with different primers, which were considered as molecular for drought tolerance in wheat. Hal 2-like gene was introduced into Egyptian wheat cultivar G-164 via micro projectile bombardment. Two putative transgenic plants were successfully detected by leaf painting with the herbicide basta. PCR/ Southern blotting analysis indicated the presence of both/either bar and/or Hal 2-like genes in the genomic background of the two transgenic plants

  9. A molecular dynamics simulation study of chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tironi, Ilario G.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    Three different chloroform models have been investigated using molecular dynamics computer simulation. The thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties of the various models were investigated in detail. In particular, the potential energies, diffusion coefficients and rotational correlation times obtained for each model are compared with experiment. It is found that the theory of rotational Brownian motion fails in describing the rotational diffusion of chloroform. The force field of Dietz and Heinzinger was found to give good overall agreement with experiment. An extended investigation of this chloroform model has been performed. Values are reported for the isothermal compressibility, the thermal expansion coefficient and the constant volume heat capacity. The values agree well with experiment. The static and frequency dependent dielectric permittivity were computed from a 1·2 ns simulation conducted under reaction field boundary conditions. Considering the fact that the model is rigid with fixed partial charges, the static dielectric constant and Debye relaxation time compare well with experiment. From the same simulation the shear viscosity was computed using the off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor, both via an Einstein type relation and via a Green-Kubo equation. The calculated viscosities show good agreement with experimental values. The excess Helmholtz energy is calculated using the thermodynamic integration technique and simulations of 50 and 80 ps. The value obtained for the excess Helmholtz energy matches the theoretical value within a few per cent.

  10. Molecular dynamics studies of displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1990-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of cascades in Cu and Ni with primary-knock-on energies up to 5 keV and lattice temperatures in the range 0 K--700 K are described. Interatomic forces were represented by either the Gibson II (Cu) or Johnson-Erginsoy (Ni) potentials in most of this work, although some simulations using ''Embedded Atom Method'' potentials, e.g., for threshold events in Ni 3 Al, are also presented. The results indicate that the primary state of damage produced by displacement cascades is controlled by two phenomena, replacement collision sequences during the collisional phase of the cascade and local melting during the thermal spike. As expected, the collisional phase is rather similar in Cu and Ni, however, the thermal spike is of longer duration and has a more pronounced influence in Cu than Ni. When the ambient temperature of the lattice is increased, the melt zones are observed to both increase in size and cool more slowly. This has the effect of reducing defect production and enhancing atomic mixing and disordering. The implications of these results for defect production, cascade collapse, atomic disordering will be discussed. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Clinical, microbiological, and experimental animal studies of Candida lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T J; Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Hurd, N J

    1989-01-01

    Candida lipolytica was recovered from six patients in three different clinical centers. The index isolate caused a persistent fungemia with catheter-associated Candida thrombophlebitis, the second isolate was from a polymicrobial sinusitis, and the remaining four isolates were involved in tissue colonization. These and 20 other isolates were consistent in their morphological and physiological characteristics. All formed true hyphae and blastoconidia on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and all assimilated glucose, glycerol, and erythritol. In a murine model of disseminated candidiasis, the index isolate that caused clinical fungemia caused no mortality and produced only two lesions on a kidney, as determined at necropsy. The nine isolates selected for in vitro antifungal susceptibility studies had intermediate susceptibilities to amphotericin B but were susceptible to ketoconazole. We conclude that C. lipolytica is a weakly virulent pathogen which may require an intravascular foreign body to cause fungemia. Images PMID:2745702

  12. Toxicology and Biodistribution: The Clinical Value of Animal Biodistribution Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Silva Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the human genome decoding, understanding and identification of genetic disturbances behind many diseases, including cancer, are intensively increasing. Scientific and technological advances in this area trigger the search for therapeutic (curative approaches targeting the correction of gene disturbances. Gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs emerge in this context, bringing new challenges for their characterization. Compared to small molecules, biodistribution is fundamental to identifying target organs and anticipating safety and efficacy, may be integrated into safety and pharmacology studies, and may eventually be anticipated based on specificities of vectors and constructs. This review describes and discusses the requirements for nonclinical development and evaluation of GTMPs versus conventional ones and the needs and challenges of constructing nonclinical packages that assure GTMPs’ human safety from early development, taking into consideration usefulness and/or limitations of many conventional, preclinical models. The experience gained in the European context is referenced.

  13. Molecular photoionization studies of nucleobases and correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakoff, Erwin D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    We proposed molecular photoionization studies in order to probe correlated events in fundamental scattering phenomena. In particular, we suggested that joint theoretical-experimental studies would provide a window into the microscopic aspects that are of central importance in AMO and chemical physics generally, and would generate useful data for wide array of important DOE topics, such as ultrafast dynamics, high harmonic generation, and probes of nonadiabatic processes. The unifying theme is that correlations between electron scattering dynamics and molecular geometry highlight inherently molecular aspects of the photoelectron behavior.

  14. Fluid Reading Practice: On the Queer Potential of Studying Nonhuman Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Irni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to recent discussions about the relevance of the natural sciences and nonhuman animals in feminist theory by drawing from feminist debates on the queer potential of studying nonhuman animals. The paper discusses readings on the intertwining of scientific accounts of nonhuman animals and politics; how different nonhuman animal bodies have enabled various conceptualisations of sex and physical intimacy and have been enmeshed in the politics of sex; and how to read the relevance of accounts of the diversity of nonhuman animal sex(es for feminist endeavours. These discussions contribute to an exploration of ‘fluid reading’, a feminist reading practice which draws inspiration from and moves with both new materialisms and poststructuralisms. The paper proposes that not only mood is important in feminist reading practices but also movements and flows.

  15. Radioprotectors and Tumors: Molecular Studies in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayle Woloschak, David Grdina

    2010-03-10

    This proposal investigated effects of radiation using a set of archival tissues. Main interests of this proposal were to investigate effects of irradiation alone or in the presence or radioprotectors; to investigate these effects on different tissues; and to use/develop molecular biology techniques that would be suitable for work with archived tissues. This work resulted in several manuscripts published or in preparation. Approach for evaluation of gene copy numbers by quantitative real time PCR has been developed and we are striving to establish methods to utilize Q-RT-PCR data to evaluate genomic instability caused by irradiation(s) and accompanying treatments. References: 1. Paunesku D, Paunesku T, Wahl A, Kataoka Y, Murley J, Grdina DJ, Woloschak GE. Incidence of tissue toxicities in gamma ray and fission neutron-exposed mice treated with Amifostine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008, 84(8):623-34. PMID: 18661379, http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09553000802241762?cookieSet=1 2. Wang Q, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Tissue and data archives from irradiation experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory over a period of four decades, in press in Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 3. Alcantara M, Paunesku D, Rademaker A, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TISSUE TOXICITIES IN B6CF1 MICE IRRADIATED WITH FISSION NEUTRONS OR COBALT 60 GAMMA RAYS: Gender modulates accumulation of tissue toxicities caused by low dose rate fractionated irradiation; in preparation; this document has been uploaded as STI product 4. Wang Q, Paunesku T Wanzer B and Woloschak GE. Mitochondrial gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice with lymphoid cancers; in preparation 5. Wang Q, Raha, S, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Evaluation of gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice; in preparation

  16. Studies on the molecular pathogenesis of radiation pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang

    2003-01-01

    Radiation pulmonary fibrosis (RPF) is a frequent side effect of thoracic radiotherapy for breast neoplasm and total body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation. Studies on its pathogenesis have arrived at molecular level. Many cytokines, adhesion molecules and vasoactive substances all play important role in the course of RPF. Moreover, there exists genetic loci that has relation with RPF. Furthermore, studies on the molecular pathogenesis of RPF have provided new ideas and new measures for the precaution and therapy of RPF

  17. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  18. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Barnett, C.L.; Beresford, N.A.; Howard, B.J.; Sanzharova, N.; Fesenko, E.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1–3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. - Highlights: • The data on biological half-lives from Russian language literature were reviewed. • Radionuclides with the shortest half-lives in animals are those which accumulate in soft tissues. • Short term behaviour is affected by the form in which radionuclides are administered. • There is a tendency for more rapid radionuclide turnover in younger animals

  19. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P carnivore, and indicates that animal tissues have potentially similar functions as soluble or insoluble plant fibers in vitro. Further research is warranted to assess the impact of fermentation of each type of animal tissue on gastro-intestinal function and health in the cheetah and other felid species.

  20. Factors that Influence Intake to One Municipal Animal Control Facility in Florida: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Spencer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study identified a study area by visualizing one year of animal intake from a municipal animal shelter on geographic information systems (GIS maps to select an area of high stray-dog intake to investigate. Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with residents of the selected study area to elucidate why there were high numbers of stray dogs coming from this location. Using grounded theory, three themes emerged from the interviews: concerns, attitudes, and disparities. The residents expressed concerns about animal welfare, personal safety, money, and health. They held various attitudes toward domestic animals in the community, including viewing them as pets, pests, or useful commodities (products. Residents expressed acceptance as well as some anger and fear about the situation in their community. Interviewees revealed they faced multiple socioeconomic disparities related to poverty. Pet abandonment can result when pet owners must prioritize human needs over animal needs, leading to increased shelter intake of stray dogs. Community-specific strategies for reducing local animal shelter intake should address the issue of pet abandonment by simultaneously targeting veterinary needs of animals, socioeconomic needs of residents, and respecting attitude differences between residents and shelter professionals.

  1. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diercksen, Geerd

    1992-01-01

    This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...

  3. HEK293 cell culture media study towards bioprocess optimization: Animal derived component free and animal derived component containing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liste-Calleja, Leticia; Lecina, Martí; Cairó, Jordi Joan

    2014-04-01

    The increasing demand for biopharmaceuticals produced in mammalian cells has lead industries to enhance bioprocess volumetric productivity through different strategies. Among those strategies, cell culture media development is of major interest. In the present work, several commercially available culture media for Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293) were evaluated in terms of maximal specific growth rate and maximal viable cell concentration supported. The main objective was to provide different cell culture platforms which are suitable for a wide range of applications depending on the type and the final use of the product obtained. Performing simple media supplementations with and without animal derived components, an enhancement of cell concentration from 2 × 10(6) cell/mL to 17 × 10(6) cell/mL was achieved in batch mode operation. Additionally, the media were evaluated for adenovirus production as a specific application case of HEK293 cells. None of the supplements interfered significantly with the adenovirus infection although some differences were encountered in viral productivity. To the best of our knowledge, the high cell density achieved in the work presented has never been reported before in HEK293 batch cell cultures and thus, our results are greatly promising to further study cell culture strategies in bioreactor towards bioprocess optimization. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study and development of a high resolution tomograph for the γ radio-imagery in vivo of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valda Ochoa, A.

    1995-01-01

    By the use of molecular radio-labelled tracers, molecular biology can reveal some aspects of the functional organisation of the brain. Non invasive in vivo brain research on small laboratory animals, like mice or rats, require analysis of structures of some cubic millimeters present in a brain of the order of a cubic centimeter. Since imaging performances of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) fail in this research field, we present here a high resolution tomograph (TOHR) based on an original principle that allows to overcome the compromise between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. TOHR is a radiation counter device having a large solid angle focusing collimator. By the use of radio-tracers decaying by a cascade of two photons, coincidence detection offers an accurate delimitation of the analysed region and improves spatial resolution. TOHR acts as a scanner, so the image is built voxel by voxel by moving the animal relative to the detector. A numerical feasibility study of such a system shows that a sub millimeter spatial resolution can be achieved. We show that the chemical etching technique is well suited for manufacturing a multi-module focusing collimator by building and testing two such modules. Finally a numerical simulation exhibits TOHR's performance in a neuro-pharmacological experiment on a rat. From these results, other application of TOHR are envisaged, such as oncology (in vivo evolution of tumours) or gene therapy (distribution of viral particles in the brain). (author). 51 refs., 73 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Advances in study of molecular imaging reporte gene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; An Rui

    2010-01-01

    The use of molecular imaging reporter gene systems has allowed gene therapy to move from the laboratory to the clinical application, which provides methodology to monitor the expression of therapeutic gene noninvasively and achieve quantitative outcome in vivo. Recently, the radionuclide reporter gene still is the focus many studies, but MRI and optical reporter gene have gradually played a important part in reporter gene systems. On the basis of combination of multi-subject, for example applied chemistry and molecular biology, more and more new modified reporter genes and molecular probes have spread out. This paper mainly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of reporter gene system and development trends. (authors)

  6. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmans, C.R.; Tillema, A.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2010-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction).

  7. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal-waste-impacted Farm Soil: From Molecular Mechanisms to Microbial Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2012-12-01

    -waste-exposed soil isolate, Bhargavaea cecembensis DMV42A, cloning and sequencing identified a new TcR gene, tet(45), adjacent to putative arsenic resistance genes. Tet45 was shown to function as an efflux pump in Escherichia coli. A CTn3-like mobile genetic element (MGE) harboring tet(M) was also identified in DMV42A. After filter matings with DMV42A, both tet(45) and a CTn3 gene were identified in newly TcR E. coli transconjugants, indicating that both genes are transmissible. In the waste-impacted soil, tet(M) and CTn3-like elements (as well as other Tn916-family MGEs) were found by qPCR to be more abundant than tet(45). By the end of the 2-year sampling period, these tet genes and MGEs were still present at similar levels. None of them were found at the marginally affected farm site, nor at any state forest site. While none of the ARGs/MGEs identified in this study were shown to be present in the chicken waste generated on the farm (no chicken waste was analyzed), several characteristics of the ARGs (including their prevalence, persistence, transmissibility, and association with MGEs) indicate that they are perhaps not associated with the natural soil resistome, but are instead part of the potentially worrisome expanded resistome associated with agricultural practices at concentrated animal feeding operations.

  8. Facilitating healthcare decisions by assessing the certainty in the evidence from preclinical animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; de Vries, Rob B. M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Leeflang, Mariska M.; IntHout, Joanna; Wever, Kimberley E.; Hooft, Lotty; de Beer, Hans; Kuijpers, Ton; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Sena, Emily S.; ter Riet, Gerben; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Rooney, Andrew A.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Schünemann, Holger J.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory animal studies are used in a wide range of human health related research areas, such as basic biomedical research, drug research, experimental surgery and environmental health. The results of these studies can be used to inform decisions regarding clinical research in humans, for example the decision to proceed to clinical trials. If the research question relates to potential harms with no expectation of benefit (e.g., toxicology), studies in experimental animals may provide the only relevant or controlled data and directly inform clinical management decisions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are important tools to provide robust and informative evidence summaries of these animal studies. Rating how certain we are about the evidence could provide important information about the translational probability of findings in experimental animal studies to clinical practice and probably improve it. Evidence summaries and certainty in the evidence ratings could also be used (1) to support selection of interventions with best therapeutic potential to be tested in clinical trials, (2) to justify a regulatory decision limiting human exposure (to drug or toxin), or to (3) support decisions on the utility of further animal experiments. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach is the most widely used framework to rate the certainty in the evidence and strength of health care recommendations. Here we present how the GRADE approach could be used to rate the certainty in the evidence of preclinical animal studies in the context of therapeutic interventions. We also discuss the methodological challenges that we identified, and for which further work is needed. Examples are defining the importance of consistency within and across animal species and using GRADE’s indirectness domain as a tool to predict translation from animal models to humans. PMID:29324741

  9. Facilitating healthcare decisions by assessing the certainty in the evidence from preclinical animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; de Vries, Rob B M; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M; Leeflang, Mariska M; IntHout, Joanna; Wever, Kimberley E; Hooft, Lotty; de Beer, Hans; Kuijpers, Ton; Macleod, Malcolm R; Sena, Emily S; Ter Riet, Gerben; Morgan, Rebecca L; Thayer, Kristina A; Rooney, Andrew A; Guyatt, Gordon H; Schünemann, Holger J; Langendam, Miranda W

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory animal studies are used in a wide range of human health related research areas, such as basic biomedical research, drug research, experimental surgery and environmental health. The results of these studies can be used to inform decisions regarding clinical research in humans, for example the decision to proceed to clinical trials. If the research question relates to potential harms with no expectation of benefit (e.g., toxicology), studies in experimental animals may provide the only relevant or controlled data and directly inform clinical management decisions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are important tools to provide robust and informative evidence summaries of these animal studies. Rating how certain we are about the evidence could provide important information about the translational probability of findings in experimental animal studies to clinical practice and probably improve it. Evidence summaries and certainty in the evidence ratings could also be used (1) to support selection of interventions with best therapeutic potential to be tested in clinical trials, (2) to justify a regulatory decision limiting human exposure (to drug or toxin), or to (3) support decisions on the utility of further animal experiments. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach is the most widely used framework to rate the certainty in the evidence and strength of health care recommendations. Here we present how the GRADE approach could be used to rate the certainty in the evidence of preclinical animal studies in the context of therapeutic interventions. We also discuss the methodological challenges that we identified, and for which further work is needed. Examples are defining the importance of consistency within and across animal species and using GRADE's indirectness domain as a tool to predict translation from animal models to humans.

  10. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the enviroment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro; Smid, J.H.; Pelt, Van Wilfrid; Bonten, M.J.M.; Fluit, A.C.; Bunt, van den Gerrita; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hordijk, J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Veldman, K.T.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Dohmen, W.; Schmitt, H.; Liakopoulos, A.; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Velthuis, Annet; Heuvelink, A.; Gonggrijp, Maaike; Duijkeren, van E.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Roda Husman, de A.N.; Blaak, H.; Havelaar, A.H.; Mevius, D.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  11. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the environment : a pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-García, Alejandro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372621023; Smid, Joost H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313996458; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Bonten, Marc J M; Fluit, Ad C; van den Bunt, Gerrita; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Hordijk, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839542; Dierikx, Cindy M; Veldman, Kees T; de Koeijer, Aline; Dohmen, Wietske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/333690451; Schmitt, Heike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831042; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, Theo J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Velthuis, Annet G J; Heuvelink, Annet; Gonggrijp, Maaike A; van Duijkeren, Engeline; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281; Blaak, Hetty; Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Mevius, Dik J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; Heederik, Dick J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  12. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Palestrini, Clara; De Giorgis, Valentina; Raschetti, Roberto; Tumminelli, Massimiliano; Mencherini, Simonetta; Papotti, Francesca; Klersy, Catherine; Albertini, Riccardo; Ostuni, Selene; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period. Forty children (3-17 years) were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery) or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care). The study variables were determined in each patient, independently of the assigned group, by a researcher unblinded to the patient's group. The outcomes of the study were to define the neurological, cardiovascular and endocrinological impact of animal-assisted therapy in response to stress and pain. Electroencephalogram activity, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral prefrontal oxygenation, salivary cortisol levels and the faces pain scale were considered as outcome measures. After entrance of the dog faster electroencephalogram diffuse beta-activity (> 14 Hz) was reported in all children of the animal-assisted therapy group; in the standard-group no beta-activity was recorded (100% vs 0%, panimal-assisted therapy, though a higher variability in diastolic pressure was observed. Salivary cortisol levels did not show different behaviours over time between groups (p=0.70). Lower pain perception was noted in the animal-assisted group in comparison with the standard-group (p = 0.01). Animal-assisted therapy facilitated rapid recovery in vigilance and activity after anaesthesia, modified pain perception and induced emotional prefrontal responses. An adaptative cardiovascular response was also present. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02284100.

  13. Comparative studies on the distribution of rhodanese in different tissues of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, M; Gilanpour, H

    1991-01-01

    1. The activity of rhodanese in different tissues of some domestic animals was measured. 2. Rhodanese was present in all tissues studied. 3. The activity of rhodanese in most tissues of sheep was higher than other animals studied. 4. In sheep and cattle the epithelium of rumen, omasum and reticulum were the richest sources of rhodanese. Significant activity of rhodanese was also present in liver and kidney. 5. In camel the liver contained the highest level of rhodanese followed by lung and rumen epithelium. Camel liver contained a third of the activity of sheep liver. 6. Equine liver had a third of the activity of sheep liver. Other tissues showed low levels of rhodanese activity. 7. Dog liver contained only 4% of the activity of sheep liver. In this animal, brain was the richest source of rhodanese. 8. The results are discussed in terms of efficacy of different tissues of animals in cyanide detoxification.

  14. Study of embryotoxic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina Т.А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect possible changes in embryogenesis and negative effects of third generation antihistamine – desloratadine – after intranasal administration of 1.3 mg/m3 and 13.0 mg/m3 of the substance to laboratory animals during their prenatal period. In these circumstances, desloratadine does not cause any significant changes of embryogenesis parameters. Macroscopic examination of the fetus and placenta in animals of experimental groups did not reveal any pathology or physiological deviations from the norm. 13.0 mg/m3 concentration of the drug caused a decrease in the weight of embryos in comparison with control group of animals and physiological data, despite a well developed, without visible pathology, placenta. This neces­sitates an in-depth study of possible teratogenic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine to laboratory animals.

  15. Discrimination of animate and inanimate motion in 9-month-old infants: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Birgit; Reid, Vincent M

    2013-10-01

    Simple geometric shapes moving in a self-propelled manner, and violating Newtonian laws of motion by acting against gravitational forces tend to induce a judgement that an object is animate. Objects that change their motion only due to external causes are more likely judged as inanimate. How the developing brain is employed in the perception of animacy in early ontogeny is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to use ERP techniques to determine if the negative central component (Nc), a waveform related to attention allocation, was differentially affected when an infant observed animate or inanimate motion. Short animated movies comprising a marble moving along a marble run either in an animate or an inanimate manner were presented to 15 infants who were 9 months of age. The ERPs were time-locked to a still frame representing animate or inanimate motion that was displayed following each movie. We found that 9-month-olds are able to discriminate between animate and inanimate motion based on motion cues alone and most likely allocate more attentional resources to the inanimate motion. The present data contribute to our understanding of the animate-inanimate distinction and the Nc as a correlate of infant cognitive processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytogenetic and molecular study in intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soheir S. Abou El Ella

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... Thirteen cases with ambiguous genitalia were studied, ... among our patients, cases number 2 and 11 were mainly presented as salt losing crisis. Cases 5 and 13 ... goal in any management strategy is to provide a framework.

  17. Perceptions of molecular epidemiology studies of HIV among stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schairer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in viral sequence analysis make it possible to track the spread of infectious pathogens, such as HIV, within a population. When used to study HIV, these analyses (i.e., molecular epidemiology potentially allow inference of the identity of individual research subjects. Current privacy standards are likely insufficient for this type of public health research. To address this challenge, it will be important to understand how stakeholders feel about the benefits and risks of such research. Design and Methods: To better understand perceived benefits and risks of these research methods, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-infected individuals, individuals at high-risk for contracting HIV, and professionals in HIV care and prevention. To gather additional perspectives, attendees to a public lecture on molecular epidemiology were asked to complete an informal questionnaire. Results: Among those interviewed and polled, there was near unanimous support for using molecular epidemiology to study HIV. Questionnaires showed strong agreement about benefits of molecular epidemiology, but diverse attitudes regarding risks. Interviewees acknowledged several risks, including privacy breaches and provocation of anti-gay sentiment. The interviews also demonstrated a possibility that misunderstandings about molecular epidemiology may affect how risks and benefits are evaluated. Conclusions: While nearly all study participants agree that the benefits of HIV molecular epidemiology outweigh the risks, concerns about privacy must be addressed to ensure continued trust in research institutions and willingness to participate in research.

  18. Streptococcus agalactiae in elephants - A comparative study with isolates from human and zoo animal and livestock origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Rau, Jörg; Westerhüs, Uta; Knauf-Witzens, Tobias; Fawzy, Ahmad; Schlez, Karen; Zschöck, Michael; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Heydel, Carsten; Sting, Reinhard; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Pulami, Dipen; van der Linden, Mark; Ewers, Christa

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3). We found that the isolates from elephants can be readily identified by classical biochemistry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Further characterisations for epidemiological issues were achieved using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, capsule typing and molecular fingerprinting (PFGE, RAPD PCR). We could demonstrate that our elephant isolate collection contained at least six different lineages that were representative for their source of origin. Despite generally broad antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae, many showed tetracycline resistance in vitro. S. agalactiae plays an important role in bacterial infections not only in cattle and humans, but also in elephants. Comparative studies were able to differentiate S. agalactiae isolates from elephants into different infectious clusters based on their epidemiological background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular localisation of americium, technetium and cesium in edible marine animals. Their metabolic behavior and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, J.; Goudard, F.; Milcent, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    We show the molecular behavior of americium, technetium and cesium on the chromatographic pattern of each cytosol in the digestive gland of eel and lobster. The contamination by cadmium seems to compete with americium in the fractions of MW 10,000. Cesium shows an ionic behavior. (author)

  20. The methodological quality of systematic reviews of animal studies in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, C M; Listl, S; Giannakopoulos, N N

    2012-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies are important for improving estimates of the effects of treatment and for guiding future clinical studies on humans. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal studies in dentistry through using a validated checklist. A literature search was conducted independently and in duplicate in the PubMed and LILACS databases. References in selected systematic reviews were assessed to identify other studies not captured by the electronic searches. The methodological quality of studies was assessed independently and in duplicate by using the AMSTAR checklist; the quality was scored as low, moderate, or high. The reviewers were calibrated before the assessment and agreement between them was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistic. Of 444 studies retrieved, 54 systematic reviews were selected after full-text assessment. Agreement between the reviewers was regarded as excellent. Only two studies were scored as high quality; 17 and 35 studies were scored as medium and low quality, respectively. There is room for improvement of the methodological quality of systematic reviews of animal studies in dentistry. Checklists, such as AMSTAR, can guide researchers in planning and executing systematic reviews and meta-analyses. For determining the need for additional investigations in animals and in order to provide good data for potential application in human, such reviews should be based on animal experiments performed according to sound methodological principles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The guinea pig as an animal model for developmental and reproductive toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Meredith S; Wehner, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART) studies require selection of "relevant" animal models as determined by kinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological data. Traditionally, rats, mice, and rabbits are the preferred animal models for these studies. However, for test articles that are pharmacologically inactive in the traditional animal models, the guinea pig may be a viable option. This choice should not be made lightly, as guinea pigs have many disadvantages compared to the traditional species, including limited historical control data, variability in pregnancy rates, small and variable litter size, long gestation, relative maturity at birth, and difficulty in dosing and breeding. This report describes methods for using guinea pigs in DART studies and provides results of positive and negative controls. Standard study designs and animal husbandry methods were modified to allow mating on the postpartum estrus in fertility studies and were used for producing cohorts of pregnant females for developmental studies. A positive control study with the pregnancy-disrupting agent mifepristone resulted in the anticipated failure of embryo implantation and supported the use of the guinea pig model. Control data for reproductive endpoints collected from 5 studies are presented. In cases where the traditional animal models are not relevant, the guinea pig can be used successfully for DART studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A Study Of The Effects Of Computer Animated Character Body Style On Perception Of Facial Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Cissell, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if there is a difference in viewer perception of computer animated character facial expressions based on character body style, specifically, realistic and stylized character body styles. Participants viewed twenty clips of computer animated characters expressing one of five emotions: sadness, happiness, anger, surprise and fear. They then named the emotion and rated the sincerity, intensity, and typicality of each clip. The results indicated that for recognition, participa...

  3. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006

    OpenAIRE

    K.T. Moagabo; K.B. Monyame; E.K. Baipoledi; M. Letshwenyo; N. Mapitse; J.M.K. Hyera

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 ...

  4. Molecular characterisation of Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis from Cajamarca, Peru and their potential role in transmission of human and animal fascioliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Human and animal fascioliasis is emerging in many world regions, among which Andean countries constitute the largest regional hot spot and Peru the country presenting more human endemic areas. A survey was undertaken on the lymnaeid snails inhabiting the hyperendemic area of Cajamarca, where human prevalences are the highest known among the areas presenting a "valley transmission pattern", to establish which species are present, genetically characterise their populations by comparison with other human endemic areas, and discuss which ones have transmission capacity and their potential implications with human and animal infection. Methods Therefore, ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA 16S and cox1 were sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results Results indicate the presence of three, morphologically similar, small lymnaeid species belonging to the Galba/Fossaria group: Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis. Only one combined haplotype for each species was found. The ITS-1, 16S and cox1 haplotypes of G. truncatula are new. No new haplotypes were found in the other two species. This scenario changes previous knowledge, in which only L. viator (= L. viatrix) was mentioned. Galba truncatula appears to be the most abundant, with high population densities and evident anthropophyly including usual presence in human neighbourhood. Infection by Fasciola hepatica larval stages were molecularly confirmed in two populations of this species. The nearness between G. truncatula populations presenting liver fluke infection and both human settings and schools for children, together with the absence of populations of other lymnaeid species in the locality, suggest a direct relationship with human infection. Conclusions The geographical overlap of three lymnaeid species poses problems for epidemiological studies and control action. First, a problem in classifying lymnaeid specimens in both field and laboratory activities

  5. Molecular characterisation of Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis from Cajamarca, Peru and their potential role in transmission of human and animal fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, M Dolores; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Ortiz, Pedro; Naquira, Cesar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-08-15

    Human and animal fascioliasis is emerging in many world regions, among which Andean countries constitute the largest regional hot spot and Peru the country presenting more human endemic areas. A survey was undertaken on the lymnaeid snails inhabiting the hyperendemic area of Cajamarca, where human prevalences are the highest known among the areas presenting a "valley transmission pattern", to establish which species are present, genetically characterise their populations by comparison with other human endemic areas, and discuss which ones have transmission capacity and their potential implications with human and animal infection. Therefore, ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA 16S and cox1 were sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results indicate the presence of three, morphologically similar, small lymnaeid species belonging to the Galba/Fossaria group: Galba truncatula, Lymnaea neotropica and L. schirazensis. Only one combined haplotype for each species was found. The ITS-1, 16S and cox1 haplotypes of G. truncatula are new. No new haplotypes were found in the other two species. This scenario changes previous knowledge, in which only L. viator (= L. viatrix) was mentioned. Galba truncatula appears to be the most abundant, with high population densities and evident anthropophyly including usual presence in human neighbourhood. Infection by Fasciola hepatica larval stages were molecularly confirmed in two populations of this species. The nearness between G. truncatula populations presenting liver fluke infection and both human settings and schools for children, together with the absence of populations of other lymnaeid species in the locality, suggest a direct relationship with human infection. The geographical overlap of three lymnaeid species poses problems for epidemiological studies and control action. First, a problem in classifying lymnaeid specimens in both field and laboratory activities, given their transmission capacity

  6. Insight into the relationship between impulsivity and substance abuse from studies using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R; Jentsch, J David

    2010-08-01

    Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior.

  7. Perceptions of a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth; Cline, Krista; O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown that there are multiple benefits of animal assisted interventions for patients. However, the impact of interaction with these animals in staff is understudied, particularly in the acute care setting, and is thus a novel contribution to the literature on human-animal interaction. The purpose of this qualitative pilot study was to contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding the experiences and perceptions of hospital staff who have participated in a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program. Nine face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted (4 staff nurses, 3 support staff members, and 2 hospital volunteers). Five themes emerged from the respondent interviews: (1) descriptions of the therapy dogs; (2) contacts with the dogs at work; (3) connection with the dogs outside of work; (4) benefits; (5) drawbacks. Our findings reflect abundantly positive hospital staff experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular interaction of PCB153 to human serum albumin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chao; Fang, Senbiao; Cao, Huiming; Lu, Yan; Ma, Yaqiong [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wei, Dongfeng [Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Xie, Xiaoyun [College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Xiaohua [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xin [College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Fei, Dongqing [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: zhaochy07@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We identify the binding mode of PCB153 to human serum albumin (HSA). ► Spectroscopic and molecular modeling results reveal that PCB153 binds at the site II. ► The interaction is mainly governed by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. ► The work helps to probe transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs. -- Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possessed much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, we identified the binding mode of a representative compound, PCB153, to human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence study showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by addition of PCB153 through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis proved the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. Furthermore, as evidenced by site marker displacement experiments using two probe compounds, it revealed that PCB153 acted exactly on subdomain IIIA (site II) of HSA. On the other hand, the molecular dynamics studies as well as free energy calculations made another important contribution to understand the conformational changes of HSA and the stability of HSA-PCB153 system. Molecular docking revealed PCB153 can bind in a large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIIA by the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond interactions between chlorine atoms and residue ASN391. The present work provided reasonable models helping us further understand the transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs when it spread into human blood serum.

  9. Techniques necessary for multiple tracer quantitative small-animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Terry L.; Dence, Carmen S.; Engelbach, John A.; Herrero, Pilar; Gropler, Robert J.; Welch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An increasing number and variety of studies on rodent models are being conducted using small-animal positron emission tomography scanners. We aimed to determine if animal handling techniques could be developed to perform routine animal imaging in a timely and efficient manner and with minimal effect on animal physiology. These techniques need to be reproducible in the same animal while maintaining hemodynamic and physiological stability. Methods: The necessary techniques include (a) the use of inhalant anesthesia, (b) arterial and venous cannulation for multiple tracer administrations and blood sampling, (c) development of small-volume analytic columns and techniques and (d) measurement of the physiological environment during the imaging session. Results: We provide an example of a cardiac imaging study using four radiotracers ( 15 O-water, 1-[ 11 C]-acetate, 1-[ 11 C]-palmitate and 1-[ 11 C]-glucose) injected into normal rats. Plasma substrates, CO 2 production and total metabolites were measured. The animals remained anesthetized over the entire imaging session, and their physiological state was maintained. Conclusion: The intrastudy stability of the physiological measurements and substrate levels and interstudy reproducibility of the measurements are reported

  10. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years computer modeling of liquids and solids has become a useful method of understanding the structural and dynamical correlations in these systems. Some characteristics of the method are presented with an example from work on homogeneous nucleation in monoatomic liquids; the interaction potential determines the structure: a Lennard--Jones system nucleates a close packed structure while an alkali metal potential nucleates a bcc packing. In the study of ionic systems like CaF 2 the Coulomb interaction together with the short range repulsion is enough to produce a satisfactory model for the motion of F - ions in CaF 2 at approx. 1600 0 K. Analysis of this motion shows that F - ions reside at their fluorite sites for about 6 x 10 -12 s and that the diffusion is mainly due to F - jumps in the 100 direction. The motion can be analyzed in terms of the generation and annihilation of anti-Frenkel pairs. The temperature dependence of the F - diffusion constant at two different densities has also been calculated. The computer model does not correspond with experiment in this regard

  11. The rotational barrier in ethane: a molecular orbital study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano-Quiñones, Ramiro F; Quesadas-Rojas, Mariana; Cuevas, Gabriel; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J

    2012-04-20

    The energy change on each Occupied Molecular Orbital as a function of rotation about the C-C bond in ethane was studied using the B3LYP, mPWB95 functional and MP2 methods with different basis sets. Also, the effect of the ZPE on rotational barrier was analyzed. We have found that σ and π energies contribution stabilize a staggered conformation. The σ(s) molecular orbital stabilizes the staggered conformation while the stabilizes the eclipsed conformation and destabilize the staggered conformation. The π(z) and molecular orbitals stabilize both the eclipsed and staggered conformations, which are destabilized by the π(v) and molecular orbitals. The results show that the method of calculation has the effect of changing the behavior of the energy change in each Occupied Molecular Orbital energy as a function of the angle of rotation about the C-C bond in ethane. Finally, we found that if the molecular orbital energy contribution is deleted from the rotational energy, an inversion in conformational preference occurs.

  12. The Rotational Barrier in Ethane: A Molecular Orbital Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Mena-Rejón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy change on each Occupied Molecular Orbital as a function of rotation about the C-C bond in ethane was studied using the B3LYP, mPWB95 functional and MP2 methods with different basis sets. Also, the effect of the ZPE on rotational barrier was analyzed. We have found that σ and π energies contribution stabilize a staggered conformation. The σs molecular orbital stabilizes the staggered conformation while the  stabilizes the eclipsed conformation and destabilize the staggered conformation. The πz and  molecular orbitals stabilize both the eclipsed and staggered conformations, which are destabilized by the πv and  molecular orbitals. The results show that the method of calculation has the effect of changing the behavior of the energy change in each Occupied Molecular Orbital energy as a function of the angle of rotation about the C–C bond in ethane. Finally, we found that if the molecular orbital energy contribution is deleted from the rotational energy, an inversion in conformational preference occurs.

  13. Self-Consistent Study of Conjugated Aromatic Molecular Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Wang; Yun-Ye, Liang; Hao, Chen; Peng, Wang; Note, R.; Mizuseki, H.; Kawazoe, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We study the current through conjugated aromatic molecular transistors modulated by a transverse field. The self-consistent calculation is realized with density function theory through the standard quantum chemistry software Gaussian03 and the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The calculated I – V curves controlled by the transverse field present the characteristics of different organic molecular transistors, the transverse field effect of which is improved by the substitutions of nitrogen atoms or fluorine atoms. On the other hand, the asymmetry of molecular configurations to the axis connecting two sulfur atoms is in favor of realizing the transverse field modulation. Suitably designed conjugated aromatic molecular transistors possess different I – V characteristics, some of them are similar to those of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET). Some of the calculated molecular devices may work as elements in graphene electronics. Our results present the richness and flexibility of molecular transistors, which describe the colorful prospect of next generation devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  15. Molecular stopwatches, cogwheels and ``spinflakes'': studying the dynamics of molecular superrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander; Hepburn, John; Milner, Valery

    2015-05-01

    Using the technique of an optical centrifuge, we excite diatomic molecules to ultrafast synchronous rotation. Femtosecond velocity-map imaging allows us to visualize and study the coherent dynamics of molecular superrotors under field free conditions and in external magnetic field. We demonstrate that when the created rotational wave packet is narrow, its free evolution is nondispersing and follows the motion of a classically rotating dumbbell or a hand of the smallest natural stopwatch. For wider rotational distributions, we observe the breakdown of classical rotation, when a dumbbell shape changes to that of a ``quantum cogwheel'' - a molecular state simultaneously aligned along multiple direction. Our measurements in external magnetic field reveal other peculiar aspects of the rich dynamics of molecular superrotors. The rotation of a non-magnetic molecule interacts with the applied field only weakly, giving rise to slow precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field direction. In contrast, the electronic spin of a paramagnetic superrotor mediates this interaction, causing the initial disk-like angular distribution to split into several spatial components, each precessing with its own frequency determined by the spin projection.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of anthrax cases associated with recreational use of animal hides and yarn in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung K Marston

    Full Text Available To determine potential links between the clinical isolate to animal products and their geographic origin, we genotyped (MLVA-8, MVLA-15, and canSNP analysis 80 environmental and 12 clinical isolates and 2 clinical specimens from five cases of anthrax (California in 1976 [n = 1], New York in 2006 [n = 1], Connecticut in 2007 [n = 2], and New Hampshire in 2009[n = 1] resulting from recreational handling of animal products. For the California case, four clinical isolates were identified as MLVA-8 genotype (GT 76 and in the canSNP A.Br.Vollum lineage, which is consistent with the Pakistani origin of the yarn. Twenty eight of the California isolates were in the A.Br.Vollum canSNP lineage and one isolate was in the A.Br. 003/004 canSNP sub-group. All 52 isolates and both clinical specimens related to the New York and Connecticut cases were MLVA-8 GT 1. The animal products associated with the NY and CT cases were believed to originate from West Africa, but no isolates from this region are available to be genotyped for comparison. All isolates associated with the New Hampshire case were identical and had a new genotype (GT 149. Isolates from the NY, CT and NH cases diverge from the established canSNP phylogeny near the base of the A.Br.011/009. This report illustrates the power of the current genotyping methods and the dramatically different epidemiological conditions that can lead to infections (i.e., contamination by a single genotype versus widespread contamination of numerous genotypes. These cases illustrate the need to acquire and genotype global isolates so that accurate assignments can be made about isolate origins.

  17. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  18. Critical literature study on the cesium transfer feed/meat of domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliegl, E.; Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1980-11-01

    A literature study concerning the transfer of cesium from feed to meat of domestic and wild animals has been carried out regarding approx. 3200 publications of the period 1950-1979. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been found. The transfer factor of radioisotopes of cesium is always smaller by one order of magnitude after single ingestion than after continuous administration until an equilibrium of incorporation to excretion is attained. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals where transfer factor is not a function of age. The sex of the animals has no influence on the transfer factor. This value decreases with increasing weight of the animals. From these findings average transfer factors have been derived as follows: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02; calf 0.43 +- 0.06; goat 0.20; sheep 0.11 +- 0.02; pig 0.26 +- 0.01; hen 4.5; reindeer/caribou 0.31 +- 0.07; deer 0.18 +- 0.03. These values have been extracted from the original literature and relate mainly to animals undergoing metabolic experiments at equilibrium. Only the transfer factors of deer and caribou have been evaluated from data of the radiocesium concentration in feed and in meat. (orig.) [de

  19. The effects of ecstasy on neurotransmitter systems: a review on the findings of molecular imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegting, Yosta; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Ecstasy is a commonly used psychoactive drug with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as the main content. Importantly, it has been suggested that use of MDMA may be neurotoxic particularly for serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) neurons. In the past decades, several molecular imaging studies examined directly in vivo the effects of ecstasy/MDMA on neurotransmitter systems. The objective of the present study is to review the effects of ecstasy/MDMA on neurotransmitter systems as assessed by molecular imaging studies in small animals, non-human primates and humans. A search in PubMed was performed. Eighty-eight articles were found on which inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria; all were focused on the 5-HT or dopamine (DA) system. Importantly, 9 out of 11 of the animal studies that examined the effects of MDMA on 5-HT transporter (SERT) availability showed a significant loss of binding potential. In human studies, this was the case for 14 out of 16 studies, particularly in heavy users. In abstinent users, significant recovery of SERT binding was found over time. Most imaging studies in humans that focused on the DA system did not find any significant effect of ecstasy/MDMA use. Preclinical and clinical molecular imaging studies on the effects of ecstasy/MDMA use/administration on neurotransmitter systems show quite consistent alterations of the 5-HT system. Particularly, in human studies, loss of SERT binding was observed in heavy ecstasy users, which might reflect 5-HT neurotoxicity, although alternative explanations (e.g. down-regulation of the SERT) cannot be excluded.

  20. Perianesthetic Mortality in Domestic Animals: A Retrospective Study of Postmortem Lesions and Review of Autopsy Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, J

    2016-09-01

    Autopsy of animals that die in the perianesthetic period allows identification of anesthetic and surgical complications as well as preexisting disease conditions that may have contributed to mortality. In most studies to date investigating perianesthetic mortality in animals, inclusion of autopsy data is very limited. This retrospective study evaluated autopsy findings in 221 cases of perianesthetic death submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory from primary care and referral hospitals. Canine (n = 105; 48%) and feline (n = 90; 41%) cases predominated in the study, involving elective (71%) and emergency (19%) procedures. The clinical history provided to the pathologist was considered incomplete in 42 of 221 cases (19%), but this history was considered essential for evaluating the circumstances of perianesthetic death. Disease had been recognized clinically in 69 of 221 animals (31%). Death occurred in the premedication or sedation (n = 19; 9%), induction (n = 22; 11%), or maintenance (n = 73; 35%) phases or in the 24 hours postanesthesia (n = 93 animals; 45%). Lesions indicative of significant natural disease were present in 130 of 221 animals (59%), mainly involving the heart, upper respiratory tract, or lungs. Surgical or anesthesia-associated complications were identified in 10 of 221 cases (5%). No lesions were evident in 80 of 221 animals (36%), the majority of which were young, healthy, and undergoing elective surgical procedures. Lesions resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation were identified in 75 of 221 animals (34%). Investigation of perianesthetic death cases should be done with knowledge of prior clinical findings and antemortem surgical and medical procedures; the autopsy should particularly focus on the cardiovascular and respiratory system, including techniques to identify pneumothorax and venous air embolism. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Advances in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ling-yan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. In recent years, there was a great advance in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia. This paper will review the clinical characteristics and molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia, including early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (DYT1, whispering dysphonia (DYT4, dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5, mixed-type dystonia (DYT6, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (DYT10, myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (DYT11, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12, adult-onset cervical dystonia (DYT23, craniocervical dystonia (DYT24 and primary torsion dystonia (DYT25.

  2. [Molecular-kinetic parameters of thiamine enzymes and the mechanism of antivitamin action of hydroxythiamine in animal organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskiĭ KuM; Voskoboev, A I; Gorenshtenĭn, B I; Dosta, G A

    1979-09-01

    The molecula-kinetic parameters (Km, Ki) of three thiamine enzymes, e. g. thiamine pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.2), pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) and transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1) with respect to the effects of the thiamine antimetabolite hydroxythiamine in the whole animal organism have been compared. It has been shown that only the first two enzymes, which interact competitively with the vitamin, antivitamin or their pyrophosphate ethers, obey the kinetic parameters obtained for the purified enzymes in vitro. The anticoenzymic effect of hydroxythiamine pyrophosphate with respect to transketolase is not observed in vivo at maximal concentration of the anticoenzyme in tissues due to the absence of competitive interactions with thiamine pyrophosphate. The incorporation of the true and false coenzymes into transketolase occurs only during de novo transketolase synthesis (the apoform is absent in tissues, with the exception of erythrocytes) and proceeds slowly with a half-life time equal to 24--30 hrs. After a single injection of hydroxythiamine at a large dose (70--400 mg/kg) the maximal inhibition of the transketolase activity in tissues (liver, heart, kidney, muscle, spleen, lungs adrenal grands) manifests itself by the 48th--72nd hour, when the concentration of free hydroxythiamine and its pyrophosphate is minimal and the whole anticoenzyme is tightly bound to the protein, forming the false holoenzyme. The use of hydroxythiamine for inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase or transketolase in animal organism is discussed.

  3. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  4. Visualization system: animation of the dynamic evolution of the molecular hydrogen cloud during its gravitational collapse in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte P, R.; Klapp E, J.; Arreaga D, G.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a group of numeric simulations and a region of interest form a molecular hydrogen cloud that collapses under the action of their own force of graveness. For they are believed it two models the constant one and the gaussian with the profile of the density of the initial cloud and a barotropic equation of state that it allows the iso thermic change to adiabatic. For each pattern two values of critical density are used, a spectra of density interferences, obtaining a binary system, tertiary or even a quaternary one. The necessary programs explained in the methodology to generate the visualizations of the models are generated. (Author)

  5. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  6. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  7. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery: a randomised study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    Full Text Available Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period.Forty children (3-17 years were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care. The study variables were determined in each patient, independently of the assigned group, by a researcher unblinded to the patient's group. The outcomes of the study were to define the neurological, cardiovascular and endocrinological impact of animal-assisted therapy in response to stress and pain. Electroencephalogram activity, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral prefrontal oxygenation, salivary cortisol levels and the faces pain scale were considered as outcome measures.After entrance of the dog faster electroencephalogram diffuse beta-activity (> 14 Hz was reported in all children of the animal-assisted therapy group; in the standard-group no beta-activity was recorded (100% vs 0%, p<0.001. During observation, some differences in the time profile between groups were observed for heart rate (test for interaction p = 0.018, oxygen saturation (test for interaction p = 0.06 and cerebral oxygenation (test for interaction p = 0.09. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were influenced by animal-assisted therapy, though a higher variability in diastolic pressure was observed. Salivary cortisol levels did not show different behaviours over time between groups (p=0.70. Lower pain perception was noted in the animal-assisted group in comparison with the standard-group (p = 0.01.Animal-assisted therapy facilitated rapid recovery in vigilance and

  8. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised.

  10. Animal Study Registries: Results from a Stakeholder Analysis on Potential Strengths, Weaknesses, Facilitators, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieschowski, Susanne; Silva, Diego S; Strech, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Publication bias in animal research, its extent, its predictors, and its potential countermeasures are increasingly discussed. Recent reports and conferences highlight the potential strengths of animal study registries (ASRs) in this regard. Others have warned that prospective registration of animal studies could diminish creativity, add administrative burdens, and complicate intellectual property issues in translational research. A literature review and 21 international key-informant interviews were conducted and thematically analyzed to develop a comprehensive matrix of main- and subcategories for potential ASR-related strengths, weaknesses, facilitators, and barriers (SWFBs). We identified 130 potential SWFBs. All stakeholder groups agreed that ASRs could in various ways improve the quality and refinement of animal studies while allowing their number to be reduced, as well as supporting meta-research on animal studies. However, all stakeholder groups also highlighted the potential for theft of ideas, higher administrative burdens, and reduced creativity and serendipity in animal studies. Much more detailed reasoning was captured in the interviews than is currently found in the literature, providing a comprehensive account of the issues and arguments around ASRs. All stakeholder groups highlighted compelling potential strengths of ASRs. Although substantial weaknesses and implementation barriers were highlighted as well, different governance measures might help to minimize or even eliminate their impact. Such measures might include confidentiality time frames for accessing prospectively registered protocols, harmonized reporting requirements across ASRs, ethics reviews, lab notebooks, and journal submissions. The comprehensive information gathered in this study could help to guide a more evidence-based debate and to design pilot tests for ASRs.

  11. Animal Study Registries: Results from a Stakeholder Analysis on Potential Strengths, Weaknesses, Facilitators, and Barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Wieschowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication bias in animal research, its extent, its predictors, and its potential countermeasures are increasingly discussed. Recent reports and conferences highlight the potential strengths of animal study registries (ASRs in this regard. Others have warned that prospective registration of animal studies could diminish creativity, add administrative burdens, and complicate intellectual property issues in translational research. A literature review and 21 international key-informant interviews were conducted and thematically analyzed to develop a comprehensive matrix of main- and subcategories for potential ASR-related strengths, weaknesses, facilitators, and barriers (SWFBs. We identified 130 potential SWFBs. All stakeholder groups agreed that ASRs could in various ways improve the quality and refinement of animal studies while allowing their number to be reduced, as well as supporting meta-research on animal studies. However, all stakeholder groups also highlighted the potential for theft of ideas, higher administrative burdens, and reduced creativity and serendipity in animal studies. Much more detailed reasoning was captured in the interviews than is currently found in the literature, providing a comprehensive account of the issues and arguments around ASRs. All stakeholder groups highlighted compelling potential strengths of ASRs. Although substantial weaknesses and implementation barriers were highlighted as well, different governance measures might help to minimize or even eliminate their impact. Such measures might include confidentiality time frames for accessing prospectively registered protocols, harmonized reporting requirements across ASRs, ethics reviews, lab notebooks, and journal submissions. The comprehensive information gathered in this study could help to guide a more evidence-based debate and to design pilot tests for ASRs.

  12. The risk of bias of animal experiments in implant dentistry: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Diaz, Karla Tatiana; Aranda, Luisiana; Gabel, Frank; Listl, Stefan; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the risk of bias (ROB) in reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of animal experiments published in implant dentistry, and to explore the association between animal experiment characteristics and ROB. We searched the MEDLINE (via PubMed), SCOPUS and SciELO databases from 2010 to March 2015 for reports of RCTs of animal experiments published in implant dentistry. We evaluated independently and in duplicate the ROB of these experiments by the use of a tool specifically developed to evaluate ROB in animal studies, the SYRCLE's tool. ROB was judged as low, high or unclear (when there was not enough information to judge ROB). We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to evaluate the association of specific study characteristics and extent of ROB. We initially selected 850 publications and 161 reports of animal experiments were included. For a total of 1449 entries (records), 486 (34%) were rated as low ROB. High ROB was attributed to 80 (6%) of entries, and 883 (60%) entries were rated as unclear ROB. The characteristics "impact factor" (IF), reporting of standard error (SE) and reporting of confidence interval (CI) were significantly associated with low ROB in some SYRCLE domains. A substantial number of items with unclear ROB were observed in this sample of animal experiments in implant dentistry. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that implant dentistry animal experiments published in journals with higher IF and better report of measures of precision; that is, CI and SE may have lower ROB than those not having these characteristics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Role of the Pharmacist in Animal Health Care: Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this cross-sectional study, the role of pharmacists in animal health care, particularly in the distribution of veterinary medicines in community pharmacies in Dar es Salaam was investigated. Using a semi-structured questionnaire a total of 260 pharmacists were interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the ...

  14. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana; Bergström, Karin; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Briend-Marchal, Alexandra; Broens, Els M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Costa, Marta; Criel, Delphine; Damborg, Peter; van Dijk, Marloes A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413392058; van Dongen, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/097672637; Dorsch, Roswitha; Espada, Carmen Martin; Gerber, Bernhard; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Loncaric, Igor; Mion, Domenico; Misic, Dusan; Movilla, Rebeca; Overesch, Gudrun; Perreten, Vincent; Roura, Xavier; Steenbergen, Joachim; Timofte, Dorina; Wolf, Georg; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Schmitt, Sarah; Guardabassi, Luca; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern regarding the increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in companion animals. Yet, there are no studies comparing the resistance levels of these organisms in European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate geographical and temporal trends of

  15. Animal models for studying female genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model.

  16. Seleção tradicional e associada a marcadores moleculares na avaliação genética animal Traditional and associated selection with molecular markers in the genetic evaluation of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a seleção, utilizando valores genéticos preditos pelo BLUP clássico (BLUP, BLUP marcadores (BLUPM e pela seleção individual (SI, usando simulação com o programa Genesys. Para obter a matriz de similaridade genética utilizada no BLUPM, foram simulados cem marcadores moleculares do tipo microssatélite (SSR - Simple Sequence Repeat, por meio de um coeficiente de similaridade correspondente à distância euclideana média para dados quantitativos. A fim de comparar os diferentes métodos, utilizaram-se populações com tamanho efetivo de 66,66 e média de 30 repetições, avaliando-se os valores fenotípicos médios. Os ganhos ao longo das 20 gerações de seleção foram maiores para o BLUP em relação ao BLUPM, e este foi superior à SI. Quanto ao ganho obtido nas cinco primeiras gerações, o BLUPM apresentou ganhos semelhantes ao BLUP e superiores à SI. Diferentes sistemas de acasalamento dos reprodutores selecionados não revelaram diferenças em ganho genético nos métodos baseados no BLUP.The objective of this work was to compare selection based on breeding values predicted by classical best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP, BLUP associated with molecular markers (BLUPM and individual selection (IS using data simulated with the Genesys program. To obtain the genetic similarity matrix to be used in BLUPM, a hundred microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats were simulated using a similarity coefficient corresponding to the mean Euclidean distance between quantitative data. The different selection methods were compared using populations of an effective size of 66.66 and a mean of 30 repetitions, and mean phenotypic values were determined. Genetic gain obtained over 20 generations of selection was higher for BLUP than BLUPM, which in turn was superior to IS. Similar genetic gains were obtained for BLUPM and BLUP only when the gain for the first five generations was considered, and these

  17. Disease Control in Animals Using Molecular Technology by Inactivation of ASO, RNAi and ss-siRNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization causes high mobility of human and livestock, hence increase the transmission of infectious diseases, including avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and swine influenza. Therefore, prevention of those diseases is required. Vaccines are effective to prevent infectious diseases; however, their development takes a long time and they cannot provide immediate protection in pandemic cases. This paper describes several gene silencing technologies including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, RNA interference (RNAi and single strand-small interfering RNA (ss-siRNA for controlling diseases. The primary mechanism of these technologies is inhibition of gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific RNA molecule of the pathogen. The use of gene silencing technologies is expected to give new alternative that is more effective in eradication of infectious diseases in animals before threaten human being.

  18. Neurotoxicity of 1-bromopropane: Evidence from animal experiments and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Ichihara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-Bromopropane was introduced as an alternative to ozone layer-depleting solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. However, a dozen human cases have been reported with symptoms and signs of toxicity to 1-bromopropane including numbness, diminished vibration sense in the lower extremities as well as ataxic gait. An epidemiological study also demonstrated dose-dependent prolongation of distal latency and decrease in vibration sense in the lower extremities. The initial animal experiments helped to identify and analyze the initial human case of 1-bromopropane toxicity. However, animal data that can explain the central nervous system disorders in humans are limited. Nonetheless, animal data should be carefully interpreted especially in a high-order function of the central nervous system or neurological signs such as ataxia that is influenced by fundamental anatomical/physiological differences between humans and animals. Enzymatic activity in the liver may explain partly the difference in the susceptibility between humans and animals, but further studies are needed to clarify the biological factors that can explain the difference and commonality among the species.

  19. 9.4 T small animal MRI using clinical components for direct translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jörg; Celik, A Avdo; Choi, Chang-Hoon; Schwan, Stefan; Shah, N Jon

    2017-12-28

    Magnetic resonance is a major preclinical and clinical imaging modality ideally suited for longitudinal studies, e.g. in pharmacological developments. The lack of a proven platform that maintains an identical imaging protocol between preclinical and clinical platforms is solved with the construction of an animal scanner based on clinical hard- and software. A small animal magnet and gradient system were connected to a clinical MR system. Several hardware components were either modified or built in-house to achieve compatibility. The clinical software was modified to account for the different field-of-view of a preclinical MR system. The established scanner was evaluated using clinical QA protocols, and platform compatibility for translational research was verified against clinical scanners of different field strength. The constructed animal scanner operates with the majority of clinical imaging sequences. Translational research is greatly facilitated as protocols can be shared between preclinical and clinical platforms. Hence, when maintaining sequences parameters, maximum similarity between pulses played out on a human or an animal system is maintained. Coupling of a small animal magnet with a clinical MR system is a flexible, easy to use way to establish and advance translational imaging capability. It provides cost and labor efficient translational capability as no tedious sequence reprogramming between moieties is required and cross-platform compatibility of sequences facilitates multi-center studies.

  20. Molecular modeling of protein materials: case study of elastin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakanova, Anna; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    Molecular modeling of protein materials is a quickly growing area of research that has produced numerous contributions in fields ranging from structural engineering to medicine and biology. We review here the history and methods commonly employed in molecular modeling of protein materials, emphasizing the advantages for using modeling as a complement to experimental work. We then consider a case study of the protein elastin, a critically important ‘mechanical protein’ to exemplify the approach in an area where molecular modeling has made a significant impact. We outline the progression of computational modeling studies that have considerably enhanced our understanding of this important protein which endows elasticity and recoil to the tissues it is found in, including the skin, lungs, arteries and the heart. A vast collection of literature has been directed at studying the structure and function of this protein for over half a century, the first molecular dynamics study of elastin being reported in the 1980s. We review the pivotal computational works that have considerably enhanced our fundamental understanding of elastin's atomistic structure and its extraordinary qualities—focusing on two in particular: elastin's superb elasticity and the inverse temperature transition—the remarkable ability of elastin to take on a more structured conformation at higher temperatures, suggesting its effectiveness as a biomolecular switch. Our hope is to showcase these methods as both complementary and enriching to experimental approaches that have thus far dominated the study of most protein-based materials. (topical review)

  1. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  2. Design and evaluation of custom 133Xe trapping and holding system for animal research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.; Pennock, R.E.; Bowman, G.; Hernandez, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A cell for the trapping and holding of 133 Xe by activated charcoal was designed and tested for use in animal experiments. The cell was made from copper tubing with end caps and nipples for attachment of tubing and valves. Results of test indicated that up to 4 animals per day could be studied with complete trapping of all activity in a single cell. 16 of such cells allow continuous studies to be made on 4 animals a day using a different cell each day. By the time each cell is re-used the trapped 132 Xe has decayed for at least 23 days thus greatly reducing any exhausted activity. The cells were arranged in a wall-mounted filter bank inside a shielded cabinet. The outlet of the filter bank was connected into the exhaust stream of a fume hood. (author)

  3. Animal Models for Dysphagia Studies: What have we learnt so far

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Rebecca Z.; Crompton, A.W.; Gould, Francois D. H.; Thexton, Allan J.

    2017-01-01

    Research using animal models has contributed significantly to realizing the goal of understanding dysfunction and improving the care of patients who suffer from dysphagia. But why should other researchers and the clinicians who see patients day in and day out care about this work? Results from studies of animal models have the potential to change and grow how we think about dysphagia research and practice in general, well beyond applying specific results to human studies. Animal research provides two key contributions to our understanding of dysphagia. The first is a more complete characterization of the physiology of both normal and pathological swallow than is possible in human subjects. The second is suggesting of specific, physiological, targets for development and testing of treatment interventions to improve dysphagia outcomes. PMID:28132098

  4. Animal Models for Dysphagia Studies: What Have We Learnt So Far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Rebecca Z; Crompton, A W; Gould, Francois D H; Thexton, Allan J

    2017-02-01

    Research using animal models has contributed significantly to realizing the goal of understanding dysfunction and improving the care of patients who suffer from dysphagia. But why should other researchers and the clinicians who see patients day in and day out care about this work? Results from studies of animal models have the potential to change and grow how we think about dysphagia research and practice in general, well beyond applying specific results to human studies. Animal research provides two key contributions to our understanding of dysphagia. The first is a more complete characterization of the physiology of both normal and pathological swallow than is possible in human subjects. The second is suggesting of specific, physiological, targets for development and testing of treatment interventions to improve dysphagia outcomes.

  5. Endometriosis research: animal models for the study of a complex disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-González, Irene; Barrientos, Gabriela; Tariverdian, Nadja; Arck, Petra C; García, Mariana G; Klapp, Burghard F; Blois, Sandra M

    2010-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease that is characterized and defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, causing painful periods and subfertility in approximately 10% of women. After more than 50 years of research, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the development and establishment of this condition. Animal models allow us to study the temporal sequence of events involved in disease establishment and progression. Also, because this disease occurs spontaneously only in humans and non-human primates and there are practical problems associated with studying the disease, animal models have been developed for the evaluation of endometriosis. This review describes the animal models for endometriosis that have been used to date, highlighting their importance for the investigation of disease mechanisms that would otherwise be more difficult to elucidate, and proposing new alternatives aimed at overcoming some of these limitations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental and reproductive toxicity of inorganic arsenic: animal studies and human concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M S; Macintosh, M S; Baumrind, N

    1998-01-01

    Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, and growth retardation, in four species (hamsters, mice, rats, rabbits). A characteristic pattern of malformations is produced, and the developmental toxicity effects are dependent on dose, route, and the day of gestation when exposure occurs. Studies with gavage and diet administration indicate that death and growth retardation are produced by oral arsenic exposure. Arsenic is readily transferred to the fetus and produces developmental toxicity in embryo culture. Animal studies have not identified an effect of arsenic on fertility in males or females. When females were dosed chronically for periods that included pregnancy, the primary effect of arsenic on reproduction was a dose-dependent increase in conceptus mortality and in postnatal growth retardation. Human data are limited to a few studies of populations exposed to arsenic from drinking water or from working at or living near smelters. Associations with spontaneous abortion and stillbirth have been reported in more than one of these studies, but interpretation of these studies is complicated because study populations were exposed to multiple chemicals. Thus, animal studies suggest that environmental arsenic exposures are primarily a risk to the developing fetus. In order to understand the implications for humans, attention must be given to comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism, likely exposure scenarios, possible mechanisms of action, and the potential role of arsenic as an essential nutrient.

  7. REAC regenerative treatment efficacy in experimental chondral lesions: a pilot study on ovine animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Passino E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eraldo Sanna Passino,1,2 Stefano Rocca,1 Sabrina Caggiu,1 Nicolò Columbano,1,2 Alessandro Castagna,3 Vania Fontani,3–5 Salvatore Rinaldi3–51Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Comparative Surgery Research Laboratory, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 4Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Florence, Italy; 5Research Department, IRF Shanghai Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC technology is a platform designed to optimize cell polarity. Cell polarity is a universal biological phenomenon that is implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, aging, and rejuvenation. In this work, we investigate a timing and administration protocol for tissue optimization regenerative treatment type C, in order to treat aging-related chondral damage or injuries and gain insights into regenerative processes of articular cartilage in humans. The chondral lesion produced in this study in an animal model (6 knee joints of 4 adult sheep was 6 mm in diameter and about 2 mm deep. These lesions, which did not involve subchondral bone, tend to increase in size and depth and are not completely repaired with normal hyaline articular cartilage since adult articular cartilage is avascular and has a very slow turnover at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the hydration of articular cartilage is reduced with aging and with decreased mitotic activity, synthesis, and population size of chondrocytes. Six months posttreatment, lesions appeared filled, though not completely, with newly generated tissue of the light opalescent color of healthy articular cartilage, which otherwise covered the underlying subchondral bone. The newly formed tissue surface appeared to be quite regular. Nearly complete regeneration of subchondral bone occurred, with

  8. Detection of animal-derived proteins in feedstuffs in Italy: a reproducibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingravalle, Francesco; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Crescio, Maria Ines; Ru, Giuseppe

    2007-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a prion disease of ruminants that was first recognized in 1986 in the United Kingdom. Early in the epidemic, it became obvious that the presence of meat and bone meal in feed rations was a common factor in all bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. The first ban of derived animal proteins in feed was enforced in Europe in 1994 and implemented by Regulation 999/2001 that prohibited the feeding of animal-derived protein to farm animals. The only official method currently accepted by the European Union Commission for test for the presence of animal-derived proteins in feedstuffs is feed microscopy. In Italy, monitoring of feedstuff safety is provided by both the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture. The quality of official control, usually assessed by verifying the reproducibility and the accuracy of the testing method, is of fundamental importance for all laboratories and institutions using these results for comparative purposes. The aims of this study were to assess the reproducibility of the official method over all the Italian surveillance network and to provide a model for evaluating the performance of the monitoring system. The accuracy of the identification of the animal class of derived protein detected (avian, mammalian, or aquatic organism) was assessed. The interlaboratory agreement within the overall network reached 0.97 (95% confidence interval of 0.95 to 0.98) for determining the presence or absence of animal-derived proteins (e.g., for mammalian, avian, or aquatic species), and specificity of the identification of the animal class indicated that fish proteins are more easily recognized than are avian or mammalian proteins.

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...

  10. Molecular dynamics study of atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.

    The effects of atomic displacements on the energetics of alloys plays important role in the determining the properties of alloys. We studied the atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys using molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo methods. The diffuse scattering of pure materials, copper, gold, nickel, and palladium was calculated. The experimental data for pure Cu was obtained from diffuse scattering intensity of synchrotron x-ray radiation. The comparison showed the advantages of molecular dynamics method for calculating the atomic displacements in solid alloys. The individual nearest neighbor separations were calculated for Cu 50Au50 alloy and compared to the result of XAFS experiment. The molecular dynamics method provided theoretical predictions of nearest neighbor pair separations in other binary alloys, Cu-Pd and Cu-Al for wide range of the concentrations. We also experimentally recovered the diffuse scattering maps for the Cu47.3Au52.7 and Cu85.2Al14.8 alloy.

  11. News in livestock research - use of Omics-technologies to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusch, Simon; Tilocca, Bruno; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in the field of next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics facilitates the study of highly complex biological samples such as taxonomic and functional characterization of microbial communities that virtually colonize all present ecological niches. Compared to the structural information obtained by metagenomic analyses, metaproteomic approaches provide, in addition, functional data about the investigated microbiota. In general, integration of the main Omics-technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in live science promises highly detailed information about the specific research object and helps to understand molecular changes in response to internal and external environmental factors. The microbial communities settled in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract are essential for the host metabolism and have a major impact on its physiology and health. The microbiotas of livestock like chicken, pig and ruminants are becoming a focus of interest for veterinaries, animal nutritionists and microbiologists. While pig is more often used as an animal model for human-related studies, the rumen microbiota harbors a diversity of enzymes converting complex carbohydrates into monomers which bears high potential for biotechnological applications. This review will provide a general overview about the recent Omics-based research of the microbiota in livestock including its major findings. Differences concerning the results of pre-Omics-approaches in livestock as well as the perspectives of this relatively new Omics-platform will be highlighted.

  12. Molecular markers to study competition and diversity of Rhizobium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was directed to the development of molecular identification and detection techniques for studying the ecology of Rhizobium, a nitrogen- fixing bacterium of agricultural importance. Competition of inoculant strains with indigenous

  13. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of Mannich bases derived from 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole- 2-thiones as potential urease inhibitors. ... Mannich bases (5-17) were subjected to in silico screening as urease inhibitors, using crystal structure of urease (Protein Data Bank ID: 5FSE) as a model enzyme.

  14. A MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS STUDY OF LECITHIN MONOLAYERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AHLSTROM, P; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1993-01-01

    Two monolayers of didecanoyllecithin at the air-water interface have been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The model system consisted of two monolayers of 42 lecithin molecules each separated by a roughly 4 nm thick slab of SPC water. The area per lecithin molecule was 0.78 nm(2)

  15. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine the sex of. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) by DNA analysis. Chromo ... M, 100 bp DNA ladder (Fermentas, Germany); lane 1, negative control. (without DNA) .... low cost and reduced risk of contamination, and preven- .... Improving the reliability of molecular sexing.

  16. Molecular genetic studies in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis five molecular genetic studies on flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) are described, of which two chapters aim to characterize the genetic structure and the amount of genetic diversity in the primary and secondary gene pool of the crop species. Three chapters describe the development of

  17. Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and association studies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and association studies in rice. (Oryza sativa L.) C. Vanniarajan, K. K. Vinod and Andy Pereira. J. Genet. 91, 9–19. Table 1. Chromosome-wise distribution of SSR alleles and their number (k), polymorphic information content (PIC) and allele discrimination index (Dm). Chromosome.

  18. Synthesis, anti-microbial activity and molecular docking studies on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular structures of triazolylcoumarins 1–8. method and are ... organic layer was washed with water (100 mL) and sat- ... (0.5mmol) in a mixture of THF and water (1:1) solution. ..... for docking studies with the target DNA gyrase B (PDB.

  19. Molecular dynamics study on the relaxation properties of bilayered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Abstract. The influence of defects on the relaxation properties of bilayered graphene (BLG) has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation in nanometre sizes. Type and position of defects were taken into account in the calculated model. The results show that great changes begin to occur in the ...

  20. Re-emergence of Chikungunya in India: Molecular studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Re-emergence of Chikungunya in India: Molecular studies · PowerPoint Presentation · CHIKUNGUNYA virus · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · CHIKV Genotypes · Slide 7 · In view of long absence of CHIK epidemics, it was postulated that CHIK virus has disappeared from India and South-East Asia. Serological surveys supported this view.

  1. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  2. A Three-Year Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Rabies in Hamedan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Rabies is an almost invariably fatal disease that is associated with animal bites. Hence, gathering data about cases of animal bites can help in clarifying the relative status of the disease. Objectives This study was conducted to provide an epidemiological overview on animal bites and rabies occurred in Hamedan province, Iran, during 2011 - 2013. Methods This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Hamedan province, Iran. The information was retrieved from the vice-chancellery for health (Hamedan University of Medical Sciences and veterinary directorate general of Hamedan province. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The Chi-square test was used to determine statistically significant differences with P values less than 0.05. Results There was just one report of rabies death during the mentioned period. The total number of reported animal bites was 14327 with the incidence of 2.69 cases/1000 individuals, which included 3287 (22.9% women and 11040 (77.1% men. Of these cases, 9868 (68.9% resided in rural areas, while 4459 (31.3% were urban residents. Most animal bites, 3516 (24.54% cases, occurred in the 20 - 29 year-old age group. The lower limbs injuries were significantly higher than other sites with 7462 (52.08% records. In addition, the majority of people were bitten by dogs (11040 cases, 77%. Conclusions This study indicated that the incidence of animal bites was increased during 2011 - 2013 in Hamedan province. Therefore, it seems necessary to take appropriate educational programs along with both pre-exposure immunization and postexposure prophylaxis to control this infection in the region.

  3. Coprological study of gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khatun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.

  4. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Renbao; Liu, Xudong; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner.

  5. [Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.

  6. [Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying the function of animal viral proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelianchuk, L V; Iudina, O S

    2011-07-01

    Studies in which Drosophila melanogaster individuals carrying transgenes of animal viruses were used to analyze the action of animal viral proteins on the cell are reviewed. The data presented suggest that host specificity of viruses is determined by their proteins responsible for the penetration of the virus into the cell, while viral proteins responsible for interactions with the host cell are much less host-specific. Due to this, the model of Drosophila with its developed system of searching for genetic interactions can be used to find intracellular targets for the action of viral proteins of the second group.

  7. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  8. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  9. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  10. Conservation of boundary extension mechanisms between plants and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Jaideep

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion clearly sets plants and animals apart. However, recent studies in higher plants reveal cell-biological and molecular features similar to those observed at the leading edge of animal cells and suggest conservation of boundary extension mechanisms between motile animal cells and nonmotile plant cells.

  11. miRNAs and other non-coding RNAs in posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review of clinical and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Keck, Martin E; Buell, Dominik R

    2015-06-01

    In the last couple of years, non-coding (nc) RNAs like micro-RNAs (miRNAs), small interference RNAs (siRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as promising candidates for biomarkers and drug-targets in a variety of psychiatric disorders. In contrast to reports on ncRNAs in affective disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, manuscripts on ncRNAs in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated animal models are scarce. Aiming to stimulate ncRNA research in PTSD and to identify the hitherto most promising ncRNA candidates and associated pathways for psychotrauma research, we conducted the first review on ncRNAs in PTSD. We aimed to identify studies reporting on the expression, function and regulation of ncRNAs in PTSD patients and in animals exhibiting a PTSD-like syndrome. Following the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews, we systematically screened the PubMed database for clinical and animal studies on ncRNAs in PTSD, animal models for PTSD and animal models employing a classical fear conditioning paradigm. Using 112 different combinations of search terms, we retrieved 523 articles of which we finally included and evaluated three clinical and 12 animal studies. In addition, using the web-based tool DIANA miRPath v2.0, we searched for molecular pathways shared by the predicted targets of the here-evaluated miRNA candidates. Our findings suggest that mir-132, which has been found to be regulated in three of the here included studies, as well as miRNAs with an already established role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) seem to be particularly promising candidates for future miRNA studies in PTSD. These results are limited by the low number of human trials and by the heterogeneity of included animal studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life-span radiation effects studies in animals: what can they tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1984-05-01

    Results from life-span studies in a variety of animal species have found relatively little application in the development of radiation risk factors for various organs of man. This paper discusses possible reasons for this situation and presents recommendations to correct it

  13. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  14. Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color diffuse optical tomography imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Christoph H.; Graber, Harry L.; Pei Yaling; Farber, Mark; Stewart, Mark; Levina, Rita D.; Levin, Mikhail B.; Xu Yong; Barbour, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    We present newly developed instrumentation for full-tomographic four-wavelength, continuous wave, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging on small animals. A small-animal imaging stage was constructed, from materials compatible with in-magnet studies, which offers stereotaxic fixation of the animal and precise, stable probe positioning. Instrument performance, based on calibration and phantom studies, demonstrates excellent long-term signal stability. DOT measurements of the functional rat brain response to electric paw stimulation are presented, and these demonstrate high data quality and excellent sensitivity to hemodynamic changes. A general linear model analysis on individual trials is used to localize and quantify the occurrence of functional behavior associated with the different hemoglobin state responses. Statistical evaluation of outcomes of individual trials is employed to identify significant regional response variations for different stimulation sites. Image results reveal a diffuse cortical response and a strong reaction of the thalamus, both indicative of activation of pain pathways by the stimulation. In addition, a weaker lateralized functional component is observed in the brain response, suggesting presence of motor activation. An important outcome of the experiment is that it shows that reactions to individual provocations can be monitored, without having to resort to signal averaging. Thus the described technology may be useful for studies of long-term trends in hemodynamic response, as would occur, for example, in behavioral studies involving freely moving animals

  15. Epidemiological and demographic study of acute animal biting in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013.Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics.Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5% and hands (22.7% were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population.Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.

  16. STRESS AND DIFFERENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE-SYSTEM FUNCTIONS - CONCLUSIONS FROM SOCIAL STRESS STUDIES IN ANIMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress

  17. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other

  18. Sensitivity analysis by experimental design and metamodelling : case study on simulation in national animal disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Nielen, M.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation is a frequently applied tool in the discipline of animal health economics. Application of sensitivity analysis, however, is often limited to changing only one factor at a time (OAT designs). In this study, the statistical techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) and regression

  19. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from... the effectiveness of these products only when: (1) There is a reasonably well-understood...

  20. BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE STUDY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling method that is used to determine the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain. The method can be applied to conscious and unrestrained animals and is very suitable for the study of the chemistry of endogenous behaviour. This article reviews the

  1. How Children Learn the Ins and Outs: A Training Study of Toddlers' Categorization of Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Chris A.; Fisher, Anna V.; Rakison, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Young children are able to categorize animals on the basis of unobservable features such as shared biological properties (e.g., bones). For the most part, children learn about these properties through explicit verbalizations from others. The present study examined how such input impacts children's learning about the properties of categories. In a…

  2. A Study of Firesetting and Animal Cruelty in Children: Family Influences and Adolescent Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…

  3. Preservice Teachers Map Compassion: Connecting Social Studies and Literacy through Nonfictional Animal Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Vander Zanden, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonfiction stories of animal compassion were used in this literacy-social studies integrated lesson to address both efferent and aesthetic stances in transmediation of text from picture books to maps. Preservice early childhood and elementary teachers chose places from the nine recent children's stories, symbolizing them on a map while…

  4. Study on the Implications of Asynchronous GMO Approvals for EU Imports of Animal Feed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowicki, P.L.; Aramyan, L.H.; Baltussen, W.H.M.; Dvortsin, L.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Kaufman, J.; Miller, D.; Franke, L.; Meerbeek, B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the implications of asynchronous approvals for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are imported to the European Union for use within animal feed products, specifically with regard to the EU livestock sector, as well as upon the upstream and downstream

  5. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  6. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  7. How does an animal behave like a plant? Physiological and molecular adaptations of zooxanthellae and their hosts to symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2018-04-09

    Cnidarians (corals and sea anemones) harbouring photosynthetic microalgae derive several benefits from their association. To allow this association, numerous symbiotic-dependent adaptations in both partners, resulting from evolutionary pressures, have been selected. The dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) are located inside a vesicle in the cnidarian host cell and are therefore exposed to a very different environment compared to the free-living state of these microalgae in terms of ion concentration and carbon content and speciation. In addition, this intracellular localization imposes that they rely completely upon the host for their nutrient supply (nitrogen, CO 2 ). Symbiotic-dependent adaptations imposed to the animal host by phototrophic symbiosis are more relevant to photosynthetic organisms than to metazoans: indeed, the cnidarian host often harbours diurnal changes of morphology to adapt itself to the amount of light and possesses carbon-concentrating mechanisms, antioxidative defences and UV sunscreens similar to that present in phototrophs. These adaptations and the contrasting fragility of the association are discussed from both ecological and evolutionary points of view. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Using human brain imaging studies as a guide towards animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOLKAN, Scott S.; DE CARVALHO, Fernanda D.; KELLENDONK, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous and poorly understood mental disorder that is presently defined solely by its behavioral symptoms. Advances in genetic, epidemiological and brain imaging techniques in the past half century, however, have significantly advanced our understanding of the underlying biology of the disorder. In spite of these advances clinical research remains limited in its power to establish the causal relationships that link etiology with pathophysiology and symptoms. In this context, animal models provide an important tool for causally testing hypotheses about biological processes postulated to be disrupted in the disorder. While animal models can exploit a variety of entry points towards the study of schizophrenia, here we describe an approach that seeks to closely approximate functional alterations observed with brain imaging techniques in patients. By modeling these intermediate pathophysiological alterations in animals, this approach offers an opportunity to (1) tightly link a single functional brain abnormality with its behavioral consequences, and (2) to determine whether a single pathophysiology can causally produce alterations in other brain areas that have been described in patients. In this review we first summarize a selection of well-replicated biological abnormalities described in the schizophrenia literature. We then provide examples of animal models that were studied in the context of patient imaging findings describing enhanced striatal dopamine D2 receptor function, alterations in thalamo-prefrontal circuit function, and metabolic hyperfunction of the hippocampus. Lastly, we discuss the implications of findings from these animal models for our present understanding of schizophrenia, and consider key unanswered questions for future research in animal models and human patients. PMID:26037801

  9. How "humane" is your endpoint? Refining the science-driven approach for termination of animal studies of chronic infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno H Franco; Margarida Correia-Neves; I Anna S Olsson

    2012-01-01

    Public concern on issues such as animal welfare or the scientific validity and clinical value of animal research is growing, resulting in increasing regulatory demands for animal research. Abiding to the most stringent animal welfare standards, while having scientific objectives as the main priority, is often challenging. To do so, endpoints of studies involving severe, progressive diseases need to be established considering how early in the disease process the scientific objectives can be ac...

  10. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G.; Geider, R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  11. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, H.M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  12. Robotic Fish to Aid Animal Behavior Studies and Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul

    The application of robotic fish in the fields of animal behavior and informal science learning are new and relatively untapped. In the context of animal behavior studies, robotic fish offers a consistent and customizable stimulus that could contribute to dissect the determinants of social behavior. In the realm of informal science learning, robotic fish are gaining momentum for the possibility of educating the general public simultaneously on fish physiology and underwater robotics. In this dissertation, the design and development of a number of robotic fish platforms and prototypes and their application in animal behavioral studies and informal science learning settings are presented. Robotic platforms for animal behavioral studies focused on the utilization replica or same scale prototypes. A novel robotic fish platform, featuring a three-dimensional swimming multi-linked robotic fish, was developed with three control modes varying in the level of robot autonomy offered. This platform was deployed at numerous science festivals and science centers, to obtain data on visitor engagement and experience.

  13. A new small-animal model for the study of acquired heterotopic ossification after hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonissen, Joris; Ossendorf, Christian; Hock, Johanna Lisa; Ritz, Ulrike; Hofmann, Alexander; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO)--the formation of bone in soft tissues--is a frequent problem after surgery of the hip and pelvis, but little is known about its underlying pathogenic mechanisms. It is vital to study the underlying pathogenesis in animal models to develop and evaluate new prophylactic regimens directed against HO. However, previously developed small-animal models for the study of HO imitate neither surgery nor trauma-mechanisms that potentially cause HO. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a novel small-animal model imitating hip surgery that can reliably produce HO. Twenty male Wistar rats were subjected to surgery of the right hip during which the femoral canal was reamed in three steps up to 2 mm, and a muscle lesion was made. Twelve weeks after surgery, the amount of heterotopic bone was assessed using micro-computed tomography. Eighteen of 20 animals showed HO around the hip 12 weeks after surgery. The amount of heterotopic bone varied from very small particles up to near ankylosis. A rat model of hip/pelvic surgery that does not use exogenous osteogenic stimulus and can reliably produce HO was developed.

  14. Presence, distribution, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a small animal teaching hospital: a year-long active surveillance targeting dogs and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balen, Joany; Kelley, Christina; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, Jonathan; Wittum, Thomas E; Hoet, Armando E

    2013-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to be present in small animal veterinary clinical environments. However, a better understanding of the ecology and dynamics of MRSA in these environments is necessary for the development of effective infectious disease prevention and control programs. To achieve this goal, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance program was established at The Ohio State University (OSU) Veterinary Medical Center to describe the spatial and molecular epidemiology of this bacterium in the small animal hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, and dendrogram analysis were used to characterize and analyze the 81 environmental and 37 canine-origin MRSA isolates obtained during monthly sampling events. Overall, 13.5% of surfaces were contaminated with MRSA at 1 or more sampling times throughout the year. The majority of the environmental and canine isolates were SCCmec type II (93.8% and 86.5%, respectively) and USA100 (90.1% and 86.5%, respectively). By PFGE analysis, these isolates were found to be closely related, which reflects a low diversity of MRSA strains circulating in the hospital. For 5 consecutive months, 1 unique pulsotype was the most prevalent across the medical services and was recovered from a variety of surfaces and hospital locations. Carts/gurneys, doors, and examination tables/floors were the most frequently contaminated surfaces. Some surfaces maintained the same pulsotypes for 3 consecutive months. Molecular analysis found that incoming MRSA-positive dogs were capable of introducing a new pulsotype into the hospital environment during the surveillance period. Our results suggest that once a MRSA strain is introduced into the hospital environment, it can be maintained and spread for extended periods of time. These findings can aid in the development of biosecurity and biocontainment protocols aimed at

  15. Fluorescence excitation studies of molecular photoionization in external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliakoff, E.D.; Dehmer, J.L.; Parr, A.C.; Leroi, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Using molecular nitrogen as an example, we show that fluorescence excitation spectroscopy can be used to measure partial photoionization cross sections of free molecules in external electric fields. The production of the N 2 + (B 2 Σ/sub u/ + ) state was studied and the threshold for this process was found to shift linearly with the square root of the applied field. This behavior is compared with the hydrogenic case and with previously studied systems

  16. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  17. Otitis media with effusion in an allergic animal model: A functional and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Kee; Park, Hyu Eun; Back, Sang-A; Park, Hyang Rim; Kim, Soo Whan; Park, Yooyeon; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi-Nae

    2016-05-01

    Allergy is considered as one of important etiologic factor of otitis media with effusion (OME). In present study, we evaluated the causal effect of allergy on OME in an animal model, and investigated the secondary effect of bacterial infection. Allergy and control animals were subdivided into groups with and without intratympanic injection of lipopolysaccharide (IT-LPS). Allergic otitis media was induced via intraperitoneal ovo-albumin injection with intranasal challenge. We assessed the occurrence of OME in allergic animals and the effect of IT-LPS on allergic otitis media. We also investigated the Th1 and Th2 responses in the middle-ear mucosa. Hearing of the animals was measured by ABR and DPOAE. OME was observed in 75% of the allergic animals. After IT-LPS, 100% of the control and allergy groups showed otitis media. Light microscopy revealed that the middle-ear mucosa of animals of both groups also was significantly increased after IT-LPS, and the Th1 response (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 response (IL-5 and IL-13) cytokines were expressed at higher levels in the allergy group with IT-LPS than in control group with IT-LPS. Hearing tests between the allergy and control group with IT-LPS did not reveal any differences. Our findings may be direct evidence of an allergic causal effect on OME. Th2 response cytokines were strongly expressed in allergic OME, and the inflammatory reaction to LPS was more intense in the allergic group, which indicates that otitis media related to allergy can be severely aggravated by an inflammatory reaction to bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosecurity and animal disease management in organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelson, Ulf; Sjöström, Karin; Fall, Nils

    2018-04-12

    Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds. A total of 192 useable questionnaires were returned; response rates of 30.3 and 20.2% for organic and conventional farmers, respectively. Herd characteristics of the two herd types were very similar, except that pipeline/tie-stall systems were less common in organic farms and that organic farmers had a higher education level than their conventional counterparts. Also, very few systematic differences in general or specific disease management activities were observed between the two types of farms. The main exceptions being how milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was used, views on policy actions in relation to antibiotic use, and attitudes towards calling for veterinary support. Using milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was more common in conventional herds, although it was mainly given to bull calves. Farmers of organic herds were more positive to policy actions to reduce the use and need for antibiotics, and they reported waiting longer before contacting a veterinarian for calves with diarrhoea and cows with subclinical mastitis. The stated biosecurity and animal disease management was relatively equal in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds. Our results thus indicate that animal health is as important in conventionally managed dairy herds in Sweden as in organically managed herds.

  19. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  20. Statistical ensembles and molecular dynamics studies of anisotropic solids. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.R.; Rahman, A.

    1985-01-01

    We have recently discussed how the Parrinello--Rahman theory can be brought into accord with the theory of the elastic and thermodynamic behavior of anisotropic media. This involves the isoenthalpic--isotension ensemble of statistical mechanics. Nose has developed a canonical ensemble form of molecular dynamics. We combine Nose's ideas with the Parrinello--Rahman theory to obtain a canonical form of molecular dynamics appropriate to the study of anisotropic media subjected to arbitrary external stress. We employ this isothermal--isotension ensemble in a study of a fcc→ close-packed structural phase transformation in a Lennard-Jones solid subjected to uniaxial compression. Our interpretation of the Nose theory does not involve a scaling of the time variable. This latter fact leads to simplifications when studying the time dependence of quantities

  1. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Cann

    Full Text Available The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level, the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  2. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Cachon, Thibaut; Viguier, Eric; Miladi, Lotfi; Odent, Thierry; Rossi, Jean-Marie; Chabrand, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age) of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic) and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical) on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old) tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level), the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  3. Short animation movies as advance organizers in physics teaching: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscianski, André; João Ribeiro, Rafael; Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2012-11-01

    Background : Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose : The study aimed to determine guidelines for the construction of an instructional short animation movie, with the role of an advance organizer. A film was created in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, making part of a physics lesson and concerning the subject 'moment of a force'. Sample : The study took place in a Brazilian school in the city of Arapoti, in the south region of the country. Thirty-eight students participated, having an average age of 16 and following the third year of high school. Design and methods : Criteria drawn from a literature review directed the construction of the movie and the lesson. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests; registers of oral comments were also done during the class. The post-test included open-ended questions, allowing students to write remarks concerning the lesson and the animation. Conclusions : The article describes steps and guidelines to orient the process of designing an animation movie with the role of advance organizer. Data indicated that the movie facilitated the construction of links between pre-existent knowledge and the new information presented in the lesson. The proposed methodology can be considered a valid framework to derive similar approaches.

  4. Performance evaluation of a mouse-sized camera for dynamic studies in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randy; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakellios, Nicolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Varvarigou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    A mouse sized camera has been built in terms of collaboration between the presenting institutions. The system is used for the performance of dynamic studies in small animals, in order to evaluate novel radiopharmaceuticals. The active area of the detector is approximately 48x96 mm allowing depiction of the entire mouse in a single view. The system is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator. In this work, the evaluation results of the system are presented, using phantoms and small animals injected with conventional radiophrmaceuticals. Average resolution was ∼1.6 mm on the collimator surface and increased to ∼4.1 mm in 12 cm distance from the detector. The average energy resolution was measured and found to be ∼15.6% for Tc 99m . Results from imaging thin capillaries demonstrated system's high resolution and sensitivity in activity variations was shown. Initial dynamic studies have been carried out in small animals injected with Tc 99m -DTPA and Tc 99m -MDP. The results show system's ability to perform kinetic imaging in small animals

  5. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucar, I. Agustín, E-mail: agustin.aucar@conicet.gov.ar; Gomez, Sergio S., E-mail: ssgomez@exa.unne.edu.ar [Institute for Modeling and Technological Innovation, IMIT (CONICET-UNNE) and Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Northeastern University of Argentina, Avenida Libertad 5400, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-21

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.

  6. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucar, I. Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.

    2014-01-01

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH + (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH + systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found

  7. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microspor-idia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Con-tact to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab ASKARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can in­fect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas world­wide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infec­tion particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoono­tic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with close – contact to human.Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-con­tact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced.Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopi­cally in 15 (10.56% samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15% small white mice and 1 (10% laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%. Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10% samples of sheep, 2 (5.12% cattle, 1 (10% rabbit, 3 (11.53% cats and 2 (11.76% ownership dogs (totally 7.74%. Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with close – contact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis.

  8. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  9. Epidemiological Study of Animal Bite in Students in Hashtrood Town: 2006- 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Babaie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Rabies is an acute and fatal infectious disease that is very important due to high economic losses to livestock and the amounts of expenditures that are paid for purchasing serum and vaccine. The main way of disease transmitting is bites by rabid animals. Animal bite is an important threat for human health. The main aim of this research was epidemiological study of animal bite in the students of Hashtrood town. Material and Methods : In this cross-sectional study, animal bitten students’ data were collected trough the records of Hashtrood health centers registry lists between 2006-2009. The census data collecting method was used and the data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS15. Results : The incidence of animal bites in the past 5 years was 9.07 per 1,000 students. From 439 animal bitten students, 80.9% were male and 19.1% were female. According to the results, 88.4% were rural and 11.2% were urban residents. Dogs bite was the cause of 87.92%. In 86.5% of the cases, the bite was superficial and in 8.4% of the cases, bites were deeper. Among them, 16.6% received anti rabies serum, 16.2% received vaccine. This study showed that 4.8% had a previous history of bite. Of total, 78.8% made a visit to health centers in the first 24 hours, 11.4% within 25 to 48 hours, and 3.6% within 49 to 72 hours after bites. There was no human death report from rabies. Results showed that 95.2% were given incomplete vaccination and 4.1% had received five complete vaccines. Conclusion : Regarding the high prevalence of animal bites among students, educating students about the importance of rabies, students’ behavior with dogs and immediate visit to health centers after exposure to dogs should be taken serious. Restraining dogs by training dog owners and legal means should be attempted.

  10. Monitoring for environmental mutagenesis in wild animals - lessons from human studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawn, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The increasing realisation that environmental monitoring practices need to demonstrate radiological protection of the whole ecosystem has led to suggestions that genotoxic techniques derived from human monitoring of radiation exposure could be applied to other animal species. Human studies have highlighted the need to establish the relationship between exposure, genetic effect and biological consequence so that different study objectives, e.g. hazard identification, dose estimation, risk evaluation, can be addressed by the application of the most appropriate and informative assay. (author)

  11. Molecular marker studies in riverine buffaloes, for characterization and diagnosis of genetic defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    The buffalo is probably the last livestock species to have been domesticated, with many genetic, physiological and behavioural traits not yet well understood. Molecular markers have been used for characterizing animals and breeds, diagnosing diseases and identifying anatomical and physiological anomalies. RFLP studies showed low heterozygosity, but genomic and oligonucleotide probes showed species-specific bands useful for identification of carcass or other unknown samples. Use of RAPD revealed band frequencies, band sharing frequencies, genetic distances, and genetic and identity indexes in different breeds. Bovine microsatellite primers indicate that 70.9% of bovine loci were conserved in buffalo. Allele numbers, sizes, frequencies, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content showed breed-specific patterns. Different marker types - genomic and oligonucleotide probes, RAPD and microsatellites - are useful in parent identification. Individual specific DNA fingerprinting techniques were applied with twin-born animal (XX/XY) chimerism, sex identification, anatomically defective and XO individuals. Molecular markers are a potential tool for geneticists and breeders to evaluate existing germplasm and to manipulate it to develop character-specific strains and to provide the basis for effective genetic conservation. (author)

  12. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  13. SCARDINIUS GENUS IN MOLECULAR STUDIES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Popescul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scardinius is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family commonly called rudds. The common rudd(Scardinius erithrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish that occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetatedlowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes and it is widespread in Europe and middle Asia. It has a mediumlength of 20-30 cm, but it can reach 50 cm. The classification of cyprinids has always been controversial the morphologicaltraits have an unclear homology this led to the idea that the recognized monophyletic groups are surely misinterpreted. Thispaper aims to assess the current level of molecular data regarding Scardinius genera. Some of the molecular data obtainedfor Scardinius genus is from DNA barcoding studies on fresh water fishes, but studies regarding this genus and Cyprinidaefamily used mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (cyt b and cytochrome oxidase (CO, but nuclear genes or nuclearmicrosatellites were also used. We found that molecular data exists for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but this genuswasn’t studied separately and as many of the researchers suggest more taxonomic studies are required in order to solve theuncertainties within it.

  14. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  15. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moagabo, K T; Monyame, K B; Baipoledi, E K; Letshwenyo, M; Mapitse, N; Hyera, J M K

    2009-12-01

    A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 +/- 1.48%. About 85.7% (2 074/2 419) of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2% (343/2 419) cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1%) were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997) the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 +/- 1.85% (1645/2620 positive) whereas during the second half (1998-2006) it was estimated at 45.91 +/- 2.38% (774/1686 positive) and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (delta % = 16.88, SE(95) diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P rabies accounted for 79.99% (50.92% bovine, 928.40% caprine and 0.67% ovine) whereas canine (domestic dog) and feline (domestic cat) accounted for 16.01 and 0.87%, respectively. Equine rabies accounted for 3.13% with 1.35 and 1.78%, respectively, for horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60% of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988), its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana.

  16. A retrospective longitudinal study of animal and human rabies in Botswana 1989-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Moagabo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study of animal and human rabies covering 18 years from 1989 to 2006 was retrospectively conducted in order to highlight the epidemiological features and trends of the disease in Botswana. Over the 18-year period, a total of 4 306 brain specimens collected from various species of animals including human beings with clinical signs consistent with rabies were submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory in Gaborone for confirmatory diagnosis. Of the samples submitted, 2 419 cases were found to be positive for lyssavirus antigen; this presents an overall prevalence rate of 56.18 ± 1.48 %. About 85.7 % (2 074/2 419 of the cases were from domestic animals, 14.2 % (343/2 419 cases were from wild animals and two cases (0.1 % were from human beings. During the first half of the study (1989-1997 the prevalence rate of the disease was estimated at 62.79 ± 1.85 % (1 645/2 620 positive whereas during the second half (1998-2006 it was estimated at 45.91 ± 2.38 % (774/1 686 positive and the difference between the two estimates was statistically, highly significant (Δ % = 16.88, SE 95 diff % = 3.015, SD = 5.599; P < 0.001. Ruminant rabies accounted for 79.99 % (50.92 % bovine, 28.40 % caprine and 0.67 % ovine whereas canine (domestic dog and feline (domestic cat accounted for 16.01 and 0.87 %, respectively. Equine rabies accounted for 3.13 % with 1.35 and 1.78 %, respectively, for horses and donkeys. Jackal rabies accounted for more than 60 % of the total cases in wild animals. These findings are discussed in relation to the previous epidemiological situation of the disease (1979-1988, its socio-economic impact, monitoring and control in Botswana.

  17. Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Casillas, Yeray; Melián, Carlos; Wägner, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Most research in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been conducted in animals, and their replacement is currently a chimera. As compared to when they started to be used by modern science in the 17th century, a very high number of animal models of diabetes is now available, and they provide new insights into almost every aspect of diabetes. Approaches combining human, in vitro, and animal studies are probably the best strategy to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diabetes, and the choice of the best model to achieve such objective is crucial. Traditionally classified based on pathogenesis as spontaneous or induced models, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common animal models of diabetes are described, and in addition to non-obese diabetic mice, biobreeding diabetes-prone (BB-DP) rats, streptozotocin-induced models, or high-fat diet-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice, new valuable models, such as dogs and cats with spontaneous diabetes, are described. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been devised to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats, and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines have been reviewed, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to human is discussed

  19. The science and necessity of using animal models in the study of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Guillermo J; McElroy, Steven J; Hunter, Catherine J

    2018-02-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the highest causes of mortality and of acute and long-term morbidity in premature infants. Multiple factors are involved in the pathophysiology of NEC including the immaturity of the immune system and the complex changing composition of the intestinal microbiome. This is compounded by the fact that the premature infant should ideally still be a developing fetus and has an immature intestinal tract. Because these complexities are beyond the scope of studies in single-cell cultures, animal models are absolutely essential to understand the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of NEC and the effects of inflammation on the immature intestinal tract. To this end, investigators have utilized many different species (e.g., rats, mice, rabbits, quails, piglets, and non-human primates) and conditions to develop models of NEC. Each animal has distinct advantages and drawbacks related to its preterm viability, body size, genetic variability, and cost. The choice of animal model is strongly influenced by the scientific question being addressed. While no model perfectly mimics human NEC, each has greatly improved our understanding of disease. Examples of recent discoveries in NEC pathogenesis and prevention underscore the importance of continued animal research in NEC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have devised a method to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, researchers have reviewed some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to humans is discussed

  1. [Possibilities and limitations of fibroblast cultures in the study of animal aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gansen, P; Van Lerberghe, N

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Aging--the effect of time--occurs in every living organism. Senescence is the last period of the lifespan, leading to death. It happens in all animals, with the exception of a few didermic species (Hydras) having a stock of embryonic cells and being immortal. The causes of animal senescence are badly known. They depend both on genetic characters (maximal lifespan of a species) and on medium factors (mean expectation of life of the animals of a species). Animal senescence could depend on cell aging: 1) by senescence and death of the differentiated cells, 2) by modified proliferation and differentiation of the stem cells of differentiated tissues, 3) by alterations in the extracellular matrices, 4) by interactions between factors 1) 2) and 3) in each tissue, 5) by interactions between the several tissues of an organism. This complexity badly impedes the experimental study of animal senescence. Normal mammal cells are aging when they are cultivated (in vitro ageing): their phenotype varies and depends on the cell generation (in vitro differentiation); the last cell-generation doesn't divide anymore and declines until death of the culture (in vitro senescence). Analysis of these artificial but well controlled systems allows an experimental approach of the proliferation, differentiation, senescence and death of the cells and of the extracellular matrix functions. Present literature upon in vitro aging of cultivated human cells is essentially made of papers where proliferation and differentiation characteristics are compared between early ("young") and late ("old") cell-generations of the cultures. FIBROBLASTIC CELLS OF THE MOUSE SKIN. This cell type has been studied in our laboratory, using different systems: 1) Primary cultures isolated from peeled skins of 19 day old mouse embryos, 2) Mouse dermis analyzed in the animals, 3) Cultivated explants of skins, 4) Serial sub-cultures of fibroblasts isolated from these explants, 5) Cells cultivated comparably on

  2. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver-related death in more than 300,000 people annually. Treatments for patients with chronic HCV are suboptimal, despite the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents. There is no vaccine that prevents HCV infection. Relevant animal models are important...... for HCV research and development of drugs and vaccines. Chimpanzees are the best model for studies of HCV infection and related innate and adaptive host immune responses. They can be used in immunogenicity and efficacy studies of HCV vaccines. The only small animal models of robust HCV infection are T......- and B- cell deficient mice with human chimeric livers. Although these mice cannot be used in studies of adaptive immunity, they have provided new insights into HCV neutralization, interactions between virus and receptors, innate host responses, and therapeutic approaches. Recent progress in developing...

  3. Sutureless vascular anastomoses by N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate adhesive: an experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, D; Yilmaz, M; Yavuz, H; Noyan, S; Avci, B; Ercan, A; Ozkan, H; Cengiz, M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to find out whether sutureless anastomoses using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate were effective in the suppression of neointimal hyperplasia or not. Ten male adult mongrel dogs were used in this animal study. The animals were randomly divided into a control group (n = 5) and a study group (n = 5). The study group underwent sutureless anastomoses using N-buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive. Infrarenal aortoaortic graft was interposed using polytetrafluoroethylene. In the study group, the mean intimal thickness at the proximal anastomosis was 27.4 +/- 1.94 microm and 27.4 +/- 1.51 microm at the distal anastomosis. In the control group, the mean intimal thickness was 138.4 +/- 5.02 mum at the proximal anastomosis and 67.6 +/- 6.42 microm at the distal anastomosis. Intimal thickness at the proximal and distal anastomoses in the control group was significantly (p anastomoses using with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive might be a good alternative to conventional suture technique. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytus Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake, intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding, and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease—with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function.

  5. A Study on Impact of Informatization on Tourist Behavior : Analysis of Anime Pilgrimage

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 健

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows impact of informatization on tourist behavior in Japan. This research adopts analysis of "Anime Pilgrimage" in order to accomplish the above mentioned objective. Recently, in Japan, some of anime fans make "Anime Pilgrimage" which is a kind of tourist behavior. It would appear that this behavior was affected by informatization strongly. As a result, it was found that "Anime Pilgrim" was affected by informatization not only before "Anime Pilgrimage" but also throughout "Anime ...

  6. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  7. Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445

  8. Animal mdels for the study of the effects of spaceflight on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    Animal models have been used extensively to study the effects of spaceflight on the immune system. The rat has been the animal used most extensively, but some studies have also been carried out utilizing mice and rhesus monkeys. Hindlimb unloading of rats and mice is a ground-based model that has been utilized to determine the effects of spaceflight-type conditions on the immune systems. The results using this model have shown that hindlimb unloading results in alterations of functional rodent immune responses, including cytokine production, blastogenesis of leukocytes, response of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factors, neutrophil activity, and resistance to infection. Distribution of leukocyte subtypes was not affected by hindlimb unloading. Studies on rats flown in space have demonstrated that exposure to spaceflight results in alterations in cytokine production, alterations in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors, alterations in leukocyte subset distribution, and alterations in natural killer cell function. When pregnant rats were flown in space, although the immune responses of the pregnant mothers were altered by exposure to spaceflight, no effects of spaceflight on the immune responses of the offspring were observed. In one study, rhesus monkeys were flown in space and their immune status was evaluated upon their return to earth. Results of that study showed alterations in the ability of monkey immune cells to produce cytokines, express cytokine receptors, and respond to colony stimulating factor. Therefore, it is clear that exposure to spaceflight results in alterations in immune responses of the test animals. These changes are similar to those observed for humans that have flown in space, and demonstrate that the animal models are appropriate for studying the effects of spaceflight on the immune system. Although use of the hindlimb unloading model on the ground has indicated that exposure to the model also

  9. Making Humanoid Robots More Acceptable Based on the Study of Robot Characters in Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maleki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we take an approach in Humanoid Robots are not considered as robots who resembles human beings in a realistic way of appearance and act but as robots who act and react like human that make them more believable by people. Regarding this approach we will study robot characters in animation movies and discuss what makes some of them to be accepted just like a moving body and what makes some other robot characters to be believable as a living human. The goal of this paper is to create a rule set that describes friendly, socially acceptable, kind, cute... robots and in this study we will review example robots in popular animated movies. The extracted rules and features can be used for making real robots more acceptable.

  10. The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J

    2008-09-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of the animal models v. in vitro studies in iron metabolism: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y; Díaz-Castro, J

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Special molecules have evolved for iron acquisition, transport and storage in soluble, nontoxic forms. Studies about the effects of iron on health are focused on iron metabolism or nutrition to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. These studies are focused in two main aspects: (1) basic studies to elucidate iron metabolism and (2) nutritional studies to evaluate the efficacy of iron supplementation to prevent or treat iron deficiency and anemia. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the experimental models commonly used as well as the methods that are more used in studies related to iron. In vitro studies have used different parts of the gut. In vivo studies are done in humans and animals such as mice, rats, pigs and monkeys. Iron metabolism is a complex process that includes interactions at the systemic level. In vitro studies, despite physiological differences to humans, are useful to increase knowledge related to this essential micronutrient. Isotopic techniques are the most recommended in studies related to iron, but their high cost and required logistic, making them difficult to use. The depletion-repletion of hemoglobin is a method commonly used in animal studies. Three depletion-repletion techniques are mostly used: hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, relative biological values (RBV) and metabolic balance, which are official methods of the association of official analytical chemists. These techniques are well-validated to be used as studies related to iron and their results can be extrapolated to humans. Knowledge about the main advantages and disadvantages of the in vitro and animal models, and methods used in these studies, could increase confidence of researchers in the experimental results with less costs.

  12. Optical polarimetry and molecular line studies of L1157 dark molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ekta; Soam, Archana; Gopinathan, Maheswar

    2018-04-01

    Filaments are omnipresent in molecular clouds which are believed to fragment into cores. The detailed process of the evolution from filaments to cores depends critically on the physical conditions in the star forming region. This study aims at characterising gas motions using velocity structure and finding the dynamical importance of magnetic fields in the filament morphology. The plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field has been measured using optical polarization of the background stars. The orientation is found to be almost perpendicular to the filament implying its dynamical importance in the evolution of the cloud. Optical polarimetric results match very well with the sub millimetre polarization angles obtained in the inner core regions. The magnetic fields are found to have an orientation of 130° east with respect to north. The angular offset between the outflow axis and the magnetic field direction is found to be 25°. Values for parameters like the excitation temperature, optical depth and column densities have been derived using molecular lines. Optically thick lines show non-gaussian features. The non-thermal widths tell about the presence of turbulent motions whereas the C180 lines follow Gaussian features almost at all the locations observed in the filament.

  13. Double rotation NMR studies of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, Raz [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Goal is to study the organization and structures of guest atoms and molecules and their reactions on internal surfaces within pores of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves. 27Al and 23Na double rotation NMR (DOR) is used since it removes the anisotropic broadening in NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, thus increasing resolution. This work concentrates on probing aluminum framework atoms in aluminophosphate molecular sieves and sodium extra framework cations in porous aluminosilicates. In aluminophosphates, ordering and electronic environments of the framework 27Al nuclei are modified upon adsorption of water molecules within the channels; a relation is sought between the sieve channel topology and the organization of adsorbed water, as well as the interaction between the Al nuclei and the water molecules. Extra framework Na+ cations are directly involved in adsorption processes and reactions in zeolite cavities.

  14. Cariogenicity Of Different Types Of Milk: An Experimental Study Using Animal Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Peres R.C.; Coppi L.C.; Franco E.M.; Volpato M.C.; Groppo F.C.; Rosalen P.L.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cariogenic potential of infant formulas and cow's milk, using a high cariogenic challenge in the animal model. Sixty female Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus sobrinus and desalivated were randomly divided into 6 groups, which received ad libitum: 1) sterilized deionized distilled water (SDW) with 5% sucrose; 2) cow's milk; 3) Nan 2; 4) Nestogeno 2; 5) Ninho growth supporting; 6) SDW. Groups 1 and 6 also received essential diet NCP#2 by gavage, twice a day. After...

  15. Animal studies on the role of sleep in memory : From behavioral performance to molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Although the exact functions of sleep remain a topic of debate, several hypotheses propose that sleep benefits neuronal plasticity, which ultimately supports brain function and cognition. For over a century, researchers have applied a wide variety of behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical and

  16. Molecular mechanisms in radiation carcinogenesis: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Molecular studies of radiation carcinogenesis are discussed in relation to theories for extrapolating from cellular and animal models to man. Skin cancer is emphasized because of sunlight-induced photochemical damage to DNA. It is emphasized that cellular and animal models are needed as well as molecular theories for quantitative evaluation of hazardous environmental agents. (U.S.)

  17. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  18. Cellular and Animal Studies: Insights into Pathophysiology and Therapy of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, Inthrani Raja; Lee, Bao Hui; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-11-01

    Basic science studies have advanced our understanding of the role of key enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway and those that affect the pathophysiology of PCOS. Studies with ovarian theca cells taken from women with PCOS have demonstrated increased androgen production due to increased CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 enzyme activities. Furthermore, overexpression of DENND1A variant 2 in normal theca cells resulted in a PCOS phenotype with increased androgen production. Notably, cellular steroidogenesis models have facilitated the understanding of the mechanistic effects of pharmacotherapies, including insulin sensitizers (e.g., pioglitazone and metformin) used for the treatment of insulin resistance in PCOS, on androgen production. In addition, animal models of PCOS have provided a critical platform to study the effects of therapeutic agents in a manner closer to the physiological state. Indeed, recent breakthroughs have demonstrated that natural derivatives such as the dietary medium-chain fatty acid decanoic acid (DA) can restore estrous cyclicity and lower androgen levels in an animal model of PCOS, thus laying the platform for novel therapeutic developments in PCOS. This chapter reviews the current understanding on the pathways modulating androgen biosynthesis, and the cellular and animal models that form the basis for preclinical research in PCOS, and sets the stage for clinical research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. An Exploratory Study on the Development of an Animal Model of Acute Pancreatitis Following Nicotine Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is known to be a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis is believed to be a predisposed condition for pancreatic cancer. As of this date, there is no established experimental animal model to conduct detailed studies on these two deadly diseases. Our aim is to establish a rodent model by which we can systematically study the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Methods Adult Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to graded doses of nicotine by various routes for periods of three to 16 weeks. Blood samples were measured for hormonal and metabolic parameters. The pancreas was evaluated for histopathological changes and its function was assessed in isolated pancreatic acini upon stimulation with cholecystokinin (CCK or carbachol (Cch. The pancreatic tissue was evaluated further for oncogene expression. Results Body weight, food and fluid intakes, plasma glucose and insulin levels were significantly reduced in animals with nicotine exposure when compared to control. However, CCK and gastrin levels in the blood were significantly elevated. Pancreatic function was decreased significantly with no alteration in CCK receptor binding. Pancreatic histology revealed vacuolation, swelling, cellular pyknosis and karyorrhexis. Mutant oncogene, H-ras, was overexpressed in nicotine-treated pancreatic tissue. Summary and conclusion The results suggest that alterations in metabolic, hormonal and pathologic parameters following nicotine-treatment appear consistent with diagnostic criteria of human pancreatitis. It is proposed that rats could be considered as a potential animal model to study the pathogenesis of pancreatitis.

  20. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A conceptual framework for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Diego P; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Urbani, Pasquinell; Valdovinos, Fernanda S

    2015-04-01

    The strength of species interactions influences strongly the structure and dynamics of ecological systems. Thus, quantifying such strength is crucial to understand how species interactions shape communities and ecosystems. Although the concepts and measurement of interaction strength in food webs have received much attention, there has been comparatively little progress in the context of mutualism. We propose a conceptual scheme for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions. We first review the interaction strength concepts developed for food webs, and explore how these concepts have been applied to mutualistic interactions. We then outline and explain a conceptual framework for defining ecological effects in plant-animal mutualisms. We give recommendations for measuring interaction strength from data collected in field studies based on a proposed approach for the assessment of interaction strength in plant-animal mutualisms. This approach is conceptually integrative and methodologically feasible, as it focuses on two key variables usually measured in field studies: the frequency of interactions and the fitness components influenced by the interactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  3. Expert consensus regarding drivers of antimicrobial stewardship in companion animal veterinary practice: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; King, Caroline; Nuttall, Tim; Smith, Matt; Flowers, Paul

    2018-03-23

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge facing both human and animal healthcare professionals; an effective response to this threat requires a 'One-Health' approach to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) to preserve important antibiotics for urgent clinical need. However, understanding of barriers and enablers to effective AMS behaviour in companion animal veterinary practice is currently limited. We conducted a Delphi study of 16 nationally recognised experts from UK-based veterinary policymakers, university academics and leaders of professional bodies. This Delphi study sought to identify veterinary behaviours which experts believe contribute to AMR and form vital aspects of AMS. Analysis of Delphi findings indicated a perceived hierarchy of behaviours, the most influential being antibiotic prescribing behaviours and interactions with clients. Other veterinary behaviours perceived as being important related to interactions with veterinary colleagues; infection control practices; and the use of diagnostic tests to confirm infection. Key barriers and enablers to AMS within each of these behavioural domains were identified. Specific interventions to address important barriers and enablers are recommended. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to establish expert consensus at a national level about which 'behaviours' (aspects of veterinarian practice) should be targeted in relation to AMR and AMS in companion animal veterinary practice. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Evidence from Human and Animal Studies: Pathological Roles of CD8(+) T Cells in Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Peyret, Corentin; Shi, Xiang Qun; Siron, Nicolas; Jang, Jeong Ho; Wu, Sonia; Fournier, Sylvie; Zhang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4(+) T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN). As it is induced commonly by immunization with peripheral nerve proteins, EAN is driven mainly by CD4(+) T cells. However, similarly to what has been reported for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, a significant body of evidence indicates that CD8(+) T cells may play a pathogenic role in GBS and CIDP disease development and/or progression. Here, we summarize clinical studies pertaining to the presence and potential role of CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. We also discuss the findings from our most recent studies using a transgenic mouse line (L31 mice) in which the T cell co-stimulator molecule B7.2 (CD86) is constitutively expressed in antigen presenting cells of the nervous tissues. L31 mice spontaneously develop peripheral neuropathy, and CD8(+) T cells are found accumulating in peripheral nerves of symptomatic animals. Interestingly, depletion of CD4(+) T cells accelerates disease onset and increases disease prevalence. Finally, we point out some unanswered questions for future research to dissect the critical roles of CD8(+) T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies.

  5. Evidence from Human and Animal Studies: Pathological Roles of CD8+ T Cells in Autoimmune Peripheral Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Peyret, Corentin; Shi, Xiang Qun; Siron, Nicolas; Jang, Jeong Ho; Wu, Sonia; Fournier, Sylvie; Zhang, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune peripheral neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) affect millions of people worldwide. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies remain elusive. T lymphocytes definitely play an important role in disease pathogenesis and CD4+ T cells have been the main area of research for decades. This is partly due to the fact that the most frequent animal model to study autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is experimental allergic neuritis (EAN). As it is induced commonly by immunization with peripheral nerve proteins, EAN is driven mainly by CD4+ T cells. However, similarly to what has been reported for patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, a significant body of evidence indicates that CD8+ T cells may play a pathogenic role in GBS and CIDP disease development and/or progression. Here, we summarize clinical studies pertaining to the presence and potential role of CD8+ T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. We also discuss the findings from our most recent studies using a transgenic mouse line (L31 mice) in which the T cell co-stimulator molecule B7.2 (CD86) is constitutively expressed in antigen presenting cells of the nervous tissues. L31 mice spontaneously develop peripheral neuropathy, and CD8+ T cells are found accumulating in peripheral nerves of symptomatic animals. Interestingly, depletion of CD4+ T cells accelerates disease onset and increases disease prevalence. Finally, we point out some unanswered questions for future research to dissect the critical roles of CD8+ T cells in autoimmune peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26528293

  6. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  7. Potential efficacy of mitochondrial genes for animal DNA barcoding: a case study using eutherian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Arong; Zhang, Aibing; Ho, Simon Yw; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Yanzhou; Shi, Weifeng; Cameron, Stephen L; Zhu, Chaodong

    2011-01-28

    A well-informed choice of genetic locus is central to the efficacy of DNA barcoding. Current DNA barcoding in animals involves the use of the 5' half of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (CO1) to diagnose and delimit species. However, there is no compelling a priori reason for the exclusive focus on this region, and it has been shown that it performs poorly for certain animal groups. To explore alternative mitochondrial barcoding regions, we compared the efficacy of the universal CO1 barcoding region with the other mitochondrial protein-coding genes in eutherian mammals. Four criteria were used for this comparison: the number of recovered species, sequence variability within and between species, resolution to taxonomic levels above that of species, and the degree of mutational saturation. Based on 1,179 mitochondrial genomes of eutherians, we found that the universal CO1 barcoding region is a good representative of mitochondrial genes as a whole because the high species-recovery rate (> 90%) was similar to that of other mitochondrial genes, and there were no significant differences in intra- or interspecific variability among genes. However, an overlap between intra- and interspecific variability was still problematic for all mitochondrial genes. Our results also demonstrated that any choice of mitochondrial gene for DNA barcoding failed to offer significant resolution at higher taxonomic levels. We suggest that the CO1 barcoding region, the universal DNA barcode, is preferred among the mitochondrial protein-coding genes as a molecular diagnostic at least for eutherian species identification. Nevertheless, DNA barcoding with this marker may still be problematic for certain eutherian taxa and our approach can be used to test potential barcoding loci for such groups.

  8. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: A comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum 1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Depauw, S.; Bosch, Guido; Hesta, M.; Whitehouse-Tedd, K.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kaandorp, J.; Janssens, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a s...

  9. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  10. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; Tillema, Alice; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2010-07-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction). One of the factors currently impeding the production of 'high-quality' SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult. In order to diminish these difficulties, we developed a search filter for PubMed to detect all publications concerning animal studies. This filter was compared with the method most frequently used, the PubMed Limit: Animals, and validated further by performing two PubMed topic searches. Our filter performs much better than the PubMed limit: it retrieves, on average, 7% more records. Other important advantages of our filter are that it also finds the most recent records and that it is easy to use. All in all, by using our search filter in PubMed, all available literature concerning animal studies on a specific topic can easily be found and assessed, which will help in increasing the scientific quality and thereby the ethical validity of animal experiments.

  11. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  12. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  13. Ti and Zr surfaces studied by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Passianot, Roberto C.; Monti, Ana M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between point defects technique and the (0001), (1-210), (10-10) surfaces in Ti and Zr is studied by the molecular dynamics technique. Both of metals are in the hexagonal structure and within a temperature range of 100 to 900 K. The atomic interactions are modeled by EAM-type many-body potentials, that were used previously in static simulations. New migration mechanisms are unraveled and others are verified with respect to those already proposed in the static studies. Also included is an analysis of the vacancy stability in the sub-surface layers of the prismatic surfaces. (author)

  14. Molecular docking, spectroscopic studies and quantum calculations on nootropic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Maheswari, J; Muthu, S; Sundius, Tom

    2014-04-05

    A systematic vibrational spectroscopic assignment and analysis of piracetam [(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide)] have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral data. The vibrational analysis was aided by an electronic structure calculation based on the hybrid density functional method B3LYP using a 6-311G++(d,p) basis set. Molecular equilibrium geometries, electronic energies, IR and Raman intensities, and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been computed. The assignments are based on the experimental IR and Raman spectra, and a complete assignment of the observed spectra has been proposed. The UV-visible spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies and the maximum absorption wavelengths λmax were determined by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method. The geometrical parameters, vibrational frequencies and absorption wavelengths were compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments are performed on the basis of the potential energy distributions (PED) of the vibrational modes in terms of natural internal coordinates. The simulated FT-IR, FT-Raman, and UV spectra of the title compound have been constructed. Molecular docking studies have been carried out in the active site of piracetam by using Argus Lab. In addition, the potential energy surface, HOMO and LUMO energies, first-order hyperpolarizability and the molecular electrostatic potential have been computed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  17. A Web-based Simulator for Sample Size and Power Estimation in Animal Carcinogenicity Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Moon

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A Web-based statistical tool for sample size and power estimation in animal carcinogenicity studies is presented in this paper. It can be used to provide a design with sufficient power for detecting a dose-related trend in the occurrence of a tumor of interest when competing risks are present. The tumors of interest typically are occult tumors for which the time to tumor onset is not directly observable. It is applicable to rodent tumorigenicity assays that have either a single terminal sacrifice or multiple (interval sacrifices. The design is achieved by varying sample size per group, number of sacrifices, number of sacrificed animals at each interval, if any, and scheduled time points for sacrifice. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out in this tool to simulate experiments of rodent bioassays because no closed-form solution is available. It takes design parameters for sample size and power estimation as inputs through the World Wide Web. The core program is written in C and executed in the background. It communicates with the Web front end via a Component Object Model interface passing an Extensible Markup Language string. The proposed statistical tool is illustrated with an animal study in lung cancer prevention research.

  18. Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

  19. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A 3D high-resolution gamma camera for radiopharmaceutical studies with small animals

    CERN Document Server

    Loudos, G K; Giokaris, N D; Styliaris, E; Archimandritis, S C; Varvarigou, A D; Papanicolas, C N; Majewski, S; Weisenberger, D; Pani, R; Scopinaro, F; Uzunoglu, N K; Maintas, D; Stefanis, K

    2003-01-01

    The results of studies conducted with a small field of view tomographic gamma camera based on a Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube are reported. The system has been used for the evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in small animals. Phantom studies have shown a spatial resolution of 2 mm in planar and 2-3 mm in tomographic imaging. Imaging studies in mice have been carried out both in 2D and 3D. Conventional radiopharmaceuticals have been used and the results have been compared with images from a clinically used system.

  1. A novel nasal powder formulation of glucagon: toxicology studies in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Reno, Frederick E.; Normand, Patrick; McInally, Kevin; Silo, Sherwin; Stotland, Patricia; Triest, Myriam; Carballo, Dolores; Pich?, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucagon nasal powder (GNP), a novel intranasal formulation of glucagon being developed to treat insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia, contains synthetic glucagon (10?% w/w), beta-cyclodextrin, and dodecylphosphocholine. The safety of this formulation was evaluated in four studies in animal models. Methods The first study evaluated 28-day sub-chronic toxicology in rats treated intranasally with 1 and 2?mg of GNP/day (0.1 and 0.2?mg glucagon/rat/day). The second study evaluated 28-da...

  2. Syrian Hamster as an Animal Model for the Study of Human Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Nakajima, Noriko; Ichiko, Yurie; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Noda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-15

    Ferrets and mice are frequently used as animal models for influenza research. However, ferrets are demanding in terms of housing space and handling, whereas mice are not naturally susceptible to infection with human influenza A or B viruses. Therefore, prior adaptation of human viruses is required for their use in mice. In addition, there are no mouse-adapted variants of the recent H3N2 viruses, because these viruses do not replicate well in mice. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to influenza viruses with a view to using the hamster model as an alternative to the mouse model. We found that hamsters are sensitive to influenza viruses, including the recent H3N2 viruses, without adaptation. Although the hamsters did not show weight loss or clinical signs of H3N2 virus infection, we observed pathogenic effects in the respiratory tracts of the infected animals. All of the H3N2 viruses tested replicated in the respiratory organs of the hamsters, and some of them were detected in the nasal washes of infected animals. Moreover, a 2009 pandemic (pdm09) virus and a seasonal H1N1 virus, as well as one of the two H3N2 viruses, but not a type B virus, were transmissible by the airborne route in these hamsters. Hamsters thus have the potential to be a small-animal model for the study of influenza virus infection, including studies of the pathogenicity of H3N2 viruses and other strains, as well as for use in H1N1 virus transmission studies. IMPORTANCE We found that Syrian hamsters are susceptible to human influenza viruses, including the recent H3N2 viruses, without adaptation. We also found that a pdm09 virus and a seasonal H1N1 virus, as well as one of the H3N2 viruses, but not a type B virus tested, are transmitted by the airborne route in these hamsters. Syrian hamsters thus have the potential to be used as a small-animal model for the study of human influenza viruses. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Determinants Associated with Veterinary Antimicrobial Prescribing in Farm Animals in the Netherlands : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  4. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D C; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J M; Wagenaar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  5. Towards future interactive intelligent systems for animals : Study and recognition of embodied interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, Patricia; Jaen, Javier; Catala, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    User-centered design applied to non-human animals is showing to be a promising research line known as Animal Computer Interaction (ACI), aimed at improving animals' wellbeing using technology. Within this research line, intelligent systems for animal entertainment could have remarkable benefits for

  6. Towards an Ethological Animal Model of Depression? A Study on Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fureix, Carole; Jego, Patrick; Henry, Séverine; Lansade, Léa; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent reviews question current animal models of depression and emphasise the need for ethological models of mood disorders based on animals living under natural conditions. Domestic horses encounter chronic stress, including potential stress at work, which can induce behavioural disorders (e.g. “apathy”). Our pioneering study evaluated the potential of domestic horses in their usual environment to become an ethological model of depression by testing this models’ face validity (i.e. behavioural similarity with descriptions of human depressive states). Methodology/Principal Findings We observed the spontaneous behaviour of 59 working horses in their home environment, focusing on immobility bouts of apparent unresponsiveness when horses displayed an atypical posture (termed withdrawn hereafter), evaluated their responsiveness to their environment and their anxiety levels, and analysed cortisol levels. Twenty-four percent of the horses presented the withdrawn posture, also characterized by gaze, head and ears fixity, a profile that suggests a spontaneous expression of “behavioural despair”. When compared with control “non-withdrawn” horses from the same stable, withdrawn horses appeared more indifferent to environmental stimuli in their home environment but reacted more emotionally in more challenging situations. They exhibited lower plasma cortisol levels. Withdrawn horses all belonged to the same breed and females were over-represented. Conclusions/Significance Horse might be a useful potential candidate for an animal model of depression. Face validity of this model appeared good, and potential genetic input and high prevalence of these disorders in females add to the convergence. At a time when current animal models of depression are questioned and the need for novel models is expressed, this study suggests that novel models and biomarkers could emerge from ethological approaches in home environments. PMID:22761752

  7. Towards an ethological animal model of depression? A study on horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Fureix

    Full Text Available Recent reviews question current animal models of depression and emphasise the need for ethological models of mood disorders based on animals living under natural conditions. Domestic horses encounter chronic stress, including potential stress at work, which can induce behavioural disorders (e.g. "apathy". Our pioneering study evaluated the potential of domestic horses in their usual environment to become an ethological model of depression by testing this models' face validity (i.e. behavioural similarity with descriptions of human depressive states.We observed the spontaneous behaviour of 59 working horses in their home environment, focusing on immobility bouts of apparent unresponsiveness when horses displayed an atypical posture (termed withdrawn hereafter, evaluated their responsiveness to their environment and their anxiety levels, and analysed cortisol levels. Twenty-four percent of the horses presented the withdrawn posture, also characterized by gaze, head and ears fixity, a profile that suggests a spontaneous expression of "behavioural despair". When compared with control "non-withdrawn" horses from the same stable, withdrawn horses appeared more indifferent to environmental stimuli in their home environment but reacted more emotionally in more challenging situations. They exhibited lower plasma cortisol levels. Withdrawn horses all belonged to the same breed and females were over-represented.Horse might be a useful potential candidate for an animal model of depression. Face validity of this model appeared good, and potential genetic input and high prevalence of these disorders in females add to the convergence. At a time when current animal models of depression are questioned and the need for novel models is expressed, this study suggests that novel models and biomarkers could emerge from ethological approaches in home environments.

  8. Molecular determinants of epidermal growth factor binding: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Sanders

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family that plays a role in multiple cellular processes. Activation of EGFR requires binding of a ligand on the extracellular domain to promote conformational changes leading to dimerization and transphosphorylation of intracellular kinase domains. Seven ligands are known to bind EGFR with affinities ranging from sub-nanomolar to near micromolar dissociation constants. In the case of EGFR, distinct conformational states assumed upon binding a ligand is thought to be a determining factor in activation of a downstream signaling network. Previous biochemical studies suggest the existence of both low affinity and high affinity EGFR ligands. While these studies have identified functional effects of ligand binding, high-resolution structural data are lacking. To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of EGFR binding affinities, we docked each EGFR ligand to the putative active state extracellular domain dimer and 25.0 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed. MM-PBSA/GBSA are efficient computational approaches to approximate free energies of protein-protein interactions and decompose the free energy at the amino acid level. We applied these methods to the last 6.0 ns of each ligand-receptor simulation. MM-PBSA calculations were able to successfully rank all seven of the EGFR ligands based on the two affinity classes: EGF>HB-EGF>TGF-α>BTC>EPR>EPG>AR. Results from energy decomposition identified several interactions that are common among binding ligands. These findings reveal that while several residues are conserved among the EGFR ligand family, no single set of residues determines the affinity class. Instead we found heterogeneous sets of interactions that were driven primarily by electrostatic and Van der Waals forces. These results not only illustrate the complexity of EGFR dynamics but also pave the way for structure-based design of

  9. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola fever in laboratory animals with different sensitivity to this virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurnov, A A; Dadaeva, A A; Kolesnikov, S I

    2001-12-01

    Pathophysiological parameters were compared in animals with different sensitivity to Ebola virus infected with this virus. Analysis of the results showed the differences in immune reactions underlying the difference between Ebola-sensitive and Ebola-resistant animals. No neutrophil activation in response to Ebola virus injection was noted in Ebola-sensitive animal. Phagocytic activity of neutrophils in these animals inversely correlated with animal sensitivity to Ebola virus. Animal susceptibility to Ebola virus directly correlated with the decrease in the number of circulating T and B cells. We conclude that the immune system plays the key role in animal susceptibility and resistance to Ebola virus.

  10. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies on some cyanobacterial isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, E.A.R.; Ebrahim, S.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the isolation and purification of a set of Cyanobacteria strains belonging to genus Oscillatoria was undertaken, followed by the analyses of phylogenetic relationships using different biochemical and molecular genetic techniques (SOS-PAGE and RAPO-PCR). A total of 45 protein bands were observed within the studied Osci/latoria isolates by SOS-PAGE (only three unique bands, eight monomorphic bands and 37 polymorphic bands). On the other hand, extracted ONA from isolates was used to identify the molecular fingerprints. A sum of 94 polymorphic bands was generated by these primers in the Ocsi/laloria genotypes under study. A total of 20 unique bands were identified out of the polymorphic ones. These unique bands were used to discriminate among the studied Ocsi/latoria isolates. Most isolates of Ocsi/latoria genotypes were discriminated by one or more unique bands. Numerical taxonomic using 45 protein attributes of 19 isolates and RAPO markers on five isolates. Two methods -Clustering (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for these analyses. The similarities and clusters produced between the studied isolates were discussed.

  11. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies on some cyanobacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, E A.R. [Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Biology; Ebrahim, S A.A. [Ain Sham University, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Cytogenetic

    2011-11-15

    In the present study, the isolation and purification of a set of Cyanobacteria strains belonging to genus Oscillatoria was undertaken, followed by the analyses of phylogenetic relationships using different biochemical and molecular genetic techniques (SOS-PAGE and RAPO-PCR). A total of 45 protein bands were observed within the studied Osci/latoria isolates by SOS-PAGE (only three unique bands, eight monomorphic bands and 37 polymorphic bands). On the other hand, extracted ONA from isolates was used to identify the molecular fingerprints. A sum of 94 polymorphic bands was generated by these primers in the Ocsi/laloria genotypes under study. A total of 20 unique bands were identified out of the polymorphic ones. These unique bands were used to discriminate among the studied Ocsi/latoria isolates. Most isolates of Ocsi/latoria genotypes were discriminated by one or more unique bands. Numerical taxonomic using 45 protein attributes of 19 isolates and RAPO markers on five isolates. Two methods -Clustering (UPGMA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for these analyses. The similarities and clusters produced between the studied isolates were discussed.

  12. Evaluating Checklist Use in Companion Animal Wellness Visits in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Michael T; Corrigan, Virginia K; Bartl-Wilson, Lara E; Freeman, Mark; Werre, Stephen; Tempel, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.

  13. Evaluating Checklist Use in Companion Animal Wellness Visits in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Nappier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.

  14. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two mineral elements are known to be essential for animal life. These are calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Naturally occurring and man-made dietary imbalances of many of these elements and their interactions with other minerals are described and their functions and requirements by farm animals are outlined. The nature and importance of metabolic interactions among the mineral elements are discussed and the important concept stressed that there is no single minimum requirement or safe tolerance of a particular mineral, but a series of such minimum requirements and safe tolerances depending on the extent to which other minerals with which it interacts is present or absent from the diet. Radioactive tracer elements are shown to be of great value in the determination of mineral nutrient availability to the animal and for following mineral metabolic movements in the body. They are also shown to have considerable potential for the diagnosis of mineral imbalances. Various in vivo and in vitro techniques involving both radioactive and stable tracers developed for the early diagnosis of mineral deficiencies are described and the strengths and weaknesses of such techniques, in comparison with standard biochemical tests, are discussed. The need for further critical studies with isotopic tracers in the detection and diagnosis of mineral imbalances is emphasized. The main types of biochemical criteria used in the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies and excesses are given, with appropriate examples of their use. (author)

  15. [Animal experiment study of anastomosis healing after partial resection of the pre-irradiated thoracic esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C; Nilles-Schendera, A; Frommhold, H

    2000-01-01

    Multimodal therapeutic concepts in cases of neoplasms of the intestinal tract entail the risk of undesirable complications with respect to healing of wounds and anastomoses. The separate steps of a combined treatment consisting radiation therapy and partial resection of the thoracic esophagus were performed in animal experiments to study the effect of radiation therapy on the healing of anastomoses. Adult non-purebred dogs were irradiated in a defined thoracic field with a Betatron (42 MeV) and subsequently underwent esophagectomy. After resection of a 2 cm segment of the esophagus end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Different methods of irradiation and postoperative observation times resulted in a total of 8 groups of 3 animals each. Fractionated irradiation was definitely better tolerated than irradiation with a high single doses. The temporary delay of the anastomotic healing was documented histologically. Only one case of anastomotic leakage occurred, and impaired wound healing was observed in only one animal. The mode of irradiation must be regarded as important for the clinical course. Fractionated preoperative irradiation in the area of the thoracic esophagus does not lead to any relevant disturbance of wound and anastomotic healing with meticulous surgical technique and adequate intensive postoperative care. The basic feasibility of surgical therapy combined with preoperative radiotherapy in tumors of the upper digestive tract was confirmed by our experimental work.

  16. A Descriptive Study Of The Burden Of Animal-Related Trauma At Cork University Hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, M

    2018-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in Ireland1 and the incidence of farm accidents is rising. This study examines major farm animal-related trauma treated at Cork University Hospital over a 5 year period. There were 54 patients admitted to Cork University Hospital (C.U.H.) with major farm animal-related trauma. The median age was 56 years, 85% were male and the median hospital length of stay was four days. Older patients had longer lengths of stay; 5.5 vs 4 days (p=0.026). Tibia\\/fibula fractures were the most common injuries (N=13, 24%); head injury occurred in six patients (11%). There were 32 (59%) patients who required surgery, the majority for orthopaedic injuries. There were nine patients (16.7%) admitted to the intensive care unit; their median ICU stay was four days. Injury prevention and treatment strategies require that the age profile, mechanism of injury and injury patterns of farmers sustaining animal-related trauma is recognised.

  17. Introduction and overview. Perinatal carcinogenesis: growing a node for epidemiology, risk management, and animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lucy M.

    2004-01-01

    Perinatal carcinogenesis as a cross-disciplinary concern is the subject of this special issue of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, which consists of a total of eight reviews or commentaries in the areas of epidemiology, risk assessment, and animal models. Some of the conclusions from these articles, and the Questions and Answers section that follows most of them, are summarized here. There is adequate reason to suspect that perinatal exposures contribute to human cancer risk, both childhood cancers, and those appearing later in life. The latter type of risk may actually be quantitatively the more important, and involve a wide range of types of effects, but has received only limited attention. With regard to childhood cancers, fetal irradiation and diethylstilbestrol exposure are known etiological agents, and it is likely, but not yet certain, there are additional external causes of a portion of these. Some current focal points of interest here include nitroso compounds, DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, viruses, anti-AIDS drugs, and endocrine disruptors. Regulatory agencies must rely heavily on animal data for estimation of human risk due to perinatal exposures to chemicals, and the quantity and quality of these data presently available for this purpose are greatly limiting. Correctly designed conventional animal studies with suspect chemicals are still needed. Furthermore, genetically engineered mouse models for childhood cancers, especially medulloblastoma, have become available, and could be used for screening of candidate causative agents for this cancer type, and for better understanding of gene-environment interactions

  18. Attenuation correction for freely moving small animal brain PET studies based on a virtual scanner geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, G I; Kyme, A Z; Ryder, W J; Fulton, R R; Meikle, S R

    2014-01-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals is a very challenging problem since the torso of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible attenuating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. In the context of unrestrained small animal imaging, estimation of the attenuation correction factors without the need for a transmission scan is highly desirable. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the hull of the animal’s head based on the reconstructed motion corrected emission images. However, this approach ignores the attenuation introduced by the animal’s torso. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry which moves in synchrony with the animal’s head and discriminates between those events that traversed only the animal’s head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal’s torso. For each recorded pose of the animal’s head a new virtual scanner geometry is defined and therefore a new system matrix must be calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made phantom and step-wise motion. Results showed that when the animal’s torso is within the FOV and not appropriately accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10% . Attenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias < 2%), without the need to account for the attenuation introduced by the extraneous compartment. Although the proposed method requires increased computational resources, it can provide a reliable approach towards quantitatively accurate attenuation correction for freely moving animal studies. (paper)

  19. Novel animal model for Achilles tendinopathy: Controlled experimental study of serial injections of collagenase in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre Leme; Augusto Pontin, Pedro; Natalino, Renato Jose Mendonça; Pereira, Cesar Augusto Martins; Lima, Francisco Diego de Oliveira; da Fonseca, Lucas Furtado; Staggers, Jackson Rucker; Cavinatto, Leonardo Muntada; Schon, Lew Charles; de Camargo, Olavo Pires; Fernandes, Túlio Diniz

    2018-01-01

    Our goal was to develop a novel technique for inducing Achilles tendinopathy in animal models which more accurately represents the progressive histological and biomechanical characteristic of chronic Achilles tendinopathy in humans. In this animal research study, forty-five rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups and given bilateral Achilles injections. Low dose (LD group) (n = 18) underwent a novel technique with three low-dose (0.1mg) injections of collagenase that were separated by two weeks, the high dose group (HD) (n = 18) underwent traditional single high-dose (0.3mg) injections, and the third group were controls (n = 9). Six rabbits were sacrificed from each experimental group (LD and HD) at 10, 12 and 16 weeks. Control animals were sacrificed after 16 weeks. Histological and biomechanical properties were then compared in all three groups. At 10 weeks, Bonar score and tendon cross sectional area was highest in HD group, with impaired biomechanical properties compared to LD group. At 12 weeks, Bonar score was higher in LD group, with similar biomechanical findings when compared to HD group. After 16 weeks, Bonar score was significantly increased for both LD group (11,8±2,28) and HD group (5,6±2,51), when compared to controls (2±0,76). LD group showed more pronounced histological and biomechanical findings, including cross sectional area of the tendon, Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate tensile strength. In conclusion, Achilles tendinopathy in animal models that were induced by serial injections of low-dose collagenase showed more pronounced histological and biomechanical findings after 16 weeks than traditional techniques, mimicking better the progressive and chronic characteristic of the tendinopathy in humans.

  20. Molecular beam studies with a time-of-flight machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study concerns the development of the time-of-flight method for the velocity analysis of molecular beams and its application to the measurement of the velocity dependence of the total cross-section of the noble gases. It reviews the elastic scattering theory, both in the framework of classical mechanics and in the quantum mechanical description. Attention is paid to the semiclassical correspondence of classical particle trajectories with the partial waves of the quantum mechanical solution. The total cross-section and the small angle differential cross-section are discussed with special emphasis on their relation. The results of this chapter are used later to derive the correction on the measured total cross-section due to the finite angular resolution of the apparatus. Reviewed also is the available information on the intermolecular potential of the Ar-Ar system. Then a discussion of the measurement of total cross-sections with the molecular beam method and the time-of-flight method is compared to other methods used. It is shown that the single burst time-of-flight method can be developed into a reliable and well-calibrated method for the analysis of the velocity distribution of molecular beams. A comparison of the single burst time-of-flight method with the cross-correlation time-of-flight method shows that the two methods are complementary and that the specific experimental circumstances determine which method is to be preferred. Molecular beam sources are discussed. The peaking factor formalism is introduced and helps to compare the performance of different types of sources. The effusive and the supersonic source are treated and recent experimental results are given. The multichannel source is treated in more detail. For the opaque mode, an experimental investigation of the velocity distribution and the angular distribution of the flow pattern is presented. Comparison of these results with Monte Carlo calculations for free molecular flow in a cylindrical

  1. Overview of osseous tissue findings from the lifespan carcinogenesis studies: From whole animals to molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.; Bruenger, F.B.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.

    1991-01-01

    This summary presents some of the findings from the 226 Ra and 239 Pu lifespan carcinogenesis studies in Beagle dogs and discusses these findings relative to the tissue, cellular and molecular biology of osseous tissues. This report attempts to integrate some of the dosimetric and pathological findings with current understanding of the factors that may influence carcinogenesis (and non-carcinogenic pathologies) at the various levels of biological organization. Emphasis is placed on the findings from the 226 Ra study, as this study has recently been completely reviewed and verified

  2. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  3. Molecular level in silico studies for oncology. Direct models review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of therapy and diagnostics in one process "theranostics" is a trend in a modern medicine, especially in oncology. Such an approach requires development and usage of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles with a hierarchical structure. Numerical methods and mathematical models play a significant role in the design of the hierarchical nanoparticles and allow looking inside the nanoscale mechanisms of agent-cell interactions. The current position of in silico approach in biomedicine and oncology is discussed. The review of the molecular level in silico studies in oncology, which are using the direct models, is presented.

  4. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  5. Trueperella pyogenes multispecies infections in domestic animals: a retrospective study of 144 cases (2002 to 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M G; Risseti, R M; Bolaños, C A D; Caffaro, K A; de Morais, A C B; Lara, G H B; Zamprogna, T O; Paes, A C; Listoni, F J P; Franco, M M J

    2015-06-01

    Formerly, Arcanobacterium pyogenes was recently renamed Trueperella pyogenes. This opportunistic bacterium is related to miscellaneous pyogenic infections in animals. Most studies involving T. pyogenes are case reports, whereas few surveys have focused the major aspects of T. pyogenes infections involving a case series study design. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate selected epidemiological and clinical aspects, as well as the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 144 cases of T. pyogenes infections among domestic animals from 2002 to 2012. T. pyogenes was isolated from different clinical specimens from cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, horses, dogs, and buffaloes. Correlations were assessed by the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Mastitis (45.1%), abscesses (18.0%), pneumonia (11.1%), and lymphadenitis (9.0%) were the most common clinical manifestations. In addition, the organism was also isolated from other miscellaneous clinical specimens from cases of septicemia, encephalitis, pyometra, prostatitis, orchitis, seminal vesiculitis, pericarditis, and omphalitis. No statistical association was observed between T. pyogenes infections and age, gender, or season across the study. The most effective drugs against the pathogen were florfenicol (99.1%), cefoperazone (96.0%), cephalexin (95.0%), and ceftiofur (94.8%). High resistance rates were observed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (49.3%), followed by norfloxacin (10.9%) and tetracycline (9.2%). This study highlights the diversity of clinical manifestations and the opportunistic behavior of T. pyogenes infections in domestic animals, with predominance of mastitis, abscesses, pneumonia, and lymphadenitis. It also reinforces the importance of knowing the susceptibility profile before initiating therapy, to improve antimicrobial therapy approaches.

  6. Molecular identification of the agent of Q fever – Coxiella burnetii – in domestic animals in State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Monteiro de Mello Mares-Guia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the last recent years, the number of Q fever cases have has increased throughout the world. An epidemiological investigation was performed in the area in which the first molecular documentation of Q fever in Brazil was previously reported. Methods Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and PCR of Coxiella burnetii targeting the htpAB gene were performed in samples from 14 dogs (blood; 1 cat (blood; 10 goats (blood, milk, vaginal swab and anal swab; 3 sheep (blood; and 2 horses (blood. Results Two dogs, two sheep and five goats were seroreactive. DNA was amplified from 6 milk and 2 blood samples from goats and from dogs, respectively. The sequence of the amplicons exhibited 99% sequence similarity with the homologous sequence of the htpAB gene of C. burnetii RSA 331 (GenBank - CP000890. Conclusions The results confirm C. burnetii infection in animals in Rio de Janeiro and reinforce the need for the surveillance of Q fever in Brazil.

  7. Physical properties of Cu nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kart, H.H.; Yildirim, H.; Ozdemir Kart, S.; Çağin, T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamical, structural and dynamical properties of Cu nanoparticles are investigated by using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations at various temperatures. In this work, MD simulations of the Cu-nanoparticles are performed by means of the MPiSiM codes by utilizing from Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) many-body force potential to define the interactions between the Cu atoms. The diameters of the copper nanoparticles are varied from 2 nm to 10 nm. MD simulations of Cu nanoparticles are carried out at low and high temperatures to study solid and liquid properties of Cu nanoparticles. Simulation results such as melting point, radial distribution function are compared with the available experimental bulk results. Radial distribution function, mean square displacement, diffusion coefficient, Lindemann index and Honeycutt–Andersen index are also calculated for estimating the melting point of the Copper nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Solid and liquid properties of Cu nanoparticles are studied. • Molecular dynamics utilizing the Quantum Sutton Chen potential is used in this work. • Melting temperatures of nanoparticles are strongly depended on nanoparticle sizes. • Heat capacity, radial distribution function and diffusion coefficients are studied. • Structures of nanoparticles are analyzed by Lindemann and Honeycutt–Andersen index

  8. Sex differences in drug addiction: a review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Altea, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Addiction research has historically neglected research on women, and most studies have been conducted on men only, with the concluding results generalized to the female population. The role of sex differences in vulnerability to drug abuse, their repercussions on prevention and treatment strategies all require detailed studies, as does the progression from recreational drug use to dependence. This review synthesizes evidence of gender differences in drug addiction, with particular emphasis on women's health and implications. We first reviewed behavioral studies showing sex differences in the preference for and self-administration of licit (i.e., alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and cannabis) substances as revealed by animal models of addiction. Clinical studies demonstrating differences between men and women in craving, drug use, abstinence and relapse will then be examined. For both animal and human studies, the effects of hormones and estrous/menstrual cycle will be reviewed. Finally, neurobiological factors underlying gender differences in vulnerability to drug addiction (i.e., brain morphology and neurotransmission) and need for gender-specific detoxification treatments will be discussed.

  9. Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Osório, Flávia L; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2016-03-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline). Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.

  10. Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael G. dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review of animal and human studies reporting anxiolytic or antidepressive effects of ayahuasca or some of its isolated alkaloids (dimethyltryptamine, harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline. Methods: Papers published until 3 April 2015 were retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and using a predetermined set of criteria for article selection. Results: Five hundred and fourteen studies were identified, of which 21 met the established criteria. Studies in animals have shown anxiolytic and antidepressive effects of ayahuasca, harmine, and harmaline, and experimental studies in humans and mental health assessments of experienced ayahuasca consumers also suggest that ayahuasca is associated with reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms. A pilot study reported rapid antidepressive effects of a single ayahuasca dose in six patients with recurrent depression. Conclusion: Considering the need for new drugs that produce fewer adverse effects and are more effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptomatology, the described effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids should be further investigated.

  11. A study of the effects of computer animation on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Nilforooshan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing research aimed at investigating the efficacy of computer animations in improving college students’ learning of building sustainability concepts and practices. The use of animations in educational contexts is not new, however scientific evidence that supports their effectiveness as educational materials is still limited. This paper reports an experiment that explored the impact of an educational digital animation, called “LEED-ERS”, on college students’ learning of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. Specifically, the animation focused on the LEED category of Sustainable Site. Results of a study with 68 students show that viewing the animation led to an increase in subjects’ declarative knowledge by 15%. Compared to traditional learning methods (e.g. reading assignments with static images, viewing the animation led to significantly higher declarative knowledge gains.

  12. A review of molecular imaging studies reaching the clinical stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Franklin C.; Kim, E. Edmund

    2009-01-01

    The practice of molecular imaging in the clinics is examined across various imaging modalities to assess the current status of clinical molecular imaging. The various physiologic and scientific bases of clinical molecular imaging are surveyed to assess the possibilities and opportunities for the deployment of the different imaging modalities in the near future. The requisites for successful candidate(s) of clinical molecular imaging are reviewed for future development.

  13. Two-stage implant placement technique for the management of irradiated jaws: An animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Arnaout, Mohamed A; Elsafi, Mohamed H; Kassem, Youssef M

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy results in diminished bone remodeling capacity and an elevated risk of osteoradionecrosis, which can negatively influence the survival rate of dental implants. Patients receiving radiotherapy are advised not to receive dental implants during or soon after completing their radiotherapy. The purpose of this animal study was to investigate a 2-stage implant placement technique designed to diminish applied trauma on irradiated bone. Two groups of white New Zealand rabbits received radiotherapy in ascending doses (2, 4, 8 Gy), while a nonirradiated group served as control. Three weeks after completion of the last radiotherapy session, one of the irradiated groups and the control group received titanium dental implants bilaterally in the femur head. For the second irradiated group, an osteotomy was performed, and the surgical wound was left to heal for 2 weeks before implant placement. All animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after implant placement, and histomorphometric analysis was used to study bone-implant contact (n=14, α=.05). Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher (F=159, P<.001) bone-implant contact in the 2-stage (40.2 ±1.9) implant placement technique than in the immediately placed implants (21.2 ±2.3) in irradiated bone. Both of the groups had a significantly lower bone-to-implant contact ratio than the non-irradiated control (64.2 ±3.8). Within the limitations of this animal study, the 2-stage implant placement technique could be used to reduce trauma in irradiated bone and to improve wound healing around dental implants. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transgastric endoluminal gastrojejunostomy: technical development from bench to animal study (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Wai Ng, Enders Kwok; Teoh, Anthony Yun Bun; Lam, Candice Chuen Hing; Lau, James Yun Wong; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2010-02-01

    Gastrojejunal anastomosis is commonly performed for palliative management of malignant gastric outlet obstruction and bariatric surgery. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery revolutionized the surgical approach to intra-abdominal surgery. This study explored the possibility of performing gastrojejunostomy (GJ) by using a hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery approach. To develop a surgical technique for the performance of transgastric endoscopic GJ (TGEJ) in a porcine model. Prospective series of animal experiments. University hospital animal laboratory. Thirteen female domestic pigs. With the animals under general anesthesia, the endoscope is passed through the gastrotomy and a segment of small bowel is retrieved into the stomach. An enterotomy is then created, and an EndoGIA stapler is introduced through an intragastric port and passed between the small bowel and stomach wall. A GJ is formed after firing of the EndoGIA stapler. The pigs are allowed to resume their diet 1 day after the operation and are allowed to survive for 2 weeks before they are euthanized. The patency of the GJ is confirmed with a repeat endoscopy, contrast study, and postmortem examination. A total of 13 TEGJs were performed, 11 of which were successful. The mean operative time was 53.6 +/- 45.7 minutes. The mean time for gastrotomy was 4.7 minutes, and that for GJ was 42.5 minutes. One TEGJ was converted to open surgery because of malpositioning of the intragastric port, and the other failed because the enterotomy was too extensive. Ten of 11 pigs survived for 2 weeks, and endoscopic examination with contrast study confirmed that all the gastrojejunostomies were patent. On postmortem examination, the average size of the GJ was 30 mm. The length between duodenojejunal flexure and the site chosen to perform the GJ could not be determined. TEGJ is technically feasible with a patent and sizable anastomosis.

  15. Time-related factors in the study of risks in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies of humans exposed to potentially harmful substances are usually analyzed using methods that account for the dependence of risks on time-related factors such as age and follow-up period. Recently developed statistical procedures allow modeling of the age-specific risks as a function of dose as well as factors such as age at exposure, time since exposure, exposure duration, and dose rate. These procedures potentially allow more rigorous inferences and clearer understanding of the patterns of risk observed in epidemiological studies than has been available in the past. Statistical procedures that consider time-related factors can also be applied to laboratory animal data, providing information that is useful for the problems involved in extrapolating from animal