WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal studies molecular

  1. Use of Molecular Genetic Engineering in the Study of Animal Parasites and Their Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    LoVerde, Philip T

    1989-01-01

    Molecular genetics coupled with advances in immunology and parasite culture has become a powerful tool to study animal parasites and their vectors. Recombinant DNA techniques allow one to identify individual genes of DNA probes, amplify the nucleic acid of interest, and use this material to study: the role of the gene product in the biology of the organism; the evolution of parasites and their hosts; heterogeneity between species and within species; taxonomy and develop refined taxonomic tool...

  2. STUDIES OF MOLECULAR CHANGES IN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION IN ANIMAL MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Marcelo Ferraz; de Oliveira, Cintia Pereira; Neff, Charles Benjamin; Correa, Olga Maria de Toledo; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Rodrigues, Luciano Miller Reis

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the structural and molecular changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) during the process of intervertebral disc degeneration, using animal model. Wistar rats underwent intervertebral disc degeneration through 20-gauge needle puncture, and 360° rotation applied for 30 sec, representing the degenerated group, while control group was not submitted to this procedure. Histological parameters and expression of extracellular matrix molecules were evaluated in the 15(th) and 28(th) days after degenerative induction. Fifteen days after the induction of intervertebral disc degeneration, significant changes were observed, such as reduction in the expression metalloprotease-9 (MMP9) and interleukins (IL-6 and IL-10). There was a significant increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and caspase-3. However, different alterations in the ECM were observed at 28 days, the level of collagen I, metalloprotease-2 (MMP2) and caspase-3 were enhanced. Furthermore, expression of heparanase isoforms (HPSE1 and HPSE2) mRNA were increased in the degenerative intervertebral disc. The different profiles of ECM molecules observed during the intervertebral disc degeneration suggest that molecular processes such as ECM remodeling, neovascularization, apoptosis and inflammation occur. Experimental Study.

  3. Are animals a source of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in human infections? Contributions of a nationwide molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayol, Aurélie; Corlouer, Camille; Haenni, Marisa; Darty, Mélanie; Maillard, Karine; Desroches, Marine; Lamy, Brigitte; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Madec, Jean-Yves; Decousser, Jean-Winoc

    2018-02-27

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sm) is an archetypal environmental opportunistic bacterium responsible for health care-associated infections. The role of animals in human Sm infections is unknown. This study aims to reveal the genetic and phylogenetic relationships between pathogenic strains of Sm, both animal and human, and identify a putative role for animals as a reservoir in human infection. We phenotypically and genotypically characterized 61 Sm strains responsible for animal infections (mainly respiratory tract infections in horses) from a French nationwide veterinary laboratory network. We tested antimicrobial susceptibility and performed MLST and genogrouping using the concatenation of the seven housekeeping genes from the original MLST scheme. Excluding the eight untypeable strains owing to the lack of gene amplification, only 10 out of the 53 strains yielded a known ST (ST5, ST39, ST162, ST8, ST27, ST126, ST131). The genogroup distribution highlighted not only genogroups (genogroups 5 and 9) comprised exclusively of animal strains but also genogroups shared by human and animal strains. Interestingly, these shared genogroups were primarily groups 2 and 6, which have previously been identified as the two most frequent genogroups among human-pathogenic Sm strains, especially among respiratory pathogens. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing underlined the presence of acquired resistance: 18.8 and 7.5% of the tested isolates were resistant to the sulfonamide-trimethoprim combination and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Animal strains of Sm shared phylogenetic traits with some of the most successful human strains. The exact relationships between the human and animal strains, and the genetic support of these common traits, need to be determined.

  4. Animal studies on the role of sleep in memory: from behavioral performance to molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Although the exact functions of sleep remain a topic of debate, several hypotheses propose that sleep benefits neuronal plasticity, which ultimately supports brain function and cognition . For over a century, researchers have applied a wide variety of behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical, and molecular approaches to study how memory processes are promoted by sleep and perturbed by sleep loss. Interestingly, experimental studies indicate that cognitive impairments as a consequence of sleep deprivation appear to be most severe with learning and memory processes that require the hippocampus , which suggests that this brain region is particularly sensitive to the consequences of sleep loss. Moreover, recent studies in laboratory rodents indicate that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal neuronal plasticity and memory processes by attenuating intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Attenuated cAMP-PKA signaling can lead to a reduced activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and ultimately affect the expression of genes and proteins involved in neuronal plasticity and memory formation. Pharmacogenetic experiments in mice show that memory deficits following sleep deprivation can be prevented by specifically boosting cAMP signaling in excitatory neurons of the hippocampus. Given the high incidence of sleep disturbance and sleep restriction in our 24/7 society, understanding the consequences of sleep loss and unraveling the underlying molecular mechanisms is of great importance.

  5. Molecular markers and mechanisms of stroke: RNA studies of blood in animals and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Frank R; Jickling, Glen C; Stamova, Boryana; Tian, Yingfang; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, DaZhi; Kuczynski, Beth; Cox, Christopher D; Ander, Bradley P

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome expression microarrays can be used to study gene expression in blood, which comes in part from leukocytes, immature platelets, and red blood cells. Since these cells are important in the pathogenesis of stroke, RNA provides an index of these cellular responses to stroke. Our studies in rats have shown specific gene expression changes 24 hours after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage, status epilepticus, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, global ischemia, and following brief focal ischemia that simulated transient ischemic attacks in humans. Human studies show gene expression changes following ischemic stroke. These gene profiles predict a second cohort with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Gene profiles for ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel atherosclerosis and cardioembolism have been described that predict a second cohort with >85% sensitivity and specificity. Atherosclerotic genes were associated with clotting, platelets, and monocytes, and cardioembolic genes were associated with inflammation, infection, and neutrophils. These gene profiles predicted the cause of stroke in 58% of cryptogenic patients. These studies will provide diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers, and will advance our understanding of stroke in humans. New techniques to measure all coding and noncoding RNAs along with alternatively spliced transcripts will markedly advance molecular studies of human stroke. PMID:21505474

  6. Molecular identification of trypanosomatids in wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, M S; Oliveira e Sousa, L; Alves-Martin, M F; Paixão, M S; Rodrigues, M V; Starke-Buzetti, W A; Araújo Junior, J P; Lucheis, S B

    2014-06-16

    Diverse wild animal species can be reservoirs of zoonotic flagellate parasites, which can cause pathologic Chagas disease. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of flagellate parasites through direct microscopic examination of the parasites in blood samples and through PCR of whole blood and blood culture (haemoculture) samples from 38 captive and 65 free-living wild animals in the Centre for Conservation of Wild Fauna (CCWF), an area endemic for leishmaniasis. For this study, PCR was accomplished using primers for the ribosomal region (ITS-1) of the flagellate parasites. The amplified fragments were cloned and sequenced to identify DNA of the Trypanosomatid parasite species, observed in blood cultures from 3.9% (04/103) of the animals. Through these techniques, Trypanosoma cruzi was identified in haemoculture samples of the following three free-living species: common agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris), and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus). Furthermore, Trypanosoma minasense was identified in whole blood samples from 01 (0.9%) captive animal (black howler monkey-Alouatta caraya). These results demonstrated the first report of T. cruzi isolation in wild species from the CCWF using blood culture, which can be applied in addition to molecular tools for epidemiological studies and to identify trypanosomatids in wild animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on biochemical and molecular genetic analysis of radiation effects on domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Michiharu; Fukusho, Akio; Sakota, Yoshihiro

    1997-01-01

    In the previous year, we constructed a shuttle rector pSVLsup which can replicate in animal cells and carries supF gene of E. coli as a target gene for detection of a mutation. And the effects of 35 S-labelled amino acids on the rate of mutation were investigated using pSVLsup vector. In this year, animal cells transfected with pSVLsup were cultured in the presence of 32 P-labelled deoxynucleotides to determine the rate of mutation on pSVLsup. Addition of radioactive dCTP (up to 1100 Bq) into the culture medium did not cause significant change in the mutation rate of NA-resistant E. coli transfected with pSVLsup which was recovered from Cos cells. Thus, development a more sensitive detection method seems to be necessary. Thus, the radiation effects on double stranded RNA investigated using agarose electrophoresis. The sixth segment of Africa horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 was transfected to cells infected with AHSV-A3, however, any resortant (reassembled virus) could not be obtained. When the sixth segment was exposed to 32 P-dATP (37 MBq), its band on agarose gel diminished with time, showing that contrary to expectations the damages by RI exposure in double stranded RNA are considerably large. (M.N.)

  8. Molecular imaging of small animals with dedicated PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biological discovery has moved at an accelerated pace in recent years, with a considerable focus on the transition from in vitro to in vivo models. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the need to adapt clinical imaging methods, as well as for novel imaging technologies for biological research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. The imaging procedure can be repeatedly performed before and after interventions, thereby allowing each animal to be used as its own control. Positron-labeled compounds that target a range of molecular targets have been and continue to be synthesized, with examples of biological processes ranging from receptors and synthesis of transmitters in cell communication, to metabolic processes and gene expression. In animal research, PET has been used extensively in the past for studies of non-human primates and other larger animals. New detector technology has improved spatial resolution, and has made possible PET scanning for the study of the most important modern molecular biology model, the laboratory mouse. This paper presents the challenges facing PET technology as applied to small animal imaging, provides a historical overview of the development of small animal PET systems, and discusses the current state of the art in small animal PET technology. (orig.)

  9. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...... is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small...

  10. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  11. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  12. Molecular patterns of sex determination in the animal kingdom: a comparative study of the biology of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulou Roxani

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Determining sexual fate is an integral part of reproduction, used as a means to enrich the genome. A variety of such regulatory mechanisms have been described so far and some of the more extensively studied ones are being discussed. For the insect order of Hymenoptera, the choice lies between uniparental haploid males and biparental diploid females, originating from unfertilized and fertilized eggs accordingly. This mechanism is also known as single-locus complementary sex determination (slCSD. On the other hand, for Dipterans and Drosophila melanogaster, sex is determined by the ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes and the sex switching gene, sxl. Another model organism whose sex depends on the X:A ratio, Caenorhabditis elegans, has furthermore to provide for the brief period of spermatogenesis in hermaphrodites (XX without the benefit of the "male" genes of the sex determination pathway. Many reptiles have no discernible sex determining genes. Their sexual fate is determined by the temperature of the environment during the thermosensitive period (TSP of incubation, which regulates aromatase activity. Variable patterns of sex determination apply in fish and amphibians. In birds, while sex chromosomes do exist, females are the heterogametic (ZW and males the homogametic sex (ZZ. However, we have yet to decipher which of the two (Z or W is responsible for the choice between males and females. In mammals, sex determination is based on the presence of two identical (XX or distinct (XY gonosomes. This is believed to be the result of a lengthy evolutionary process, emerging from a common ancestral autosomal pair. Indeed, X and Y present different levels of homology in various mammals, supporting the argument of a gradual structural differentiation starting around the SRY region. The latter initiates a gene cascade that results in the formation of a male. Regulation of sex steroid production is also a major result of these genetic interactions

  13. Medulloblastoma: Molecular Genetics and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Raffel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a primary brain tumor found in the cerebellum of children. The tumor occurs in association with two inherited cancer syndromes: Turcot syndrome and Gorlin syndrome. Insights into the molecular biology of the tumor have come from looking at alterations in the genes altered in these syndromes, PTC and APC, respectively. Murine models of medulloblastoma have been constructed based on these alterations. Additional murine models that, while mimicking the appearance of the human tumor, seem unrelated to the human tumor's molecular alterations have been made. In this review, the clinical picture, origin, molecular biology, murine models of medulloblastoma are discussed. Although a great deal has been discovered about this tumor, the genetic alterations responsible for tumor development in a majority of patients have yet to be described.

  14. The endogenous and reactive depression subtypes revisited: integrative animal and human studies implicate multiple distinct molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Karim; Keers, Robert; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Carboni, Lucia; Domenici, Enrico; Uher, Rudolf; McGuffin, Peter; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2014-05-07

    Traditional diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggested that the presence or absence of stress prior to onset results in either 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes of the disorder, respectively. Several lines of research suggest that the biological underpinnings of 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes may also differ, resulting in differential response to treatment. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the gene-expression profiles of three animal models of 'reactive' and 'endogenous' depression. We then translated these findings to clinical samples using a human post-mortem mRNA study. Affymetrix mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure gene expression from hippocampal tissues of 144 mice from the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. The study used four inbred mouse strains and two depressogenic 'stress' protocols (maternal separation and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress) to model 'reactive' depression. Stress-related mRNA differences in mouse were compared with a parallel mRNA study using Flinders Sensitive and Resistant rat lines as a model of 'endogenous' depression. Convergent genes differentially expressed across the animal studies were used to inform candidate gene selection in a human mRNA post-mortem case control study from the Stanley Brain Consortium. In the mouse 'reactive' model, the expression of 350 genes changed in response to early stresses and 370 in response to late stresses. A minimal genetic overlap (less than 8.8%) was detected in response to both stress protocols, but 30% of these genes (21) were also differentially regulated in the 'endogenous' rat study. This overlap is significantly greater than expected by chance. The VAMP-2 gene, differentially expressed across the rodent studies, was also significantly altered in the human study after correcting for multiple testing. Our results suggest that 'endogenous' and 'reactive' subtypes of depression are associated with largely

  15. Panel 4: Recent advances in otitis media in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Brown, Steve D; Cheeseman, Michael T; Juhn, Steven K; Jung, Timothy T K; Lim, David J; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications.

  16. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  17. Studying Biotechnological Methods Using Animations: The Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Animation has great potential for improving the way people learn. A number of studies in different scientific disciplines have shown that instruction involving computer animations can facilitate the understanding of processes at the molecular level. However, using animation alone does not ensure learning. Students sometimes miss essential features…

  18. Other interferences from animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.; Mueller, W.A.; Linzner, U.; Murray, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The author gave a description of some of the problems that occur in experimental radiation biology. The main points were the influence of the size of injection, the length of exposure, the importance of the size of the tumor as opposed to its mere incidence, and biological variability which still exceeds our ability to control the system. Also important were age effects for the one month, twelve months, eighteen month-old animals, all of whom got tumors at about the same time in spite of their different ages. Also he discussed the influence of genetic effects and even some excepts from molecular biology, during which he referred to the identification of an oncogene in the ANL radium patients which is not seen in the controls. (orig./HP)

  19. Application of molecular information in sustainable animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Jan de Koning

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Livestock genomics is aimed at dissecting the genetic control of variation in economically important trait, such as disease resistance and product yield/quality. Unraveling the genetic control of such complex traits remains very challenging but farm animals are now well placed to bridge the gap between human biology and traditional model species. Livestock species share with model species the benefits of controlled breeding, while their biology is often much closer to that of humans. Livestock genetics can exploit the abundant genetic variation between divergent breeds as well as segregating variation within breeds, thus getting the best of both worlds. Large numbers of QTL have been detected for a variety of traits but for only a handful has the functional DNA mutation been discovered. The main challenge is how to exploit this information for sustainable animal breeding. The proposed applications for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS vary from selecting on individual known mutations to using genome-wide SNP data for genome-wide selection. Molecular markers are also important tools to assess genetic variation within and between populations. Sustainable animal breeding should meet the needs of the current generation without compromising the needs of future generations. This contribution will discuss the status of molecular genetics in livestock and how this could support sustainable animal breeding.

  20. Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

  1. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  2. Molecular and cellular biology animations: development and impact on student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Phillip; Johnson, Christina; Rogers, Roxanne; Daniels, Lisa; Reber, John; Slator, Brian M; Terpstra, Jeff; White, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Educators often struggle when teaching cellular and molecular processes because typically they have only two-dimensional tools to teach something that plays out in four dimensions. Learning research has demonstrated that visualizing processes in three dimensions aids learning, and animations are effective visualization tools for novice learners and aid with long-term memory retention. The World Wide Web Instructional Committee at North Dakota State University has used these research results as an inspiration to develop a suite of high-quality animations of molecular and cellular processes. Currently, these animations represent transcription, translation, bacterial gene expression, messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, mRNA splicing, protein transport into an organelle, the electron transport chain, and the use of a biological gradient to drive adenosine triphosphate synthesis. These animations are integrated with an educational module that consists of First Look and Advanced Look components that feature captioned stills from the animation representing the key steps in the processes at varying levels of complexity. These animation-based educational modules are available via the World Wide Web at http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations. An in-class research experiment demonstrated that student retention of content material was significantly better when students received a lecture coupled with the animations and then used the animation as an individual study activity.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Microcystin Toxicity in Animal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MC are potent hepatotoxins produced by the cyanobacteria of the genera Planktothrix, Microcystis, Aphanizomenon, Nostoc and Anabaena. These cyclic heptapeptides have strong affinity to serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs thereby acting as an inhibitor of this group of enzymes. Through this interaction a cascade of events responsible for the MC cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in animal cells may take place. Moreover MC induces oxidative stress in animal cells and together with the inhibition of PPs, this pathway is considered to be one of the main mechanisms of MC toxicity. In recent years new insights on the key enzymes involved in the signal-transduction and toxicity have been reported demonstrating the complexity of the interaction of these toxins with animal cells. Key proteins involved in MC up-take, biotransformation and excretion have been identified, demonstrating the ability of aquatic animals to metabolize and excrete the toxin. MC have shown to interact with the mitochondria. The consequences are the dysfunction of the organelle, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell apoptosis. MC activity leads to the differential expression/activity of transcriptional factors and protein kinases involved in the pathways of cellular differentiation, proliferation and tumor promotion activity. This activity may result from the direct inhibition of the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. This review aims to summarize the increasing data regarding the molecular mechanisms of MC toxicity in animal systems, reporting for direct MC interacting proteins and key enzymes in the process of toxicity biotransformation/excretion of these cyclic peptides.

  4. Molecular and serological study of rickettsial infection in humans, and in wild and farm animals, in the province of Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Gegúndez, Isabel; González, Rosario; Saz, José Vicente

    2014-06-01

    Limited information is available on the presence of rickettsial infection in humans and animal reservoirs in Spain. Exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia in healthy humans and in farm and wild animals in the Province of Burgos, Spain, was examined by serological methods. Rickettsial DNA was also sought by PCR in animal samples. Of 102 human serum samples examined by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA), 5.88% were positive for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii (titers 1/128-1/512). Significant differences were detected in human seroprevalence with respect to age. In further IFAs, 102 out of 375 (27.2%) serum samples from the wild animals reacted with R. conorii antigens (titers 1/64-1/1024); 32 out of 281 (11.38%) samples from farm animals were also positive for R. conorii (titers 1/64-1/2048). The prevalence detected among total wild animals was significantly higher than among total farm animals. No rickettsial DNA was found by PCR in any farm or wild animal sample.

  5. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated Cesium-smectite interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-01

    Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers) provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional analytical methods. Cs+ could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, and water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. The extent of this sharing interaction in the interlayer was determined by the smectite charge distribution, but increased with increasing water content. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its ditrigonal cavities to approach attracting charge sites. The frequency and duration of cavity habitation increased with increasing water content and tetrahedral charge, and was inhibited the more perpendicular was the structural hydroxyl orientation relative to the mineral surface. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output

  6. The Impact of Designing and Evaluating Molecular Animations on How Well Middle School Students Understand the Particulate Nature of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the understanding of the particulate nature of matter by students was improved by allowing them to design and evaluate molecular animations of chemical phenomena. We developed Chemation, a learner-centered animation tool, to allow seventh-grade students to construct flipbook-like simple animations to show…

  7. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Yun; Wang, Yang; Walsh, Timothy R; Yi, Ling-Xian; Zhang, Rong; Spencer, James; Doi, Yohei; Tian, Guobao; Dong, Baolei; Huang, Xianhui; Yu, Lin-Feng; Gu, Danxia; Ren, Hongwei; Chen, Xiaojie; Lv, Luchao; He, Dandan; Zhou, Hongwei; Liang, Zisen; Liu, Jian-Hua; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-02-01

    Until now, polymyxin resistance has involved chromosomal mutations but has never been reported via horizontal gene transfer. During a routine surveillance project on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from food animals in China, a major increase of colistin resistance was observed. When an E coli strain, SHP45, possessing colistin resistance that could be transferred to another strain, was isolated from a pig, we conducted further analysis of possible plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance. Herein, we report the emergence of the first plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance mechanism, MCR-1, in Enterobacteriaceae. The mcr-1 gene in E coli strain SHP45 was identified by whole plasmid sequencing and subcloning. MCR-1 mechanistic studies were done with sequence comparisons, homology modelling, and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The prevalence of mcr-1 was investigated in E coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected from five provinces between April, 2011, and November, 2014. The ability of MCR-1 to confer polymyxin resistance in vivo was examined in a murine thigh model. Polymyxin resistance was shown to be singularly due to the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene. The plasmid carrying mcr-1 was mobilised to an E coli recipient at a frequency of 10(-1) to 10(-3) cells per recipient cell by conjugation, and maintained in K pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In an in-vivo model, production of MCR-1 negated the efficacy of colistin. MCR-1 is a member of the phosphoethanolamine transferase enzyme family, with expression in E coli resulting in the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A. We observed mcr-1 carriage in E coli isolates collected from 78 (15%) of 523 samples of raw meat and 166 (21%) of 804 animals during 2011-14, and 16 (1%) of 1322 samples from inpatients with infection. The emergence of MCR-1 heralds the breach of the last group of antibiotics, polymyxins, by plasmid-mediated resistance. Although currently confined to China

  8. Molecular basis of pathogenesis of emerging viruses infecting aquatic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic vertebrates are very abundant in the world, and they are of tremendous importance in providing global food security and nutrition. However, emergent and resurgent viruses, such as ranavirus (e.g., Rana grylio virus, RGV and Andriasd avidianus ranavirus, ADRV, herpesvirus (e.g., Carassius carassius herpesvirus, CaHV, reovirus (e.g., grass carp reovirus 109, GCRV-109, Scophthal musmaximus reovirus, SMReV and Micropterus salmoides reovirus, MsReV, and rhabdovirus (e.g., Siniper cachuatsi rhabdovirus, SCRV and Scophthal musmaximus rhabdovirus, SMRV can cause severe diseases in aquaculture animals and wild lower vertebrates, such as frogs, giant salamanders, fish, and so on. Here, we will briefly describe the symptoms produced by the aforementioned viruses and the molecular basis of the virus–host interactions. This manuscript aims to provide an overview of viral diseases in lower vertebrates with an emphasis on visible symptomatic manifestations and pathogenesis.

  9. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-01

    Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers) provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  10. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sposito Garrison

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  11. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekanova M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cekanova, Kusum Rathore Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Keywords: mouse cancer model, companion animal cancer model, dogs, cats, molecular targets

  12. The colonization of land by animals: molecular phylogeny and divergence times among arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons-Weiler Maureen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The earliest fossil evidence of terrestrial animal activity is from the Ordovician, ~450 million years ago (Ma. However, there are earlier animal fossils, and most molecular clocks suggest a deep origin of animal phyla in the Precambrian, leaving open the possibility that animals colonized land much earlier than the Ordovician. To further investigate the time of colonization of land by animals, we sequenced two nuclear genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and enolase, in representative arthropods and conducted phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses of those and other available DNA and protein sequence data. To assess the robustness of animal molecular clocks, we estimated the deuterostome-arthropod divergence using the arthropod fossil record for calibration and tunicate instead of vertebrate sequences to represent Deuterostomia. Nine nuclear and 15 mitochondrial genes were used in phylogenetic analyses and 61 genes were used in molecular clock analyses. Results Significant support was found for the unconventional pairing of myriapods (millipedes and centipedes with chelicerates (spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, etc. using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Our estimated time for the divergence of millipedes (Diplopoda and centipedes (Chilopoda was 442 ± 50 Ma, and the divergence of insects and crustaceans was estimated as 666 ± 58 Ma. Our results also agree with previous studies suggesting a deep divergence (~1100 – 900 Ma for arthropods and deuterostomes, considerably predating the Cambrian Explosion seen in the animal fossil record. Conclusions The consistent support for a close relationship between myriapods and chelicerates, using mitochondrial and nuclear genes and different methods of analysis, suggests that this unexpected result is not an artefact of analysis. We propose the name Myriochelata for this group of animals, which includes many that immobilize prey with venom. Our molecular clock

  13. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Rathore, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients.

  14. The study of animal metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David

    2009-09-01

    Do nonhuman animals share humans' capacity for metacognition--that is, for monitoring or regulating their own cognitive states? Comparative psychologists have approached this question by testing a dolphin, pigeons, rats, monkeys and apes using perception, memory and food-concealment paradigms. There is growing evidence that animals share functional parallels with humans' conscious metacognition, although the field has not confirmed full experiential parallels and this remains an open question. This article reviews this new area of comparative inquiry and describes significant empirical milestones, remaining theoretical milestones and the prospects for continuing progress in a rapidly developing area. This research area opens a new window on reflective mind in animals, illuminating its phylogenetic emergence and allowing researchers to trace the antecedents of human consciousness.

  15. Molecular studies of achondroplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Risha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achondroplasia (ACH is the most frequent form of short-limbed dwarfi sm, caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene. It follows an autosomal dominant inheritance, though most cases are sporadic. The molecular techniques are the only available methods to confi rm the diagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. Clinical and radiological features are only suggestive and not confi rmatory. The present study was conducted to fi nd out how often the clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia is verifi ed on molecular studies. Materials and Methods: From 1998 through 2007, we carried out molecular analysis for the two common mutations in the FGFR3 gene in 130 cases clinically suspected to have ACH. Results: A diagnostic mutation was identifi ed in 53 (40.8% cases. The common mutation (1138G>A was present in 50 (94.7% of the positive cases, while the rare 1138 G>C substitution was found in three (5.3%. Conclusion: This study shows that confi rmation of clinical diagnosis of ACH by molecular genetic testing is essential to distinguish it from other skeletal dysplasias, to plan therapeutic options, and to offer genetic counseling. Management (medical and surgical in patients confi rmed to have ACH, is briefl y discussed.

  16. Exploring the Impact of and Perceptions about Interactive, Self-Explaining Environments in Molecular-Level Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, David A.; Urban, Michael J.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-method study investigates the effects of interactivity in animations of a molecular-level process and explores perceptions about the animated learning tool used. Treatments were based on principles of cognitive psychology designed to study the main effects of treatment and spatial ability and their interaction. Results with students (n…

  17. Molecular imaging of retinal endothelial injury in diabetic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Frimmel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that molecular imaging can be used to detect subtle changes in the diabetic retina prior to the occurrence of irreversible pathology. Thus, ICAM-1 could serve as a diagnostic target in patients with diabetes. This study provides a proof of principle for non-invasive subclinical diagnosis in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Further development of this technology could improve management of diabetic complications.

  18. Visualizing protein interactions and dynamics: evolving a visual language for molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Jodie; McGill, Gaël

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate biology education provides students with a number of learning challenges. Subject areas that are particularly difficult to understand include protein conformational change and stability, diffusion and random molecular motion, and molecular crowding. In this study, we examined the relative effectiveness of three-dimensional visualization techniques for learning about protein conformation and molecular motion in association with a ligand-receptor binding event. Increasingly complex versions of the same binding event were depicted in each of four animated treatments. Students (n = 131) were recruited from the undergraduate biology program at University of Toronto, Mississauga. Visualization media were developed in the Center for Molecular and Cellular Dynamics at Harvard Medical School. Stem cell factor ligand and cKit receptor tyrosine kinase were used as a classical example of a ligand-induced receptor dimerization and activation event. Each group completed a pretest, viewed one of four variants of the animation, and completed a posttest and, at 2 wk following the assessment, a delayed posttest. Overall, the most complex animation was the most effective at fostering students' understanding of the events depicted. These results suggest that, in select learning contexts, increasingly complex representations may be more desirable for conveying the dynamic nature of cell binding events.

  19. Preliminary molecular characterizations of Sarcoptes scaibiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae from farm animals in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Amer

    Full Text Available Little is known about the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in farm animals in Egypt. In this study, we characterized S. scabiei in 25 skin scrapes from water buffalo, cattle, sheep, and rabbits at the nuclear marker ITS2 and mitochondrial markers COX1 and 16S rRNA. Sequences of the ITS2 showed no host segregation or geographical isolation, whereas those of the mitochondrial COX1 and 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of both host-adapted and geographically segregated populations of S. scabiei. Host adaptation may limit inter-species transmission of. S. scabiei, thus restrict gene flow among S. scabiei from different hosts. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of sarcoptic mites in Egypt. Further genetic studies involving larger numbers of specimens, especially those from humans and companion animals, are needed to understand the molecular epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in Egypt.

  20. Preliminary Molecular Characterizations of Sarcoptes scaibiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) from Farm Animals in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Wahab, Taher Abd El; Metwaly, Abd El Naby; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in farm animals in Egypt. In this study, we characterized S. scabiei in 25 skin scrapes from water buffalo, cattle, sheep, and rabbits at the nuclear marker ITS2 and mitochondrial markers COX1 and 16S rRNA. Sequences of the ITS2 showed no host segregation or geographical isolation, whereas those of the mitochondrial COX1 and 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of both host-adapted and geographically segregated populations of S. scabiei. Host adaptation may limit inter-species transmission of. S. scabiei, thus restrict gene flow among S. scabiei from different hosts. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of sarcoptic mites in Egypt. Further genetic studies involving larger numbers of specimens, especially those from humans and companion animals, are needed to understand the molecular epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in Egypt. PMID:24728386

  1. Molecular Structure of Feeds in Relation to Nutrient Utilization and Availability in Animals: A Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The invention and development of new research concepts, novel methodologies, and novel bioanalytical techniques are essential in advancing the animal sciences, which include feed and nutrition science. This article introduces a novel approach that shows the potential of advanced synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology for studying the effects of molecular structural changes in feeds induced by various treatments (e.g., genetic modification, gene silencing, heat-related feed processing, biofuel processing in relation to nutrient digestion and absorption in animals. Advanced techniques based on synchrotron radiation (e.g., synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS and synchrotron radiation X-ray techniques have been developed as a fast, noninvasive, bioanalytical technology that, unlike traditional wet chemistry methods, does not damage or destroy the inherent molecular structure of the feed. The cutting-edge and advanced research tool of synchrotron light (which is a million times brighter than sunlight can be used to explore the inherent structure of biological tissue at cellular and molecular levels at ultra-high spatial resolutions. In conclusion, the use of recently developed bioanalytical techniques based on synchrotron radiation along with common research techniques is leading to dramatic advances in animal feed and nutritional research.

  2. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Rathore, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. PMID:25342884

  3. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-05-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials.

  4. Epigenetic Case Studies in Agricultural Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many biological processes, the regulation of gene expression involves epigenetic mechanisms. An altered pattern of epigenetic modification is central to many animal diseases. Using animal disease models, we have studied one of the major epigenetic components: DNA methylation. We characterized the...

  5. Severe childhood asthma and allergy to furry animals: refined assessment using molecular-based allergy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Jon R; Nordlund, Björn; Onell, Annica; Borres, Magnus P; Grönlund, Hans; Hedlin, Gunilla

    2014-03-01

    Allergy to cats and dogs and polysensitization towards these animals are associated with severe childhood asthma. Molecular-based allergy diagnostics offers new opportunities for improved characterization and has been suggested to be particularly useful in patients with polysensitization and/or severe asthma. The aim was to use extract- and molecular-based allergy diagnostics to compare patterns of IgE sensitization towards aeroallergens in children with problematic severe and controlled asthma. Children with a positive ImmunoCAP towards any furry animal (cat, dog or horse) were recruited from a Nationwide Swedish study on severe childhood asthma. Severe (n = 37, age 13 years) and controlled (n = 28, age 14 years) asthmatics underwent assessment of allergic sensitization by ImmunoCap (kUA /l) and immunosolid-phase allergen chip (ISAC). In addition, Asthma Control Test, spirometry and a methacholine challenge were performed. Children with severe asthma had lower asthma control (p Molecular-based allergy diagnostics revealed a more complex molecular spreading of allergen components in children with the most severe disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    the infectivity of infectious clones of HCV without chimpanzees. Chimpanzees became infected when RNA transcripts from molecular clones were inoculated directly into the liver. The infection generated by such transfection did not differ significantly from that observed in animals infected intravenously with wild-type HCV. It furthermore permits true homologous challenge in studies of protective immunity and in testing the efficacy of vaccine candidates.

    Finally, this in vivo transfection system has made it possible to test for the first time the importance of genetic elements for HCV infectivity.

    Although chimpanzees are the only animals fully permissive for HBV infection, their use for research purpose is severely limited by the high costs and strong ethical constrains. The only alternative source of HBV-permissive hepatocytes is the Asian tree shrew Tupaia belangeri. Though experimental infection of these squirrel-like mammals, phylogenetically related to primates, results only in a mild, transient replication, primary hepatocytes isolated from T. belangeri turned out to be a reliable tool for in vitro HBV infection experiments.

    Along with invaluable infection studies in chimpanzees, avian and mammalian HBV-related viruses continue to offer ample opportunities for studies in naturally occurring hosts. In general, most of our progresses in hepatitis B virus research are based on infection studies with two HBV-related animal viruses: the woodchuck HBV (WHV, which infects the Eastern American woodchuck (Marmota monax, and the duck HBV (DHBV, which infects Peking ducks. Both animal models have been essential for understanding various steps of viral life-cycle and factors involved in establishment of virus

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Leptospira Serogroup Pomona Infections Among Wild and Domestic Animals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arent, Z J; Gilmore, C; San-Miguel Ayanz, J M; Neyra, L Quevedo; García-Peña, F J

    2017-03-01

    Strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona are known to cause widespread animal infections in many parts of the world. Forty-three isolates retrieved from domestic animals and wild small mammals suggest that serogroup Pomona is epidemiologically relevant in Spain. This is supported by the high prevalence of serovar Pomona antibodies in livestock and wild animals. In this study, the strains were serologically and genetically characterized in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. Serological typing was based on the microscopic agglutination test but molecular typing involved species-specific polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. The study revealed that the infections are caused by two serovars, namely Pomona and Mozdok. Serovar Pomona was derived only from farm animals and may be adapted to pigs, which are recognized as the maintenance host. The results demonstrated that serovar Pomona is genetically heterogeneous and three different types were recognized. This heterogeneity was correlated with different geographical distributions of the isolates. All strains derived from small wild mammals were identified as serovar Mozdok. Some isolates of this serovar retrieved from cattle confirm that this serovar may also be the cause of infections in food-producing animals for which these wild species may be source of infection.

  8. Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

  9. Small animal SPECT and its place in the matrix of molecular imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, Steven R; Kench, Peter; Kassiou, Michael; Banati, Richard B

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging refers to the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to detect signals that originate from molecules, often in the form of an injected tracer, and observe their interaction with a specific cellular target in vivo. Differences in the underlying physical principles of these measurement techniques determine the sensitivity, specificity and length of possible observation of the signal, characteristics that have to be traded off according to the biological question under study. Here, we describe the specific characteristics of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) relative to other molecular imaging technologies. SPECT is based on the tracer principle and external radiation detection. It is capable of measuring the biodistribution of minute ( -10 molar) concentrations of radio-labelled biomolecules in vivo with sub-millimetre resolution and quantifying the molecular kinetic processes in which they participate. Like some other imaging techniques, SPECT was originally developed for human use and was subsequently adapted for imaging small laboratory animals at high spatial resolution for basic and translational research. Its unique capabilities include (i) the ability to image endogenous ligands such as peptides and antibodies due to the relative ease of labelling these molecules with technetium or iodine (ii) the ability to measure relatively slow kinetic processes (compared with positron emission tomography, for example) due to the long half-life of the commonly used isotopes and (iii) the ability to probe two or more molecular pathways simultaneously by detecting isotopes with different emission energies. In this paper, we review the technology developments and design tradeoffs that led to the current state-of-the-art in SPECT small animal scanning and describe the position SPECT occupies within the matrix of molecular imaging technologies. (topical review)

  10. Molecular mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation of xeric animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-15

    Mar 15, 2007 ... Author Affiliations. M B Evgen'Ev1 2 D G Garbuz1 V Y Shilova1 O G Zatsepina1. Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Street 32, Moscow 199991, Russia; Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142292, Russia ...

  11. Molecular characterization of pneumococcal isolates from pets and laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark van der Linden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 1986 and 2008 Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 41 pets/zoo animals (guinea pigs (n = 17, cats (n = 12, horses (n = 4, dogs (n = 3, dolphins (n = 2, rat (n = 2, gorilla (n = 1 treated in medical veterinary laboratories and zoos, and 44 laboratory animals (mastomys (multimammate mice; n = 32, mice (n = 6, rats (n = 4, guinea pigs (n = 2 during routine health monitoring in an animal facility. S. pneumoniae was isolated from nose, lung and respiratory tract, eye, ear and other sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carriage of the same isolate of S. pneumoniae over a period of up to 22 weeks was shown for four mastomys. Forty-one animals showed disease symptoms. Pneumococcal isolates were characterized by optochin sensitivity, bile solubility, DNA hybridization, pneumolysin PCR, serotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Eighteen of the 32 mastomys isolates (56% were optochin resistant, all other isolates were optochin susceptible. All mastomys isolates were serotype 14, all guinea pig isolates serotype 19F, all horse isolates serotype 3. Rats had serotypes 14 or 19A, mice 33A or 33F. Dolphins had serotype 23F, the gorilla serotype 14. Cats and dogs had many different serotypes. Four isolates were resistant to macrolides, three isolates also to clindamycin and tetracycline. Mastomys isolates were sequence type (ST 15 (serotype 14, an ST/serotype combination commonly found in human isolates. Cats, dogs, pet rats, gorilla and dolphins showed various human ST/serotype combinations. Lab rats and lab mice showed single locus variants (SLV of human STs, in human ST/serotype combinations. All guinea pig isolates showed the same completely new combination of known alleles. The horse isolates showed an unknown allele combination and three new alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The isolates found in mastomys, mice, rats, cats, dogs, gorilla and dolphins are most likely identical to human pneumococcal isolates. Isolates from

  12. Molecular and Population Genetics Tools for Animal Resources Conservation: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Terezia Socol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in animal genome data and in genetic analysis, next to the increasing use of artificial reproductive technology resulted in progress into the animal sciences area, transposing the applied technologies into the omics field. This paper provides a brief overview related to some aspects of the population genetics characterization, as well as on the animal population genetic improvement and on the main molecular tools available for farm animals, highlighting at the same time the perspectives and priorities in terms of the advanced genetic methods, that can be considered for farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR breeding, improvement and conservation programmes in Romania.

  13. Current challenges for the targeted delivery and molecular imaging of stem cells in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Arezoo; Neelamegham, Sriram; Parashurama, Natesh

    2017-07-04

    In contrast to conventional, molecular medicine that focuses on targeting specific pathways, stem cell therapy aims to perturb many related mechanisms in order to derive therapeutic benefit. This emerging modality is inherently complex due to the variety of cell types that can be used, delivery approaches that need to be optimized in order to target the cellular therapeutic to specific sites in vivo, and non-invasive imaging methods that are needed to monitor cell fate. This review highlights advancements in the field, with focus on recent publications that use preclinical animal models for cardiovascular stem cell therapy. It highlights studies where cell adhesion engineering (CAE) has been used to functionalize stem cells to home them to sites of therapy, much like peripheral blood neutrophils. It also describes the current state of molecular imaging approaches that aim to non-invasively track the spatio-temporal pattern of stem cell delivery in living subjects.

  14. Animal models of catamenial epilepsy: Discovery of an extrasynaptic molecular mechanism for targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doodipala Samba eReddy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Catamenial epilepsy is a complex neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. The pathophysiology of catamenial epilepsy still remains unclear, yet there are few animal models to study this gender-specific disorder. The pathophysiology of perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy involves the withdrawal of the progesterone-derived GABA-A receptor modulating neurosteroids as a result of the fall in progesterone at the time of menstruation. These manifestations can be faithfully reproduced in rodents by specific neuroendocrine manipulations. Because mice and rats, like humans, have ovarian cycles with circulating hormones, they appear to be suitable animal models for studies of perimenstrual seizures. Recently, we created specific experimental models to mimic perimenstrual seizures. Studies in rat and mouse models of catamenial epilepsy show enhanced susceptibility to seizures or increased seizure exacerbations following neurosteroid withdrawal. During such a seizure exacerbation period, there is a marked reduction in the antiseizure potency of commonly prescribed antiepileptics, such as benzodiazepines, but an increase in the anticonvulsant potency of exogenous neurosteroids. We discovered an extrasynaptic molecular mechanism of catamenial epilepsy. In essence, extrasynaptic delta-GABA-A receptors are upregulated during perimenstrual-like neuroendocrine milieu. Consequently, there is enhanced antiseizure efficacy of neurosteroids in catamenial models because delta-GABA-A receptors confer neurosteroid sensitivity and greater seizure protection. Molecular mechanisms such as these offer a strong rationale for the clinical development of a neurosteroid replacement therapy for catamenial epilepsy.

  15. Molecular studies by electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansteen, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in experimental nuclear physics has played a large role in the development of electron spectroscopy as a powerful tool for studying chemical systems. The use of ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) for the mapping of molecular properties connected with inner as well as outer electron shells is reviewed, mainly from a phenomological point of view. Molecular Auger electron spectroscopy is described as a means of gaining information on details in molecular structure, simultaneously being extensively applied for surface studies. Future highly promising research areas for molecular electron spectroscopy are suggested to be (e,2e) processes as well as continued exploitation of synchrotron radiation from high energy nuclear devices. (Auth.)

  16. Fish Chromatophores--From Molecular Motors to Animal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Aspengren, Sara; Cheney, Karen L; Wallin, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Chromatophores are pigment-bearing cells of lower vertebrates, including fish that cater for the ability of individual animals to shift body coloration and pattern. Color change provides dynamic camouflage and various kinds of communication. It is also a spectacular example of phenotypic plasticity, and of significant importance for adaptation and survival in novel environments. Through different cellular mechanisms, color change can occur within minutes or more slowly over weeks. Chromatophores have different pigment types and are located not only in the skin, but also in the eyes and internally. While morphological color change, including seasonal color change, has received a lot of interest from evolutionary biologists and behavioral ecologists, the more rapid physiological color change has been largely a research subject for cell physiologists. In this cross-disciplinary review, we have highlighted emerging trends in pigment cell research and identified unsolved problems for future research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Molecular evolution of dentin phosphoprotein among toothed and toothless animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Larry W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP is the largest member of the SIBLING family and is the most abundant noncollagenous protein in dentin. DSPP is also expressed in non-mineralized tissues including metabolically active ductal epithelia and some cancers. Its function, however, is poorly defined. The carboxy-terminal fragment, dentin phosphoprotein (DPP is encoded predominantly by a large repetitive domain that requires separate cloning/sequencing reactions and is, therefore, often incomplete in genomic databases. Comparison of DPP sequences from at least one member of each major branch in the mammalian evolutionary tree (including some "toothless" mammals as well as one reptile and bird may help delineate its possible functions in both dentin and ductal epithelia. Results The BMP1-cleavage and translation-termination domains were sufficiently conserved to permit amplification/cloning/sequencing of most species' DPP. While the integrin-binding domain, RGD, was present in about half of species, only vestigial remnants of this tripeptide were identified in the others. The number of tandem repeats of the nominal SerSerAsp phosphorylation motif in toothed mammals (including baleen whale and platypus which lack teeth as adults, ranged from ~75 (elephant to >230 (human. These repeats were not perfect, however, and patterns of intervening sequences highlight the rapidity of changes among even closely related species. Two toothless anteater species have evolved different sets of nonsense mutations shortly after their BMP1 motifs suggesting that while cleavage may be important for DSPP processing in other tissues, the DPP domain itself may be required only in dentin. The lizard DSPP had an intact BMP1 site, a remnant RGD motif, as well as a distinctly different Ser/Asp-rich domain compared to mammals. Conclusions The DPP domain of DSPP was found to change dramatically within mammals and was lost in two truly toothless animals. The

  18. Molecular characterization of Babesia species in wild animals and their ticks in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkun, Ömer; Karaer, Zafer

    2017-11-01

    To date, no study has investigated Babesia ecology in wild boars, hares or foxes in Turkey. This study aimed to determine and characterize Babesia spp. in wild animals and their ticks. We identified a novel Babesia genotype and four known Babesia species in wild animals and their ticks. We detected Babesia spp. molecularly in hares for the first time. In addition, we identified B. vulpes in foxes for the first time in Turkey. The presence of B. rossi, B. crassa and B. occultans was also revealed in ticks collected from wild boars and hares. This is only the second report of B. rossi in ticks outside of Africa and suggests that B. rossi is circulating in ticks in Turkey. Therefore B. rossi poses a significant threat to domestic dogs. Here we demonstrate the role of wild animals in the life cycle of Babesia species in Turkey and contribute to Babesia ecological and taxonomic information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal studies on growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that no plausible biological mechanism has yet been identified how electromagnetic fields below recommended exposure limits could negatively affect health of animals or humans, many experiments have been performed in various animal species, mainly mice and rats, to investigate the possible effects on growth and development. While older studies often suffered from sub-optimal exposure conditions, recent investigations, using sophisticated exposure devices and thus preventing thermal effects, have been performed without these limitations. In principle, two types of studies can be addressed: those which have investigated the carcinogenic or co-carcinogenic effects of exposure in developing animals, and those which have been done in developing animals without the focus on carcinogenic or co-carcinogenic effects. In both areas, the vast majority of publications did not show adverse effects. The largest study so far has been done in normal mice which have been chronically exposed to UMTS signals up to 1.3 W/kg SAR, thus 16 times higher than the whole-body exposure limit for humans. Even after four generations, no systematic or dose-dependent alterations in development or fertility could be found, supporting the view that negative effects on humans are very unlikely. Ongoing experiments in our laboratory investigate the effects of head-only exposure in rats (up to 10 W/kg local SAR) which are exposed from 14 days of age daily for 2 h. A battery of behavioral tests is performed in young, adult, and pre-senile animals. The results will help to clarify possible effects of exposure on brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Development of Animal Welfare in Finland and How People Perceive Animal Welfare : Case Study: Animals in Tourism: Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Laatu, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study how Finnish people perceive animal welfare in general and how they feel about animals in tourism purposes, more specifically in zoos. The thesis also contains information about Finnish animal legislation and how animal welfare has developed over time. The target group for the research was people who have visited zoos recently. The interviewed people were from different age groups. The theoretical framework consists of the following topics: people’s relations...

  1. Application of Molecular Tools for Gut Health of Pet Animals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipismita Samal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut health is an important facet of well being of pet animals; it is in this context, various nutritional and biotechnological approaches have been proposed to manipulate the gut health by specifically targeting the colonic microbiota. Nutritional approaches include supplementation of antioxidants and phytochemicals like flavonoids, isoflavonoids and carotenoids. Biotechnological approaches include supplementation of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics in the diet and potential application of molecular tools like fluorescent in situ hybridization, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative dot blot hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism etc. in studying the fecal microbiota composition. Post-genomic and related technologies, i.e. genomics, nutrigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics in the study of gastrointestinal tract also put forward challenges for nutritionists and microbiologists to elucidate the complex interactions between gut microbiota and host.

  2. Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Il; Kim, Hyeon Sik; Jeong, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyung Jae; Moon, Seung Min; Kwon, Seung Young; Jeong, Shin Young; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon; Choi, Eun Seo

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging is providing great advance and improvement in genetic and molecular imaging of animals and humans. Optical imaging system consists of optical imaging devices, which carry out major function for monitoring, tracing, and imaging in most of molecular in-vivo researches. In bio-luminescent imaging, small animals containing luciferase gene locally irradiate light, and emitted photons transmitted through skin of the small animals are imaged by using a high sensitive charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In this paper, we introduced optical imaging system for the image acquisition of bio-luminescent signals emitted from small animals. In the system, Nikon lens and four LED light sources were mounted at the inside of a dark box. A cooled CCD camera equipped with a control module was used. We tested the performance of the optical imaging system using effendorf tube and light emitting bacteria which injected intravenously into CT26 tumor bearing nude mouse. The performance of implemented optical imaging system for bio-luminescence imaging was demonstrated and the feasibility of the system in small animal imaging application was proved. We anticipate this system could be a useful tool for the molecular imaging of small animals adaptable for various experimental conditions in future

  3. An animal model to study regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Corr, Robert; Buhrley, Matthew; Wright, Kenneth; Shabahang, Shahrokh

    2011-02-01

    A growing body of evidence is demonstrating the possibility for regeneration of tissues within the pulp space and continued root development in teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices. There are areas of research related to regenerative endodontics that need to be investigated in an animal model. The purpose of this study was to investigate ferret cuspid teeth as a model to investigate factors involved in regenerative endodontics. Six young male ferrets between the ages of 36-133 days were used in this investigation. Each animal was anesthetized and perfused with 10% buffered formalin. Block sections including the mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth and their surrounding periapical tissues were obtained, radiographed, decalcified, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine various stages of apical closure in these teeth. The permanent mandibular and maxillary cuspid teeth with open apices erupted approximately 50 days after birth. Initial signs of closure of the apical foramen in these teeth were observed between 90-110 days. Complete apical closure was observed in the cuspid teeth when the animals were 133 days old. Based on the experiment, ferret cuspid teeth can be used to investigate various factors involved in regenerative endodontics that cannot be tested in human subjects. The most appropriate time to conduct the experiments would be when the ferrets are between the ages of 50 and 90 days. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Study in Molecular Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-11

    Department of Chemistry University of Toronto Inclusive Dates: 1 June 1975 - 15 December 1.979 (? --- AFOSR475-2856_ February 11, 1980 80 ~ 14 124 80... tesis showed that both use of the delta function approximation, and fixing the rotational quantum number in the radial overlap integrals at J = 0...Reactions", R.K. Boyd and G. Burns, Shock Waves in Chemistry , Assa Lifshitz, ed., Marcel-Decker Inc. (in press). 12. "Trajectory Study of

  5. Study Circles and Socio-cultural Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Malečkar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal learning and participating in study circles is a way of applying the ideas of socio-cultural animation. It is based on the assumption that within a society there are mechanisms that institutions don't comprise and therefore don't fulfil various, often urgent needs deriving from everyday life and the community. What is going on here is identifying and solving burning problems; some of them have already become an integral part of the way of living in a community. Study circles as an informal phenomenon in Slovenia create new possibilities of social activities based on common learning and participating in a community.

  6. Krill products: an overview of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Lena; Johnsen, Line

    2015-05-07

    Many animal studies have been performed with krill oil (KO) and this review aims to summarize their findings and give insight into the mechanism of action of KO. Animal models that have been used in studies with KO include obesity, depression, myocardial infarction, chronic low-grade and ulcerative inflammation and are described in detail. Moreover, studies with KO in the form of krill powder (KP) and krill protein concentrate (KPC) as a mix of lipids and proteins are mentioned and compared to the effects of KO. In addition, differences in tissue uptake of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), when delivered in either phospholipid or triglyceride form, are addressed and the differential impact the delivery form has on gene expression profiles is explained. In our outlook, we try to highlight the potential of KO and KP supplementation in clinical settings and discuss health segments that have a high potential of showing krill product specific health benefits and warrant further clinical investigations.

  7. Presence and molecular characteristics of oxazolidinone resistance in staphylococci from household animals in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengtao; Zhang, Peng; Ji, Xing; Fan, Run; Chen, Baoli; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan; Wu, Congming

    2018-02-07

    To investigate the presence and molecular characteristics of oxazolidinone resistance genes cfr and optrA in staphylococci from household animals in rural China. Various samples were collected from household animals in 12 rural villages. Staphylococcal isolates showing florfenicol MICs ≥10 mg/L were identified and screened for the presence of cfr and/or optrA. PCR-positive isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, S1 nuclease PFGE and Southern blotting. WGS data were analysed to identify the core-genome phylogenetic profile of each isolate as well as the genetic environment of cfr and/or optrA. Nine optrA-positive (seven Staphylococcus sciuri and two Staphylococcus simulans) and 10 cfr-positive staphylococci were identified from eight and five villages, respectively. The gene optrA was chromosomally encoded in all nine isolates, whereas cfr was located on a plasmid in one S. sciuri and three Staphylococcus saprophyticus and in the chromosomal DNA of single Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus lentus isolates and two S. sciuri isolates. The remaining two cfr-carrying Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE. Most optrA- or cfr-carrying staphylococci also harboured phenicol, tetracycline and/or macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes. Genetic environment analysis showed that, for the first time, optrA was associated with transposon Tn6261, while cfr was adjacent to both a tnp (transposase) gene and a Tn558 transposon. The current study reveals for the first time the wide distribution of oxazolidinone resistance genes optrA and cfr in household animals in rural areas of China and is the first identification of optrA in S. simulans isolates. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Inaugurating the Study of Animal Metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David

    2010-01-01

    Metacognition-the ability to monitor and control one's own cognition-is a sophisticated ability that reveals humans' reflective mind and consciousness. Researchers have begun to explore whether animals share humans' metacognitive capacity. This article reprises the original study that explored metacognition across species. A captive dolphin performed an auditory pitch-discrimination task using High/Low discrimination responses and an Uncertainty response with which he could decline to complete any trials he chose. He selectively declined the difficult trials near his discriminative threshold-just as humans do. This comparative exploration of metacognition required a trial-intensive titration of perceptual threshold and the training of a distinctive behavioral response. It could not have been conducted in the wild, though the naturalistic observation of dolphin uncertainty behaviors and risk-management strategies would no doubt yield complementary insights. The dolphin study inaugurated a new area of cross-species research. This research area opens a new window on reflective mind in animals, illuminates the phylogenetic emergence of metacognition, and may reveal the antecedents of human consciousness.

  9. Small animal positron emission tomography imaging and in vivo studies of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a growing health challenge globally, and despite our knowledge of the disease has increased over the last couple of decades, many unanswered questions remain. As molecular imaging can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellu...... knowledge obtained from in vivo positron emission tomography studies of atherosclerosis performed in small animals....

  10. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV in serologically negative animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Craig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.. Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5′ UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b, and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2.

  11. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  12. Animated Infographics in Digital Educational Publishing : Case Study of Educational Animated Infographics

    OpenAIRE

    Lievemaa, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the possibilities of animated infographics in the technologically developing field of educational publishing. Digital books can be enhanced in many ways, including animations. This thesis explored the advantages and disadvantages of animated infographics in digital schoolbooks in Finland. First the current state of Finnish educational materials was charted examining the potential for digital learning. The history of infographics and animation w...

  13. Integrative molecular phylogeography in the context of infectious diseases on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco

    2012-12-01

    The rate of new emerging infectious diseases entering the human population has increased over the past century, with pathogens originating from animals or from products of animal origin accounting for the vast majority. Primary risk factors for the emergence and spread of emerging zoonoses include expansion and intensification of animal agriculture and long-distance live animal transport, live animal markets, bushmeat consumption and habitat destruction. Developing effective control strategies is contingent upon the ability to test causative hypotheses of disease transmission within a statistical framework. Broadly speaking, molecular phylogeography offers a framework in which specific hypotheses regarding pathogen gene flow and dispersal within an ecological context can be compared. A number of different methods has been developed for this application. Here, our intent is firstly to discuss the application of a wide variety of statistically based methods (including Bayesian reconstruction, network parsimony analysis and regression) to specific viruses (influenza, salmon anaemia virus, foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever) that have been associated with animal farming/movements; and secondly to place them in the larger framework of the threat of potential zoonotic events as well as the economic and biosecurity implications of pathogen outbreaks among our animal food sources.

  14. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  15. Facile Fabrication of Animal-Specific Positioning Molds For Multi-modality Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Oh, Ji Eun; Woo, Seung Tae

    2008-01-01

    Recently multi-modal imaging system has become widely adopted in molecular imaging. We tried to fabricate animal-specific positioning molds for PET/MR fusion imaging using easily available molding clay and rapid foam. The animal-specific positioning molds provide immobilization and reproducible positioning of small animal. Herein, we have compared fiber-based molding clay with rapid foam in fabricating the molds of experimental animal. The round bottomed-acrylic frame, which fitted into microPET gantry, was prepared at first. The experimental mice was anesthetized and placed on the mold for positioning. Rapid foam and fiber-based clay were used to fabricate the mold. In case of both rapid foam and the clay, the experimental animal needs to be pushed down smoothly into the mold for positioning. However, after the mouse was removed, the fabricated clay needed to be dried completely at 60 .deg. C in oven overnight for hardening. Four sealed pipe tips containing [ 18 F]FDG solution were used as fiduciary markers. After injection of [ 18 F]FDG via tail vein, microPET scanning was performed. Successively, MRI scanning was followed in the same animal. Animal-specific positioning molds were fabricated using rapid foam and fiber-based molding clay for multimodality imaging. Functional and anatomical images were obtained with microPET and MRI, respectively. The fused PET/MR images were obtained using freely available AMIDE program. Animal-specific molds were successfully prepared using easily available rapid foam, molding clay and disposable pipet tips. Thanks to animal-specific molds, fusion images of PET and MR were co-registered with negligible misalignment

  16. Using Computational and Mechanical Models to Study Animal Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura A.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Tytell, Eric D.; Wang, Z. Jane; Yen, Jeannette; Alben, Silas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in computational methods have made realistic large-scale simulations of animal locomotion possible. This has resulted in numerous mathematical and computational studies of animal movement through fluids and over substrates with the purpose of better understanding organisms’ performance and improving the design of vehicles moving through air and water and on land. This work has also motivated the development of improved numerical methods and modeling techniques for animal locomotion that is characterized by the interactions of fluids, substrates, and structures. Despite the large body of recent work in this area, the application of mathematical and numerical methods to improve our understanding of organisms in the context of their environment and physiology has remained relatively unexplored. Nature has evolved a wide variety of fascinating mechanisms of locomotion that exploit the properties of complex materials and fluids, but only recently are the mathematical, computational, and robotic tools available to rigorously compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods of locomotion in variable environments. Similarly, advances in computational physiology have only recently allowed investigators to explore how changes at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels might lead to changes in performance at the organismal level. In this article, we highlight recent examples of how computational, mathematical, and experimental tools can be combined to ultimately answer the questions posed in one of the grand challenges in organismal biology: “Integrating living and physical systems.” PMID:22988026

  17. Using computational and mechanical models to study animal locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura A; Goldman, Daniel I; Hedrick, Tyson L; Tytell, Eric D; Wang, Z Jane; Yen, Jeannette; Alben, Silas

    2012-11-01

    Recent advances in computational methods have made realistic large-scale simulations of animal locomotion possible. This has resulted in numerous mathematical and computational studies of animal movement through fluids and over substrates with the purpose of better understanding organisms' performance and improving the design of vehicles moving through air and water and on land. This work has also motivated the development of improved numerical methods and modeling techniques for animal locomotion that is characterized by the interactions of fluids, substrates, and structures. Despite the large body of recent work in this area, the application of mathematical and numerical methods to improve our understanding of organisms in the context of their environment and physiology has remained relatively unexplored. Nature has evolved a wide variety of fascinating mechanisms of locomotion that exploit the properties of complex materials and fluids, but only recently are the mathematical, computational, and robotic tools available to rigorously compare the relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods of locomotion in variable environments. Similarly, advances in computational physiology have only recently allowed investigators to explore how changes at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels might lead to changes in performance at the organismal level. In this article, we highlight recent examples of how computational, mathematical, and experimental tools can be combined to ultimately answer the questions posed in one of the grand challenges in organismal biology: "Integrating living and physical systems."

  18. Potential for clonal animals in longevity and ageing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Sköld, Helen; Obst, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Ageing is defined as a decline in reproductive and/or somatic performance over time, and as such is experienced by most organisms. Evolutionary theories explain ageing as a consequence of reduced selection pressure against mutations and reduced allocation to somatic maintenance in post-reproductive individuals. In addition, the fecundity of younger age-groups makes a more significant contribution than infinite maintenance of the parental body to the production of subsequent generations. However, in clonal animals, as well as in plants that reproduce by agametic cloning, the adult body is itself a reproductive unit that increases its fitness as a function of genet size. Given the apparent longevity of many such clonal organisms, species undergoing agametic cloning are often assumed to be non-ageing and even potentially immortal. Here, we present a brief overview of ageing in organisms undergoing agametic cloning, focusing on animals and molecular investigation. We discuss molecular and evolutionary aspects of ageing or non-ageing with respect to selection in clonal species. Of particular relevance to the search for potential mechanistic processes behind longevity is the notion that clonal organisms are frequently smaller than their obligate sexual counterparts. In conclusion, we find that while clonal animals also commonly age, evolutionary arguments together with empirical evidence suggest that they are likely to be long-lived and stress resistant at the genet level. However, theoretical modeling continues to predict the possibility of immortality, if the contribution from sexual reproduction is low. Future in-depth study of long-lived clones should present an excellent opportunity to discover novel mechanisms for renewal and long-term somatic maintenance and health.

  19. Molecular Approaches to Studying Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Denitrification is carried out by a diverse array of microbes, mainly as an alternative mode of respiration that allows the organisms to respire using oxidized N compounds instead of oxygen. A common approach in biogeochemistry to the study of the regulation of denitrification is to assess activity by mass balance of substrates and products or direct rate measurements and has intrinsically assumed resource regulation of denitrification. Reported rates can vary significantly even among ecosystems characterized by similar environmental conditions, thus indicating that direct control by abiotic factors often is not sufficient to predict denitrification rates accurately in natural environments. Alternatively, a microbiological approach would proceed with the identification of the organisms responsible and an evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on the biochemical pathways involved. Traditional studies have relied on culturing techniques, such as most probable number enrichments, and have failed to assess the role of the predominately uncultivable members of the microbial community. A combination of biogeochemical measurements and the assessment of the microbial community is necessary and becoming increasingly possible with the development and application of molecular techniques. In order to understand how the composition and physiological behavior of the microbial community affects denitrification rates, we use a suite of molecular techniques developed for phylogenetic and metabolic characterization of denitrifying communities. Molecular tools available for quantifying denitrifying bacteria and assessing their diversity and activity are summarized. Their application is illustrated with examples from marine and freshwater environments. Emerging techniques and their application to ground water studies will be discussed.

  20. SketchBio: a scientist's 3D interface for molecular modeling and animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldon, Shawn M; Thompson, Peter M; Hahn, Patrick J; Taylor, Russell M

    2014-10-30

    Because of the difficulties involved in learning and using 3D modeling and rendering software, many scientists hire programmers or animators to create models and animations. This both slows the discovery process and provides opportunities for miscommunication. Working with multiple collaborators, a tool was developed (based on a set of design goals) to enable them to directly construct models and animations. SketchBio is presented, a tool that incorporates state-of-the-art bimanual interaction and drop shadows to enable rapid construction of molecular structures and animations. It includes three novel features: crystal-by-example, pose-mode physics, and spring-based layout that accelerate operations common in the formation of molecular models. Design decisions and their consequences are presented, including cases where iterative design was required to produce effective approaches. The design decisions, novel features, and inclusion of state-of-the-art techniques enabled SketchBio to meet all of its design goals. These features and decisions can be incorporated into existing and new tools to improve their effectiveness.

  1. STRESS RESPONSE STUDIES USING ANIMAL MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.

  2. ePMV embeds molecular modeling into professional animation software environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham T; Autin, Ludovic; Goodsell, David S; Sanner, Michel F; Olson, Arthur J

    2011-03-09

    Increasingly complex research has made it more difficult to prepare data for publication, education, and outreach. Many scientists must also wade through black-box code to interface computational algorithms from diverse sources to supplement their bench work. To reduce these barriers we have developed an open-source plug-in, embedded Python Molecular Viewer (ePMV), that runs molecular modeling software directly inside of professional 3D animation applications (hosts) to provide simultaneous access to the capabilities of these newly connected systems. Uniting host and scientific algorithms into a single interface allows users from varied backgrounds to assemble professional quality visuals and to perform computational experiments with relative ease. By enabling easy exchange of algorithms, ePMV can facilitate interdisciplinary research, smooth communication between broadly diverse specialties, and provide a common platform to frame and visualize the increasingly detailed intersection(s) of cellular and molecular biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular imaging of nuclear factor-Y transcriptional activity maps proliferation sites in live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeman, Frauke; Manni, Isabella; Artuso, Simona; Ramachandran, Balaji; Toietta, Gabriele; Bossi, Gianluca; Rando, Gianpaolo; Cencioni, Chiara; Germoni, Sabrina; Straino, Stefania; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Bacchetti, Silvia; Maggi, Adriana; Sacchi, Ada; Ciana, Paolo; Piaggio, Giulia

    2012-04-01

    In vivo imaging involving the use of genetically engineered animals is an innovative powerful tool for the noninvasive assessment of the molecular and cellular events that are often targets of therapy. On the basis of the knowledge that the activity of the nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) transcription factor is restricted in vitro to proliferating cells, we have generated a transgenic reporter mouse, called MITO-Luc (for mitosis-luciferase), in which an NF-Y-dependent promoter controls luciferase expression. In these mice, bioluminescence imaging of NF-Y activity visualizes areas of physiological cell proliferation and regeneration during response to injury. Using this tool, we highlight for the first time a role of NF-Y activity on hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. MITO-Luc reporter mice should facilitate investigations into the involvement of genes in cell proliferation and provide a useful model for studying aberrant proliferation in disease pathogenesis. They should be also useful in the development of new anti/proproliferative drugs and assessment of their efficacy and side effects on nontarget tissues.

  4. The origin of animals: Can molecular clocks and the fossil record be reconciled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Liu, Alexander G; Bengtson, Stefan; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary emergence of animals is one of the most significant episodes in the history of life, but its timing remains poorly constrained. Molecular clocks estimate that animals originated and began diversifying over 100 million years before the first definitive metazoan fossil evidence in the Cambrian. However, closer inspection reveals that clock estimates and the fossil record are less divergent than is often claimed. Modern clock analyses do not predict the presence of the crown-representatives of most animal phyla in the Neoproterozoic. Furthermore, despite challenges provided by incomplete preservation, a paucity of phylogenetically informative characters, and uncertain expectations of the anatomy of early animals, a number of Neoproterozoic fossils can reasonably be interpreted as metazoans. A considerable discrepancy remains, but much of this can be explained by the limited preservation potential of early metazoans and the difficulties associated with their identification in the fossil record. Critical assessment of both records may permit better resolution of the tempo and mode of early animal evolution. © 2016 The Authors BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Morphological and Molecular Studies on Termitomyces Species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the extensive study on plant and animal biodiversity in Ethiopia, our knowledge of microbial diversity in general and macrofungal diversity in particular is very limited. Thus, as part of the ongoing study on macrofungal diversity of the country, this is the first report on morphological and molecular taxonomy of the ...

  6. Molecular dynamics study of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, J.I.; Yaldram, K.; Ahmad, W.; Khan, M.K.; Rehman, T.S.

    1995-03-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics study using the embedded atom potential to examine the equilibrium bulk properties of Ag. We calculate the total energy and the lattice parameters as a function of temperature. From these we determine the specific heat and linear coefficient of thermal expansion. The comparison with experimental results of these two quantities is found to be excellent. We have also calculated the mean square displacement of the atoms in the three directions. As expected because of symmetry the displacements in the three directions are comparable and increase with increasing temperature. (author) 5 figs

  7. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  8. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many birds' species such as Japanese quail, sex determination in young and many adult birds is very difficult. Nowadays, sex identification of animals throughout their lives is possible by molecular genetic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of Japanese ...

  9. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Small Animal Research: Applications in Molecular and Preclinical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Greco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is a noninvasive multimodality technique that allows high-resolution imaging in mice. It is affordable, widely available, and portable. When it is coupled to Doppler ultrasound with color and power Doppler, it can be used to quantify blood flow and to image microcirculation as well as the response of tumor blood supply to cancer therapy. Target contrast ultrasound combines ultrasound with novel molecular targeted contrast agent to assess biological processes at molecular level. UBM is useful to investigate the growth and differentiation of tumors as well as to detect early molecular expression of cancer-related biomarkers in vivo and to monitor the effects of cancer therapies. It can be also used to visualize the embryological development of mice in uterus or to examine their cardiovascular development. The availability of real-time imaging of mice anatomy allows performing aspiration procedures under ultrasound guidance as well as the microinjection of cells, viruses, or other agents into precise locations. This paper will describe some basic principles of high-resolution imaging equipment, and the most important applications in molecular and preclinical imaging in small animal research.

  10. Choline molecular imaging with small-animal PET for monitoring tumor cellular response to photodynamic therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Baowei; Wang, Hesheng; Wu, Chunying; Meyers, Joseph; Xue, Liang-Yan; MacLennan, Gregory; Schluchter, Mark

    2009-02-01

    We are developing and evaluating choline molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) for monitoring tumor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in animal models. Human prostate cancer (PC-3) was studied in athymic nude mice. A second-generation photosensitizer Pc 4 was used for PDT in tumor-bearing mice. MicroPET images with 11C-choline were acquired before PDT and 48 h after PDT. Time-activity curves of 11C-choline uptake were analyzed before and after PDT. For treated tumors, normalized choline uptake decreased significantly 48 h after PDT, compared to the same tumors pre-PDT (p PET imaging with 11C-choline is sensitive to detect early tumor response to PDT in the animal model of human prostate cancer.

  11. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mutian; Huang Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ling, C Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A; Humm, John L; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S; Martin, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ∼0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ∼0.8 mm could be obtained.

  12. Review on the Molecular Tools for the Understanding of the Epidemiology of Animal Trypanosomosis in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvallet G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis around Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso, West Africa benefited a lot in the last years from the progress of molecular tools. The two most used molecular techniques were the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of the disease in cattle and the characterization of the trypanosomes in the host and the vector on one hand, and the microsatellite DNA polymorphism in tsetse flies to study the intraspecific genetic variability of the vector on the other hand. The results obtained in the Sideradougou area during a recent two year survey with these techniques, associated with many other georeferenced informations concerning vector and cattle distribution, natural environment, landuse, ground occupation, livestock management, were combined in a Geographical Information System. This new approach of a complex pathogenic system led to a better evaluation of the risk of trypanosome transmission.

  13. 3-D Rat Brain Phantom for High-Resolution Molecular Imaging : Experimental studies aimed at advancing understanding of human brain disease and malfunction, and of behavior problems, may be aided by computer models of small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.J.; Vastenhouw, B.; Van der Wilt, G.; Vervloet, M.; Visscher, R.; Booij, J.; Gerrits, M.; Ji, C.; Ramakers, R.; Van der Have, F.

    2009-01-01

    With the steadily improving resolution of novel small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography devices, highly detailed phantoms are required for testing and optimizing these systems. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) digital and physical phantom

  14. Application of Model Animals in the Study of Drug Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Drug safety is a key factor in drug research and development, Drug toxicology test is the main method to evaluate the safety of drugs, The body condition of an animal has important implications for the results of the study, Previous toxicological studies of drugs were carried out in normal animals in the past, There is a great deviation from the clinical practice.The purpose of this study is to investigate the necessity of model animals as a substitute for normal animals for toxicological studies, It is expected to provide exact guidance for future drug safety evaluation.

  15. Expression profiling of a genetic animal model of depression reveals novel molecular pathways underlying depressive-like behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Blaveri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression.In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7 and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL.These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research.

  16. Small animal optoacoustic tomography system for molecular imaging of contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-03-01

    We developed a new and improved Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-3D for preclinical research applications in small animal models. The advancements include (i) a new stabilized imaging module with a more homogeneous illumination of the mouse yielding a better spatial resolution (exogenous or endogenous optoacoustic contrast agents. As examples, we present in vivo experiments using phantoms and mice with and without tumor injected with contrast agents with indocyanine green (ICG). LOIS-3D was capable of detecting ~1-2 pmole of the ICG, in tissues with relatively low blood content. With its high sensitivity and excellent spatial resolution LOIS-3D is an advanced alternative to fluorescence and bioluminescence based modalities for molecular imaging in live mice.

  17. First molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas infesting domestic animals in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Saba; Khrouf, Fatma; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Bouattour, Ali

    2017-09-19

    Bartonellosis is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by different intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) that is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking arthropods such as sandflies, ticks and fleas. In Tunisia, there are no data available identifying the vectors of Bartonella spp. In our research, we used molecular methods to detect and characterize Bartonella species circulating in fleas collected from domestic animals in several of the country's bioclimatic areas. A total of 2178 fleas were collected from 5 cats, 27 dogs, 34 sheep, and 41 goats at 22 sites located in Tunisia's five bioclimatic zones. The fleas were identified as: 1803 Ctenocephalides felis (83%) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 266 C. canis (12%) and 109 Pulex irritans (5%) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Using conventional PCR, we screened the fleas for the presence of Bartonella spp., targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonella DNA was detected in 14% (121/866) of the tested flea pools [estimated infection rate (EIR) per 2 specimens: 0.072, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.060-0.086]. The Bartonella infection rate per pool was broken down as follows: 55% (65/118; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.329, 95% CI: 0.262-0.402) in C. canis; 23.5% (8/34; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.125, 95% CI: 0.055-0.233) in P. irritans and 6.7% (48/714; EIR per 2 specimens: 0.032, 95% CI: 0.025-0.045) in C. felis. Infection rates, which varied significantly by bioclimatic zone (P < 0.0001), were highest in the humid areas. By sequencing, targeting the gltA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Regions (ITS), we identified three Bartonella zoonotic species: B. elizabethae, B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, as well as uncharacterized Bartonella genotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that fleas in Tunisia have been shown to carry zoonotic species of Bartonella. The dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis, should be considered the main potential vector of Bartonella. Our

  18. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis sp. in captive wild animals in Qinling Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G H; Hu, X F; Liu, T L; Hu, R S; Yu, Z Q; Yang, W B; Wu, Y L; Yu, S K; Song, J K

    2017-08-01

    Blastocystis is one common protist inhabiting in gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Examining the subtypes has important implications for assessing the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis and intestinal health of hosts. In the present study, a total of 497 fecal samples collected from 37 wild animal species in Qinling Mountains were investigated for the presence and subtypes of Blastocystis. Of them, 200 (40.2%) were positive for Blastocystis and 13 subtypes were found, including eight known subtypes (STs1-3, 5, 10, 12-14) and five possible novel subtypes (temporarily named as STs18-22), with ST10 as the predominate subtype and the subtype ST5 was detected in an ostrich for the first time. These findings indicated the wide distribution and specific subtype characteristics of Blastocystis in wild animals of Qinling Mountains.

  19. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in human and animals, focus on laboratory identification and molecular epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thellier M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Human microsporidian infections have emerged following the onset of the AIDS pandemic. Microsporidia are unicellular eukaryotic parasites that form spores. They are an exceptionally diverse group of parasites that infect a wide range of eukaryotic cells in numerous invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Of the 14 species newly described as pathogens in human, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, which causes gastrointestinal diseases, is the most common agent of human infections. In the past fifteen years, E. bieneusi was also identified in environmental sources, especially in surface water, as well as in wild, domestic and farm animals. These findings raised concerns for waterborne, foodborne and zoonotic transmission. Molecular analyses of the 243-bp internal Transcribed spacer-(ITS of the rRNA gene have revealed a considerable genetic variation within E. bieneusi isolates of human and animal origins, supporting the potential for zoonotic transmission. The focus of this revue is to present and discuss recent advances in diagnosis and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi infections.

  20. Studies on Animal Health Delivery Systems in Pastoral Areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to identify animal health delivery systems to show how marginalized pastoral communities are accessing animal health services was conducted in Babati, Hanang and Mbulu Districts of Manyara Region. It was shown that livestock was the principal economic activity for pastoralists in Mbulu, Babati and Hanang and ...

  1. Calpastatin ablation aggravates the molecular phenotype in cell and animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jonasz Jeremiasz; Kloock, Simon Johannes; Nagel, Maike; Ortiz-Rios, Midea Malena; Hofmann, Julian; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2018-02-02

    Deciphering the molecular pathology of Huntington disease is of particular importance, not only for a better understanding of this neurodegenerative disease, but also to identify potential therapeutic targets. The polyglutamine-expanded disease protein huntingtin was shown to undergo proteolysis, which results in the accumulation of toxic and aggregation-prone fragments. Amongst several classes of proteolytic enzymes responsible for huntingtin processing, the group of calcium-activated calpains has been found to be a significant mediator of the disease protein toxicity. To confirm the impact of calpain-mediated huntingtin cleavage in Huntington disease, we analysed the effect of depleting or overexpressing the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin in HEK293T cells transfected with wild-type or polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin. Moreover, we crossbred huntingtin knock-in mice with calpastatin knockout animals to assess its effect not only on huntingtin cleavage and aggregation but also additional molecular markers. We demonstrated that a reduced or ablated expression of calpastatin triggers calpain overactivation and a consequently increased mutant huntingtin cleavage in cells and in vivo. These alterations were accompanied by an elevated formation of predominantly cytoplasmic huntingtin aggregates. On the other hand, overexpression of calpastatin in cells attenuated huntingtin fragmentation and aggregation. In addition, we observed an enhanced cleavage of DARPP-32, p35 and synapsin-1 in neuronal tissue upon calpain overactivation. Our results corroborate the important role of calpains in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington disease and endorse targeting these proteolytic enzymes as a therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance profiles ofSalmonellaisolated from fecal matter of domestic animals and animal products in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabundi, Diana; Onkoba, Nyamongo; Kimathi, Rinter; Nyachieo, Atunga; Juma, Gerald; Kinyanjui, Peter; Kamau, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella has significant public health implications causing food borne and zoonotic diseases in humans. Treatment of infections due to Salmonella is becoming difficult due to emergence of drug resistant strains. There is therefore need to characterize the circulating non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars in domestic animals and animal products in Kenya as well as determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. A total of 740 fecal samples were collected from cows ( n  = 150), pigs ( n  = 182), chicken ( n  = 191) and chicken eggs ( n  = 217) from various markets and abattoirs in Nairobi. The prevalence of NTS serovars using culture techniques and biochemical tests, antimicrobial sensitivity testing using disc diffusion method of the commonly prescribed antibiotics and phylogenetic relationships using 16S rRNA were determined. The results showed that the overall prevalence of Salmonella was 3.8, 3.6, 5.9 and 2.6% for pigs, chicken, eggs and cows respectively. Two serovars were isolated S. Typhimurium (85%) and S. Enteritidis (15%) and these two serovars formed distinct clades on the phylogenetic tree. Forty percent of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. The isolation of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics from seemingly healthy animals and animal products poses a significant public health threat. This points to the need for regular surveillance to be carried out and the chain of transmission should be viewed to ascertain sources of contamination.

  3. [Toxoplasmosis and contact with animals: study of 390 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado García, G; Sánchez Torres, M

    1977-01-01

    Three hundred and ninety patients with suspected toxoplasmosis due to their contact with animales--they owned them, or work with them--are studied. The great significance of this way of acquiring the disease is stated. Every patient had a complement fixation test and an intradermal reaction test with toxoplasmine. An 85.2% positiveness to complement fixation, and a 64.1% to intradermal test were found among those patients who informed animal contact; a 70,6% positiveness to complement fixation, and a 56,2% to intradermal reaction was found in the patients who denied having any contact with animals. This showed both the importance of animal contact as well as other forms of transmission. The contacts were also studied, and the animals were classified according to J. Jira, the researcher: maximal, high, minimal and unreceptiveness to toxoplasma. The possibility of acquiring toxoplasmosis from other sources besides the close contact with animals must be taken into consideration.

  4. Photoionization studies with molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.

    1976-09-01

    A molecular beam photoionization apparatus which combines the advantages of both the molecular beam method with photoionization mass spectrometry has been designed and constructed for carrying out some unique photoionization experiments. Rotational cooling during the supersonic expansion has resulted in high resolution photoionization efficiency curves for NO, ICl, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/I. The analysis of these spectra has yielded ionization potentials for these molecules to an accuracy of +- 3 MeV. Detailed autoionization structures were also resolved. This allows the investigation of the selection rules for autoionization, and the identification of the Rydberg series which converge to the excited states of the molecular ions. The degree of relaxation for thermally populated excited states has been examined using NO and ICl as examples. As a result of adiabatic cooling, a small percentage of dimers is also formed during the expansion. The photoionization efficiency curves for (NO)/sub 2/, ArICl, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ have been obtained near the thresholds. Using the known dissociation energies of the (NO)/sub 2/, Ar/sub 2/, Kr/sub 2/ and Xe/sub 2/ van der Waals molecules, the corresponding dissociation energies for NO-NO/sup +/, Ar/sub 2//sup +/, Kr/sub 2//sup +/, and Xe/sub 2//sup +/ have been determined. The ionization mechanisms for this class of molecules are examined and discussed.

  5. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  6. Fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    For several years the authors have performed fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization (MPI). We will present a potpourri of techniques and results chosen to illustrate the interesting complexities of molecular MPI. Techniques used include time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, supersonic expansion cooling of molecular beams, harmonic generation, two-color laser MPI, and polarization spectroscopy. Whenever possible the relevance of these results to resonance ionization spectroscopy schemes will be delineated. 23 references, 10 figures

  7. Neutron Scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboussant, G.

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with inelastic neutron scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets and focuses on their magnetic properties at low temperature and low energies. Several molecular magnets (Mn 12 , V 15 , Ni 12 , Mn 4 , etc.) are reviewed. Inelastic neutron scattering is shown to be a perfectly suited spectroscopy tool to -a) probe magnetic energy levels in such systems and -b) provide key information to understand the quantum tunnel effect of the magnetization in molecular spin clusters. (author)

  8. Farm workers’ perception of animal welfare – A Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...... welfare among farm workers employed at five different Danish farms (pig, dairy cattle and mink). The methodology employed ethnographic field studies during daily work at the farms and qualitative interviews with 23 farm workers, of which some are of Danish nationality and others from other countries....

  9. Book Review: Natures of Africa. Ecocriticism and Animal Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Natures of Africa. Ecocriticism and Animal Studies in Contemporary Cultural Forms. Book Author: Fiona Moolla (Ed.) Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2016. 288pp. ISBN 9781868149131 (print); ISBN 9781868149162 (PDF).

  10. Webinar Presentation: Assessing Neurodevelopment in Parallel Animal and Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Assessing Neurodevelopment in Parallel Animal and Human Studies, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment held on Sept. 9, 2015.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals [Spanish][Epidemiología molecular de cryptosporidiosis en el ganado vacuno y en otros animales de abasto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals Cryptosporidium is an enteric protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Cryptosporidial infection is known now as one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and livestock. Worldwide prevale...

  12. Animal subjectivity : a study into philosophy and theory of animal experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijmbach, S.

    1998-01-01

    For many people, laypeople as well as animal scientists and philosophers, animal welfare involves animal feelings. Scientifically, however, animal feelings are problematic. In the concluding remarks of a conference about the welfare of domestic animals in 1994, for example, two questions

  13. Model systems to study immunomodulation in domestic food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J A; Flaming, K P

    1990-01-01

    Development of immunomodulators for use in food producing animals is an active area of research. This research has generally incorporated aspects of immunosuppression in model systems. This methodology is appropriate because most of the research has been aimed at developing immunomodulators for certain economically significant diseases in which immunosuppression is believed to be an important component of their pathogenesis. The primary focus has been on stress-associated diseases (especially bovine respiratory disease), infectious diseases in young animals, and mastitis. The model systems used have limitations, but they have demonstrated that immunomodulators are capable of significantly increasing resistance to these important infectious disease syndromes. As our understanding of molecular immunology increases and as more potential immunomodulators become available, the use of relevant model systems should greatly aid advancement in the field of immunomodulation.

  14. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus among coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin based on conventional and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Velizarova Rusenova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus among other coagulase positive staphylococci from animal origin by using conventional methods (biochemical tests and latex agglutination and a molecular method, based on the nuc gene, as the gold standard and to assess the usefulness of these methods. For this purpose, total of 344 staphylococcal isolates were collected and analysed. A total of 156 isolates suspicious for S. aureus were detected by a conventional biochemical method – 88 from cows, 18 from goats, 7 from pigs, 17 from poultry, 7 from rabbits and 19 from dogs. The majority of S. aureus strains gave typical biochemical reactions with the exception of 30 (19.2% and 25 (16% that were VP negative and weak positive in fermenting mannitol, respectively. Twelve strains were found to be non-haemolytic (7.7% and four strains did not ferment trehalose (2.6%. Other staphylococci were identified as S. pseudintermedius (n = 103, S. hyicus (n = 23 and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Latex agglutination test resulted in rapid positive reactions with S. aureus with exception of 5 strains (3.2% from cow mastitis milk. Positive agglutination reactions were also established with S. pseudintermedius, and S. hyicus. PCR confirmed all strains that were preliminary identified as S. aureus by amplification of 270 bp fragment of nuc gene specific for this species. The atypical reactions in certain strains established in this study have shown that the precise detection of S. aureus from animal origin should be done by combination of conventional and molecular methods.

  15. Animal subjectivity : a study into philosophy and theory of animal experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lijmbach, S.

    1998-01-01

    For many people, laypeople as well as animal scientists and philosophers, animal welfare involves animal feelings. Scientifically, however, animal feelings are problematic. In the concluding remarks of a conference about the welfare of domestic animals in 1994, for example, two questions for further research were proposed: (1) What is the nature of feelings? and (2) Why is it not possible to measure the occurrence of feelings in animals directly? This book intends to give a philosoph...

  16. The importance of animal studies in Exercise Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia De Angelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The validity and relevance of research with animals for the development of knowledge in Exercise Science have for long been discussed. Given the complexity of the biological systems, the use of animal models offers a significant contribution to uncover new findings about acute and chronic effects of exercise, particularly when these studies in humans have limitations and ethical implications. There have been notable findings using experimental animals either in basic sciences or in clinical studies involving physiology, pharmacology, genetic, biochemistry, urology, endocrinology and cancer. This article presents a brief review of scientific research using animal models with a focus on exercise training as an effective tool for the prophylaxis and treatment of different pathological processes, which are the basis of many concepts taught and used in undergraduate courses and graduate programs, as well as in new researches showed in scientific conference meetings in numerous areas of science.

  17. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  18. Molecular Studies on Preproinsulin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin plays an important role in maintaining the blood glucose level of the body. The β-cells of pancreas produce insulin in the form of precursor that is preproinsulin. The gene of preproinsulin provides an interesting system for addressing question related to molecular evolution. Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to isolate and sequence the chromosomal genes coding for unique protein products. Although preproinsulin of various organism has been isolated and cloned, but there is no report from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis that is our major livestock. The genomic DNA of buffalo was isolated using Laura-Lee-Boodram method. The part of preproinsulin gene (596bp and 520bp using BPPI-UPS and bpiful_F as forward and BC1-C as reverse primer was amplified. Cloning of amplified fragments of gene were performed in pCR 2.1 vector. Positive clones were screened on the basis of blue white selection. The band obtained on 596bp and 520bp after colony PCR confirmed the successful cloning of preproinsulin gene in pCR 2.1 vector.

  19. The history and enduring contributions of planarians to the study of animal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Having an almost unlimited capacity to regenerate tissues lost to age and injury, planarians have long fascinated naturalists. In the Western hemisphere alone, their documented history spans more than 200 years. Planarians were described in the early 19th century as being 'immortal under the edge of the knife', and initial investigation of these remarkable animals was significantly influenced by studies of regeneration in other organisms and from the flourishing field of experimental embryology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This review strives to place the study of planarian regeneration into a broader historical context by focusing on the significance and evolution of knowledge in this field. It also synthesizes our current molecular understanding of the mechanisms of planarian regeneration uncovered since this animal's relatively recent entrance into the molecular-genetic age. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High concentrations of antibodies to xanthine oxidase in human and animal sera. Molecular characterization.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruder, G; Jarasch, E D; Heid, H W

    1984-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of antibodies (IgG) specific to xanthine oxidase in both normal (nonimmune) human and animal sera, and in antisera raised against a diversity of unrelated antigens is described. A study of sera from 81 humans revealed that xanthine oxidase-specific IgG represents a high proportion (1-8%) of total IgG. No obvious correlation to pathological events or symptoms of disease could be found. These xanthine oxidase-specific antibodies could be isolated by immunoaffinity chro...

  1. A Study of Sasin-Animal Sky Map on Chonmunryucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jin Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chon-Mun-Ryu-Cho, written (edited by Lee Sun-Ji during the period of King Se-Jong, is a representative astronomy book of Cho-Sun (A.D. 1392 -1910 Dynasty. We find and study in the first page of the book; the description of 28 oriental constellations as a Sasin (four mythical oriental animals-animal sky map which is not widely known yet. The map consists of four groups of constellations, each of which represents the Sasin: Chang-Ryong (dragon, Baek-Ho (tigers with Ki-Rin [Oriental giraffe], Ju-Jak (Chinese phoenix, Hyun-Mu (a tortoise interwined with a snake. Each group (animals spans 2˜7 of 28 oriental constellations As we know from the illustration of the Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do a representative sky map of Cho-Sun Dynasty, astronomy in Cho-Sun Dynasty is closely related to that in Go-Gu-Ryer (B.C. 37 -A.D. 668 Dynasty. Since these Sasin-animals appear in most mural paintings of Go-Gu-Ryer tombs, visualization of sky with these animal constellations could have been established as early as in Go-Gu-Ryer Dynasty. We also reconstruct this ''A Sasin-animal Korean sky map'' based on the shapes of the Sasin and Ki-Rin from Go-Gu-Ryer paintings and 28 oriental constellations in Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do.

  2. Where are we in the study of animal emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Amber J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2016-09-01

    The study of emotion is rife with debate over issues as fundamental as how to define emotion, and such disputes are particularly common in the nonhuman animal emotion literature. Here, we seek to address some of these issues, especially in terms of how they relate to animal research. Definitional issues are prevalent; clear definitions are often not given of crucial terms, including 'emotion,' and even where provided, such terms may be used inconsistently throughout a single paper. Further disagreement over the structure of emotions, and the nature of conscious experiences involved, leads to consistent differences in authors' criteria for emotions. We concur with those who believe that animals experience emotions and believe that animal emotions should be studied in their own right, not only as they compare to those of humans. We also propose several avenues for future research that we believe will further our understanding of animal emotions. First, the use of multiple measurement methods to assess emotional responses is most likely to provide the information necessary to distinguish between various states and opens the field to more research in harder-to-study species, such as marine mammals. Second, researchers should also endeavor to increase the range of emotions studied, particularly positive ones, in order to move toward a more balanced range of studied states. Finally, we believe that several aspects of personality research would prove beneficial to the study of animal emotions, particularly the distinction between trait and state emotion and the use of the rating method. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:354-362. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1399 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Childhood Cruelty to Animals: A Tri-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Yeow, James; Hapidzal, Noor Fizlee Mohd; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yokoyama, Akimitsu; Nobuzane, Yosuke

    2009-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is a symptom of conduct disorder that has been linked to the perpetration of violence in later life. Research has identified several factors associated with its etiology, including social factors. However, no cross-cultural studies on this phenomenon have been reported. This study investigated childhood cruelty to…

  4. A Small Scale Experimental Study: Using Animations to Learn Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Dag Akbas, Raside; Ozturk, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate whether a difference exists between learning vocabulary via animation and via traditional paper-based method. This small scale study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University in academic year 2009-2010. Two pre-intermediate classes were randomly selected as the experimental group (n = 17), and control group…

  5. Molecular Subtyping and Source Attribution of Campylobacter Isolated from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Tate, Heather P; Abbott, Jason; Tran, Thu-Thuy; Kabera, Claudine; Crarey, Emily; Young, Shenia; McDermott, Patrick F; Sprague, Grisselle; Campbell, Mark; Adeyemo, Oyewole; Browne-Silva, Johnette; Myers, Michael; Thitaram, Sutawee; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. commonly cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. Poultry meats have long been considered the predominant source of these infections, but few in-depth Campylobacter source attribution studies have been completed. We analyzed more than 1,300 Campylobacter isolates recovered from a number of animal and food sources, including dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry, and retail poultry meat, and compared them with Campylobacter isolates recovered from human clinical samples. Each isolate was subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and queried against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet database to identify human isolates with indistinguishable patterns. Half (49.5%) of the PFGE patterns from poultry animal and retail meat isolates were indistinguishable from patterns of at least one human isolate. Among the isolates from beef and dairy cows, 56.6 and 65.0%, respectively, of their PFGE patterns were indistinguishable from those of human isolates. Only a small portion of the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter isolated from pigs (9.5%) were found to have PFGE patterns in common with human isolates. These data imply that cattle may be larger contributors to Campylobacter infections than previously recognized and help further our understanding of potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  6. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli, Bovicola bovis (B. bovis and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001 higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1% and keds (86.4% including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001. Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001. Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  7. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. Aim To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Methods Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Main Outcomes Measures Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. Results The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women’s sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain

  8. Endoscopic colostomy with percutaneous colopexy: an animal feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Alfonso Bustamante-López

    Full Text Available Background: Indications for colostomy in colorectal diseases are obstruction of the large bowel, such as in cancer, diverticular disease in the acute phase, post-radiotherapy enteritis, complex perirectal fistulas, anorectal trauma and severe anal incontinence. Some critically ill patients cannot tolerate an exploratory laparotomy, and laparoscopic assisted colostomy also requires general anesthesia. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of performing colostomy assisted by colonoscopy and percutaneous colopexy. Materials and methods: Five pigs underwent endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy. Animals were evaluated in post-operative days 1, 2, 5 and 7 for feeding acceptance and colostomy characteristics. On day 7 full colonoscopy was performed on animals followed by exploratory laparotomy. Results: Average procedure time was 27 minutes (21-54 min. Postoperative mobility and feeding of animals were immediate after anesthesia recovery. Position of the colostomy, edges color, appearance of periostomal area, as well as its function was satisfactory in four animals. Retraction of colostomy was present in one pig. The colonoscopy and laparotomy control on the seventh day were considered as normal. A bladder perforation that was successfully repaired through the colostomy incision occurred in one pig. The main limitation of this study is its experimental nature. Conclusion: Endoscopic assisted colostomy with percutaneous colopexy proves to be a safe and effective method with low morbidity for performing colostomy in experimental animals, with possible clinical application in humans.

  9. Animal models for the study of hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with an effective vaccine, an estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV worldwide. Current antiviral therapies, including interferon and nucleot(side analogues, rarely cure chronic hepatitis B. Animal models are very crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and developing new therapeutic drugs or strategies. HBV can only infect humans and chimpanzees, with the use of chimpanzees in HBV research strongly restricted. Thus, most advances in HBV research have been gained using mouse models with HBV replication or infection or models with HBV-related hepadnaviral infection. This review summarizes the animal models currently available for the study of HBV infection.

  10. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  11. Comparative Study of Biogas Yield Pattern in Some Animal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was a laboratory based work which compared Biogas yield patterns in some animal and household wastes. The parameters studied included dilution and concentration of substrates, the effect of available space in the digester, and the comparative biogas yield from different wastes. The method of research ...

  12. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  13. Study on gastro intestinal parasite of cattle at Horoguduru Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing ... Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department.

  14. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50 first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety as-sessment of drugs and chemicals, LD50 values are no longer used. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to investigating the relevance of LD50 in development and assessment of drugs and chemicals. The findings revealed that in the past, many animals had been used for LD50 determination. OECD has reduced the number of test animals to 5–15 and presently it is further re-duced to 2–6. Acute toxicity study is being carried out in medicinal plants research and in the study of patent medicine. Although the application of LD50 has been drastically reduced, it is still applied and accepted in some parts of the world. Moreover, animals on which LD50 tests are conducted, should be allowed to die to see the end effect of the test drug or chemical because euthanisia of test animals may mask some toxicity signs of the test agents. Therefore, toxicity study of drugs and chemicals is a sci-entific process necessary for discovery and development of drugs as well as identification of potential toxicants.

  15. High concentrations of antibodies to xanthine oxidase in human and animal sera. Molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, G; Jarasch, E D; Heid, H W

    1984-09-01

    The widespread occurrence of antibodies (IgG) specific to xanthine oxidase in both normal (nonimmune) human and animal sera, and in antisera raised against a diversity of unrelated antigens is described. A study of sera from 81 humans revealed that xanthine oxidase-specific IgG represents a high proportion (1-8%) of total IgG. No obvious correlation to pathological events or symptoms of disease could be found. These xanthine oxidase-specific antibodies could be isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography on purified human or bovine xanthine oxidase and showed specific binding to the enzyme polypeptide of Mr 155,000 in immunoblotting experiments. By immunofluorescence microscopy they displayed the same cell type-specific reaction as experimentally induced antibodies, i.e., the staining of lactating mammary gland epithelium and capillary endothelium. The naturally occurring xanthine oxidase-specific antibodies consisted of polyclonal IgG of various subclasses. F(ab')2 preparations gave immune-reactions identical to those of IgG. The human xanthine oxidase-specific IgG cross-reacted with the bovine enzyme and both human and animal antibodies partially inhibited its activity. The xanthine oxidase activity of human milk lipid globules and supernatant fractions from various human tissues was extremely low when compared with that of the bovine antigen. The enzyme protein, however, was effectively precipitated from these sources by both the human and bovine antibodies. We suggest that the exceptionally high concentrations of antibodies against one protein, xanthine oxidase, are due to self-immunization to the xanthine oxidase antigen present in endothelial cells of capillaries. We do not exclude, however, nutritional contributions of bovine milk antigen to the appearance of xanthine oxidase antibodies in human sera. The possible biological functions of this immunological reaction are discussed.

  16. Comparative studies on different molecular methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to evaluate two molecular methods for epidemiological typing of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Mansoura Hospitals. In this study, a total of 300 clinical isolates were collected from different patients distributed among Mansoura Hospitals, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt.

  17. Serological and Molecular Detection ofToxoplasma gondiiandBabesia microtiin the Blood of Rescued Wild Animals in Gangwon-do (Province), Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Young-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jong-Tak; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2017-04-01

    Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti are reported in many wild animals worldwide, but information on their incidence and molecular detection in Korean wild fields is limited. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti infection in blood samples of 5 animal species (37 Chinese water deer, 23 raccoon dogs, 6 roe deer, 1 wild boar, and 3 Eurasian badgers) was examined during 2008-2009 in Gangwon-do (Province), the Republic of Korea (=Korea) by using serological and molecular tests. The overall seropositivity of T. gondii was 8.6% (6/70); 10.8% in Chinese water deer, 4.3% in raccoon dogs, and 16.7% in roe deer. PCR revealed only 1 case of T. gondii infection in Chinese water deer, and phylogenic analysis showed that the positive isolate was practically identical to the highly pathogenetic strain type I. In B. microti PCR, the positive rate was 5.7% (4/70), including 2 Chinese water deer and 2 Eurasian badgers. Phylogenetic analysis results of 18S rRNA and the β-tubulin gene showed that all positive isolates were US-type B. microti . To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. microti detected in Chinese water deer and Eurasian badger from Korea. These results indicate a potentially high prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti in wild animals of Gangwon-do, Korea. Furthermore, Chinese water deer might act as a reservoir for parasite infections of domestic animals.

  18. Thermally driven molecular linear motors - A molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial carbon nanotubes with a long outer carbon nanotube confining and guiding the motion of an inner short, capsule-like nanotube. The simulations indicate that the motion of the capsule can be controlled...

  19. Inferences on radiation carcinogenesis revealed by selected studies in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustad, L.K.; Goldman, M.; Rosenblatt, L.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of heterogeneous populations of animals with long lives and humans, exposed to various radionuclides and particularly those related to the nuclear energy fuel cycle, are instructive for deriving inferences relative to the cinogenic risk of energy-related radiation. Dose-response curves for various radionuclides [with varying half-lives, qualities of radiation (LET), and metabolic characteristics] provide similarities regardless of the species studied or the tissues at risk

  20. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: Worker and experimental animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses. PMID:22734811

  1. STUDY OF THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF CYPERMETHRIN IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mehmood Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the toxic effects of a commercially available pesticide, cypermethrin (CM, on animals. This pesticide was administered in the form of aerosol spray through a nebulizer. The study was performed in four different groups and a constant dose of the pesticide was administered once, twice, thrice and four times a day to the respective group for a period of 30 days. The animals were then dissected to study the pesticide effects on different organs. The organs were preserved in 10% formalin. The tissues were processed by basic histopathological method and the slides were prepared for observation. The results were recorded on a performa and were quantified by a unique scoring system. It is concluded that the injurious effects to the mentioned organs were dose and frequency dependent.

  2. Immunotoxicology of arc welding fume: worker and experimental animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-01

    Arc welding processes generate complex aerosols composed of potentially hazardous metal fumes and gases. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to welding aerosols daily. A health effect of welding that is of concern to the occupational health community is the development of immune system dysfunction. Increased severity, frequency, and duration of upper and lower respiratory tract infections have been reported among welders. Specifically, multiple studies have observed an excess mortality from pneumonia in welders and workers exposed to metal fumes. Although several welder cohort and experimental animal studies investigating the adverse effects of welding fume exposure on immune function have been performed, the potential mechanisms responsible for these effects are limited. The objective of this report was to review both human and animal studies that have examined the effect of welding fume pulmonary exposure on local and systemic immune responses.

  3. High pressure studies of molecular lumenescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drickamer, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The studies of high pressure molecular luminescence reviewed, along with results for inorganic systems discussed elsewhere, provide evidence about the versatility and power of high pressure as a tool for characterizing electronic states, testing theories concerning electronic phenomena, and generally obtaining a better understanding of electronic behavior in condensed systems. 16 figures.

  4. Gambling disorder: an integrative review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Okuda, Mayumi; Hen, Rene; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Gambling disorder (GD), previously called pathological gambling and classified as an impulse control disorder in DSM-III and DSM-IV, has recently been reclassified as an addictive disorder in the DSM-5. It is widely recognized as an important public health problem associated with substantial personal and social costs, high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, poor physical health, and elevated suicide rates. A number of risk factors have been identified, including some genetic polymorphisms. Animal models have been developed in order to study the underlying neural basis of GD. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the risk factors, disease course, and pathophysiology. A focus on a phenotype-based dissection of the disorder is included in which known neural correlates from animal and human studies are reviewed. Finally, current treatment approaches are discussed, as well as future directions for GD research. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  6. Understanding the genetic and molecular pathogenesis of Friedreich’s ataxia through animal and cellular models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Alain; Napierala, Marek; Puccio, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease. These advances were the subject of the 4th International Friedreich’s Ataxia Conference held on 5th–7th May in the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France. More than 200 scientists gathered from all over the world to present the results of research spanning all areas of investigation into FRDA (including clinical aspects, FRDA pathogenesis, genetics and epigenetics of the disease, development of new models of FRDA, and drug discovery). This review provides an update on the understanding of frataxin function, developments of animal and cellular models of the disease, and recent advances in trying to uncover potential molecules for therapy. PMID:22382366

  7. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Foods of Animal Origin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siiriken, Belgin; Yildirim, Tuba; Güney, Akif Koray; Erol, Irfan; Durupinar, Belma

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, 175 coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) isolates recovered from samples of beef (n = 110), raw milk n = 56), and fish (n = 9) were analyzed for methicillin resistance using MIC and PCR assays. Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates were then characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). According to findings, 62 (35.4%) of the isolates (44 from beef, 9 from milk, and 9 from fish) were identified as S. aureus based on the presence of the nuc gene. MRCPS was detected in 18 (10.3%) of 175 CPS isolates based on the presence of the mecA gene. Among these isolates, 15 (24.2%) were MRSA: 4 (26.7%) from beef, 2 (13.3%) from milk, and 9 (60%) from fish. However, based on the MIC assay, 21 (12.0%) of the CPS isolates (1 from beef, 15 from milk, and 5 from fish) were MRCPS, indicating a discrepancy between the results of these two methods. The PFGE results indicated genetic heterogeneity of the isolates; six PFGE clusters were found. These results confirm that MRSA is present in foods of animal origin, which is a concern to human health, and indicate the importance of method selection for determination of methicillin resistance. The identity of MR isolates should be verified by PCR to obtain more reliable results.

  8. Drug induced acute kidney injury: an experimental animal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.W.A.; Khan, B.T.; Qazi, R.A.; Ashraf, M.; Waqar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent of drug induced nephrotoxicity in laboratory animals for determining the role and extent of iatrogenic kidney damage in patients exposed to nephrotoxic drugs in various clinical setups. Study Design: Randomized control trail. Place and Duration of study: Pharmacology department and animal house of Army Medical College from Jan 2011 to Aug 2011. Material and Methods: Thirty six mixed breed rabbits were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of six rabbits in each. Groups were named A, B, C, D, E and F. Group A was control group. Group B was given 0.9% normal saline. Group C rabbits were given acute nephrotoxic single dose of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Group D received 0.9% normal saline 10ml/kg followed by amphotericin B infusion. Group E was injected acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Group F received saline loading along with acute nephrotoxic regimen of cyclosporine and amphotericin B infusion. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significant kidney injury in rabbits exposed to acute nephrotoxic doses of amphotericin B and cyclosporine. Toxicity was additive when the two drugs were administered simultaneously. Group of rabbits with saline loading had significantly lesser kidney damage. Conclusion: Iatrogenic acute kidney damage is a major cause of morbidity in experimental animals exposed to such nephrotoxic drugs like amphotericin B and cyclosporine, used either alone or in combination. Clinical studies are recommended to assess the extent of iatrogenic renal damage in patients and its economic burden. Efficient and cost effective protective measure may be adopted in clinical setups against such adverse effects. (author)

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cian

    Full Text Available Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human

  10. Study on Romanian Consumers’ Opinion Regarding the Animal Welfare Labelling of Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate the influence some factors on the consumers’ opinion regarding the animal welfare labelling of animal products. The analysed question was: “When purchasing eggs, meat or milk can you easily identify from the label those products sourced from animal welfare friendly production systems?” Respondents chosen only one answer out of the five offered: yes, most of the time; yes, some of the time; no, very rarely; no, never; and don’t know. Thirty three percent of females considered they could find sometime information regarding the animal welfare on the labels, while males considered that this information could be found very rarely. Up to 55 years of age, 50% of the consumers consider that the labels do not contain the information about animal welfare, while after this age most of consumers consider they found this information on the labels. Over 50% of Orthodox and Roman Catholic responders considered that the information on animal welfare on the labels was found some of the time or very rarely. Respondents, irrespective of their living area or monthly income, considered that there is scarce information regarding animal welfare on the labels. Internet access significantly influenced the consumers regarding the availability of the information on the labels.

  11. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  12. Nonlinear spectroscopic studies of interfacial molecular ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superfine, R.

    1991-07-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful new probes of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the nonlinear susceptibility. In particular, infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) can obtain the vibrational spectrum of sub-monolayer coverages of molecules. In this thesis, we explore the unique information that can be obtained from SFG. We take advantage of the sensitivity of SFG to the conformation of alkane chains to study the interaction between adsorbed liquid crystal molecules and surfactant treated surfaces. The sign of the SFG susceptibility depends on the sign of the molecular polarizability and the orientation, up or down, of the molecule. We experimentally determine the sign of the susceptibility and use it to determine the absolute orientation to obtain the sign of the molecular polarizability and show that this quantity contains important information about the dynamics of molecular charge distributions. Finally, we study the vibrational spectra and the molecular orientation at the pure liquid/vapor interface of methanol and water and present the most detailed evidence yet obtained for the structure of the pure water surface. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. The influence of body size and net diversification rate on molecular evolution during the radiation of animal phyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch John J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular clock dates, which place the origin of animal phyla deep in the Precambrian, have been used to reject the hypothesis of a rapid evolutionary radiation of animal phyla supported by the fossil record. One possible explanation of the discrepancy is the potential for fast substitution rates early in the metazoan radiation. However, concerted rate variation, occurring simultaneously in multiple lineages, cannot be detected by "clock tests", and so another way to explore such variation is to look for correlated changes between rates and other biological factors. Here we investigate two possible causes of fast early rates: change in average body size or diversification rate of deep metazoan lineages. Results For nine genes for phylogenetically independent comparisons between 50 metazoan phyla, orders, and classes, we find a significant correlation between average body size and rate of molecular evolution of mitochondrial genes. The data also indicate that diversification rate may have a positive effect on rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution. Conclusion If average body sizes were significantly smaller in the early history of the Metazoa, and if rates of diversification were much higher, then it is possible that mitochondrial genes have undergone a slow-down in evolutionary rate, which could affect date estimates made from these genes.

  14. Pharmaco-EEG Studies in Animals: A History-Based Introduction to Contemporary Translational Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H I M; Ahnaou, Abdallah; Ruigt, Gé S F

    2015-01-01

    Current research on the effects of pharmacological agents on human neurophysiology finds its roots in animal research, which is also reflected in contemporary animal pharmaco-electroencephalography (p-EEG) applications. The contributions, present value and translational appreciation of animal p-EEG-based applications are strongly interlinked with progress in recording and neuroscience analysis methodology. After the pioneering years in the late 19th and early 20th century, animal p-EEG research flourished in the pharmaceutical industry in the early 1980s. However, around the turn of the millennium the emergence of structurally and functionally revealing imaging techniques and the increasing application of molecular biology caused a temporary reduction in the use of EEG as a window into the brain for the prediction of drug efficacy. Today, animal p-EEG is applied again for its biomarker potential - extensive databases of p-EEG and polysomnography studies in rats and mice hold EEG signatures of a broad collection of psychoactive reference and test compounds. A multitude of functional EEG measures has been investigated, ranging from simple spectral power and sleep-wake parameters to advanced neuronal connectivity and plasticity parameters. Compared to clinical p-EEG studies, where the level of vigilance can be well controlled, changes in sleep-waking behaviour are generally a prominent confounding variable in animal p-EEG studies and need to be dealt with. Contributions of rodent pharmaco-sleep EEG research are outlined to illustrate the value and limitations of such preclinical p-EEG data for pharmacodynamic and chronopharmacological drug profiling. Contemporary applications of p-EEG and pharmaco-sleep EEG recordings in animals provide a common and relatively inexpensive window into the functional brain early in the preclinical and clinical development of psychoactive drugs in comparison to other brain imaging techniques. They provide information on the impact of

  15. Molecular identification of Trichinella isolates from wildlife animals of the Russian Arctic territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goździk K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematodes of genus Trichinella are infective to a wide range of hosts, including humans, and have global distribution from tropic to arctic areas. Muscle samples from animals, collected in two areas of the Russian Federation, Chukotka Peninsula and Arkhangelsk Oblast, were tested for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae. Trichinella spp. larvae were recovered from tissues of eleven wild and domestic animals: 1 polar bear, 1 wolverine, 3 arctic foxes, 1 ringed seal, 1 brown bear, 1 cat, 1 sled dog, 1 domestic pig and 1 northern sea lion.

  16. THE HISTORY AND ENDURING CONTRIBUTIONS OF PLANARIANS TO THE STUDY OF ANIMAL REGENERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A.; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Having an almost unlimited capacity to regenerate tissues lost to age and injury, planarians have long fascinated naturalists. In the Western hemisphere alone, their documented history spans more than 200 years. Planarians were described in the early 19th century as being “immortal under the edge of the knife,” and initial investigation of these remarkable animals was significantly influenced by studies of regeneration in other organisms and from the flourishing field of experimental embryology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This review strives to place the study of planarian regeneration into a broader historical context by focusing on the significance and evolution of knowledge in this field. It also synthesizes our current molecular understanding of the mechanisms of planarian regeneration uncovered since this animal’s relatively recent entrance into the molecular-genetic age. PMID:23799578

  17. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Kottbus isolated in Germany from humans, food and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toboldt, Anne; Tietze, Erhard; Helmuth, Reiner; Junker, Ernst; Fruth, Angelika; Malorny, Burkhard

    2014-05-14

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kottbus has been continuously isolated from poultry and poultry meat, especially from turkey. We investigated by comparative molecular typing 95 S. Kottbus isolates obtained in Germany between 2000 and 2011 from poultry/poultry meat, pig/pork, cattle, reptiles, the environment as well as from human cases to identify potential infection sources for humans, especially the role of poultry and poultry products as vehicle in transmission of S. Kottbus isolates to humans. Multilocus sequence typing analysis detected three main genetic lineages. Most human isolates belonged to lineage 1 represented by sequence types ST212 and ST808. Part of the isolates isolated from cattle and pork were also linked to this lineage. Nevertheless, human isolates and especially isolates from poultry/poultry meat, and with less extend from other livestock, grouped in lineage 2 represented by ST582. Four additional isolates from reptiles and humans belonging to ST1669 represented the third lineage. The three lineages were also reflected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing data and DNA microarray analysis of 102 pathogenicity genes. Antimicrobial resistance especially to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was predominantly observed in isolates assigned to lineage 2, which contains predominantly resistant isolates compared to lineage 1 and 3. Sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA revealed a point mutation in codon 83 or 87 responsible for nalidixic acid resistance and MIC values for ciprofloxacin between 0.125 and 0.25mg/l. Overall, this study showed that in Germany a specific S. Kottbus lineage (ST582), which is well-established in poultry, can be transmitted to humans by poultry meat and, consequently, poses a risk for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular analysis of Tn1546 in Enterococcus faecium isolated from animals and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Ahrens, Peter; Dons, L.

    1998-01-01

    The internal areas and the position of integration of the glycopeptide resistance element Tn1546 were characterized by using PCR fragment length polymorphism, sequencing, and DNA hybridization techniques with 38 high-level vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates of human and animal...

  20. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food products of animal origin as determined by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Alessandria, Valentina; Cocolin, Luca

    2012-03-01

    In this study we report on the prevalence and distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in food products of animal origin, collected in the Piedmont region of Italy, as determined by a combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) protocols, applied directly to the samples, and of culture-dependent isolation and subsequent molecular identification and characterization of isolates. The qPCR protocols were developed and optimized in this study and targeted the rpoB gene (as a marker for total E. coli) and the stx₁, stx₂ and eaeA genes (as markers for potentially virulent E.coli). They were then used to test for STEC in 101 food samples, before and after enrichment. A STEC prevalence of 42% (21/50) for dairy products and 70% (36/51) for meat products was obtained. A total of 54 STEC isolates were recovered from dairy and meat samples, resulting in a prevalence of 36% and 27% in dairy and meat products, respectively, by the culture method. A large number of strains carried the stx₂ gene (39 out of the 54 STEC strains) compared to strains that carried stx₁ (30 out of 54); only 11 out of 54 strains contained the eaeA gene, while 14 strains contained both stx₁ and stx₂. Eight of the 54 isolates belonged to the O157 serogroup, and none belonged to serogroups O26, O145, O111 or O103. Strains isolated from meat products were diverse, as determined by Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC), while those isolated from dairy products were more similar and grouped together by cluster analysis. The results of the qPCR approach showed a high prevalence of STEC in dairy and meat based products, mainly fermented, indicating a possible safety risk for these types of food commodities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Journal club. A molecular biologist explores how new genomic tools can be applied to wild animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 465, č. 7298 (2010), s. 529-529 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : DFTD * deep sequencing * Tasmanian Devil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 36.101, year: 2010

  2. Preliminary study for small animal preclinical hadrontherapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, G. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Pisciotta, P., E-mail: pietro.pisciotta@ibfm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cammarata, F.; Marchese, V.; Forte, G.I.; Lamia, D.; Minafra, L.; Bravatá, V. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Acquaviva, R. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Gilardi, M.C. [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM CNR-LATO, Cefalú (Italy); Cuttone, G. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy)

    2017-02-21

    Aim of this work is the study of the preliminary steps to perform a particle treatment of cancer cells inoculated in small animals and to realize a preclinical hadrontherapy facility. A well-defined dosimetric protocol was developed to explicate the steps needed in order to perform a precise proton irradiation in small animals and achieve a highly conformal dose into the target. A precise homemade positioning and holding system for small animals was designed and developed at INFN-LNS in Catania (Italy), where an accurate Monte Carlo simulation was developed, using Geant4 code to simulate the treatment in order to choose the best animal position and perform accurately all the necessary dosimetric evaluations. The Geant4 application can also be used to realize dosimetric studies and its peculiarity consists in the possibility to introduce the real target composition in the simulation using the DICOM micro-CT image. This application was fully validated comparing the results with the experimental measurements. The latter ones were performed at the CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) facility at INFN-LNS by irradiating both PMMA and water solid phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed using previously calibrated EBT3 Gafchromic films as a detector and the results were compared with the Geant4 simulation ones. In particular, two different types of dosimetric studies were performed: the first one involved irradiation of a phantom made up of water solid slabs where a layer of EBT3 was alternated with two different slabs in a sandwich configuration, in order to validate the dosimetric distribution. The second one involved irradiation of a PMMA phantom made up of a half hemisphere and some PMMA slabs in order to simulate a subcutaneous tumour configuration, normally used in preclinical studies. In order to evaluate the accordance between experimental and simulation results, two different statistical tests were made: Kolmogorov test and

  3. Depression and substance use comorbidity: What we have learned from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Enoch; Browne, Caleb J; Samsom, James N; Wong, Albert H C

    2017-07-01

    Depression and substance use disorders are often comorbid, but the reasons for this are unclear. In human studies, it is difficult to determine how one disorder may affect predisposition to the other and what the underlying mechanisms might be. Instead, animal studies allow experimental induction of behaviors relevant to depression and drug-taking, and permit direct interrogation of changes to neural circuits and molecular pathways. While this field is still new, here we review animal studies that investigate whether depression-like states increase vulnerability to drug-taking behaviors. Since chronic psychosocial stress can precipitate or predispose to depression in humans, we review studies that use psychosocial stressors to produce depression-like phenotypes in animals. Specifically, we describe how postweaning isolation stress, repeated social defeat stress, and chronic mild (or unpredictable) stress affect behaviors relevant to substance abuse, especially operant self-administration. Potential brain changes mediating these effects are also discussed where available, with an emphasis on mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuits. Postweaning isolation stress and repeated social defeat generally increase acquisition or maintenance of drug self-administration, and alter dopamine sensitivity in various brain regions. However, the effects of chronic mild stress on drug-taking have been much less studied. Future studies should consider standardizing stress-induction protocols, including female subjects, and using multi-hit models (e.g. genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stress).

  4. What do animals learn in artificial grammar studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2017-10-01

    Artificial grammar learning is a popular paradigm to study syntactic ability in nonhuman animals. Subjects are first trained to recognize strings of tokens that are sequenced according to grammatical rules. Next, to test if recognition depends on grammaticality, subjects are presented with grammar-consistent and grammar-violating test strings, which they should discriminate between. However, simpler cues may underlie discrimination if they are available. Here, we review stimulus design in a sample of studies that use particular sounds as tokens, and that claim or suggest their results demonstrate a form of sequence rule learning. To assess the extent of acoustic similarity between training and test strings, we use four simple measures corresponding to cues that are likely salient. All stimulus sets contain biases in similarity measures such that grammatical test stimuli resemble training stimuli acoustically more than do non-grammatical test stimuli. These biases may contribute to response behaviour, reducing the strength of grammatical explanations. We conclude that acoustic confounds are a blind spot in artificial grammar learning studies in nonhuman animals. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. [Molecular study of Fanconi anemia in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchlaka, Chiraz; Abdelhak, Sonia; Dellagi, Koussay

    2004-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive rare disease characterized by progressive pancytopenia, congenital malformations and predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia. Fanconi anemia is genetically heterogeneous, with at least eight complementation groups of FA (FAA to FAD2). In order to characterize the molecular defects underlying FA in Tunisia, fourty-one families were genotyped with microsatellite markers linked to known FA gene. Haplotype analysis and homozygosity mapping showed that 92% of these families belong to FAA group. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the molecular analysis for a better selection of bone marrow graft donor and for the evaluation of chimerism after bone marrow transplantation. This study also allows genetic counselling for FA family members.

  6. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang RB

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Renbao Chang,1 Xudong Liu,1 Shihua Li,2 Xiao-Jiang Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner. Keywords: transgenic animal models, Huntington’s disease, pathogenesis, therapy

  7. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in animal and human hosts from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Ditrich, Oleg; Šlapeta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2004), s. 183-192 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6022006 Grant - others:GA MŠk1(CZ) 1260/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * molecular identification * SSU rRNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  8. Molecular alterations in muscle wasting and cachexia : therapeutic approaches in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Cabrera, Alba, 1988-

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia and muscle deconditioning, which are the major comorbidities in patients with chronic diseases including lung cancer (LC), impair disease prognosis. Several biological mechanisms are involved in these two muscle wasting conditions but current treatment options are limited. Hypothesis: the biological mechanisms involved in muscle wasting and dysfunction may differ between muscle deconditioning and LC induced cachexia in mice. We also hypothesized that the profile of molecular events i...

  9. Preclinical molecular imaging: development of instrumentation for translational research with small laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Jorge; Miranda, Ana Claudia Camargo; Durante, Ana Claudia Ranucci; Oliveira, Larissa Rolim de; Barboza, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de; Rosell, Katerin Taboada; Jardim, Daniele Pereira; Campos, Alexandre Holthausen; Reis, Marilia Alves Dos; Catanoso, Marcela Forli; Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth; Cabral, Francisco Romero

    2016-01-01

    To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. The combined system was characterized, determining operational parameters, such as spatial resolution, magnification, maximum acceptable target size, number of projections, and acquisition and reconstruction times. Images were obtained with 0.5mm spatial resolution, with acquisition and reconstruction times between 30 and 45 minutes, using iterative reconstruction with 10 to 20 iterations and 4 projection subsets. The system was validated acquiring in vivo tomographic images of the heart, kidneys and brain of normal animals (mice and adult rats), using the radiopharmaceuticals technetium-labeled hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-Sestamibi), technetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-labeled hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). This kind of application, which consists in the adaptation for an alternative objective of already existing instrumentation, resulted in a low-cost infrastructure option, allowing to carry out large scale in vivo studies with enhanced quality in several areas, such as neurology, nephrology, cardiology, among others. Apresentar o resultado da adaptação de uma gama câmara clínica para uso dedicado na obtenção de imagens tomográficas in vivo de órgãos de pequenos animais de experimentação, e de sua aplicação na obtenção de imagens cardíacas, renais e neurológicas. Foi construída uma versão atualizada do dispositivo de adapta

  10. The virtual cell animation collection: tools for teaching molecular and cellular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Katie M; White, Alan R; Johnson, Christina; Vender, Bradley; Slator, Brian M; McClean, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    A cell is a minifactory in which structures and molecules are assembled, rearranged, disassembled, packaged, sorted, and transported. Because cellular structures and molecules are invisible to the human eye, students often have difficulty conceptualizing the dynamic nature of cells that function at multiple scales across time and space. To represent these dynamic cellular processes, the Virtual Cell Productions team at North Dakota State University develops freely available multimedia materials to support molecular and cellular biology learning inside and outside the high school and university classroom.

  11. High resolution color raster computer animation of space filling molecular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The ATOMLLL system efficiently produces realistic photographs of ball-and-stick or space-filling molecular models, with color shading, highlights, shadows, and transparency. The hidden surface problem for a scene composed of intersecting spheres and cylinders is solved on a CDC-7600, which outputs onto magnetic tape the outlines of the visible parts of each object. The outlines are then rendered, at up to 4096 x 4096 resolution, by a Dicomed D-48 color film recorder, controlled by a Varian V-75 minicomputer. The Varian computes the shading and highlights for each pixel in a fast microcoded loop. Recent modifications to give shadows and transparency are described

  12. Molecular beam studies and hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Lee, Y.T.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the crossed molecular beam technique to the study of hot atom chemistry has provided significant insights into the dynamics of hot atom reaction. To illustrate this, two recent studies are discussed. Those are the study on the influence of translational energy in 0.6 to 1.5 eV range on endoergic reaction, and the experimental study on the detailed dynamics of elementary reaction at translational energy of 0.53 and 1.01 eV. The first example illustrates the contribution that molecular beam experiment can make in the understanding of the dynamics of endoergic substitution reaction. The second example illustrates the role that such studies can play in evaluating exact three-dimensional quantum scattering calculation and ab initio potential energy surfaces for chemical reaction. In the case of endoergic reaction of halogen substitution, it was observed that the reactive collision involved short lived collision complexes. It is suggested that energetic effect alone cannot account for the difference in cross sections, and dynamic effect most play a large role. In atom-diatom reaction, the differential cross section measurement of D+H 2 →DH+H reaction was carried out, and the results are discussed. (K.I.)

  13. Kinetic parametric estimation in animal PET molecular imaging based on artificial immune network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuting; Ding Hong; Lu Rui; Huang Hongbo; Liu Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop an accurate,reliable method without the need of initialization in animal PET modeling for estimation of the tracer kinetic parameters based on the artificial immune network. Methods: The hepatic and left ventricular time activity curves (TACs) were obtained by drawing ROIs of liver tissue and left ventricle on dynamic 18 F-FDG PET imaging of small mice. Meanwhile, the blood TAC was analyzed by sampling the tail vein blood at different time points after injection. The artificial immune network for parametric optimization of pharmacokinetics (PKAIN) was adapted to estimate the model parameters and the metabolic rate of glucose (K i ) was calculated. Results: TACs of liver,left ventricle and tail vein blood were obtained.Based on the artificial immune network, K i in 3 mice was estimated as 0.0024, 0.0417 and 0.0047, respectively. The average weighted residual sum of squares of the output model generated by PKAIN was less than 0.0745 with a maximum standard deviation of 0.0084, which indicated that the proposed PKAIN method can provide accurate and reliable parametric estimation. Conclusion: The PKAIN method could provide accurate and reliable tracer kinetic modeling in animal PET imaging without the need of initialization of model parameters. (authors)

  14. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolensky D

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dmitriy Smolensky,1,2 Kusum Rathore,1 Maria Cekanova1,2 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2UT-ORNL Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, signaling pathways, clinical trials

  15. Epidemiological Study of Animal Leptospirosis in New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Roqueplo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa, 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7% were found to be positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. According to the species, the positive sera were obtained from 43% of 30 cattle, 72% of 29 Rusa deer, 80% of 25 horses, and 43% of 51 dogs, and fromall of the 8 cats tested. This study shows the broad dispersion and the high prevalence of the different serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira species tested, particularly among deer and horses. The disease is endemic in domestic animals and concerns all the species.

  16. Towards ethically improved animal experimentation in the study of animal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, D; Martin, G B; Maloney, S K

    2008-07-01

    The ethics of animal-based research is a continuing area of debate, but ethical research protocols do not prevent scientific progress. In this paper, we argue that our current knowledge of the factors that affect reproductive processes provides researchers with a solid foundation upon which they can conduct more ethical research and simultaneously produce data of higher quality. We support this argument by showing how a deep understanding of the genetics, nutrition and temperament of our experimental animals can improve compliance with two of the '3 Rs', reduction and refinement, simply by offering better control over the variance in our experimental model. The outcome is a better experimental design, on both ethical and scientific grounds.

  17. Nicotine addiction: studies about vulnerability, epigenesis and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu, Ramon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a summary about the current research of nicotine effects on the nervous system and its relationship to the generation of an addictive behavior. Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine activates the reward pathway, which in turn is involved in certain psychiatric diseases. There are individuals who have a high vulnerability to nicotine addiction. This may be due to genetic and epigenetic factors and/or the environment. In this review, we described some epigenetic factors that may be involved in those phenomena. The two animal models most widely used for studying the reinforcing effects of nicotine are: self-administration and conditioning place preference (CPP. Here, we emphasized the CPP, due to its potential application in humans. In addition, we described the locomotor activity model (as a measure of psychostimulant effects to study vulnerability to drugs of abuse

  18. Evidence of lung cancer risk from animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-03-01

    Human epidemiological data provide the most important basis for assessing risks of radon exposures. However, additional insight into the nature of exposure-response relationships is provided by animal experimentation and dosimetric determinations. Animal studies have now been conducted for more than 50 years to examine the levels of pollutants in underground mines that were responsible for the respiratory effects observed among miners. This work has emphasized respiratory cancer and the interaction of radon with other agents, such as ore dust, diesel-engine-exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. The more recent data on radon-daughter inhalation exposures were provided by two American research centers, The University of Rochester (UR) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and by the Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA) laboratory in France. Approximately 2000 mice, 100 rats and 80 dogs were employed in the completed UR studies, begun in the mid 1950s; 800 hamsters, 5000 rats and 100 dogs in the ongoing PNL studies, begun in the late 1960s; and 10,000 rats in the ongoing COGEMA studies, also begun in the late 1960s. More complete updated biological effects, data resulting from chronic radon-daughter inhalation exposures of mice, hamsters, rats and beagle dogs were examined. Emphasis on the carcinogenic effects of radon-decay product exposure, including the influences of radon-daughter exposure rate, unattached fraction and disequilibrium, and co-exposures to other pollutants. Plausible values for the radon (radon-daughter) lifetime lung-cancer risk coefficients are also provided. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Animals devoid of pulmonary system as infection models in the study of lung bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Hernández, Yamilé; Yero, Daniel; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M.; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Biological disease models can be difficult and costly to develop and use on a routine basis. Particularly, in vivo lung infection models performed to study lung pathologies use to be laborious, demand a great time and commonly are associated with ethical issues. When infections in experimental animals are used, they need to be refined, defined, and validated for their intended purpose. Therefore, alternative and easy to handle models of experimental infections are still needed to test the virulence of bacterial lung pathogens. Because non-mammalian models have less ethical and cost constraints as a subjects for experimentation, in some cases would be appropriated to include these models as valuable tools to explore host–pathogen interactions. Numerous scientific data have been argued to the more extensive use of several kinds of alternative models, such as, the vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio), and non-vertebrate insects and nematodes (e.g., Caenorhabditis elegans) in the study of diverse infectious agents that affect humans. Here, we review the use of these vertebrate and non-vertebrate models in the study of bacterial agents, which are considered the principal causes of lung injury. Curiously none of these animals have a respiratory system as in air-breathing vertebrates, where respiration takes place in lungs. Despite this fact, with the present review we sought to provide elements in favor of the use of these alternative animal models of infection to reveal the molecular signatures of host–pathogen interactions. PMID:25699030

  20. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriguer Ramón C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya, which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey" of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  1. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest)- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah)-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya), which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey") of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems. PMID:21978557

  2. A Molecular Genetic Classification of Zooxanthellae and the Evolution of Animal-Algal Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Rob; Powers, Dennis A.

    1991-03-01

    Zooxanthellae are unicellular algae that occur as endosymbionts in many hundreds of marine invertebrate species. Because zooxanthellae have traditionally been difficult to classify, little is known about the natural history of these symbioses. Zooxanthellae were isolated from 131 individuals in 22 host taxa and characterized by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear genes that encode small ribosomal subunit RNA (ssRNA). Six algal RFLPs, distributed host species specifically, were detected. Individual hosts contained one algal RFLP. Zooxanthella phylogenetic relationships were estimated from 22 algal ssRNA sequences-one from each host species. Closely related algae were found in dissimilar hosts, suggesting that animal and algal lineages have maintained a flexible evolutionary relation with each other.

  3. Homeless people who are animal caretakers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronley, Courtney; Strand, Elizabeth B; Patterson, David A; Gwaltney, Sarah

    2009-10-01

    Data from a Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) were used to compare homeless people who report caring for animals with homeless people who do not report caring for animals, based on demographic variables and stated reasons for homelessness. Among homeless clients (N = 4,100; M age = 39 yr., SD 13.2), 5.5% reported animal caretaking; demographic differences between caretaking and not caretaking homeless clients and life factors related to homelessness were most often associated with animal caretaking. 41% of participants (n = 1,664) were female, and 59% (n = 2,436) were male. Findings suggest that first-time homeless, Euro-American women who were homeless due to domestic violence were the most likely to say they were caring for animals. The use of such an information system could aid in identifying this subpopulation and coordinating services for animal care.

  4. Epidemiological studies on animal and human trichinellosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvis T.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1999, muscle samples from 814 sylvatic animals and 1,173 domestic and synanthropic animals were collected in 15 districts of Estonia ; the prevalence of trichinellosis ranged from 1.0 % to 79.4 % for sylvatic animals and from 0.6 % to 24.5 % for domestic or synanthropic animals and for animals from fur-bearing farms. The most important reservoirs of Trichinella in nature were the raccoon dog, the red fox, the lynx and the wolf. Three species of Trichinella (T. spiralis, T. nativa, and T. britovi were identified by several types of PCR-based analyses. Meat from sylvatic animals was the main source of Trichinella infection for humans.

  5. WE-H-206-02: Recent Advances in Multi-Modality Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.

    2016-01-01

    Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin). Ultrasonic imaging, on the contrary, provides fine spatial resolution but suffers from both poor contrast in early-stage tumors and strong speckle artifacts. In PAT, pulsed laser light penetrates tissue and generates a small but rapid temperature rise, which induces emission of ultrasonic waves due to thermoelastic expansion. The ultrasonic waves, orders of magnitude less scattering than optical waves, are then detected to form high-resolution images of optical absorption at depths up to 7 cm, conquering the optical diffusion limit. PAT is the only modality capable of imaging across the length scales of organelles, cells, tissues, and organs (up to whole-body small animals) with consistent contrast. This rapidly growing technology promises to enable multiscale biological research and accelerate translation from microscopic laboratory discoveries to macroscopic clinical practice. PAT may also hold the key to label-free early detection of cancer by in vivo quantification of hypermetabolism, the quintessential hallmark of malignancy. Learning Objectives: To understand the contrast mechanism of PAT To understand the multiscale applications of PAT Benjamin M. W. Tsui: Multi-modality molecular imaging instrumentation and techniques have been major developments in small animal imaging that has contributed significantly

  6. Molecular phylogenetic study in genus Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    Among 8000-9000 species of Cnidaria, only several dozens of species of Hydrozoa have been found in the fresh water. Hydra is such a fresh water polyp and has been used as a good material for research in developmental biology, regeneration and pattern formation. Although the genus Hydra has only a few ten species, its distribution is cosmopolitan. The phylogenetic relationship between hydra species is fascinating from the aspect of evolutionary biology and biogeography. However, only a few molecular phylogenetic studies have been reported on hydra. Therefore, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Hydra based on mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequences using a hydra collection that has been kept in the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) of Japan. The results support the idea that four species groups comprise the genus Hydra. Within the viridissima group (green hydra) and braueri group, genetic distances between strains were relatively large. In contrast, genetic distances between strains among the vulgaris and oligactis groups were small irrespective of their geographic distribution. The vulgaris group strains were classified at least (as far as our investigated samples) into three sub-groups, vulgaris sub-group, carnea sub-group, and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group. All of the vulgaris sub-group and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group strains were collected in Eurasia. The carnea sub-group strains in NIG collection were all collected in North America. A few newly collected samples in Japan, however, suggested belonging to the carnea sub-group according to the molecular phylogenic analysis. This suggests a trans-Pacific distribution of the carnea sub-group hydra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of laboratory and animal housing unit for radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a combined analytical laboratory and animal housing facility is discussed. By having sample processing facilities in close proximity to the experimental animals, the necessity for transporting biological specimens long distances has been curtailed. In addition, complete radionuclide counting equipment has been installed so that samples need not leave the animal housing site for analysis, a feature based on radiological health requirements. (U.S.)

  8. Two new animal models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.A.; Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) have tenacious retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium. The retention following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution ranged from 20 to 47% (liver) and 19 to 42% (skeleton), relatively independent of post-injection times, varying from 30 to 125 days. Based on observations extended to 125 days post-injection, the biological half-times appeared to be long. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived (median lifespans of approximately 1400 days), breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium is partitioned between the skeleton and liver in a manner similar to that of man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  9. Small Animal [18F]FDG PET Imaging for Tumor Model Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Kyeong Min; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2008-01-01

    PET allows non-invasive, quantitative and repetitive imaging of biological function in living animals. Small animal PET imaging with [ 18 F]FDG has been successfully applied to investigation of metabolism, receptor, ligand interactions, gene expression, adoptive cell therapy and somatic gene therapy. Experimental condition of animal handling impacts on the biodistribution of [ 18 F]FDG in small animal study. The small animal PET and CT images were registered using the hardware fiducial markers and small animal contour point. Tumor imaging in small animal with small animal [ 18 F]FDG PET should be considered fasting, warming, and isoflurane anesthesia level. Registered imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of tumor. Small animal experimental condition of animal handling and registration method will be of most importance for small lesion detection of metastases tumor model

  10. A retrospective study on incidence of lameness in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohsina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of lameness among different species of animals presented to the Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Materials and Methods: Outpatient department (OPD records for the period from January 2006 to December 2010 were referred and information was collected regarding number of lameness in different species, breeds, type of injury, limb affected, gender, age at onset, treatment offered, outcome and any reoccurrence. In this study, fractured cases were not included. Results: The incidence of lameness among different species were recorded: canine (56%, equine (21%, caprine (7%, feline (3%, cattle (7%, buffalo (5.47%, sheep (0.6%, monkey (0.39% and swine (0.19%. In dog, the different conditions were reported with hind quarter weakness recording 55% of lameness followed by right hind limb lameness (14.7%, left hind limb lameness (12.6%, left forelimb lameness (12%, hip dislocation (6.3% and hip dysplasia (4.2%. In caprines, important causes of lameness were right forelimb lameness (23%, right hind limb lameness (12%, left forelimb lameness (12%, posterior paresis (9%, left shoulder dislocation (14% and right shoulder dislocation (6%. In cattle, 34.28% of cases with right hind limb lameness, 28.5% cases were due to HQW, 14.28% had hip dysplasia, 8.57% suffered left hind limb lameness, 6% cases were recorded with obturator nerve paralysis and 8.57% cases suffered contracted tendon in calves. In buffaloes, cases reported were right carpal arthritis, foot rot and left hind limb lameness (14.28% each, due to bilateral upward luxation of patella and due bilateral purulent wound in stifle (18% each and hip dislocation (21.4%. In equines, lameness were reported with right hind limb affection (13%, left forelimb affection (11%, right forelimb affection (17%, 4% each due to disease of right shoulder, HQW and both forelimb affection, lateral dislocation of patella (3%, affection of both hind limbs (9%, 5

  11. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution of water. F-RNA (male-specific) coliphages have been classified into four sero-groups and evidence has been presented that two of these sero-groups are specific for human excreta and the other two for animal excreta.

  12. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  13. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  14. Molecular targets in urothelial cancer: detection, treatment, and animal models of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Dmitriy; Rathore, Kusum; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer remains one of the most expensive cancers to treat in the United States due to the length of required treatment and degree of recurrence. In order to treat bladder cancer more effectively, targeted therapies are being investigated. In order to use targeted therapy in a patient, it is important to provide a genetic background of the patient. Recent advances in genome sequencing, as well as transcriptome analysis, have identified major pathway components altered in bladder cancer. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad background on bladder cancer, including its causes, diagnosis, stages, treatments, animal models, as well as signaling pathways in bladder cancer. The major focus is given to the PI3K/AKT pathway, p53/pRb signaling pathways, and the histone modification machinery. Because several promising immunological therapies are also emerging in the treatment of bladder cancer, focus is also given on general activation of the immune system for the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:27784990

  15. Monitoring the Spatiotemporal Activities of miRNAs in Small Animal Models Using Molecular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.

  16. Large Variation in the Ratio of Mitochondrial to Nuclear Mutation Rate across Animals: Implications for Genetic Diversity and the Use of Mitochondrial DNA as a Molecular Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allio, Remi; Donega, Stefano; Galtier, Nicolas; Nabholz, Benoit

    2017-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolves at a faster rate than nuclear DNA (nuDNA) in animals. This has contributed to the popularity of mtDNA as a molecular marker in evolutionary studies. Analyzing 121 multilocus data sets and four phylogenomic data sets encompassing 4,676 species of animals, we demonstrate that the ratio of mitochondrial over nuclear mutation rate is highly variable among animal taxa. In nonvertebrates, such as insects and arachnids, the ratio of mtDNA over nuDNA mutation rate varies between 2 and 6, whereas it is above 20, on average, in vertebrates such as scaled reptiles and birds. Interestingly, this variation is sufficient to explain the previous report of a similar level of mitochondrial polymorphism, on average, between vertebrates and nonvertebrates, which was originally interpreted as reflecting the effect of pervasive positive selection. Our analysis rather indicates that the among-phyla homogeneity in within-species mtDNA diversity is due to a negative correlation between mtDNA per-generation mutation rate and effective population size, irrespective of the action of natural selection. Finally, we explore the variation in the absolute per-year mutation rate of both mtDNA and nuDNA using a reduced data set for which fossil calibration is available, and discuss the potential determinants of mutation rate variation across genomes and taxa. This study has important implications regarding DNA-based identification methods in predicting that mtDNA barcoding should be less reliable in nonvertebrates than in vertebrates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Fiber lubrication: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi

    Molecular and mesoscopic level description of friction and lubrication remains a challenge because of difficulties in the phenomenological understanding of to the behaviors of solid-liquid interfaces during sliding. Fortunately, there is the computational simulation approach opens an opportunity to predict and analyze interfacial phenomena, which were studied with molecular dynamics (MD) and mesoscopic dynamics (MesoDyn) simulations. Polypropylene (PP) and cellulose are two of most common polymers in textile fibers. Confined amorphous surface layers of PP and cellulose were built successfully with xenon crystals which were used to compact the polymers. The physical and surface properties of the PP and cellulose surface layers were investigated by MD simulations, including the density, cohesive energy, volumetric thermal expansion, and contact angle with water. The topology method was employed to predict the properties of poly(alkylene glycol) (PAG) diblock copolymers and Pluronic triblock copolymers used as lubricants on surfaces. Density, zero shear viscosity, shear module, cohesive energy and solubility parameter were predicted with each block copolymer. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the interaction energy per unit contact area of block copolymer melts with PP and cellulose surfaces. The interaction energy is defined as the ratio of interfacial interaction energy to the contact area. Both poly(proplene oxide) (PPO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments provided a lipophilic character to both PP and cellulose surfaces. The PPO/PEO ratio and the molecular weight were found to impact the interaction energy on both PP and cellulose surfaces. In aqueous solutions, the interaction energy is complicated due to the presence of water and the cross interactions between the multiple molecular components. The polymer-water-surface (PWS) calculation method was proposed to calculate such complex systems. In a contrast with a vacuum condition, the presence

  18. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of superionic conductors AgI and CuI are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. The model of these superionic conductors is based on the use of effective pair potentials. To determine the constants in these potentials, cohesive energy and bulk modulus are used as input: in addition one uses notions of ionic size based on the known crystal structure. Salient features of the MD technique are outlined. Methods of treating long range Coulomb forces are discussed in detail. This includes the manner of doing Ewald sum for MD cells of arbitrary shape. Features that can be incorporated to expedite the MD calculations are also discussed. A novel MD technique which allows for a dynamically controlled variation of the shape and size of the MD cell is described briefly. The development of this novel technique has made it possible to study structural phase transitions in superionic conductors. 68 references, 17 figures, 2 tables

  19. Comparative animal models for the study of lymphohematopoietic tumors: strengths and limitations of present approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Owen A; Toner, Lorraine E; Vrhovac, Radovan; Budak-Alpdogan, Tulin; Smith, Emily A; Bergman, Philip

    2005-07-01

    The lymphomas probably represent the most complex and heterogenous set of malignancies known to cancer medicine. Underneath the single term lymphoma exist some of the fastest growing cancers known to science (i.e Burkitt's and lymphoblastic lymphoma), as well as some of the slowest growing (i.e. small lymphocytic lymphoma [SLL] and follicular lymphoma). It is this very biology that can dictate the selection of drugs and treatment approaches for managing these patients, strategies that can range from very aggressive combination chemotherapy administered in an intensive care unit (for example, patients with Burkitt's lymphoma), to watch and wait approaches that may go on for years in patients with SLL. This impressive spectrum of biology emerges from a relatively restricted number of molecular defects. The importance of these different molecular defects is of course greatly influenced by the intrinsic biology that defines the lymphocyte at its different stages of differentiation and maturation. It is precisely this molecular understanding that is beginning to form the basis for a new approach to thinking about lymphoma, and novel approaches to its management. Unfortunately, while our understanding of human lymphoma has blossomed, our ability to generate appropriate animal models reflective of this biology has not. Most preclinical models of these diseases still rely upon sub-cutaneous xenograft models of only the most aggressive lymphomas like Burkitt's lymphoma. While these models clearly serve an important role in understanding biology, and perhaps more importantly, in identifying promising new drugs for these diseases, they fall short in truly representing the broader, more heterogenous biology found in patients. Clearly, depending upon the questions being posed, or the types of drugs being studied, the best model to employ may vary from situation to situation. In this article, we will review the numerous complexities associated with various animal models of

  20. 125I-β-CIT biodistribution study in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ping

    2000-01-01

    The purpose is to study the preparation and biodistribution in animal of dopamine transporter imaging agent 125 I-β-CIT. β-CIT was 125 I radioiodinated with Iodogen method, the dynamic distribution of 125 I-β-CIT in brain and critical organs were studied with SD rat (autoradiography) and NIH mice respectively. The radiolabelling yield of 125 I-β-CIT was 84%, the radiochemical purity was better than 98%. Blood clearance could be explained by two-compartment model with a duration of 12h, (α = 3.87, T 1/2α = 0.179, β = 0.162, T 1/2β = 4.276) and three-compartment model in 24 h, (Pi = 5.28, T 1/2Pi = 0.131, α = 0.403, T 1/2α = 1.719, β 0.040, T 1/2β = 17.298). The maxim uptake rate of brain (9.1% +- 1.0%) was reaches at 1h, while at 24h, the target/noise ratio was higher . Critical organs liver, lung, spleen and kidney had high uptake rate [(9.88 +- 1.43) - (16.29 +- 1.72)], except liver, other organs showed quick clearance (T 1/2 125 I-β-CIT has a high striatum uptake and good stability in vivo, can provide good SPECT images, the best acquisition time of SPECT may be about 20h after i.v

  1. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Molecular dynamic simulation study of molten cesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganegi Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study thermodynamics and structural properties of expanded caesium fluid. Internal pressure, radial distribution functions (RDFs, coordination numbers and diffusion coefficients have been calculated at temperature range 700–1600 K and pressure range 100–800 bar. We used the internal pressure to predict the metal–non-metal transition occurrence region. RDFs were calculated at wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The coordination numbers decrease and positions of the first peak of RDFs slightly increase as the temperature increases and pressure decreases. The calculated self-diffusion coefficients at various temperatures and pressures show no distinct boundary between Cs metallic fluid and its expanded fluid where it continuously increases with temperature.

  3. Alternative animal model for studies of total skin thickness burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Laura Martins de; Parisi, Julia Risso; Brassolatti, Patrícia; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2017-10-01

    To present an alternative experimental model of third degree burn of easy reproducibility. Eighteen male Wister rats were randomly divided into three groups, 6 of which were allocated to each group. A soldering iron coupled to an aluminum plate was used to produce burn, at a temperature of 150ºC, with different exposure times per group. Group 5 (G5) animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 5 seconds; Group 10 (G10) the animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 10 seconds and group 15 (G15) the animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 15 seconds. Histopathological analyzes showed that all three groups had similar morphological characteristics, with total thickness involvement. The technique is effective to reproduce a third degree burn and suggests the temperature of 150ºC with 5 seconds of exposure in order to minimize the risks to the animals.

  4. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the Indian Population. Single gene disorders. Complex eye diseases. Genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular diagnostics.

  5. Nanorheology of strongly confined molecular fluids : a compter simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manias, Evangelos D.

    1995-01-01

    The method of Molecular Dynamics (MD) computer simulations is employed to study ultra thin films of oligomer fluids, confined in spaces comparable to their molecular dimensions and subjected to (very) strong flows. ... Zie: Summary

  6. Animal Models for Studying Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell E; Verweij, Paul E

    2017-08-15

    Infections caused by triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus are associated with a higher probability of treatment failure and mortality. Because clinical experience in managing these infections is still limited, mouse models of invasive aspergillosis fulfill a critical void for studying treatment regimens designed to overcome resistance. The type of immunosuppression, the route of infection, the timing of antifungal administration, and the end points used to assess antifungal activity affect the interpretation of data from these models. Nevertheless, these models provide important insights that help guide treatment decisions in patients with triazole-resistant invasive aspergillosis. Animal models confirmed that a high triazole minimal inhibitory concentration corresponded with triazole treatment failure and that the efficacy of other classes of drugs, such as the polyenes and echinocandins, was not affected by the presence of triazole resistance mutations. Furthermore, the feasibility of triazole dose escalation, combination therapy, and prophylaxis were explored as strategies to overcome resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Animal health economics: an aid to decisionmaking on animal health interventions - case studies in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T L; Pendell, D; Knippenberg, R

    2017-04-01

    For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors. The authors discuss the economic measurement of animal disease outbreaks and interventions and how measurement is used in private and public decision-making. Two illustrative case studies in the United States of America are provided: a hypothetical outbreak of foot and mouth disease in cattle, and the 2014-2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry.

  8. Meta-analyses of animal studies: an introduction of a valuable instrument to further improve healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmans, C.R.; Hout, J. in't; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; Rovers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In research aimed at improving human health care, animal studies still play a crucial role, despite political and scientific efforts to reduce preclinical experimentation in laboratory animals. In animal studies, the results and their interpretation are not always straightforward, as no single study

  9. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  10. Serology based comprehensive study of Neospora infection in domestic animals in Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of Neospora infection in cattle, sheep, horses, donkeys, and dogs in Hamedan province, Iran. Blood samples (n=2254 from the animals were collected randomly during 2009 to 2012. Sera were prepared from the collected blood samples, which were then examined for the presence of antibodies against Neospora using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The seroprevalence rates of Neospora were found as 17.4% (n=245/1406 in cattle, 2.2% (n=8/358 in sheep, 40.8% (n=49/120 in horses, 52% (n=52/100 in donkeys, and 27% (n=73/270 in dogs. In this study, higher levels of Neospora infection were detected in cattle, horses, donkeys, and dogs. This is the first comprehensive study of Neospora infection in domestic animals in Iran. Further researches on molecular and bioassay studies and designing appropriate control strategies against neosporosis in Iran are necessary and strongly recommended.

  11. Studies on the effects of ionizing radiation on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the present study primarily concerned with the effects of ionizing radiations on the normal and diseased liver in experimental animals (mice). Different radiation intensities and different exposure schemes were used to irradiate both healthy and schistosoma mansoni infected animals. A group of uninfected and unirradiated animals were used as controls. Follow up studies were performed every 6 weeks for 30 weeks. These included histopathological studies of the liver damage at every observation periods for all animal groups

  12. Barcoding the largest animals on Earth: ongoing challenges and molecular solutions in the taxonomic identification of ancient cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Camilla; van den Hurk, Youri; Charpentier, Anne; Rodrigues, Ana; Gardeisen, Armelle; Wilkens, Barbara; McGrath, Krista; Rowsell, Keri; Spindler, Luke; Collins, Matthew; Hofreiter, Michael

    2016-09-05

    Over the last few centuries, many cetacean species have witnessed dramatic global declines due to industrial overharvesting and other anthropogenic influences, and thus are key targets for conservation. Whale bones recovered from archaeological and palaeontological contexts can provide essential baseline information on the past geographical distribution and abundance of species required for developing informed conservation policies. Here we review the challenges with identifying whale bones through traditional anatomical methods, as well as the opportunities provided by new molecular analyses. Through a case study focused on the North Sea, we demonstrate how the utility of this (pre)historic data is currently limited by a lack of accurate taxonomic information for the majority of ancient cetacean remains. We then discuss current opportunities presented by molecular identification methods such as DNA barcoding and collagen peptide mass fingerprinting (zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry), and highlight the importance of molecular identifications in assessing ancient species' distributions through a case study focused on the Mediterranean. We conclude by considering high-throughput molecular approaches such as hybridization capture followed by next-generation sequencing as cost-effective approaches for enhancing the ecological informativeness of these ancient sample sets.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Automated interactive video playback for studies of animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkowski, Trisha; Yan, Wei; Gray, Aaron M; Cui, Rongfeng; Verzijden, Machteld N; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2011-02-09

    Video playback is a widely-used technique for the controlled manipulation and presentation of visual signals in animal communication. In particular, parameter-based computer animation offers the opportunity to independently manipulate any number of behavioral, morphological, or spectral characteristics in the context of realistic, moving images of animals on screen. A major limitation of conventional playback, however, is that the visual stimulus lacks the ability to interact with the live animal. Borrowing from video-game technology, we have created an automated, interactive system for video playback that controls animations in response to real-time signals from a video tracking system. We demonstrated this method by conducting mate-choice trials on female swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni. Females were given a simultaneous choice between a courting male conspecific and a courting male heterospecific (X. malinche) on opposite sides of an aquarium. The virtual male stimulus was programmed to track the horizontal position of the female, as courting males do in the wild. Mate-choice trials on wild-caught X. birchmanni females were used to validate the prototype's ability to effectively generate a realistic visual stimulus.

  14. Animal models for the study of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Miszczyk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter pylori is widely recognized as a major etiologic agent responsible for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, the development of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. Still, little is known about the natural history of H. pylori infection, since patients usually after many years of not suffering from symptoms of the infection are simply asymptomatic. Since the research investigators carried out on human models has many limitations, there is an urgent need for the development of an animal model optimal and suitable for the monitoring of H. pylori infections. This review summarizes the recent findings on the suitability of animal models used in H. pylori research. Several animal models are useful for the assessment of pathological, microbiological and immunological consequences of infection, which makes it possible to monitor the natural

  15. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  16. Animal experimentation in Japan: regulatory processes and application for microbiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2007-07-01

    We have conducted animal experimentation as a highly effective technique in biological studies. Also in microbiological studies, we have used experimentation to prevent and treat many infectious diseases in humans and animals. In Japan, the 'Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals', which covers the consideration of the three R principles, refinement, replacement and reduction for an international humane approach to animal experimentation came into effect in June 2006. Looking towards the straightforward operation of the law in animal experimentation, three government ministries established new basic guidelines for experimentation performed in their jurisdictional research and testing facilities. For future microbiological studies involving animals in Japan, we need to perform animal experiments according to the basic guidelines in association with overseas management systems. In this report, we discussed essential actions for the management of animal experimentation in microbiological studies in Japan.

  17. The minipig as an animal model to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and natural transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants and children with tuberculosis (TB) account for more than 20% of cases in endemic countries. Current animal models study TB during adulthood but animal models for adolescent and infant TB are scarce. Here we propose that minipigs can be used as an animal model to study adult, adolescent and ...

  18. Alternative animal model for studies of total skin thickness burns

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Ana Laura Martins de; Parisi, Julia Risso; Brassolatti, Patrícia; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To present an alternative experimental model of third degree burn of easy reproducibility. Methods: Eighteen male Wister rats were randomly divided into three groups, 6 of which were allocated to each group. A soldering iron coupled to an aluminum plate was used to produce burn, at a temperature of 150ºC, with different exposure times per group. Group 5 (G5) animals were burned at 150°C with exposure time of 5 seconds; Group 10 (G10) the animals were burned at 150°C with e...

  19. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji [Cytopatholgy Division, Tohkai Cytopathology Institute, Cancer Research and Prevention (TCI-CaRP), 5-1-2 Minami-uzura, Gifu 500-8285 (Japan); Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2012-07-16

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described.

  20. Preclinical Cancer Chemoprevention Studies Using Animal Model of Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takuji

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in all stages of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is a longstanding inflammatory disease of intestine with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Several molecular events involved in chronic inflammatory process are reported to contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis of CRC in the inflamed colon. They include over-production of free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes in arachidonic acid biosynthesis pathway, up-regulation of certain cytokines, and intestinal immune system dysfunction. In this article, firstly I briefly introduce our experimental animal models where colorectal neoplasms rapidly develop in the inflamed colorectum. Secondary, data on preclinical cancer chemoprevention studies of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis by morin, bezafibrate, and valproic acid, using this novel inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis model is described

  1. Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato from Farm Animals in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B.; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt. PMID:25760944

  2. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium orygis isolates from wild animals of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Jeewan; Nakajima, Chie; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Poudell, Ajay; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Mycobacterium orygis, a new member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, was isolated from a captive spotted deer (Axis axis) and a blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) in Nepal. Analyses by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing, region of difference and single nucleotide polymorphism of genes gyrB, mmpL6, TbD1, PPE55 and Rv2042c confirmed the isolates as M. orygis. Moreover, analyses by spoligotyping (SIT587) as well as MIRU-VNTR showed that the isolates shared a similar pattern with many reported isolates. From previous and the present studies, it can be inferred that South Asia is one of the endemic regions for M. orygis. Further investigation including a larger sample size and different host interaction will help to understand the ecology and epidemiology of M. orygis in Nepal.

  3. Molecular Characterization of AnimalFasciolaspp. Isolates from Kermanshah, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgomid, Arezoo; Nazari, Naser; Rahimi, Hamzeh; Beigom Kia, Eshrat; Hajjaran, Homa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Aryaeipour, Mojgan; Heidarian, Peyman; Ezati, Mohammad Saeid; Rokni, Mohamad Bagher

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola spp. from sheep, cattle and goat from Kermanshah Province, western Iran using PCR-RFLP method. We used PCR-RFLP analysis of ribosomal ITS1 fragment using RsaI restriction enzyme to investigate the genetic characteristics of Fasciola species obtained from different hosts (16 sheep, 28 cattle, 4 goats). The species of Fasciola were confirmed by sequencing the 700 bp region of ribosomal ITS1 gene. In Kermanshah, F. hepatica was present in 96% of the samples, F. gigantica was found only in two cattle sample. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. Our results contribute to clarify the dark spots of Fasciola genotyping in different parts of Iran.

  4. A Tractable Experimental Model for Study of Human and Animal Scabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Kate; Ho, Mei-Fong; Kelly, Andrew; Willis, Charlene; Pasay, Cielo; Kemp, David J.; McCarthy, James S.; Fischer, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Background Scabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. It is common worldwide and spreads rapidly under crowded conditions, such as those found in socially disadvantaged communities of Indigenous populations and in developing countries. Pruritic scabies lesions facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections, particularly Group A streptococci. Streptococcal infections cause significant sequelae and the increased community streptococcal burden has led to extreme levels of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Australia's Indigenous communities. In addition, emerging resistance to currently available therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify potential targets for novel chemotherapeutic and/or immunological intervention. Scabies research has been severely limited by the availability of parasites, and scabies remains a truly neglected infectious disease. We report development of a tractable model for scabies in the pig, Sus domestica. Methodology/Principal Findings Over five years and involving ten independent cohorts, we have developed a protocol for continuous passage of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. To increase intensity and duration of infestation without generating animal welfare issues we have optimised an immunosuppression regimen utilising daily oral treatment with 0.2mg/kg dexamethasone. Only mild, controlled side effects are observed, and mange infection can be maintained indefinitely providing large mite numbers (>6000 mites/g skin) for molecular-based research on scabies. In pilot experiments we explore whether any adaptation of the mite population is reflected in genetic changes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing sets of genetic data obtained from pig mites collected from naturally infected pigs with data from pig mites collected from the most recent cohort. Conclusions/Significance A reliable pig/scabies animal model will facilitate in vivo studies on host immune responses to scabies

  5. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  6. Study on gross pulmonary lesions in lungs of slaughtered animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Lemma, M., Kassa, T & Tegen, A. 2001. Clinically manifested major health problems of cross bread dairy herds on urban and peri-urban production system on the central high lands of. Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 6:34-43. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C & Kenneth, H. 2000. Veterinary medicine- Text book of.

  7. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Irvin Sellers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective.

  8. Application study of the optical biopsy system for small experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Morita, Shin-ichi; Maruyama, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Toru; Matsuura, Yuji; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2008-02-01

    An optical biopsy system for small experimental animals has been developed. The system includes endoscope probe, portable probe and two kinds of miniaturized Raman probes. The micro Raman probe (MRP) is made of optical fibers and the ball lens hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP) is made of hollow fiber. The former has large focal depth and suitable to measure average spectra of subsurface tissue. The latter has rather small focal depth and it is possible to control focal length by selecting ball lens attached at the probe head. It is suitable to survey materials at the fixed depth in the tissue. The system is applied to study various small animal cancer models, such as esophagus and stomach rat models and subcutaneous mouse models of pancreatic cancers. In the studies of subcutaneous tumor model mouse, it is suggested that protein conformational changes occur in the tumor tissue within few minutes after euthanasia of the mouse. No more change is observed for the following ten minutes. Any alterations in the molecular level are not observed in normal skin, muscle tissues. Since the change completes in such a short time, it is suggested that this phenomenon caused by termination of blood circulation.

  9. Molecular beam studies of stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa Anne

    1998-12-01

    Photochemistry of chlorine oxide containing species plays a major role in stratospheric ozone depletion. This thesis discusses two photodissociation studies of the key molecules ClONO2 and ClOOCl which were previously thought to only produce Cl-atom (ozone depleting) products at wavelengths relevant to the stratosphere. The development of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl and the photodissociation dynamics of the model system Cl2O are also discussed. In the first chapter, the photochemistry of ClONO2 is examined at 308 nm using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. Two primary decomposition pathways, leading to Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2, were observed, with a lower limit of 0.33 for the relative yield of ClO. The angular distributions for both channels were anisotropic, indicating that the dissociation occurs within a rotational period. Chapter two revisits the photodissociation dynamics of Cl2O at 248 and 308 nm, on which we had previously reported preliminary findings. At 248 nm, three distinct dissociation pathways leading to Cl + ClO products were resolved. At 308 nm, the angular distribution was slightly more isotropic that previously reported, leaving open the possibility that Cl2O excited at 308 nm lives longer than a rotational period. Chapter three describes the development and optimization of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl. We utilized pulsed laser photolysis of ClA2O to generate ClO radicals, and cooled the cell to promote three body recombination to form ClOOCl. The principal components in the beam were Cl2, Cl2O, and ClOOCl. In the fourth chapter, the photodissociation dynamics of ClOOCl are investigated at 248 and 308 nm. We observed multiple dissociation pathways which produced ClO + ClO and 2Cl + O2 products. The relative Cl:ClO product yields are 1.0:0.13 and 1.0:0.20 for ClOOCl photolysis at 248 and 308 nm, respectively. The upper limit for the relative yield of the ClO + ClO channel was 0.19 at 248 nm and 0.31 at 308 nm

  10. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  11. Molecular beam studies of reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major thrust of this research project is to elucidate detailed dynamics of simple elementary reactions that are theoretically important and to unravel the mechanism of complex chemical reactions or photochemical processes that play important roles in many macroscopic processes. Molecular beams of reactants are used to study individual reactive encounters between molecules or to monitor photodissociation events in a collision-free environment. Most of the information is derived from measurement of the product fragment energy, angular, and state distributions. Recent activities are centered on the mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions involving oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons, the dynamics of endothermic substitution reactions, the dependence of the chemical reactivity of electronically excited atoms on the alignment of excited orbitals, the primary photochemical processes of polyatomic molecules, intramolecular energy transfer of chemically activated and locally excited molecules, the energetics of free radicals that are important to combustion processes, the infrared-absorption spectra of carbonium ions and hydrated hydronium ions, and bond-selective photodissociation through electric excitation.

  12. Simple models for studying complex spatiotemporal patterns of animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyutyunov, Yuri V.; Titova, Lyudmila I.

    2017-06-01

    Minimal mathematical models able to explain complex patterns of animal behavior are essential parts of simulation systems describing large-scale spatiotemporal dynamics of trophic communities, particularly those with wide-ranging species, such as occur in pelagic environments. We present results obtained with three different modelling approaches: (i) an individual-based model of animal spatial behavior; (ii) a continuous taxis-diffusion-reaction system of partial-difference equations; (iii) a 'hybrid' approach combining the individual-based algorithm of organism movements with explicit description of decay and diffusion of the movement stimuli. Though the models are based on extremely simple rules, they all allow description of spatial movements of animals in a predator-prey system within a closed habitat, reproducing some typical patterns of the pursuit-evasion behavior observed in natural populations. In all three models, at each spatial position the animal movements are determined by local conditions only, so the pattern of collective behavior emerges due to self-organization. The movement velocities of animals are proportional to the density gradients of specific cues emitted by individuals of the antagonistic species (pheromones, exometabolites or mechanical waves of the media, e.g., sound). These cues play a role of taxis stimuli: prey attract predators, while predators repel prey. Depending on the nature and the properties of the movement stimulus we propose using either a simplified individual-based model, a continuous taxis pursuit-evasion system, or a little more detailed 'hybrid' approach that combines simulation of the individual movements with the continuous model describing diffusion and decay of the stimuli in an explicit way. These can be used to improve movement models for many species, including large marine predators.

  13. Osmosis : a molecular dynamics computer simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Thomas

    Osmosis is a phenomenon of critical importance in a variety of processes ranging from the transport of ions across cell membranes and the regulation of blood salt levels by the kidneys to the desalination of water and the production of clean energy using potential osmotic power plants. However, despite its importance and over one hundred years of study, there is an ongoing confusion concerning the nature of the microscopic dynamics of the solvent particles in their transfer across the membrane. In this thesis the microscopic dynamical processes underlying osmotic pressure and concentration gradients are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. I first present a new derivation for the local pressure that can be used for determining osmotic pressure gradients. Using this result, the steady-state osmotic pressure is studied in a minimal model for an osmotic system and the steady-state density gradients are explained using a simple mechanistic hopping model for the solvent particles. The simulation setup is then modified, allowing us to explore the timescales involved in the relaxation dynamics of the system in the period preceding the steady state. Further consideration is also given to the relative roles of diffusive and non-diffusive solvent transport in this period. Finally, in a novel modification to the classic osmosis experiment, the solute particles are driven out-of-equilibrium by the input of energy. The effect of this modification on the osmotic pressure and the osmotic ow is studied and we find that active solute particles can cause reverse osmosis to occur. The possibility of defining a new "osmotic effective temperature" is also considered and compared to the results of diffusive and kinetic temperatures..

  14. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    2) and in animal models of human autoimmune diseases including autoimmune colitis (3), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (4), collagen...studied in multiple pre-clinical animal models of autoimmune. For example, FTS can attenuate disease manifestations in experimental autoimmune... experimental animal model of polyarthritis, which can be induced in inbred Lewis rats by immunization with Complete Freund’s adjuvant containing

  15. Disrupting self-assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic protein oligomers by "molecular tweezers" - from the test tube to animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aida; Bitan, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, therapy for diseases caused by abnormal protein folding and aggregation (amyloidoses) is limited to treatment of symptoms and provides only temporary and moderate relief to sufferers. The failure in developing successful disease-modifying drugs for amyloidoses stems from the nature of the targets for such drugs - primarily oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins, which are distinct from traditional targets, such as enzymes or receptors. The oligomers are metastable, do not have well-defined structures, and exist in dynamically changing mixtures. Therefore, inhibiting the formation and toxicity of these oligomers likely will require out-of-the-box thinking and novel strategies. We review here the development of a strategy based on targeting the combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are key to the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins using lysine (K)-specific "molecular tweezers" (MTs). Our discussion includes a survey of the literature demonstrating the important role of K residues in the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins and the development of a lead MT derivative called CLR01, from an inhibitor of protein aggregation in vitro to a drug candidate showing effective amelioration of disease symptoms in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  16. Relevance of animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations, though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and that host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types, and they can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors, risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. Animal experiments must remain a major approach to the investigation of mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 22 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  17. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments

  18. ANIMAL MODELS FOR STUDYING MISCARRIAGE: ILLUSTRATION WITH STUDY OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models for studying miscarriage: Illustration with study of drinking water disinfection by-productsAuthors & affiliations:Narotsky1, M.G. and S. Bielmeier Laffan2.1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Tri...

  19. Study on the Characteristics of Gas Molecular Mean Free Pathin Nanopores by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents studies on the characteristics of gas molecular mean freepath in nanopores by molecular dynamics simulation. Our study results indicate that themean free path of all molecules in nanopores depend on both the radius of the nanoporeand the gas-solid interaction strength. Besides mean free path of all molecules in thenanopore, this paper highlights the gas molecular mean free path at different positions ofthe nanopore and the anisotropy of the gas molecular mean free path at nanopores. Themolecular mean free path varies with the molecule’s distance from the center of thenanopore. The least value of the mean free path occurs at the wall surface of the nanopore.The present paper found that the gas molecular mean free path is anisotropic when gas isconfined in nanopores. The radial gas molecular mean free path is much smaller than themean free path including all molecular collisions occuring in three directions. Our studyresults also indicate that when gas is confined in nanopores the gas molecule number densitydoes not affect the gas molecular mean free path in the same way as it does for the gas inunbounded space. These study results may bring new insights into understanding the gasflow’s characteristic at nanoscale.

  20. An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The hydration structure and translocation of an excess proton in hydrogen bonded water clusters of two different sizes are investigated by means of finite tempera- ture quantum simulations. The simulations are performed by employing the method of. Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics where the forces on the ...

  1. Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic studies and natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 74; Issue 5. Molecular structure ... The entropy of the title compound was also performed at HF using the hybrid functional BLYP and B3LYP with 6-31 G(d,p) as basis set levels of theory. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the title molecule is also carried out.

  2. Molecular approaches to study probiotic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaughan, E.E.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Satokari, R.; Collins, J.K.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Functional foods comprising probiotic bacteria are receiving increasing attention from the scientific community and science funding agencies [1]. An essential aspect relating to the functionality of probiotic-based foods is to develop molecular methods to determine the presence, activity and

  3. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10 -4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  4. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, wild primates, and domesticated animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele B Parsons

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite globally. Few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural tropical systems characterized by high rates of overlap among humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. We investigated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and assessed cross-species transmission potential among people, non-human primates, and domestic animals in the Gombe Ecosystem, Kigoma District, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was designed to determine the occurrence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in humans, domestic animals and wildlife living in and around Gombe National Park. Diagnostic PCR revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 4.3% in humans, 16.0% in non-human primates, and 9.6% in livestock. Local streams sampled were negative. DNA sequencing uncovered a complex epidemiology for Cryptosporidium in this system, with humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees infected with C. hominis subtype IfA12G2; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all positive goats and sheep infected with C. xiaoi. For humans, residence location was associated with increased risk of infection in Mwamgongo village compared to one camp (Kasekela, and there was an increased odds for infection when living in a household with another positive person. Fecal consistency and other gastrointestinal signs did not predict Cryptosporidium infection. Despite a high degree of habitat overlap between village people and livestock, our results suggest that there are distinct Cryptosporidium transmission dynamics for humans and livestock in this system. The dominance of C. hominis subtype IfA12G2 among humans and non-human primates suggest cross-species transmission. Interestingly, a subset of chimpanzees was infected with C. suis. We hypothesize that there is cross-species transmission from bush pigs (Potaochoerus larvatus to chimpanzees in Gombe forest, since domesticated pigs are

  5. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloy, Eric C.

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result, are important ion-exchange materials. Zeolites also play important roles as molecular sieves and catalysts. For all that is known about zeolites, much remains a mystery. How, for example, can the well established metastability of these structures be explained? What is the role of water with respect to the formation, stabilization, and dynamical properties? This dissertation addresses these questions mainly from a modeling perspective, but also with some experimental work as well. The first discussion addresses a special class of zeolites: pure-silica zeolites. Experimental enthalpy of formation data are combined with molecular modeling to address zeolitic metastability. Molecular modeling is used to calculate internal surface areas, and a linear relationship between formation enthalpy and internal surface areas is clearly established, producing an internal surface energy of approximately 93 mJ/m2. Nitrate bearing sodalite and cancrinite have formed under the caustic chemical conditions of some nuclear waste processing centers in the United States. These phases have fouled expensive process equipment, and are the primary constituents of the resilient heels in the bottom of storage tanks. Molecular modeling, including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, and density functional theory, is used to simulate these materials with respect to structure and dynamical properties. Some new, very interesting results are extracted from the simulation of anhydrous Na6[Si6Al 6O24] sodalite---most importantly, the identification of two distinct

  6. Toward an Understanding of Human Violence: Cultural Studies, Animal Studies, and the Promise of Posthumanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    On January 3, 2012, the "New York Times" featured an article announcing the emergence of the new interdisciplinary field of animal studies, which is spreading across college campuses in new course offerings, new majors, and new undergraduate and graduate programs. This new field grows out of, on the one hand, a long history of scientific research…

  7. Hemodynamic changes induced by preventive exposure to terahertz radiation at a frequency range corresponding to molecular emission and absorption spectrum of nitric oxide in animals under conditions of acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuck, V F; Velikanova, T S; Ivanov, A N

    2011-06-01

    We studied the influence of preventive irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves at frequencies corresponding to nitric oxide emission and absorption molecular spectrum (150,176-150,664 GHz) on hemodynamic parameters in arteries of albino rats upon acute immobilization stress. We showed that exposure to the specified frequencies can produce adaptogenic effect manifesting in the absence of post-stress changes in the linear, systolic, and diastolic blood flow velocities and pressure gradient in various blood vessels of experimental animals.

  8. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    objectives are to further test this hypothesis in the AIA model as well as in another established animal model of RA, the collagen type-II induced...onset) and day +16 (disease peak) sera tested regardless of the animal treatment protocol (data not shown). Responsible PI: Yoel Kloog, Tel Aviv...studies are associated with substantial distress to the animals , and given our duty to balance the needs of the study with that of the welfare of

  9. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  10. Human fatalities caused by animal attacks: A six-year autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Ambade, Vipul N; Dixit, Pradeep G

    2017-12-01

    Deaths caused by animal attacks in urban as well as rural areas are rising. With dwindling forest cover and with more interaction of animals with humans in day-to-day life, we need to understand the reasons, manner and causes of these fatal events. We studied 151 cases of fatal animal/human conflicts and in particular, the manner and mechanism of causation of injuries with respect to different types of animals. In this region there were more fatal snake bites followed by cattle attacks. Humans are at some risk while in the vicinity of animals whether in the wild or in human settlements. Human/animal conflicts occur due to reducing habitat for animals and the demands of humans. One must be aware of the potential dangers from animals and as a health care provider it is our duty to educate the public at large. They need to be cautious when around animals, seek medical care after an animal injury and wear protective equipment when working around or with animals.

  11. Computational Studies in Molecular Geochemistry and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Dixon, David A.; Dupuis, Michel; Halley, James W.; Kawai, R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Rustad, James R.; Smith, Paul E.; Straatsma, TP; Voth, Gregory A.; Weare, John H.; Yuen, David A.

    2006-04-18

    The ability to predict the transport and transformations of contaminants within the subsurface is critical for decisions on virtually every waste disposal option facing the Department of Energy (DOE), from remediation technologies such as in situ bioremediation to evaluations of the safety of nuclear waste repositories. With this fact in mind, the DOE has recently sponsored a series of workshops on the development of a Strategic Simulation Plan on applications of high perform-ance computing to national problems of significance to the DOE. One of the areas selected for application was in the area of subsurface transport and environmental chemistry. Within the SSP on subsurface transport and environmental chemistry several areas were identified where applications of high performance computing could potentially significantly advance our knowledge of contaminant fate and transport. Within each of these areas molecular level simulations were specifically identified as a key capability necessary for the development of a fundamental mechanistic understanding of complex biogeochemical processes. This effort consists of a series of specific molecular level simulations and program development in four key areas of geochemistry/biogeochemistry (i.e., aqueous hydrolysis, redox chemistry, mineral surface interactions, and microbial surface properties). By addressing these four differ-ent, but computationally related, areas it becomes possible to assemble a team of investigators with the necessary expertise in high performance computing, molecular simulation, and geochemistry/biogeochemistry to make significant progress in each area. The specific targeted geochemical/biogeochemical issues include: Microbial surface mediated processes: the effects of lipopolysacchardies present on gram-negative bacteria. Environmental redox chemistry: Dechlorination pathways of carbon tetrachloride and other polychlorinated compounds in the subsurface. Mineral surface interactions: Describing

  12. Molecular activation analysis for chemical species studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang; Mao Xueying; Wang Yuqi; Sun Jingxin; Qian Qingfang; Hou Xiaolin; Zhang Peiqun; Chen Chunying; Feng Weiyu; Ding Wenjun; Li Xiaolin; Li Chunsheng; Dai Xiongxin

    2001-01-01

    The Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) mainly refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in systems of interest, though its exact definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the bulk contents or concentrations are often insignificant for judging biological, environmental or geochemical effects of elements. In this paper, the features, methodology and limitation of MAA were outlined. Further, the up-to-date MAA progress made in our laboratory was introduced as well. (author)

  13. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling in Cutaneous Wound Healing: Lessons Learned from Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnson, Kenneth W; Arany, Praveen R; Philip, Anie

    2013-06-01

    Wound healing is a complex physiological process involving a multitude of growth factors, among which transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has the broadest spectrum of effects. Animal studies have provided key information on the mechanisms of TGF-β action in wound healing and have guided the development of therapeutic strategies targeting the TGF-β pathway to improve wound healing and scarring outcome. Development of tissue-specific expression systems for overexpression or knockout of TGF-β signaling pathway components has led to novel insight into the role of TGF-β signaling in wound healing. This work has also identified molecules that might serve as molecular targets for the treatment of pathological skin conditions such as chronic wounds and excessive scarring (fibrosis). Many of the mouse models with genetic alterations in the TGF-β signaling pathway develop an underlying skin abnormality, which may pose some limitations on the interpretation of wound-healing results obtained in these animals. Also, TGF-β's pleiotropic effects on many cell types throughout all phases of wound healing present a challenge in designing specific strategies for targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway to promote wound healing or reduce scarring. Further characterization of TGF-β signaling pathway components using inducible tissue-specific overexpression or knockout technology will be needed to corroborate results obtained in mouse models that display a skin phenotype, and to better understand the role of TGF-β signaling during distinct phases of the wound-healing process. Such studies will also provide a better understanding of how TGF-β mediates its autocrine, paracrine, and double paracrine effects on cellular responses in vivo during wound healing.

  14. The use of transgenic animals to study lipoprotein metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.M.; Plump, A.S.

    1993-12-01

    The application of transgenic technology to lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis was first reported in 1988. Today, a large percentage of the genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism have been overexpressed in mice, and a substantial number of these same genes have been disrupted by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The utility of animal models of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis is far-reaching given the complex nature of these systems. There are at least 17 known genes directly involved in lipoprotein metabolism and likely dozens more may be involved. This massive network of interacting factors has necessitated the development of in vivo systems which can be subject to genetic manipulation. The power of overexpression is obvious: elucidating function in a relatively controlled genetic environment in which the whole system is present and operational. The not-so-obvious problem with transgenics is ``background,`` or for purposes of the current discussion, the mouse`s own lipoprotein system. With the advent of gene knockout, we have been given the ability to overcome ``background.`` By recreating the genetic complement of the mouse we can alter a system in essentially any manner desired. As unique tools, and in combination with one another, the overexpression of foreign genes and the targeted disruption or alteration of endogenous genes has already and will continue to offer a wealth of information on the biology of lipoprotein metabolism and its effect on atherosclerosis susceptibility.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Animal Longevity: Insights from Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinald Pamplona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical reactions in living cells are under strict enzyme control and conform to a tightly regulated metabolic program. However, uncontrolled and potentially deleterious endogenous reactions occur, even under physiological conditions. Aging, in this chemical context, could be viewed as an entropic process, the result of chemical side reactions that chronically and cumulatively degrade the function of biological systems. Mitochondria are a main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS and chemical sidereactions in healthy aerobic tissues and are the only known extranuclear cellular organelles in animal cells that contain their own DNA (mtDNA. ROS can modify mtDNA directly at the sugar-phosphate backbone or at the bases, producing many different oxidatively modified purines and pyrimidines, as well as single and double strand breaks and DNA mutations. In this scenario, natural selection tends to decrease the mitochondrial ROS generation, the oxidative damage to mtDNA, and the mitochondrial mutation rate in long-lived species, in agreement with the mitochondrial oxidative stress theory of aging.

  16. Generation of Li combustion aerosols for animal inhalation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M D; Greenspan, B J; Briant, J K; Hoover, M D

    1986-07-01

    A system was developed for generating Li aerosols to determine the potential health hazards of postulated accidents associated with the use of Li as a fusion reactor blanket or coolant. The aerosol was generated by sweeping Ar through a stainless steel chamber filled with Li metal that was heated inductively to temperatures up to 1300 degrees C. Argon carried the Li vapor into a burning chamber where it was mixed with air. The reaction of Li vapor with air formed an intense white flame that produced typical branched-chain condensation aerosol particles. This system generated well-controlled concentrations up to 2500 mg/m3 for periods of 4 h. The mass median aeordynamic diameter of the aerosol was approximately 0.66 micron with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5. Aerosols could be generated that were greater than 96% Li2O and LiOH, LiOH.H2O, or Li2CO3 by controlling the CO2 and H2O concentrations in the supply air. The system is currently being used to investigate the acute toxicity of Li combustion aerosols in laboratory animals.

  17. Of Fighting Flies, Mice, and Men: Are Some of the Molecular and Neuronal Mechanisms of Aggression Universal in the Animal Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior is widespread in the animal kingdom, but the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is still unclear. Recent reports suggest that at least some of the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex behavior in flies show remarkable similarities with such mechanisms in mice and even humans. Surprisingly, some aspects of neuronal control of aggression also show remarkable similarity between these distantly related species. We will review these recent findings, address the evolutionary implications, and discuss the potential impact for our understanding of human diseases characterized by excessive aggression.

  18. The Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects of Influenza H5N1 Viruses at the Human-Animal Interface in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Ghazi; Webby, Richard J.; Ducatez, Mariette F.; El Shesheny, Rabeh A.; Kandeil, Ahmed M.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Mostafa, Ahmed; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2011-01-01

    With 119 confirmed cases between March 2006 and December 2010, Egypt ranks second among countries reporting human H5N1 influenza virus infections. In 2009–2010, Egypt reported 68 new human cases and became the new epicenter for H5N1 infections. We conducted an epidemiological and molecular analysis in order to better understand the situation in Egypt. The onset of new cases peaked annually during the winter and spring months, with majority of cases reported in the Nile Delta region. Most cases were less than 18 years old (62%) and females (60%). The overall case-fatality rate was 34% and significantly increased by age. There was a significant difference between the case-fatality rates among females and males. We observed a significant drop (p = 0.004) in case fatality rate in 2009 (10%) as compared to higher rates (36%–56%) in other years. Hospitalization within 2 or 3 days after onset of symptoms significantly decreased mortality. Molecular analysis showed that variations do occur among viruses isolated from birds as well as from humans in Egypt, and these mutations were especially noted in 2009 viruses. As the epidemiological profile of Egyptian cases differs from other countries, there is an urgent need to conduct prospective studies to enhance our understanding of incidence, prevalence, and determinants of virulence of human infections with avian H5N1 influenza viruses. PMID:21445292

  19. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, P J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M A; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Gandini, G; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2010-05-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The world has more than 7500 livestock breeds and conservation of all of them is not feasible. Therefore, prioritization is needed. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art in approaches for prioritization of breeds for conservation, particularly those approaches that consider molecular genetic information, and to identify any shortcomings that may restrict their application. The Weitzman method was among the first and most well-known approaches for utilization of molecular genetic information in conservation prioritization. This approach balances diversity and extinction probability to yield an objective measure of conservation potential. However, this approach was designed for decision making across species and measures diversity as distinctiveness. For livestock, prioritization will most commonly be performed among breeds within species, so alternatives that measure diversity as co-ancestry (i.e. also within-breed variability) have been proposed. Although these methods are technically sound, their application has generally been limited to research studies; most existing conservation programmes have effectively primarily based decisions on extinction risk. The development of user-friendly software incorporating these approaches may increase their rate of utilization.

  20. Molecular and Morphological Characterizations of Echinococcus granulosus from Human and Animal Isolates in Kashan, Markazi Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARBABI, Mohsen; PIRESTANI, Majid; DELAVARI, Mahdi; HOOSHYAR, Hossein; ABDOLI, Amir; SARVI, Shahab

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the most important zoonotic helminths in the world is known as Echinococcus granulosus. Different strains of the E. granulosus have been described based on morphological and molecular characterizations, however, there is limited information regarding the characteristics of the phenotypes and genotypes of E. granulosus in Iran. Methods: The present study was prepared to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of E. granulosus isolates collected from human, goat, sheep, and cattle based on 19 standard morphometric parameters and mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1, ND1, and ITS1) in Kashan, Markazi Province, Iran during 2013–2014. Results: The biometric analysis for the 19 characters revealed that the 19 morphometric values of cattle isolates were exceptionally higher than human, goat, and sheep isolates (Pgranulosus travels between humans and other intermediate hosts of this parasite in the area study. PMID:28761477

  1. Comparison of two photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy using light pulses in femtosecond regime: an animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Clóvis; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality for cancer treatment based on the interaction of light with a sensitizer agent and molecular oxygen present into the target cells. The aim of this study is the evaluation of photodynamic therapy using pulsed light source in the femtosecond regime through necrosis induced in healthy rat liver. The induced necrosis profile with CW laser and pulsed laser were evaluated in animal model, which received Photodithazine (chlorine e6 derivative). The light sources used in these studies were a 660 nm CW diode laser and a Ti:Sapphire Regenerative Amplifier laser (1 kHz repetition rate and 100 fs pulse width) associated with an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) to convert to 660 nm. The results were compared with a previous study when was used a hematoporphyrin derivative (Photogem) as a sensitizer. The induced necrosis with Photogen was greater with pulsed laser (2.0 +/- 0.2 mm) in comparison with CW laser (1.0 ± 0.2 mm), while in Photodithazine the induced necrosis with was greater with CW laser (2.9 +/- 0.2 mm) comparing the pulsed laser (2.0 +/- 0.2 mm). These results indicate dependence of PDT mechanisms with photosensitizer and the light regime applied.

  2. Density functional studies of molecular structures of N-methyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    studies. Sparse experimental data on the gas-phase geometry of DMF reported in the literature compares well with the DFT results on DMF. DFT emerges as a powerful method to calculate molecular structures. Keywords. Density functional theory; alkyl amides; molecular structure of alkyl amides; transition state search; ...

  3. The Scientific Value of Non-Clinical Animal Studies in Drug Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, P.J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies are considered needed as predictive models to evaluate safety and efficacy of new pharmaceuticals and are required by law. However, the scientific basis of the current paradigm on the predictability of animal studies for the effects of drugs in man is under discussion. Therefore, in

  4. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  5. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    pre-clinical animal models of autoimmune. For example, FTS can attenuate disease manifestations in experimental autoimmune encephalo- myelitis (34...the clinical score of the disease; however, the biology behind the effect of FTS was not comprehensively elucidated. AIA is an experimental animal ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0609 TITLE: Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid

  6. The Usefulness of Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments for the Design of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B. M.; Wever, Kimberley E.; Avey, Marc T.; Stephens, Martin L.; Sena, Emily S.; Leenaars, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The question of how animal studies should be designed, conducted, and analyzed remains underexposed in societal debates on animal experimentation. This is not only a scientific but also a moral question. After all, if animal experiments are not appropriately designed, conducted, and analyzed, the results produced are unlikely to be reliable and the animals have in effect been wasted. In this article, we focus on one particular method to address this moral question, namely systematic reviews of previously performed animal experiments. We discuss how the design, conduct, and analysis of future (animal and human) experiments may be optimized through such systematic reviews. In particular, we illustrate how these reviews can help improve the methodological quality of animal experiments, make the choice of an animal model and the translation of animal data to the clinic more evidence-based, and implement the 3Rs. Moreover, we discuss which measures are being taken and which need to be taken in the future to ensure that systematic reviews will actually contribute to optimizing experimental design and thereby to meeting a necessary condition for making the use of animals in these experiments justified. PMID:25541545

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Reports of Their Children's Exposure to Companion Animal Maltreatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Maternick, Anna; Nicotera, Nicole; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Children living in households where intimate partner violence (IPV) is present are at increased risk of being exposed to concomitant maltreatment of companion animals. Recent research suggests that childhood exposure to maltreatment of companion animals is associated with compromised socioemotional well-being in childhood and adulthood. To date, there is a dearth of qualitative research examining how children experience animal maltreatment in the context of IPV. The current qualitative study explored the following research question in an ethnically diverse sample of IPV survivors: How do maternal caregivers convey the ways in which their children experience animal maltreatment in IPV-affected households? Sixty-five women with at least one child (age 7-12 years) were recruited from domestic violence agencies and described their child(ren)'s experiences of animal maltreatment in the home. Template analysis was used to analyze interview data (KALPHA = .90). Three themes emerged related to children's experiences of animal maltreatment: (a) direct exposure to animal maltreatment and related threats, (b) emotional and behavioral responses to animal maltreatment exposure, and (c) animal maltreatment as coercive control of the child. Results suggest that children's exposure to animal maltreatment is multifaceted and may exacerbate children's risk of negative psychosocial outcomes in the context of co-occurring IPV. Intervention programs designed to assist children exposed to IPV should consider the extent of children's awareness of the abuse of their pets and their strong and deleterious reactions to it.

  8. Loneliness Across Phylogeny and a Call for Comparative Studies and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Cole, Steven W.; Capitanio, John P.; Goossens, Luc; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    Loneliness typically refers to the feelings of distress and dysphoria resulting from a discrepancy between a person’s desired and achieved levels of social relations, and there is now considerable evidence that loneliness is a risk factor for poor psychological and physical health. Loneliness has traditionally been conceptualized as a uniquely human phenomenon. However, over millions of years of evolution, efficient and manifold neural, hormonal, and molecular mechanisms have evolved for promoting companionship and mutual protection/assistance and for organizing adaptive responses when there is a significant discrepancy between the preferred and realized levels of social connection. We review evidence suggesting that loneliness is not a uniquely human phenomenon, but, instead, as a scientific construct, it represents a generally adaptive predisposition that can be found across phylogeny. Central to this argument is the premise that the brain is the key organ of social connections and processes. Comparative studies and animal models, particularly when integrated with human studies, have much to contribute to the understanding of loneliness and its underlying principles, mechanisms, consequences, and potential treatments. PMID:25910390

  9. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2008-01-01

    Recently we reported increases in both the number of Salmonella infections due to Salmonella Rissen in Thailand and the isolation of this serovar from pork products in Thailand. The objectives of the present study were to determine the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella......IPFGE patterns were observed. The predominant pattern was shared by 22 strains. Limited antimicrobial resistance was observed in the Danish strains, and a higher degree of resistance was observed in strains originating from Thailand. Virtually all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. The tetA gene...... was detected in tetracycline-resistant isolates. Statistical analysis and molecular subtyping identified the combination of travel to Thailand and consumption of imported pig or pork products as well consumption of as pig or pork products produced in Denmark as risk factors for Salmonella Rissen infection...

  11. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; van der Gugten, A C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study of factors that influence prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Semi-structured interviews with eleven farm animal veterinarians were conducted, which were taped, transcribed and iteratively analysed. This preliminary analysis was further discussed and refined in an expert meeting. A final conceptual model was derived from the analysis and sent to all the respondents for validation. Many conflicting interests are identifiable when it comes to antimicrobial prescribing by farm animal veterinarians. Belief in the professional obligation to alleviate animal suffering, financial dependency on clients, risk avoidance, shortcomings in advisory skills, financial barriers for structural veterinary herd health advisory services, lack of farmers' compliance to veterinary recommendations, public health interests, personal beliefs regarding the veterinary contribution to antimicrobial resistance and major economic powers are all influential determinants in antimicrobial prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Interventions to change prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians could address attitudes and advisory skills of veterinarians, as well as provide tools to deal with (perceived) pressure from farmers and advisors to prescribe antimicrobials. Additional (policy) measures could probably support farm animal veterinarians in acting as a more independent animal health consultant. © 2014 Blackwell

  12. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

  13. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

    2013-11-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable.

  14. Using molecular imaging to assess the delivery and infection of protease activated virus in animal model of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Guenther, Caitlin; Kwon, Sunkuk; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Suh, Junghae

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the greatest cause of death in the US and gene therapy has the potential to be an effective therapy. In this study, we demonstrated MMP-9 based protease-activatable virus (PAV) for selective infection of myocardial infarct (MI) that is associated with active MMP-9 expression. To test the specificity of PAV, we used expression of a far-red fluorescence protein (iRFP) delivered by the PAV together with a dual PET/NIRF imaging agent specific for active MMP-9 activity at the site of MI in a murine model. Calibrated fluorescence imaging employed a highly-sensitive intensified camera, laser diode excitation sources, and filtration schemes based upon the spectra of iRFP and the NIRF agent. One to two days after ligation of the left anterior descending artery, the PAV or WT AAV9 virus encoding for iRFP (5x1010 genomic particles) and radiolabeled MMP-9 imaging agent (3 nmol) were injected intravenously (i.v.). PET imaging showed MMP activity was associated with adverse tissue remodeling at the site of the MI. One week after, animals were again injected i.v. with the MMP-9 agent (3 nmol) and 18-24 h later, the animals were euthanized and the hearts were harvested, sliced, and imaged for congruent iRFP transgene expression and NIRF signals associated with MMP-9 tissue activity. The fluorescent margins of iRFP and NIRF contrasted tissues were quantified in terms Standard International units of mW/cm2/sr. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PAV and WT targeting to sites of MI was determined from these calibrated fluorescence measurements. The PAV demonstrated significantly higher delivery performance than that of the WT AAV9 virus.

  15. A comparative approach to the study of Keeper-Animal Relationships in the zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy

    2009-11-01

    Research on intensively farmed animals over the past 25 years has shown that human-animal interactions, by affecting the animal's fear of humans, can markedly limit the productivity and welfare of farm animals. This article begins to explore some of the factors that need to be considered to investigate Keeper-Animal Relationships (KARs) in the zoo. In the mid-1990s, a large body of multi-institutional data on zookeepers and animals was collected from 46 Zoos. Using standardized questionnaires, 82 keepers rated how they behaved towards animals, their husbandry routine, how the animal responds to them and to other people, and provided information about themselves. These data include 219 individuals of four endangered species: black rhinoceros, cheetah, maned wolf, and great hornbill. At each zoo, keepers were also videotaped calling to their animals in order to directly observe animal responses to keeper behaviors. Principle Components Analysis reduced eight animal variables to three components and ten keeper variables to five components. Scores for animals and for keepers were calculated on these components and compared, according to five predictions based on models of human-animal interactions in the literature. Animal responses to keepers varied along three dimensions: Affinity to Keeper, Fear of People, and Sociable/Curious. Animal scores of Fear of People were significantly and positively correlated with independent measures of poor welfare from two later studies: fecal corticoid concentrations for 12 black rhinos and "tense-fearful" scores for 12 cheetahs. (1) Significant species differences were found for Affinity to Keeper and Fear of People, and the interaction of these two dimensions of animal response to keepers appears to be species-specific. (2) The quality of KAR is influenced by whether the zookeeper goes in the enclosure with the animal or not, the frequency and time of feeding, and keeper visibility to the animal. Among keepers who go in with their

  16. Sample size and power calculation for molecular biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Sample size calculation is a critical procedure when designing a new biological study. In this chapter, we consider molecular biology studies generating huge dimensional data. Microarray studies are typical examples, so that we state this chapter in terms of gene microarray data, but the discussed methods can be used for design and analysis of any molecular biology studies involving high-dimensional data. In this chapter, we discuss sample size calculation methods for molecular biology studies when the discovery of prognostic molecular markers is performed by accurately controlling false discovery rate (FDR) or family-wise error rate (FWER) in the final data analysis. We limit our discussion to the two-sample case.

  17. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  18. Molecular pathology endpoints useful for aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedernhofer, L J; Kirkland, J L; Ladiges, W

    2017-05-01

    The first clinical trial aimed at targeting fundamental processes of aging will soon be launched (TAME: Targeting Aging with Metformin). In its wake is a robust pipeline of therapeutic interventions that have been demonstrated to extend lifespan or healthspan of preclinical models, including rapalogs, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and senolytics. This ensures that if the TAME trial is successful, numerous additional clinical trials are apt to follow. But a significant impediment to these trials remains the question of what endpoints should be measured? The design of the TAME trial very cleverly skirts around this based on the fact that there are decades of data on metformin in humans, providing unequaled clarity of what endpoints are most likely to yield a positive outcome. But for a new chemical entity, knowing what endpoints to measure remains a formidable challenge. For economy's sake, and to achieve results in a reasonable time frame, surrogate markers of lifespan and healthy aging are desperately needed. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of molecular endpoints that are currently being used as indices of age-related phenomena (e.g., morbidity, frailty, mortality) and proposes an approach for validating and prioritizing these endpoints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular genetic studies on irradiated wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2002-01-01

    Composite genotype(octamer hybrid) was obtained from crossing among eight Egyptian hexaploid wheat cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought stress to produce a genotype, which can economize on the irrigation water requirements or can tolerate drought stress. Gamma irradiation with 10-Krad was used to induce mutations, which could improve drought tolerance for this composite. From eight Egyptian wheat cultivars, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G-160 and Sk-61, respectively. They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield-related traits. Bulked segregating analysis developed some RAPD and SSR markers with different primers, which were considered as molecular for drought tolerance in wheat. Hal 2-like gene was introduced into Egyptian wheat cultivar G-164 via micro projectile bombardment. Two putative transgenic plants were successfully detected by leaf painting with the herbicide basta. PCR/ Southern blotting analysis indicated the presence of both/either bar and/or Hal 2-like genes in the genomic background of the two transgenic plants

  20. Standardization and validation of real time PCR assays for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis using three molecular targets in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F López

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is considered one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses worldwide. Until now few molecular techniques have been developed for its diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate three real time PCR (qPCR protocols for different protein-coding genes (100-kDa, H and M antigens using an animal model. Fresh and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE lung tissues from BALB/c mice inoculated i.n. with 2.5x106 Histoplasma capsulatum yeast or PBS were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post-infection. A collection of DNA from cultures representing different clades of H. capsulatum (30 strains and other medically relevant pathogens (36 strains of related fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to analyze sensitivity and specificity. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were 100% when DNAs from the different strains were tested. The highest fungal burden occurred at first week post-infection and complete fungal clearance was observed after the third week; similar results were obtained when the presence of H. capsulatum yeast cells was demonstrated in histopathological analysis. In the first week post-infection, all fresh and FFPE lung tissues from H. capsulatum-infected animals were positive for the qPCR protocols tested except for the M antigen protocol, which gave variable results when fresh lung tissue samples were analyzed. In the second week, all qPCR protocols showed variable results for both fresh and FFPE tissues. Samples from the infected mice at the remaining times post-infection and uninfected mice (controls were negative for all protocols. Good agreement was observed between CFUs, histopathological analysis and qPCR results for the 100-kDa and H antigen protocols. We successfully standardized and validated three qPCR assays for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in fresh and FFPE tissues, and conclude that the 100-kDa and H antigen molecular assays are promising tests for diagnosing this

  1. Standardization and validation of real time PCR assays for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis using three molecular targets in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Luisa F; Muñoz, César O; Cáceres, Diego H; Tobón, Ángela M; Loparev, Vladimir; Clay, Oliver; Chiller, Tom; Litvintseva, Anastasia; Gade, Lalitha; González, Ángel; Gómez, Beatriz L

    2017-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is considered one of the most important endemic and systemic mycoses worldwide. Until now few molecular techniques have been developed for its diagnosis. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate three real time PCR (qPCR) protocols for different protein-coding genes (100-kDa, H and M antigens) using an animal model. Fresh and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung tissues from BALB/c mice inoculated i.n. with 2.5x106 Histoplasma capsulatum yeast or PBS were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post-infection. A collection of DNA from cultures representing different clades of H. capsulatum (30 strains) and other medically relevant pathogens (36 strains of related fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) were used to analyze sensitivity and specificity. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were 100% when DNAs from the different strains were tested. The highest fungal burden occurred at first week post-infection and complete fungal clearance was observed after the third week; similar results were obtained when the presence of H. capsulatum yeast cells was demonstrated in histopathological analysis. In the first week post-infection, all fresh and FFPE lung tissues from H. capsulatum-infected animals were positive for the qPCR protocols tested except for the M antigen protocol, which gave variable results when fresh lung tissue samples were analyzed. In the second week, all qPCR protocols showed variable results for both fresh and FFPE tissues. Samples from the infected mice at the remaining times post-infection and uninfected mice (controls) were negative for all protocols. Good agreement was observed between CFUs, histopathological analysis and qPCR results for the 100-kDa and H antigen protocols. We successfully standardized and validated three qPCR assays for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in fresh and FFPE tissues, and conclude that the 100-kDa and H antigen molecular assays are promising tests for diagnosing this mycosis.

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Low Temperature Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has achieved rapid and significant progress in recent years, the low temperature techniques in particular having proved very useful for the study of reactive species, phase transitions, molecular clusters and crystals, superconductors and semiconductors, biochemical systems, astrophysical problems, etc. The widening range of applications has been accompanied by significant improvements in experimental methods, and low temperature molecular spectroscopy has been revealed as the best technique, in many cases, to establish the connection between experiment and theoretical calculations. This, in turn, has led to a rapidly increasing ability to predict molecular spectroscopic properties. The combination of an advanced tutorial standpoint with an emphasis on recent advances and new perspectives in both experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy contained in this book offers the reader insight into a wide range of techniques, particular emphasis being given to supersonic jet and matri...

  3. Molecular photoionization studies of nucleobases and correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakoff, Erwin D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    We proposed molecular photoionization studies in order to probe correlated events in fundamental scattering phenomena. In particular, we suggested that joint theoretical-experimental studies would provide a window into the microscopic aspects that are of central importance in AMO and chemical physics generally, and would generate useful data for wide array of important DOE topics, such as ultrafast dynamics, high harmonic generation, and probes of nonadiabatic processes. The unifying theme is that correlations between electron scattering dynamics and molecular geometry highlight inherently molecular aspects of the photoelectron behavior.

  4. Elements of societal perception of farm animal welfare: A quantitative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    To study societal perception of animal welfare in The Netherlands and to search for intervention possibilities to influence this perception, 1074 randomly selected Dutch respondents completed a questionnaire on animal welfare. We analysed 15 propositions (4-point Likert scale) and through factor

  5. Longitudinal study of Dutch children’s attachment to companion animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endenburg, N.; van Lith, H.A.; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the current studies were (1) to develop a new child-companion animal attachment scale; (2) to determine if children are more attached to dogs than to cats; (3) to examine sex and age differences in attachment to companion animals; and (4) to measure stability of children’s attachment to

  6. Use of radiations and radioisotopes in studies of animal production. Proceedings of symposium. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Forty-seven papers discuss radionuclide tracer techniques for metabolic, nutritional, and reproductive studies on domestic animals, radiation effects on the survival of parasites, uses of radiation in the preparation of vaccines against pathogenic bacteria and parasites, radiation processing of food for animals, and the radiopreservation of fish, meat, and dairy products. (CH)

  7. Regulating Animal Health, Gender and Quality Control: A Study of Veterinary Surgeons in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the validity of performance management regimes for quality assuring animal health regulation by comparing the results of tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) between male and female vets. In doing so it hopes to present some practical solutions to the regulation of animal disease and encourage further sociological study of the…

  8. An Exploratory Study of Animal-Assisted Interventions Utilized by Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…

  9. Radioprotectors and Tumors: Molecular Studies in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayle Woloschak, David Grdina

    2010-03-10

    This proposal investigated effects of radiation using a set of archival tissues. Main interests of this proposal were to investigate effects of irradiation alone or in the presence or radioprotectors; to investigate these effects on different tissues; and to use/develop molecular biology techniques that would be suitable for work with archived tissues. This work resulted in several manuscripts published or in preparation. Approach for evaluation of gene copy numbers by quantitative real time PCR has been developed and we are striving to establish methods to utilize Q-RT-PCR data to evaluate genomic instability caused by irradiation(s) and accompanying treatments. References: 1. Paunesku D, Paunesku T, Wahl A, Kataoka Y, Murley J, Grdina DJ, Woloschak GE. Incidence of tissue toxicities in gamma ray and fission neutron-exposed mice treated with Amifostine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008, 84(8):623-34. PMID: 18661379, http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09553000802241762?cookieSet=1 2. Wang Q, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Tissue and data archives from irradiation experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory over a period of four decades, in press in Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 3. Alcantara M, Paunesku D, Rademaker A, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TISSUE TOXICITIES IN B6CF1 MICE IRRADIATED WITH FISSION NEUTRONS OR COBALT 60 GAMMA RAYS: Gender modulates accumulation of tissue toxicities caused by low dose rate fractionated irradiation; in preparation; this document has been uploaded as STI product 4. Wang Q, Paunesku T Wanzer B and Woloschak GE. Mitochondrial gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice with lymphoid cancers; in preparation 5. Wang Q, Raha, S, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Evaluation of gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice; in preparation

  10. Molecular studies of free and translocation trisomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Lefort, G. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Twenty cases of trisomy 13 were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Six cases had translocation trisomy: two de novo rob(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;13q)r(13). Eighteen of nineteen informative patients were consistant with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in any of the three t(13q;13q) cases indicate that all were most likely isochromosomes of post-meiotic origin. In addition, two free trisomy cases were compatible with a somatic origin. Two mosaic free trisomy-13 cases, however, were both consistent with a maternal meiotic origin. The patient with a paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13;14) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. One balanced (non-trisomic) case with a non-mosaic 45,-13,-13,+t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologs, as has been found for all homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. It is therefore also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. We cannot therefore infer anything about the origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the two cases with de novo t(13q;14q) plus a maternally derived trisomy 13.

  11. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Biotelemetry, the remote detection and measurement of an animal function or activity, is widely used in animal research. Biotelemetry devices transmit physiological or behavioural data and may be surgically implanted into animals, or externally attached. This can help to reduce animal numbers and improve welfare, e.g., if animals can be group housed and move freely instead of being tethered to a recording device. However, biotelemetry can also cause pain and distress to animals due to surgery, attachment, single housing and long term laboratory housing. This article explains how welfare and science can be improved by avoiding or minimising these harms. Abstract Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as

  12. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Paul S.; Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-01

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals

  13. Noncontact laser photothermal keratoplasty. III: Histological study in animal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q; Simon, G; Parel, J M

    1994-01-01

    Laser photothermal keratoplasty has been studied as a potential refractive procedure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histological response to various laser treatments including geometrical patterns, radiant exposure levels, and pulse numbers. A noncontact laser photothermal keratoplasty system was used in this study. Epithelial and endothelial response to the laser photothermal keratoplasty annulus treatment pattern were studied on an owl monkey model with a 5-millimeter annulus ring pattern, 8 J/cm2, 25 consecutive pulses at 1 Hz. Epithelial and endothelial response to the laser photothermal keratoplasty spot pattern were then studied and compared on cat and rabbit models for safety monitoring. One pulse and five consecutive pulses of eight different radiant exposures (5.00 J/cm2 to 18.01 J/cm2) were applied on each cornea. A cadaver eye model was used to study the collagen shrinkage induced by the laser spot treatment following the same protocol as the cat and rabbit model. Finally, the biological healing response to the laser photothermal keratoplasty treatment with the optimal laser parameters obtained in our experiment was studied on the cat model. Five cats were treated by the laser photothermal keratoplasty procedure with eight spots on a 3-millimeter ring, 15.6 J/cm2, and 1 pulse. Epithelial and endothelial damage were observed after annulus treatment on an owl monkey's cornea at 8 J/cm2, 25 pulses, and after spot treatment on cat and rabbit corneas at 18.01 J/cm2, five pulses. No endothelial damage was observed on cat corneas for the single pulse treatment at 18.01 J/cm2. For the tissue shrinkage study, no laser photothermal keratoplasty lesion could be detected for a radiant exposure setting below 10.26 J/cm2. Histological cross-sections showed that the five-pulse treatment reached the endothelial layer at a radiant exposure of 13.4 J/cm2, while no single pulse treatment reached the endothelium for the radiant exposure range (5 J/cm2 to

  14. Estimating the predictive validity of diabetic animal models in rosiglitazone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, O E; Zsíros, N; Olsson, I A S

    2015-06-01

    For therapeutic studies, predictive validity of animal models - arguably the most important feature of animal models in terms of human relevance - can be calculated retrospectively by obtaining data on treatment efficacy from human and animal trials. Using rosiglitazone as a case study, we aim to determine the predictive validity of animal models of diabetes, by analysing which models perform most similarly to humans during rosiglitazone treatment in terms of changes in standard diabetes diagnosis parameters (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting glucose levels). A further objective of this paper was to explore the impact of four covariates on the predictive capacity: (i) diabetes induction method; (ii) drug administration route; (iii) sex of animals and (iv) diet during the experiments. Despite the variable consistency of animal species-based models with the human reference for glucose and HbA1c treatment effects, our results show that glucose and HbA1c treatment effects in rats agreed better with the expected values based on human data than in other species. Induction method was also found to be a substantial factor affecting animal model performance. The study concluded that regular reassessment of animal models can help to identify human relevance of each model and adapt research design for actual research goals. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Animal Models for Studying Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, R.E.; Verweij, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    Infections caused by triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus are associated with a higher probability of treatment failure and mortality. Because clinical experience in managing these infections is still limited, mouse models of invasive aspergillosis fulfill a critical void for studying treatment

  16. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diercksen, Geerd

    1992-01-01

    This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...

  18. Some aspects of mineral nutrition in animals and the use of radioisotope techniques for its study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardly, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Much work has been done to determine the physiological function of mineral nutrients in animals and to establish the dietary mineral requirements for optical growth, health, and productivity. These studies were directed towards: (a) the definition of mineral levels required in animal food under different circumstances, (b) mineral responsive diseases in livestock, and (c) the many interrelationships between minerals in their physiological functions in the animal body. Many diseases caused by deficiences and/or imbalances of essential minerals in animal food and pastures have been reported to occur in various regions of the world. This review examines some aspects of mineral nutrition in animals and describes some particular studies in which radioisotope techniques were used. (author)

  19. Challenges and solutions for studying collective animal behaviour in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Lacey F; Hein, Andrew M; Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-05-19

    Mobile animal groups provide some of the most compelling examples of self-organization in the natural world. While field observations of songbird flocks wheeling in the sky or anchovy schools fleeing from predators have inspired considerable interest in the mechanics of collective motion, the challenge of simultaneously monitoring multiple animals in the field has historically limited our capacity to study collective behaviour of wild animal groups with precision. However, recent technological advancements now present exciting opportunities to overcome many of these limitations. Here we review existing methods used to collect data on the movements and interactions of multiple animals in a natural setting. We then survey emerging technologies that are poised to revolutionize the study of collective animal behaviour by extending the spatial and temporal scales of inquiry, increasing data volume and quality, and expediting the post-processing of raw data.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery : A randomised study

    OpenAIRE

    Calcaterra, V.; Veggiotti, P.; Palestrini, C.; De Giorgis, V.; Raschetti, R.; Tumminelli, M.; Mencherini, S.; Papotti, F.; Klersy, C.; Albertini, R.; Ostuni, S.; Pelizzo, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period. Patients and Methods Forty children (3?17 years) were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underw...

  1. Advances in study of molecular imaging reporte gene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; An Rui

    2010-01-01

    The use of molecular imaging reporter gene systems has allowed gene therapy to move from the laboratory to the clinical application, which provides methodology to monitor the expression of therapeutic gene noninvasively and achieve quantitative outcome in vivo. Recently, the radionuclide reporter gene still is the focus many studies, but MRI and optical reporter gene have gradually played a important part in reporter gene systems. On the basis of combination of multi-subject, for example applied chemistry and molecular biology, more and more new modified reporter genes and molecular probes have spread out. This paper mainly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of reporter gene system and development trends. (authors)

  2. Reproducibility of preclinical animal research improves with heterogeneity of study samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lucile; Sena, Emily S.; Würbel, Hanno

    2018-01-01

    Single-laboratory studies conducted under highly standardized conditions are the gold standard in preclinical animal research. Using simulations based on 440 preclinical studies across 13 different interventions in animal models of stroke, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer, we compared the accuracy of effect size estimates between single-laboratory and multi-laboratory study designs. Single-laboratory studies generally failed to predict effect size accurately, and larger sample sizes rendered effect size estimates even less accurate. By contrast, multi-laboratory designs including as few as 2 to 4 laboratories increased coverage probability by up to 42 percentage points without a need for larger sample sizes. These findings demonstrate that within-study standardization is a major cause of poor reproducibility. More representative study samples are required to improve the external validity and reproducibility of preclinical animal research and to prevent wasting animals and resources for inconclusive research. PMID:29470495

  3. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. M.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, M. J.; Choi, J. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We previously reported that proton beam inhibited angiogenic vessels in zebrafish and that proton induced cancer cell apoptosis via p53 induction as well as caspase-3 activity. In this study, we performed to identity the effect of candidate chemicals on the angiogenic inhibition in vitro and in vivo (zebrafish Flk1:EGFP transgenic fish). And we treated small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549 cells with proton beam in combination with angiogenic inhibitors we found in this study. By the MTT assay, we performed cell viability assay with cancer cells and we investigated that HIF-1{alpha} induction by proton beam by the western blot analysis. We found novel anti-angiogenic chemicals from traditional herb. That is decursin, and glyceollins from the Angelica gigas, and soy bean. Decrusin and glyceollins inhibited VEGF- or bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and zebrafish microvessel development. Moreover, glyceollins inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1{alpha} in a dose dependent manner. However, proton beam itself did not induce HIF-1{alpha} whereas it increased HIF-1{alpha} stability under hypoxia. Even proton beam induced cell death of A549 small cell lung carcinoma cells but the combination of decrusin or glyceollins did not increase the cancer cell death

  4. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, M. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    We previously reported that proton beam inhibited angiogenic vessels in zebrafish and that proton induced cancer cell apoptosis via p53 induction as well as caspase-3 activity. In this study, we performed to identity the effect of candidate chemicals on the angiogenic inhibition in vitro and in vivo (zebrafish Flk1:EGFP transgenic fish). And we treated small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549 cells with proton beam in combination with angiogenic inhibitors we found in this study. By the MTT assay, we performed cell viability assay with cancer cells and we investigated that HIF-1α induction by proton beam by the western blot analysis. We found novel anti-angiogenic chemicals from traditional herb. That is decursin, and glyceollins from the Angelica gigas, and soy bean. Decrusin and glyceollins inhibited VEGF- or bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and zebrafish microvessel development. Moreover, glyceollins inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α in a dose dependent manner. However, proton beam itself did not induce HIF-1α whereas it increased HIF-1α stability under hypoxia. Even proton beam induced cell death of A549 small cell lung carcinoma cells but the combination of decrusin or glyceollins did not increase the cancer cell death

  5. Metabolic model of inhaled plutonium for radiation protection purposes: experimental animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Data from experimental animal studies and from accidental exposures to humans were used in the formulation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1966 Task Group Lung Model (TGLM). Data from experimental animal studies and from human studies of Pu fallout and accidental exposures suggested 239 PuO 2 should be a Class Y compound. More recent changes in the model reclassifying 241 AmO 2 and 244 CmO 2 lung retention from Class Y (years) to Class W (weeks) (IC79) were based on animal studies. Animal studies provided information that supports and verifies the model, that suggests changes in the model and identifies new parameters that could be incorporated in the model. The metabolic differences observed in various animal species and differences related to deposition and age suggest that caution must be exercised in extrapolating quantitative data from animals to humans. The animal data suggest many parameters that could be considered in improving the model; however, we must be concerned that these improvements do not make the model unnecessarily complex for radiation protection purposes

  6. Plants or animals - which do junior high school students prefer to study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, James H.

    This research addressed the following questions: (1) Which science topic do junior high school students prefer to study - plants or animals? (2) Is their preference related to the variables of grade level and sex of student? Public school students from grades 7, 8, and 9 in Avoca, New York participated in the study. Findings show that 9th grade students have a greater interest in biological science topics than do students in the other grades studied. Girls are more interested in biological science topics than boys are. Girls also showed a significant preference for animals over plants. As a group, junior high school students revealed that they prefer animal study over plant study. About half of the student responses categorized as biological science did not express a clear-cut preference for either plants or animals. A caution about generalizability is expressed. Interviews of students suggest that the following characteristics of animals are important determinants of preferences: Animals move, eat, have eyes for sight, communicate by sound, exhibit behaviors that are fun to watch, have short and observable live cycles, interact with humans, can learn, have mates, give birth, and raise their young. It was obvious that most students think of mammals when they hear the term animal.

  7. [Animal experiment study of healing of the sutured flexor tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, A K; Blimke, B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether tendons contain intrinsic cells capable of repair. To accomplish this, rabbit flexor tendons were exposed microsurgically, cut through, resutured and transferred as free transplant into the knee-joint. Immobilisation of the knee-joint will cause progressive formation of adhesions permitting neovascularisation of the transplant. Both is not observed when sutured flexor tendons were put in a knee articulation with full range of joint motion. Transmission electron micrography revealed up to 8 weeks after implantation vital cells and incidences of collagen neosynthesis independently whether adhesions existed or not. Histologically intrinsic repair was confirmed in mobile transplants and mainly initiated by cells of the visceral synovial sheet which form an anatomic-surgical unity with the tendon. In conclusion the importance of the synovial fluid for the tendon nutrition is underlined by the fact that an intrinsic healing of flexor tendon is possible without formation of adhesions.

  8. Toxicology and Biodistribution: The Clinical Value of Animal Biodistribution Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Silva Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the human genome decoding, understanding and identification of genetic disturbances behind many diseases, including cancer, are intensively increasing. Scientific and technological advances in this area trigger the search for therapeutic (curative approaches targeting the correction of gene disturbances. Gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs emerge in this context, bringing new challenges for their characterization. Compared to small molecules, biodistribution is fundamental to identifying target organs and anticipating safety and efficacy, may be integrated into safety and pharmacology studies, and may eventually be anticipated based on specificities of vectors and constructs. This review describes and discusses the requirements for nonclinical development and evaluation of GTMPs versus conventional ones and the needs and challenges of constructing nonclinical packages that assure GTMPs’ human safety from early development, taking into consideration usefulness and/or limitations of many conventional, preclinical models. The experience gained in the European context is referenced.

  9. Theoretical study of electron transport throughout some molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohammed A. A.; Hanoon, Falah H.; Al-Badry, Lafy F.

    2017-11-01

    The present work is a theoretical study of the electronic properties of some molecular structures. The system that takes into account in the study is left lead-donor-molecule-acceptor-right lead. The molecule, such as (phenyl, biphenyl, triphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene), is threaded by magnetic flux. This work contains two parts. First is computing density of states of the molecular structures as a closed system by density functional theory (DFT). Second is calculating the transmission probability and electric current of such molecular structures as an open system by steady-state theoretical model. Furthermore, the most important effects, taking into consideration are quantum interference, magnetic flux, and interface structure. Our results show that the connection of the molecule to the two leads, the number of rings, the magnetic flux, and the geometrical structure of the molecule play an important role in determining the energy gap of molecular structures.

  10. Molecular Dynamics and Electron Density Studies of Siderophores and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelis, Krzysztof Andrzej

    1990-08-01

    The dissertation comprises three separate studies of siderophores and peptides. In the first of these studies the relative potential energies for a series of diastereomers of a siderophore neocoprogen I are evaluated with molecular mechanics force field methods. Charges on the hydroxamate moiety are determined with a synthetic model siderophore compound using valence population refinements, and alternatively, with the theoretical ab initio/ESP calculations. The single diastereomer found in the crystal structure is among four characterized by the low potential energy, while prevalence of Delta vs. Lambda configuration about the iron is found to be a property of the entire series. In the second study the crystal structure of a ferrichrome siderophore ferrirhodin is reported. The crystal structure conformation of the molecular backbone as well as the iron coordination geometry compare well with other ferrichrome structures. The differences between the acyl groups of ferrirubin and ferrirhodin are explored using the methods of molecular mechanics. The third study a 300 ps, 300 K, in vacuo molecular dynamics simulation of didemnin A and B yields distinct molecular conformers, which are different from the one found in the crystal structure or modeled in solution, using the Nuclear Overhauser Effect data. Evaluations of the relative potential energy are performed with short 10 ps simulations in solution. Didemnins are natural depsipeptides isolated from a Caribbean tunicate and characterized by particularly potent antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity. Conformationally rigid and flexible regions of the molecule are described. A short review of the molecular mechanics methodology is given in the introduction.

  11. Skin and bone integrated prosthetic pylon: a pilot animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, Mark; Raykhtsaum, Grigory; Galibin, Oleg V; Protasov, Mikhail V; Chihovskaya, Julie V; Belyaeva, Irina G

    2006-01-01

    Direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses is a viable alternative to traditional techniques that are based on a socket-residuum interface. Direct skeletal attachment may be a better or even the only method for patients with a very short residuum and high soft-tissue volume. The problem of integrating the prosthetic pylon with residual skin during direct skeletal attachment of a limb prosthesis has not been solved, and the use of a completely porous prosthetic pylon has not been the subject of focused, systematic research. In this in vivo study, we investigated cell (osteocyte, fibroblast, and keratinocyte) adhesion and penetration into the pores of a titanium pylon implanted in Wistar rats. The porous titanium pylon was implanted in the bone of the thigh residua of four rats. Electronic scanning and morphological analysis demonstrated integration of the pylon with the surrounding skin. These findings support the possibility of developing a natural barrier against the infection associated with direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses.

  12. Medialization laryngoplasty with gore-tex: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durucu, Cengiz; Kanlikama, Muzaffer; Mumbuc, Semih; Bayazit, Yildirim; Bakir, Kemal; Karatas, Erkan

    2007-09-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a disease that can cause voice disability and aspiration problems. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE; Gore-Tex) has been widely used in cardiovascular and plastic surgery; however, its biocompatibility and safety have not been established precisely in the larynx. In this study, the biocompatibility and safety of ePTFE used in vocal cord medialization in the rabbit larynx were assessed. Type 1 thyroplasty with Gore-Tex was performed on one side of the larynx in eight rabbits. A sham procedure was applied on the contralateral side of their larynx. The rabbits were sacrificed after 6 months, and macroscopic and microscopic evaluations and comparisons were performed. No significant inflammatory response to Gore-Tex or displacement of the implant was seen. There was only a tiny fibrotic capsule surrounding the material in each specimen. Intense eosinophilic cell infiltration was seen surrounding one rabbit specimen. Gore-Tex seems to be a biocompatible, stable, and reversible material that can be safely used in laryngeal framework surgery.

  13. Evaluation of an animation tool developed to supplement dental student study of the cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, M; McKenna, J P; Cryan, J F; Vagg, T; Toulouse, A; Downer, E J

    2017-12-30

    The structure/function of the cranial nerves is a core topic for dental students. However, due to the perceived complexity of the subject, it is often difficult for students to develop a comprehensive understanding of key concepts using textbooks and models. It is accepted that the acquisition of anatomical knowledge can be facilitated by visualisation of structures. This study aimed to develop and assess a novel cranial nerve animation as a supplemental learning aid for dental students. A multidisciplinary team of anatomists, neuroscientists and a computer scientist developed a novel animation depicting the cranial nerves. The animation was viewed by newly enrolled first-year dental students, graduate entry dental students (year 1) and dental hygiene students (year 1). A simple life scenario employing the use of the cranial nerves was developed using a cartoon-type animation with a viewing time of 3.58 minutes. The animation was developed with emphasis on a life scenario. The animation was placed online for 2 weeks with open access or viewed once in a controlled laboratory setting. Questionnaires were designed to assess the participants' attitude towards the animation and their knowledge of the cranial nerves before and after visualisation. This study was performed before the delivery of core lectures on the cranial nerves. Our findings indicate that the use of the animation can act as a supplemental tool to improve student knowledge of the cranial nerves. Indeed, data indicate that a single viewing of the animation, in addition to 2-week access to the animation, can act as a supplemental learning tool to assist student understanding of the structure and function of cranial nerves. The animation significantly enhanced the student's opinion that their cranial nerve knowledge had improved. From a qualitative point of view, the students described the animation as an enjoyable and useful supplement to reading material/lectures and indicated that the animation was a

  14. Molecular design of responsive fluids: molecular dynamics studies of viscoelastic surfactant solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boek, E. S.; Jusufi, A.; Löwen, H.; Maitland, G. C.

    2002-10-01

    Understanding how macroscopic properties depend on intermolecular interactions for complex fluid systems is an enormous challenge in statistical mechanics. This issue is of particular importance for designing optimal industrial fluid formulations such as responsive oilfield fluids, based on viscoelastic surfactant solutions. We have carried out extensive molecular dynamics simulations, resolving the full chemical details in order to study how the structure of the lamellar phase of viscoelastic surfactant solutions depends on the head group (HG) chemistry of the surfactant. In particular, we consider anionic carboxylate and quaternary ammonium HGs with erucyl tails in aqueous solutions together with their sodium and chloride counterions at room temperature. We find a strong HG dependence of the lamellar structure as characterized by suitable pair correlation functions and density distributions. The depth of penetration of water into the bilayer membrane, the nature of counterion condensation on the HGs and even the order and correlation of the tails in the lamellae depend sensitively on the chemical details of the HG. We also determine the compressibility of the lamellar system as a first step to using atom-resolved molecular dynamics in order to link the molecular and macroscopic scales of length and time. The results give important insight into the links between molecular details and surfactant phase structure which is being exploited to develop more systematic procedures for the molecular design and formulation of industrial systems.

  15. Studying Interactions by Molecular Dynamics Simulations at High Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fogolari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study molecular encounters and recognition. In recent works, simulations using high concentration of interacting molecules have been performed. In this paper, we consider the practical problems for setting up the simulation and to analyse the results of the simulation. The simulation of beta 2-microglobulin association and the simulation of the binding of hydrogen peroxide by glutathione peroxidase are provided as examples.

  16. Molecular origin of limiting shear stress of elastohydrodynamic lubrication oil film studied by molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washizu, Hitoshi; Ohmori, Toshihide; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of an elastohydrodynamic lubrication oil film are performed to study the effect of pressure. Fluid molecules of n-hexane are confined between two solid plates under a constant normal force of 0.1-8.0 GPa. Traction simulations are performed by applying relative sliding motion to the solid plates. A transition in the traction behavior is observed around 0.5-2.0 GPa, which corresponds to the viscoelastic region to the plastic-elastic region, which are experimentally observed. This phase transition is related to the suppression of the fluctuation in molecular motion.

  17. Fluid Reading Practice: On the Queer Potential of Studying Nonhuman Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Irni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to recent discussions about the relevance of the natural sciences and nonhuman animals in feminist theory by drawing from feminist debates on the queer potential of studying nonhuman animals. The paper discusses readings on the intertwining of scientific accounts of nonhuman animals and politics; how different nonhuman animal bodies have enabled various conceptualisations of sex and physical intimacy and have been enmeshed in the politics of sex; and how to read the relevance of accounts of the diversity of nonhuman animal sex(es for feminist endeavours. These discussions contribute to an exploration of ‘fluid reading’, a feminist reading practice which draws inspiration from and moves with both new materialisms and poststructuralisms. The paper proposes that not only mood is important in feminist reading practices but also movements and flows.

  18. More Reasonable Animal Model for Study the Effect of Pneumoperitoneum on Abdominal Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qijun, Lv; Jiang, Du; Chongshu, Wang

    2018-01-27

    Background: Many animal experimental studies showed that abdominal tumor cells will be widely spread during laparoscopic treatment and grow into metastases. These results are different from clinical observations. There is a hypothesis that too much tumor cells was injected in the animals lead to the results of theses bias. We aim to learn the difference of abdominal cavity volume between human body and the nude mice and to determine reasonable amount of tumor cells in the animal experiments. Methods: The insufflated CO2 volume which represents the capacity of the abdominal cavity was recorded during laparoscopic process in 212 patients and 20 nude mice respectively, the relative volume of nude mice and human body was calculated.Based on data from the literature and this study , the amount of tumor cells in the animal experiments was determined.According to these data, we set up a new animal model and a traditional one respectively,and compared the rate of successful modeling and tumor formation between two animal models. Results: The intraperitoneal volumes of humans and nude mice were 3.01±0.36 L and 0.011±0.001 L respectively.The number of tumor cells that be uesd in animal should be approximately 0.26×105 in terms of known data in human beings.Compared with the traditional animal model which formed a large number of intraperitoneal tumor metastasis, the new animal model was shows more moderately,and the rate of successful modeling was similar. Conclusion: In animal experiments, to simulate the clinical situation, about 0.26×105 tumor cells should be inject in peritoneal cavity of the nude mice. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. VUV studies of molecular photofragmentation dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    State-resolved, photoion and photoelectron methods are used to study the neutral fragmentation and ionization dynamics of small molecules relevant to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. Photodissociation and ionization are initiated by coherent VUV radiation and the fragmentation dynamics are extracted from measurements of product rovibronic state distributions, kinetic energies and angular distributions. The general aim of these studies is to investigate the multichannel interactions between the electronic and nuclear motions which determine the evolution of the photoexcited {open_quotes}complex{close_quotes} into the observed asymptotic channels.

  20. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  1. MOLECULAR STUDY OF NUCLEPROTEIN GENE OF RABIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the 1400-b.p RT-PCR products of the N gene and the views by sequencing and restriction endonuclease analysis enabled division of isolates into 3 types. The conclusion from the study is that RT-PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis of the amplified products of the N gene would allow identification and ...

  2. Cytogenetic and molecular study in intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soheir S. Abou El Ella

    2012-07-06

    ). [12]. e. Automated DNA sequencing [13]. And lastly genetic counseling was done to all families in or- der to prevent, avoid or ameliorate the disorder [14]. 3. Results. The results of this study were illustrated in Tables 1–5 and.

  3. Contribution of animal studies to evaluate the similarity of biosimilars to reference products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, Peter J K; Ebbers, Hans C; Kooijman, Marlous; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Moors, Ellen H M; Schellekens, Huub

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) was the first region to establish a regulatory framework for biosimilars, in which animal studies are required to confirm similarity to a reference product. However, animal studies described in European public assessment reports (EPARs) or marketing authorization applications (MAAs) did not identify clinically or toxicologically relevant differences despite differences in quality, suggesting that animal studies lack the sensitivity to confirm biosimilarity. Scientific advice provided learning opportunities to evolve existing guidance. Altogether, the data support a step-wise approach to develop biosimilars that focuses on quality and clinical efficacy of biosimilar. This approach might be more effective and does not necessarily require animal studies, which is also reflected in new EU draft guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors that Influence Intake to One Municipal Animal Control Facility in Florida: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Spencer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study identified a study area by visualizing one year of animal intake from a municipal animal shelter on geographic information systems (GIS maps to select an area of high stray-dog intake to investigate. Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with residents of the selected study area to elucidate why there were high numbers of stray dogs coming from this location. Using grounded theory, three themes emerged from the interviews: concerns, attitudes, and disparities. The residents expressed concerns about animal welfare, personal safety, money, and health. They held various attitudes toward domestic animals in the community, including viewing them as pets, pests, or useful commodities (products. Residents expressed acceptance as well as some anger and fear about the situation in their community. Interviewees revealed they faced multiple socioeconomic disparities related to poverty. Pet abandonment can result when pet owners must prioritize human needs over animal needs, leading to increased shelter intake of stray dogs. Community-specific strategies for reducing local animal shelter intake should address the issue of pet abandonment by simultaneously targeting veterinary needs of animals, socioeconomic needs of residents, and respecting attitude differences between residents and shelter professionals.

  5. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Isamov, N.; Barnett, C.L.; Beresford, N.A.; Howard, B.J.; Sanzharova, N.; Fesenko, E.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1–3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. - Highlights: • The data on biological half-lives from Russian language literature were reviewed. • Radionuclides with the shortest half-lives in animals are those which accumulate in soft tissues. • Short term behaviour is affected by the form in which radionuclides are administered. • There is a tendency for more rapid radionuclide turnover in younger animals

  6. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Nathoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  7. CAPACITY, POTENTIAL, AND ABILITY: INTEGRATING DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO STUDYING ANIMAL VS HUMAN CREATIVE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Kaufman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For all of the differences between studying animal and human creativity and innovation, there are enough similarities that we can gain insight by integrating both perspectives. Both research approaches focus on creative ability, but animal studies favor the concept of creative capacity whereas human scholars prefer the idea of creative potential. We explore here the implications of these differences and what each field can learn from the other.

  8. Outstanding animal studies in allergy II. From atopic barrier and microbiome to allergen-specific immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Sch?ll, Isabella; Roth-Walter, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Animal studies published within the past 18 months were assessed, focusing on innate and specific immunomodulation, providing knowledge of high translational relevance for human atopic and allergic diseases. Recent findings Allergic companion animals represent alternative models, but most studies were done in mice. Atopic dermatitis mouse models were refined by the utilization of cytokines like IL-23 and relevant skin allergens or enzymes. A novel IL-6 reporter mouse allows ...

  9. Effects of hypothyroidism on the respiratory system and control of breathing: Human studies and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2012-04-30

    Hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid sick syndrome, are prevalent disorders that affect all body systems including the respiratory system and control of breathing. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the regulation of thyroid hormone production and their function at the cellular level; the many causes of hypothyroidism; the effects of hypothyroidism on the respiratory system and on control of ventilation in hypothyroid patients; the variety of ways animal models of hypothyroidism are induced; and how in animal models hypothyroidism affects the respiratory system and control of breathing including neurotransmitters that influence breathing. Finally, this review will present controversies that exist in the field and thus encourage new research directions. Because of the high prevalence of hypothyroidism and subclinical forms of hypothyroidism and their influence on ventilation and the respiratory system, understanding underlying molecular mechanisms is necessary to ascertain how and sometimes why not thyroid replacement may normalize function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. HEK293 cell culture media study towards bioprocess optimization: Animal derived component free and animal derived component containing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liste-Calleja, Leticia; Lecina, Martí; Cairó, Jordi Joan

    2014-04-01

    The increasing demand for biopharmaceuticals produced in mammalian cells has lead industries to enhance bioprocess volumetric productivity through different strategies. Among those strategies, cell culture media development is of major interest. In the present work, several commercially available culture media for Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293) were evaluated in terms of maximal specific growth rate and maximal viable cell concentration supported. The main objective was to provide different cell culture platforms which are suitable for a wide range of applications depending on the type and the final use of the product obtained. Performing simple media supplementations with and without animal derived components, an enhancement of cell concentration from 2 × 10(6) cell/mL to 17 × 10(6) cell/mL was achieved in batch mode operation. Additionally, the media were evaluated for adenovirus production as a specific application case of HEK293 cells. None of the supplements interfered significantly with the adenovirus infection although some differences were encountered in viral productivity. To the best of our knowledge, the high cell density achieved in the work presented has never been reported before in HEK293 batch cell cultures and thus, our results are greatly promising to further study cell culture strategies in bioreactor towards bioprocess optimization. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study and development of a high resolution tomograph for the γ radio-imagery in vivo of small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valda Ochoa, A.

    1995-01-01

    By the use of molecular radio-labelled tracers, molecular biology can reveal some aspects of the functional organisation of the brain. Non invasive in vivo brain research on small laboratory animals, like mice or rats, require analysis of structures of some cubic millimeters present in a brain of the order of a cubic centimeter. Since imaging performances of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) fail in this research field, we present here a high resolution tomograph (TOHR) based on an original principle that allows to overcome the compromise between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. TOHR is a radiation counter device having a large solid angle focusing collimator. By the use of radio-tracers decaying by a cascade of two photons, coincidence detection offers an accurate delimitation of the analysed region and improves spatial resolution. TOHR acts as a scanner, so the image is built voxel by voxel by moving the animal relative to the detector. A numerical feasibility study of such a system shows that a sub millimeter spatial resolution can be achieved. We show that the chemical etching technique is well suited for manufacturing a multi-module focusing collimator by building and testing two such modules. Finally a numerical simulation exhibits TOHR's performance in a neuro-pharmacological experiment on a rat. From these results, other application of TOHR are envisaged, such as oncology (in vivo evolution of tumours) or gene therapy (distribution of viral particles in the brain). (author). 51 refs., 73 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijmans, C.R.; Tillema, A.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2010-01-01

    Collecting and analysing all available literature before starting an animal experiment is important and it is indispensable when writing a systematic review (SR) of animal research. Writing such review prevents unnecessary duplication of animal studies and thus unnecessary animal use (Reduction).

  13. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the enviroment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro; Smid, J.H.; Pelt, Van Wilfrid; Bonten, M.J.M.; Fluit, A.C.; Bunt, van den Gerrita; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hordijk, J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Veldman, K.T.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Dohmen, W.; Schmitt, H.; Liakopoulos, A.; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Velthuis, Annet; Heuvelink, A.; Gonggrijp, Maaike; Duijkeren, van E.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Roda Husman, de A.N.; Blaak, H.; Havelaar, A.H.; Mevius, D.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  14. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the environment : a pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-García, Alejandro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372621023; Smid, Joost H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313996458; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Bonten, Marc J M; Fluit, Ad C; van den Bunt, Gerrita; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Hordijk, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839542; Dierikx, Cindy M; Veldman, Kees T; de Koeijer, Aline; Dohmen, Wietske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/333690451; Schmitt, Heike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831042; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, Theo J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Velthuis, Annet G J; Heuvelink, Annet; Gonggrijp, Maaike A; van Duijkeren, Engeline; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281; Blaak, Hetty; Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Mevius, Dik J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; Heederik, Dick J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  15. Facilitating healthcare decisions by assessing the certainty in the evidence from preclinical animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R; de Vries, Rob B M; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M; Leeflang, Mariska M; IntHout, Joanna; Wever, Kimberley E; Hooft, Lotty; de Beer, Hans; Kuijpers, Ton; Macleod, Malcolm R; Sena, Emily S; Ter Riet, Gerben; Morgan, Rebecca L; Thayer, Kristina A; Rooney, Andrew A; Guyatt, Gordon H; Schünemann, Holger J; Langendam, Miranda W

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory animal studies are used in a wide range of human health related research areas, such as basic biomedical research, drug research, experimental surgery and environmental health. The results of these studies can be used to inform decisions regarding clinical research in humans, for example the decision to proceed to clinical trials. If the research question relates to potential harms with no expectation of benefit (e.g., toxicology), studies in experimental animals may provide the only relevant or controlled data and directly inform clinical management decisions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are important tools to provide robust and informative evidence summaries of these animal studies. Rating how certain we are about the evidence could provide important information about the translational probability of findings in experimental animal studies to clinical practice and probably improve it. Evidence summaries and certainty in the evidence ratings could also be used (1) to support selection of interventions with best therapeutic potential to be tested in clinical trials, (2) to justify a regulatory decision limiting human exposure (to drug or toxin), or to (3) support decisions on the utility of further animal experiments. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach is the most widely used framework to rate the certainty in the evidence and strength of health care recommendations. Here we present how the GRADE approach could be used to rate the certainty in the evidence of preclinical animal studies in the context of therapeutic interventions. We also discuss the methodological challenges that we identified, and for which further work is needed. Examples are defining the importance of consistency within and across animal species and using GRADE's indirectness domain as a tool to predict translation from animal models to humans.

  16. Facilitating healthcare decisions by assessing the certainty in the evidence from preclinical animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; de Vries, Rob B. M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Leeflang, Mariska M.; IntHout, Joanna; Wever, Kimberley E.; Hooft, Lotty; de Beer, Hans; Kuijpers, Ton; Macleod, Malcolm R.; Sena, Emily S.; ter Riet, Gerben; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Rooney, Andrew A.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Schünemann, Holger J.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory animal studies are used in a wide range of human health related research areas, such as basic biomedical research, drug research, experimental surgery and environmental health. The results of these studies can be used to inform decisions regarding clinical research in humans, for example the decision to proceed to clinical trials. If the research question relates to potential harms with no expectation of benefit (e.g., toxicology), studies in experimental animals may provide the only relevant or controlled data and directly inform clinical management decisions. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are important tools to provide robust and informative evidence summaries of these animal studies. Rating how certain we are about the evidence could provide important information about the translational probability of findings in experimental animal studies to clinical practice and probably improve it. Evidence summaries and certainty in the evidence ratings could also be used (1) to support selection of interventions with best therapeutic potential to be tested in clinical trials, (2) to justify a regulatory decision limiting human exposure (to drug or toxin), or to (3) support decisions on the utility of further animal experiments. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach is the most widely used framework to rate the certainty in the evidence and strength of health care recommendations. Here we present how the GRADE approach could be used to rate the certainty in the evidence of preclinical animal studies in the context of therapeutic interventions. We also discuss the methodological challenges that we identified, and for which further work is needed. Examples are defining the importance of consistency within and across animal species and using GRADE’s indirectness domain as a tool to predict translation from animal models to humans. PMID:29324741

  17. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years computer modeling of liquids and solids has become a useful method of understanding the structural and dynamical correlations in these systems. Some characteristics of the method are presented with an example from work on homogeneous nucleation in monoatomic liquids; the interaction potential determines the structure: a Lennard--Jones system nucleates a close packed structure while an alkali metal potential nucleates a bcc packing. In the study of ionic systems like CaF 2 the Coulomb interaction together with the short range repulsion is enough to produce a satisfactory model for the motion of F - ions in CaF 2 at approx. 1600 0 K. Analysis of this motion shows that F - ions reside at their fluorite sites for about 6 x 10 -12 s and that the diffusion is mainly due to F - jumps in the 100 direction. The motion can be analyzed in terms of the generation and annihilation of anti-Frenkel pairs. The temperature dependence of the F - diffusion constant at two different densities has also been calculated. The computer model does not correspond with experiment in this regard

  18. Authentication of animal origin of heparin and low molecular weight heparin including ovine, porcine and bovine species using 1D NMR spectroscopy and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Diehl, Bernd W K; Fareed, Jawed

    2018-02-05

    High resolution (600MHz) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to distinguish heparin and low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) produced from porcine, bovine and ovine mucosal tissues as well as their blends. For multivariate analysis several statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor discriminant analysis (FDA), partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were utilized for the modeling of NMR data of more than 100 authentic samples. Heparin and LMWH samples from the independent test set (n=15) were 100% correctly classified according to its animal origin. Moreover, by using 1 H NMR coupled with chemometrics and several batches of bovine heparins from two producers were differentiated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics is an efficient tool for simultaneous identification of animal origin and process based manufacturing difference in heparin products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal mod...

  20. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery: a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Palestrini, Clara; De Giorgis, Valentina; Raschetti, Roberto; Tumminelli, Massimiliano; Mencherini, Simonetta; Papotti, Francesca; Klersy, Catherine; Albertini, Riccardo; Ostuni, Selene; Pelizzo, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period. Forty children (3-17 years) were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery) or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care). The study variables were determined in each patient, independently of the assigned group, by a researcher unblinded to the patient's group. The outcomes of the study were to define the neurological, cardiovascular and endocrinological impact of animal-assisted therapy in response to stress and pain. Electroencephalogram activity, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral prefrontal oxygenation, salivary cortisol levels and the faces pain scale were considered as outcome measures. After entrance of the dog faster electroencephalogram diffuse beta-activity (> 14 Hz) was reported in all children of the animal-assisted therapy group; in the standard-group no beta-activity was recorded (100% vs 0%, panimal-assisted therapy, though a higher variability in diastolic pressure was observed. Salivary cortisol levels did not show different behaviours over time between groups (p=0.70). Lower pain perception was noted in the animal-assisted group in comparison with the standard-group (p = 0.01). Animal-assisted therapy facilitated rapid recovery in vigilance and activity after anaesthesia, modified pain perception and induced emotional prefrontal responses. An adaptative cardiovascular response was also present. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02284100.

  1. Study of embryotoxic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina Т.А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to detect possible changes in embryogenesis and negative effects of third generation antihistamine – desloratadine – after intranasal administration of 1.3 mg/m3 and 13.0 mg/m3 of the substance to laboratory animals during their prenatal period. In these circumstances, desloratadine does not cause any significant changes of embryogenesis parameters. Macroscopic examination of the fetus and placenta in animals of experimental groups did not reveal any pathology or physiological deviations from the norm. 13.0 mg/m3 concentration of the drug caused a decrease in the weight of embryos in comparison with control group of animals and physiological data, despite a well developed, without visible pathology, placenta. This neces­sitates an in-depth study of possible teratogenic effects of intranasally administred desloratadine to laboratory animals.

  2. Discrimination of animate and inanimate motion in 9-month-old infants: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Birgit; Reid, Vincent M

    2013-10-01

    Simple geometric shapes moving in a self-propelled manner, and violating Newtonian laws of motion by acting against gravitational forces tend to induce a judgement that an object is animate. Objects that change their motion only due to external causes are more likely judged as inanimate. How the developing brain is employed in the perception of animacy in early ontogeny is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to use ERP techniques to determine if the negative central component (Nc), a waveform related to attention allocation, was differentially affected when an infant observed animate or inanimate motion. Short animated movies comprising a marble moving along a marble run either in an animate or an inanimate manner were presented to 15 infants who were 9 months of age. The ERPs were time-locked to a still frame representing animate or inanimate motion that was displayed following each movie. We found that 9-month-olds are able to discriminate between animate and inanimate motion based on motion cues alone and most likely allocate more attentional resources to the inanimate motion. The present data contribute to our understanding of the animate-inanimate distinction and the Nc as a correlate of infant cognitive processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae in elephants - A comparative study with isolates from human and zoo animal and livestock origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Rau, Jörg; Westerhüs, Uta; Knauf-Witzens, Tobias; Fawzy, Ahmad; Schlez, Karen; Zschöck, Michael; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Heydel, Carsten; Sting, Reinhard; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Pulami, Dipen; van der Linden, Mark; Ewers, Christa

    2017-05-01

    Streptococcus (S.) agalactiae represents a significant pathogen for humans and animals. However, there are only a few elderly reports on S. agalactiae infections in wild and zoo elephants even though this pathogen has been isolated comparatively frequently in these endangered animal species. Consequently, between 2004 and 2015, we collected S. agalactiae isolates from African and Asian elephants (n=23) living in four different zoos in Germany. These isolates were characterised and compared with isolates from other animal species (n=20 isolates) and humans (n=3). We found that the isolates from elephants can be readily identified by classical biochemistry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Further characterisations for epidemiological issues were achieved using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, capsule typing and molecular fingerprinting (PFGE, RAPD PCR). We could demonstrate that our elephant isolate collection contained at least six different lineages that were representative for their source of origin. Despite generally broad antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae, many showed tetracycline resistance in vitro. S. agalactiae plays an important role in bacterial infections not only in cattle and humans, but also in elephants. Comparative studies were able to differentiate S. agalactiae isolates from elephants into different infectious clusters based on their epidemiological background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular stopwatches, cogwheels and ``spinflakes'': studying the dynamics of molecular superrotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander; Hepburn, John; Milner, Valery

    2015-05-01

    Using the technique of an optical centrifuge, we excite diatomic molecules to ultrafast synchronous rotation. Femtosecond velocity-map imaging allows us to visualize and study the coherent dynamics of molecular superrotors under field free conditions and in external magnetic field. We demonstrate that when the created rotational wave packet is narrow, its free evolution is nondispersing and follows the motion of a classically rotating dumbbell or a hand of the smallest natural stopwatch. For wider rotational distributions, we observe the breakdown of classical rotation, when a dumbbell shape changes to that of a ``quantum cogwheel'' - a molecular state simultaneously aligned along multiple direction. Our measurements in external magnetic field reveal other peculiar aspects of the rich dynamics of molecular superrotors. The rotation of a non-magnetic molecule interacts with the applied field only weakly, giving rise to slow precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field direction. In contrast, the electronic spin of a paramagnetic superrotor mediates this interaction, causing the initial disk-like angular distribution to split into several spatial components, each precessing with its own frequency determined by the spin projection.

  5. A Study Of The Effects Of Computer Animated Character Body Style On Perception Of Facial Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Cissell, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if there is a difference in viewer perception of computer animated character facial expressions based on character body style, specifically, realistic and stylized character body styles. Participants viewed twenty clips of computer animated characters expressing one of five emotions: sadness, happiness, anger, surprise and fear. They then named the emotion and rated the sincerity, intensity, and typicality of each clip. The results indicated that for recognition, participa...

  6. Critical Analysis of Assessment Studies of the Animal Ethics Review Process †

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Orsolya

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In many countries, the approval of animal research projects depends on the decisions of the ethics committees which review the projects. Since the efficiency of the protection of experimental animals greatly depends on the performance of the ethics committees, its regular assessment is crucial. This paper reviews the results of studies assessing the performance of the ethics committees, and emphasizes the importance of outcome assessment in the evaluation of the performance of ...

  7. Insight into the relationship between impulsivity and substance abuse from studies using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R; Jentsch, J David

    2010-08-01

    Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior.

  8. Volumetric and Viscometric Studies of Molecular Interactions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    In previous work we have presented a systematic study of the thermodynamic, acoustic and transport properties of binary mixtures of amides with alcohols.1–6 The objective underlying such studies is to improve our understanding of molecular interactions for characterizing the physico-chemical behaviour of mixtures at the ...

  9. Molecular study of developmental sex disorders in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soheir S. AboElella

    2015-03-07

    Mar 7, 2015 ... tine and hormonal investigations, imaging studies, cytogenetic and molecular studies for SRY,. SOX9 and NR5A1 genes. Results: Positive consanguinity between the parents was detected in seven patients (43.75%). Serum 17 OH progesterone was elevated in five patients (31.25%) and below normal ...

  10. Synthesis, anti-microbial activity and molecular docking studies on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    100, where I = Zone of inhibition. 2.6 Docking studies. The protein in complex with simocyclinone (PDB ID: 2Y3P) was used as the template for molecular docking studies. GLIDE 9.5 and IFD script from Schrödinger,. LLC (New York) was employed as our primary docking engine.20 A hierarchical search protocol was utilized ...

  11. Molecular phenotype of zebrafish ovarian follicle by serial analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiling, and comparison with the transcriptomes of other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll-Gellida, Anja; André, Michèle; Gattegno, Tamar; Forgue, Jean; Admon, Arie; Babin, Patrick J

    2006-03-09

    The ability of an oocyte to develop into a viable embryo depends on the accumulation of specific maternal information and molecules, such as RNAs and proteins. A serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was carried out in parallel with proteomic analysis on fully-grown ovarian follicles from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The data obtained were compared with ovary/follicle/egg molecular phenotypes of other animals, published or available in public sequence databases. Sequencing of 27,486 SAGE tags identified 11,399 different ones, including 3,329 tags with an occurrence superior to one. Fifty-eight genes were expressed at over 0.15% of the total population and represented 17.34% of the mRNA population identified. The three most expressed transcripts were a rhamnose-binding lectin, beta-actin 2, and a transcribed locus similar to the H2B histone family. Comparison with the large-scale expressed sequence tags sequencing approach revealed highly expressed transcripts that were not previously known to be expressed at high levels in fish ovaries, like the short-sized polarized metallothionein 2 transcript. A higher sensitivity for the detection of transcripts with a characterized maternal genetic contribution was also demonstrated compared to large-scale sequencing of cDNA libraries. Ferritin heavy polypeptide 1, heat shock protein 90-beta, lactate dehydrogenase B4, beta-actin isoforms, tubulin beta 2, ATP synthase subunit 9, together with 40 S ribosomal protein S27a, were common highly-expressed transcripts of vertebrate ovary/unfertilized egg. Comparison of transcriptome and proteome data revealed that transcript levels provide little predictive value with respect to the extent of protein abundance. All the proteins identified by proteomic analysis of fully-grown zebrafish follicles had at least one transcript counterpart, with two exceptions: eosinophil chemotactic cytokine and nothepsin. This study provides a complete sequence data set of maternal mRNA stored in

  12. Molecular phenotype of zebrafish ovarian follicle by serial analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiling, and comparison with the transcriptomes of other animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forgue Jean

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of an oocyte to develop into a viable embryo depends on the accumulation of specific maternal information and molecules, such as RNAs and proteins. A serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE was carried out in parallel with proteomic analysis on fully-grown ovarian follicles from zebrafish (Danio rerio. The data obtained were compared with ovary/follicle/egg molecular phenotypes of other animals, published or available in public sequence databases. Results Sequencing of 27,486 SAGE tags identified 11,399 different ones, including 3,329 tags with an occurrence superior to one. Fifty-eight genes were expressed at over 0.15% of the total population and represented 17.34% of the mRNA population identified. The three most expressed transcripts were a rhamnose-binding lectin, beta-actin 2, and a transcribed locus similar to the H2B histone family. Comparison with the large-scale expressed sequence tags sequencing approach revealed highly expressed transcripts that were not previously known to be expressed at high levels in fish ovaries, like the short-sized polarized metallothionein 2 transcript. A higher sensitivity for the detection of transcripts with a characterized maternal genetic contribution was also demonstrated compared to large-scale sequencing of cDNA libraries. Ferritin heavy polypeptide 1, heat shock protein 90-beta, lactate dehydrogenase B4, beta-actin isoforms, tubulin beta 2, ATP synthase subunit 9, together with 40 S ribosomal protein S27a, were common highly-expressed transcripts of vertebrate ovary/unfertilized egg. Comparison of transcriptome and proteome data revealed that transcript levels provide little predictive value with respect to the extent of protein abundance. All the proteins identified by proteomic analysis of fully-grown zebrafish follicles had at least one transcript counterpart, with two exceptions: eosinophil chemotactic cytokine and nothepsin. Conclusion This study provides a

  13. Advances in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ling-yan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. In recent years, there was a great advance in molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia. This paper will review the clinical characteristics and molecular genetic studies of primary dystonia, including early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (DYT1, whispering dysphonia (DYT4, dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5, mixed-type dystonia (DYT6, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (DYT10, myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (DYT11, rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12, adult-onset cervical dystonia (DYT23, craniocervical dystonia (DYT24 and primary torsion dystonia (DYT25.

  14. Molecular detection of hemoprotozoa and Rickettsia species in arthropods collected from wild animals in the Burgos Province, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Domínguez-Peñafiel, Gerardo; Sousa, Rita; Gegúndez, Maria Isabep; Casado, Nieves; Criado, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Limited information on the presence of bacterial and hematozoan infections in parasitic arthropods from Spain is available. In an attempt to address this issue, the prevalence of Theileria, Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Rickettsia species was investigated by polymerase chain reaction plus sequencing. In a survey for zoonotic pathogens in ectoparasites, 42 wild animals (which included rodents, carnivores, Sciuridae, and Cervidae) were captured in Burgos (Spain). A total of 256 arthropods (including...

  15. Relationship Between Antihypertensive Medications and Cognitive Impairment: Part II. Review of Physiology and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth; Schuchman, Mattan; Peters, Jean; Carlson, Michelle C; Yasar, Sevil

    2016-08-01

    There is an established association between hypertension and increased risk of poor cognitive performance and dementia including Alzheimer's disease; however, associations between antihypertensive medications (AHM) and dementia risk are less clear. An increased interest in AHM has resulted in expanding publications; however, none of the recent reviews provide comprehensive review. Our extensive review includes 24 mechanistic animal and human studies published over the last 5 years assessing relationship between AHM and cognitive function. All classes of AHM showed similar result patterns in animal studies. The mechanism by which AHM exert their effect was extensively studied by evaluating well-established pathways of AD disease process, including amyloid beta (Aβ), vascular, oxidative stress and inflammation pathways, but only few studies evaluated the blood pressure lowering effect on the AD disease process. Methodological limitations of the studies prevent comprehensive conclusions prior to further work evaluating AHM in animals and larger human observational studies, and selecting those with promising results for future RCTs.

  16. Perceptions of a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth; Cline, Krista; O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown that there are multiple benefits of animal assisted interventions for patients. However, the impact of interaction with these animals in staff is understudied, particularly in the acute care setting, and is thus a novel contribution to the literature on human-animal interaction. The purpose of this qualitative pilot study was to contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding the experiences and perceptions of hospital staff who have participated in a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program. Nine face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted (4 staff nurses, 3 support staff members, and 2 hospital volunteers). Five themes emerged from the respondent interviews: (1) descriptions of the therapy dogs; (2) contacts with the dogs at work; (3) connection with the dogs outside of work; (4) benefits; (5) drawbacks. Our findings reflect abundantly positive hospital staff experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-12-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data. 2013 FRAME.

  18. Molecular modeling of protein materials: case study of elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanova, Anna; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-09-01

    Molecular modeling of protein materials is a quickly growing area of research that has produced numerous contributions in fields ranging from structural engineering to medicine and biology. We review here the history and methods commonly employed in molecular modeling of protein materials, emphasizing the advantages for using modeling as a complement to experimental work. We then consider a case study of the protein elastin, a critically important ‘mechanical protein’ to exemplify the approach in an area where molecular modeling has made a significant impact. We outline the progression of computational modeling studies that have considerably enhanced our understanding of this important protein which endows elasticity and recoil to the tissues it is found in, including the skin, lungs, arteries and the heart. A vast collection of literature has been directed at studying the structure and function of this protein for over half a century, the first molecular dynamics study of elastin being reported in the 1980s. We review the pivotal computational works that have considerably enhanced our fundamental understanding of elastin's atomistic structure and its extraordinary qualities—focusing on two in particular: elastin's superb elasticity and the inverse temperature transition—the remarkable ability of elastin to take on a more structured conformation at higher temperatures, suggesting its effectiveness as a biomolecular switch. Our hope is to showcase these methods as both complementary and enriching to experimental approaches that have thus far dominated the study of most protein-based materials.

  19. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  20. Pigs are useful for the molecular study of bone inflammation and regeneration in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja Lea; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are used with increased frequency to model different kinds of orthopedic surgical conditions. In order to show the full potential of porcine models in orthopedic research, it is therefore required to examine the expression of bone regulatory genes in pigs affected by orthopedic surgery...... and compare it to the expression in humans and mice as mice, are one of the most applied animal species in orthopedics today. In the present study, the local molecular response to drilling of a tibial implant cavity, and the subsequent insertion of a steel implant was examined in a porcine model. Pigs were...... euthanized five days after drilling of the bone. The molecular response of 73 different genes was analyzed using a high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction platform and compared to histopathology. Histologically, it was found that bone remodeling was initiated on day 5 after surgery...

  1. Serological and molecular evidence of [i]Coxiella burnetii[/i] in samples from humans and animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba S. El-Mahallawy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] [i]Coxiella burnetii[/i] is the agent of Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis. To add to the available knowledge of the disease in China, [i]C. burnetti[/i] infections were investigated in convenience samples from five animal species and humans from Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, eastern China. [b]Materials and methods.[/b] Commercial ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies to phase I and II [i]C. burnetii[/i]. A FRET-qPCR targeting the outer membrane protein com1 gene was also developed to detect [i]C. burnetii[/i] DNA in blood samples from animals and humans, and bovine milk samples. [b]Results.[/b] Seropositive cattle (44/150; 29%, goats (33/150; 22%, humans (45/180; 25% and pigs (4/130; 3% were found, while dogs (0/136; 0% and cats (0/140; 0% were seronegative. Seropositivity in humans was associated with increasing age, but there was no gender difference. DNA was amplified from two milk samples (2/150, 1.3%, while none of the blood samples were positive. The sequences of the obtained amplicons were identical to those of the com1 gene of the universal [i]C. burnetii[/i] RSA 493 strain and other stains from China. [b]Conclusions. [/b]The findings indicaten that C. burnetii is endemic in Yangzhou, China, and therefore human and animal health workers should be aware of the possibility of infections and the occurrence of outbreaks of Q fever.

  2. Stretching siloxanes: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, E. M.; Nonnenberg, C.; Frank, I.; Achenbach, F.; Weis, J.; Bräuchle, C.

    2005-10-01

    We present an ab initio molecular dynamics study of siloxane elastomers placed under tensile stress for comparison with single molecule AFM experiments. Of particular interest is stress-induced chemical bond breaking in the high force regime, where a description of the molecular electronic structure is essential to determine the rupture mechanism. We predict an ionic mechanism for the bond breaking process with a rupture force of 4.4 nN for an isolated siloxane decamer pulled at a rate of 27.3 m/s and indicate lower values at experimental polymer lengths and pulling rates.

  3. Animal studies on medicinal herbs: predictability, dose conversion and potential value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcikowski, Ken; Gobe, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies testing medicinal herbs are often misinterpreted by both translational researchers and clinicians due to a lack of information regarding their predictability, human dose equivalent and potential value. The most common mistake is to design or translate an animal study on a milligram per kilogram basis. This can lead to underestimation of the toxicity and/or overestimation of the amount needed for human therapy. Instead, allometric scaling, which involves body surface area, should be used. While the differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic phases between species will inevitably lead to some degree of error in extrapolation of results regardless of the conversion method used, correct design and interpretation of animal studies can provide information that is not able to be provided by in vitro studies, computer modeling or even traditional use. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Molecular packing in 1-hexanol-DMPC bilayers studied by molecular dynamics simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Westh, P.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and molecular packing density of a “mismatched” solute, 1-hexanol, in lipid membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the average location and orientation of the hexanol molecules matched earlier experimental dat....... The average lateral area per chain in this region expands, resulting in a looser packing density. The net effect in the core is a 2–3% decrease in density corresponding to a total volume increase of ∼ 14 cm3 mol−1 hexanol partitioned.......) is stretched by about 4%. Concomitantly, the average lateral area per chain decreases and these two effects compensate so that the overall packing density in the outer region, where the hexanol molecules are located, remains practically constant. The core of the bilayer (C9–C13) is slightly thinned...

  5. Molecular simulation studies on chemical reactivity of methylcyclopentadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yingchun; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-06-15

    Molecular simulations are important to predict thermodynamic values for reactive chemicals especially when sufficient experimental data are not available. Methylcyclopentadiene (MCP) is an example of a highly reactive and hazardous compound in the chemical process industry. In this work, chemical reactivity of 2-methylcyclopentadiene, including isomerization, dimerization, and oxidation reactions, is investigated in detail by theoretical computational chemistry methods and empirical thermodynamic-energy correlation. On the basis of molecular simulations, an average value of -15.2 kcal/mol for overall heat of dimerization and -45.6 kcal/mol for overall heat of oxidation were obtained in gaseous phase at 298 K and 1 atm. These molecular simulation studies can provide guidance for the design of safer chemical processes, safer handling of MCP, and also provide useful information for an investigation of the T2 Laboratories explosion on December 19, 2007, in Florida.

  6. Metallocene Molecular Clusters Studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeonghoon; Ham, Ungdon; Lee, Minjun; Lim, Seong Joon; Kuk, Young

    2014-03-01

    Atomic spins and molecular magnets have been actively reported using Scanning Tunneling Microscope(STM) in recent studies. One can even assemble an artificial magnet by STM manipulation. Manganocene((C5H5)2 Mn), a sandwich complex of metallocene, is composed of one manganese atom and two cyclopentadianyl ligands. This molecule is known to reveal not only high spin number S = 5/2 at room temperature but also two structural states: monomer and molecular chain. In this presentation, we report STM images and spectroscopic results of these monomers and dimers. We try to map the molecular electronic state and the spin texture. The molecule is adsorbed on an insulating layer to decouple the spin state from the metallic substrate. We will present that manganocene can become a basic element of a spin chain.

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...

  8. Molecular dynamics study of atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.

    The effects of atomic displacements on the energetics of alloys plays important role in the determining the properties of alloys. We studied the atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys using molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo methods. The diffuse scattering of pure materials, copper, gold, nickel, and palladium was calculated. The experimental data for pure Cu was obtained from diffuse scattering intensity of synchrotron x-ray radiation. The comparison showed the advantages of molecular dynamics method for calculating the atomic displacements in solid alloys. The individual nearest neighbor separations were calculated for Cu 50Au50 alloy and compared to the result of XAFS experiment. The molecular dynamics method provided theoretical predictions of nearest neighbor pair separations in other binary alloys, Cu-Pd and Cu-Al for wide range of the concentrations. We also experimentally recovered the diffuse scattering maps for the Cu47.3Au52.7 and Cu85.2Al14.8 alloy.

  9. From Animal Waste to Energy; A Study of Methane Gas converted to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.

    2016-12-01

    Does animal waste produce enough harvestable energy to power a household, and if so, what animal's waste can produce the most methane that is usable. What can we power using this methane and how can we power these appliances within an average household using the produced methane from animal waste. The waste product from animals is readily available all over the world, including third world countries. Using animal waste to produce green energy would allow low cost energy sources and give independence from fossil fuels. But which animal produces the most methane and how hard is it to harvest? Before starting this experiment I knew that some cow farms in the northern part of the Central California basin were using some of the methane from the waste to power their machinery as a safer, cheaper and greener source through the harnessed methane gas in a digester. The fermentation process would occur in the digester producing methane gasses as a side product. Methane that is collected can later be burned for energy. I have done a lot of research on this experiment and found that many different farm and ranch animals produce methane, but it was unclear which produced the most. I decided to focus my study on the waste from cows, horses, pig and dogs to try to find the most efficient and strongest source of methane from animal waste. I produced an affordable methane digester from plastic containers with a valve to attach a hose. By putting in the waste product and letting it ferment with water, I was able to produce and capture methane, then measure the amount with a Gaslab meter. By showing that it is possible to create energy with this simple digester, it could reduce pollution and make green energy easily available to communities all over the world. Eventually this could result into our sewer systems converting waste to energy, producing an energy source right in your home.

  10. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  11. Molecular markers to study competition and diversity of Rhizobium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was directed to the development of molecular identification and detection techniques for studying the ecology of Rhizobium, a nitrogen- fixing bacterium of agricultural importance. Competition of inoculant strains with indigenous

  12. Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts | Le Maitre | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts. ... Puccinia triticina, Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis cause leaf, stem and yellow rust, respectively. Wheat rusts can cause ... Breeding resistant cultivars is a long process and requires an accurate picture of the current and future pathogen population. Differentiation of ...

  13. CF3+ etching silicon surface: A molecular dynamics study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.; Lu, X.; He, P.; Zhang, P.; Sun, W.; Zhang, Jingwei; Chen, F.; Gou, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a molecular dynamics simulation method has been employed to investigate CF3 + ions, bombarding Si surface with the energy of 100, 200, 300 and 400 eV and an incident angle of 45 degrees with respect to the normal. The simulation results show that when CF3+ ions approach the Si surface

  14. Molecular dynamics study on the relaxation properties of bilayered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Abstract. The influence of defects on the relaxation properties of bilayered graphene (BLG) has been studied by molecular dynamics simulation in nanometre sizes. Type and position of defects were taken into account in the calculated model. The results show that great changes begin to occur in the ...

  15. Molecular diversity study of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... Thus, conservation priority should be given for those regions that have low genetic diversity. Key words: Conservation, indigenous, molecular markers, primers. ... This study investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of black cumin germplasms collected from Ethiopia using. ISSR markers.

  16. Molecular docking and in silico ADMET studies of silibinin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular docking and in silico ADMET studies of silibinin and glycyrrhetic acid anti-inflammatory activity. Arif Malik, Abdul Manan, Muhammad Usman Mirza. Abstract. Purpose: To use in silico docking analysis and ADMET prediction of silibinin and glycyrrhetic acid to determine their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic ...

  17. A molecular dynamics study of SiSe2 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, G.A.; Kalia, R.K.; Vashishta, P.

    1988-10-01

    We report the results of a molecular dynamics study of molten and glassy SiSe 2 using an effective interparticle interaction. Results for the partial pair-correlation functions, partial structure factors, bond-angle distributions and statistics of rings are reported. Results are in good agreement with the neutron diffraction experiments. 11 refs., 6 figs

  18. Re-emergence of Chikungunya in India: Molecular studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Re-emergence of Chikungunya in India: Molecular studies · PowerPoint Presentation · CHIKUNGUNYA virus · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · CHIKV Genotypes · Slide 7 · In view of long absence of CHIK epidemics, it was postulated that CHIK virus has disappeared from India and South-East Asia. Serological surveys supported this view.

  19. Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and association studies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and association studies in rice. (Oryza sativa L.) C. Vanniarajan, K. K. Vinod and Andy Pereira. J. Genet. 91, 9–19. Table 1. Chromosome-wise distribution of SSR alleles and their number (k), polymorphic information content (PIC) and allele discrimination index (Dm). Chromosome.

  20. Molecular studies of organic residues preserved in ancient vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudemans, Tatiana Frederica Margreta

    2006-01-01

    This study is aimed at the molecular characterisation of solid organic (food) residues preserved in an assemblage of vessels recovered from an indigenous settlement dating back to the Iron Age and Roman period at Uitgeest – Groot Dorregeest (The Netherlands). Analytical thermal-fragmentation

  1. Porphyrin architectures tailored for studies of molecular information storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Carole M; Laha, Joydev K; Loewe, Robert S; Thamyongkit, Patchanita; Schweikart, Karl-Heinz; Misra, Veena; Bocian, David F; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2004-10-01

    A molecular approach to information storage employs redox-active molecules tethered to an electroactive surface. Zinc porphyrins tethered to Au(111) or Si(100) provide a benchmark for studies of information storage. Three sets of porphyrins have been synthesized for studies of the interplay of molecular design and charge-storage properties: (1) A set of porphyrins is described for probing the effect of surface attachment atom on electron-transfer kinetics. Each porphyrin bears a meso-CH2X group for surface attachment where X = OH, SAc, or SeAc. (2) A set of porphyrins is described for studying the effect of surface-charge density in monolayers. Each porphyrin bears a benzyl alcohol for surface attachment and three nonlinking meso substituents of a controlled degree of bulkiness. (3) A set of porphyrins is described that enables investigation of on-chip patterning of the electrolyte. Each porphyrin bears a formyl group distal to the surface attachment group for subsequent derivatization with a molecular entity that comprises the electrolyte. Taken together, this collection of molecules enables a variety of studies to elucidate design issues in molecular-based information storage. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  2. Ultrasonic study of molecular interaction in binary liquid mixtures at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 695–701. Ultrasonic study of molecular interaction in binary liquid mixtures at 30 о. C. A ALI and A K NAIN. Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia ... The variation of these parameters with composition of the mixture helps ... AR grade, 99.5 and 99.0%, respectively) were purified by standard procedure [11]. The.

  3. Molecular genetic study of hemophilia B in an Algerian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2016-12-21

    Dec 21, 2016 ... genetic predisposition of developing inhibitors. The objective of this study were, to identify the mutations that produce different forms of HB disease among Algerian patients, to characterise mutations of the. FIX gene and to develop our knowledge about the molecular basis of this disease. MATERIALS AND ...

  4. Molecular modelling studies on 2-amino 6-aryl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 6. Molecular modelling studies on 2-amino 6-aryl-sulphonylbenzonitriles as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV-1: A QSPR approach. Nitin S Sapre Nilanjana Pancholi Swagata Gupta Arun Sikrwar Neelima Sapre. Volume 119 Issue 6 ...

  5. Synthesis, evaluation and molecular modelling studies of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 2. Synthesis, evaluation and molecular modelling studies of some novel 3-(3 ... The compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data. All the compounds were evaluated for their HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity. Among ...

  6. A Molecular Mechanics Study of Monensin B Ion Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    well known knot theorist working with Jon Simon under the math part of the ONR stereochemical topology project. 2) The 5-rung THYME diol-ditosylate has...trefoil knot, which will posses 100 atoms in the ring. 3) The first molecular mechanics studies on the THYME system have been accomplished. 4) Preliminary

  7. Critical Analysis of Assessment Studies of the Animal Ethics Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Orsolya

    2013-09-04

    In many countries the approval of animal research projects depends on the decisions of Animal Ethics Committees (AEC's), which review the projects. An animal ethics review is performed as part of the authorization process and therefore performed routinely, but comprehensive information about how well the review system works is not available. This paper reviews studies that assess the performance of animal ethics committees by using Donabedian's structure-process-outcome model. The paper points out that it is well recognised that AECs differ in structure, in their decision-making methods, in the time they take to review proposals and that they also make inconsistent decisions. On the other hand, we know little about the quality of outcomes, and to what extent decisions have been incorporated into daily scientific activity, and we know almost nothing about how well AECs work from the animal protection point of view. In order to emphasise this viewpoint in the assessment of AECs, the paper provides an example of measures for outcome assessment. The animal suffering is considered as a potential measure for outcome assessment of the ethics review. Although this approach has limitations, outcome assessment would significantly increase our understanding of the performance of AECs.

  8. Ethnozoological study of animals used by traditional healers in Silent Valley of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Yabesh, J E Morvin; Prabhu, S; Ayyanar, M; Damodaran, R

    2015-03-13

    India has great biodiversity of fauna. The use of fauna with medicinal properties is a common practice since pre-hispanic times. In the last decade, there has been an interest in ethnozoological studies in India. Ethnozoological studies are necessary in order to discover new medications for human health. There is urgency in recording such data. This is the first ethnozoological study in which statistical calculations about animals are done by the ICF method in Kerala, India. The purpose of this study is to analyze and record traditional knowledge of animals utilized by the indigenous people living on Silent Valley, located in Palakkad district of Kerala, India and to document the traditional names, preparation and uses of these animals. Field study was carried out for a period of September 2011 to August 2012 years in Kerala. The ethnomedicinal information was collected through interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires among traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL). This study recorded a total of 57 families, 66 genera, and 69 species of animals that produced 163 methods for usages. Mammalian occupied 29% of the total animals listed, followed by aves (28%), insects (17%), reptiles (10%), actinopterygii (4%), malacostraca, amphibians and clitellata (each 3%), chilopoda (2%) and gastropoda (1%) of the whole, respectively. In regards to usage, 68 species utilized as food products and medicinal uses, totaled 98.55% followed by one species for cosmetics (1.45%). This study indicated that the animals are still being used by the local healers of Palakkad district, to treat various illnesses. The empirical knowledge reported in this study will provide outstanding possibilities for the discovery of new sources of medicine for the drug industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Use of a Simple Physical System Analogy to Study Robustness Features in Animal Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Sadoul

    Full Text Available Environmental perturbations can affect the health, welfare, and fitness of animals. Being able to characterize and phenotype adaptive capacity is therefore of growing scientific concern in animal ecology and in animal production sciences. Terms borrowed from physics are commonly used to describe adaptive responses of animals facing an environmental perturbation, but no quantitative characterization of these responses has been made. Modeling the dynamic responses to an acute challenge was used in this study to facilitate the characterization of adaptive capacity and therefore robustness. A simple model based on a spring and damper was developed to simulate the dynamic responses of animals facing an acute challenge. The parameters characterizing the spring and the damper can be interpreted in terms of stiffness and resistance to the change of the system. The model was tested on physiological and behavioral responses of rainbow trout facing an acute confinement challenge. The model has proven to properly fit the different responses measured in this study and to quantitatively describe the different temporal patterns for each statistical individual in the study. It provides therefore a new way to explicitly describe, analyze and compare responses of individuals facing an acute perturbation. This study suggests that such physical models may be usefully applied to characterize robustness in many other biological systems.

  10. Visualization system: animation of the dynamic evolution of the molecular hydrogen cloud during its gravitational collapse in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte P, R.; Klapp E, J.; Arreaga D, G.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a group of numeric simulations and a region of interest form a molecular hydrogen cloud that collapses under the action of their own force of graveness. For they are believed it two models the constant one and the gaussian with the profile of the density of the initial cloud and a barotropic equation of state that it allows the iso thermic change to adiabatic. For each pattern two values of critical density are used, a spectra of density interferences, obtaining a binary system, tertiary or even a quaternary one. The necessary programs explained in the methodology to generate the visualizations of the models are generated. (Author)

  11. Perianesthetic Mortality in Domestic Animals: A Retrospective Study of Postmortem Lesions and Review of Autopsy Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, J

    2016-09-01

    Autopsy of animals that die in the perianesthetic period allows identification of anesthetic and surgical complications as well as preexisting disease conditions that may have contributed to mortality. In most studies to date investigating perianesthetic mortality in animals, inclusion of autopsy data is very limited. This retrospective study evaluated autopsy findings in 221 cases of perianesthetic death submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory from primary care and referral hospitals. Canine (n = 105; 48%) and feline (n = 90; 41%) cases predominated in the study, involving elective (71%) and emergency (19%) procedures. The clinical history provided to the pathologist was considered incomplete in 42 of 221 cases (19%), but this history was considered essential for evaluating the circumstances of perianesthetic death. Disease had been recognized clinically in 69 of 221 animals (31%). Death occurred in the premedication or sedation (n = 19; 9%), induction (n = 22; 11%), or maintenance (n = 73; 35%) phases or in the 24 hours postanesthesia (n = 93 animals; 45%). Lesions indicative of significant natural disease were present in 130 of 221 animals (59%), mainly involving the heart, upper respiratory tract, or lungs. Surgical or anesthesia-associated complications were identified in 10 of 221 cases (5%). No lesions were evident in 80 of 221 animals (36%), the majority of which were young, healthy, and undergoing elective surgical procedures. Lesions resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation were identified in 75 of 221 animals (34%). Investigation of perianesthetic death cases should be done with knowledge of prior clinical findings and antemortem surgical and medical procedures; the autopsy should particularly focus on the cardiovascular and respiratory system, including techniques to identify pneumothorax and venous air embolism. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. [Molecular-kinetic parameters of thiamine enzymes and the mechanism of antivitamin action of hydroxythiamine in animal organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskiĭ KuM; Voskoboev, A I; Gorenshtenĭn, B I; Dosta, G A

    1979-09-01

    The molecula-kinetic parameters (Km, Ki) of three thiamine enzymes, e. g. thiamine pyrophosphokinase (EC 2.7.6.2), pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) and transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1) with respect to the effects of the thiamine antimetabolite hydroxythiamine in the whole animal organism have been compared. It has been shown that only the first two enzymes, which interact competitively with the vitamin, antivitamin or their pyrophosphate ethers, obey the kinetic parameters obtained for the purified enzymes in vitro. The anticoenzymic effect of hydroxythiamine pyrophosphate with respect to transketolase is not observed in vivo at maximal concentration of the anticoenzyme in tissues due to the absence of competitive interactions with thiamine pyrophosphate. The incorporation of the true and false coenzymes into transketolase occurs only during de novo transketolase synthesis (the apoform is absent in tissues, with the exception of erythrocytes) and proceeds slowly with a half-life time equal to 24--30 hrs. After a single injection of hydroxythiamine at a large dose (70--400 mg/kg) the maximal inhibition of the transketolase activity in tissues (liver, heart, kidney, muscle, spleen, lungs adrenal grands) manifests itself by the 48th--72nd hour, when the concentration of free hydroxythiamine and its pyrophosphate is minimal and the whole anticoenzyme is tightly bound to the protein, forming the false holoenzyme. The use of hydroxythiamine for inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase or transketolase in animal organism is discussed.

  13. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  14. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    , but the neurophysiological tests showed adverse effects at this level. Fourth, neurophysiological methods may be more sensitive than histopathological, neurobehavioural and neurochemical methods. Overall, white spirit with a high and a low content of aromatics showed no overt difference in long-term effects in animals......Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content...

  15. Post-operative benefits of animal-assisted therapy in pediatric surgery: a randomised study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    Full Text Available Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period.Forty children (3-17 years were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care. The study variables were determined in each patient, independently of the assigned group, by a researcher unblinded to the patient's group. The outcomes of the study were to define the neurological, cardiovascular and endocrinological impact of animal-assisted therapy in response to stress and pain. Electroencephalogram activity, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, cerebral prefrontal oxygenation, salivary cortisol levels and the faces pain scale were considered as outcome measures.After entrance of the dog faster electroencephalogram diffuse beta-activity (> 14 Hz was reported in all children of the animal-assisted therapy group; in the standard-group no beta-activity was recorded (100% vs 0%, p<0.001. During observation, some differences in the time profile between groups were observed for heart rate (test for interaction p = 0.018, oxygen saturation (test for interaction p = 0.06 and cerebral oxygenation (test for interaction p = 0.09. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were influenced by animal-assisted therapy, though a higher variability in diastolic pressure was observed. Salivary cortisol levels did not show different behaviours over time between groups (p=0.70. Lower pain perception was noted in the animal-assisted group in comparison with the standard-group (p = 0.01.Animal-assisted therapy facilitated rapid recovery in vigilance and

  16. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: biological half-lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Howard, B J; Sanzharova, N; Fesenko, E

    2015-04-01

    Extensive studies on transfer of radionuclides to animals were carried out in the USSR from the 1950s. Few of these studies were published in the international refereed literature or taken into account in international reviews. This paper continues a series of reviews of Russian language literature on radionuclide transfer to animals, providing information on biological half-lives of radionuclides in various animal tissues. The data are compared, where possible, with those reported in other countries. The data are normally quantified using a single or double exponential accounting for different proportions of the loss. For some products, such as milk, biological half-lives tend to be rapid at 1-3 d for most radionuclides and largely described by a single exponential. However, for other animal products biological half-lives can vary widely as they are influenced by many factors such as the age and size of the animal. Experimental protocols, such as the duration of the study, radionuclide administration and/or sample collection protocol also influence the value of biological half-lives estimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised.

  18. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Kristin L; Wu, Catherine H; Wu, George Y

    2012-06-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) hepatitis, initially termed non-A, non-B hepatitis, has become one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. With the help of animal models, our understanding of the virus has grown substantially from the time of initial discovery. There is a paucity of available animal models for the study of HCV, mainly because of the selective susceptibility limited to humans and primates. Recent work has focused modification of animals to permit HCV entry, replication and transmission. In this review, we highlight the currently available models for the study of HCV including chimpanzees, tupaia, mouse and rat models. Discussion will include methods of model design as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each model. Particular focus is dedicated to knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms of HCV infection that have been elucidated through animal studies. Research within animal models is critically important to establish a complete understanding of HCV infection, which will ultimately form the basis for future treatments and prevention of disease.

  19. Molecular pharmacognosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, LuQi; Xiao, PeiGen; Guo, LanPing; Gao, WenYuan

    2010-06-01

    This article analyzes the background and significance of molecular pharmacognosy, including the molecular identification of medicinal raw materials, phylogenetic evolution of medicinal plants and animals, evaluation and preservation of germplasm resources for medicinal plants and animals, etiology of endangerment and protection of endangered medicinal plants and animals, biosynthesis and bioregulation of active components in medicinal plants, and characteristics and the molecular bases of top-geoherbs.

  20. The Role of the Pharmacist in Animal Health Care: Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this cross-sectional study, the role of pharmacists in animal health care, particularly in the distribution of veterinary medicines in community pharmacies in Dar es Salaam was investigated. Using a semi-structured questionnaire a total of 260 pharmacists were interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the ...

  1. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana; Bergström, Karin; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Briend-Marchal, Alexandra; Broens, Els M; Costa, Marta; Criel, Delphine; Damborg, Peter; van Dijk, Marloes A M; van Dongen, A.M.; Dorsch, Roswitha; Espada, Carmen Martin; Gerber, Bernhard; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Loncaric, Igor; Mion, Domenico; Misic, Dusan; Movilla, Rebeca; Overesch, Gudrun; Perreten, Vincent; Roura, Xavier; Steenbergen, Joachim; Timofte, Dorina; Wolf, Georg; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Schmitt, Sarah; Guardabassi, Luca; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern regarding the increase of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in companion animals. Yet, there are no studies comparing the resistance levels of these organisms in European countries. The aim of this study was to investigate geographical and temporal trends of

  2. The risk of bias of animal experiments in implant dentistry: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Diaz, Karla Tatiana; Aranda, Luisiana; Gabel, Frank; Listl, Stefan; Alarcón, Marco Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the risk of bias (ROB) in reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of animal experiments published in implant dentistry, and to explore the association between animal experiment characteristics and ROB. We searched the MEDLINE (via PubMed), SCOPUS and SciELO databases from 2010 to March 2015 for reports of RCTs of animal experiments published in implant dentistry. We evaluated independently and in duplicate the ROB of these experiments by the use of a tool specifically developed to evaluate ROB in animal studies, the SYRCLE's tool. ROB was judged as low, high or unclear (when there was not enough information to judge ROB). We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to evaluate the association of specific study characteristics and extent of ROB. We initially selected 850 publications and 161 reports of animal experiments were included. For a total of 1449 entries (records), 486 (34%) were rated as low ROB. High ROB was attributed to 80 (6%) of entries, and 883 (60%) entries were rated as unclear ROB. The characteristics "impact factor" (IF), reporting of standard error (SE) and reporting of confidence interval (CI) were significantly associated with low ROB in some SYRCLE domains. A substantial number of items with unclear ROB were observed in this sample of animal experiments in implant dentistry. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that implant dentistry animal experiments published in journals with higher IF and better report of measures of precision; that is, CI and SE may have lower ROB than those not having these characteristics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver-related death in more than 300,000 people annually. Treatments for patients with chronic HCV are suboptimal, despite the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents. There is no vaccine that prevents HCV infection. Relevant animal models are important...... for HCV research and development of drugs and vaccines. Chimpanzees are the best model for studies of HCV infection and related innate and adaptive host immune responses. They can be used in immunogenicity and efficacy studies of HCV vaccines. The only small animal models of robust HCV infection are T...

  4. Disease Control in Animals Using Molecular Technology by Inactivation of ASO, RNAi and ss-siRNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization causes high mobility of human and livestock, hence increase the transmission of infectious diseases, including avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, and swine influenza. Therefore, prevention of those diseases is required. Vaccines are effective to prevent infectious diseases; however, their development takes a long time and they cannot provide immediate protection in pandemic cases. This paper describes several gene silencing technologies including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, RNA interference (RNAi and single strand-small interfering RNA (ss-siRNA for controlling diseases. The primary mechanism of these technologies is inhibition of gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific RNA molecule of the pathogen. The use of gene silencing technologies is expected to give new alternative that is more effective in eradication of infectious diseases in animals before threaten human being.

  5. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G.; Geider, R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  6. 9.4 T small animal MRI using clinical components for direct translational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jörg; Celik, A Avdo; Choi, Chang-Hoon; Schwan, Stefan; Shah, N Jon

    2017-12-28

    Magnetic resonance is a major preclinical and clinical imaging modality ideally suited for longitudinal studies, e.g. in pharmacological developments. The lack of a proven platform that maintains an identical imaging protocol between preclinical and clinical platforms is solved with the construction of an animal scanner based on clinical hard- and software. A small animal magnet and gradient system were connected to a clinical MR system. Several hardware components were either modified or built in-house to achieve compatibility. The clinical software was modified to account for the different field-of-view of a preclinical MR system. The established scanner was evaluated using clinical QA protocols, and platform compatibility for translational research was verified against clinical scanners of different field strength. The constructed animal scanner operates with the majority of clinical imaging sequences. Translational research is greatly facilitated as protocols can be shared between preclinical and clinical platforms. Hence, when maintaining sequences parameters, maximum similarity between pulses played out on a human or an animal system is maintained. Coupling of a small animal magnet with a clinical MR system is a flexible, easy to use way to establish and advance translational imaging capability. It provides cost and labor efficient translational capability as no tedious sequence reprogramming between moieties is required and cross-platform compatibility of sequences facilitates multi-center studies.

  7. Animal Models for Dysphagia Studies: What Have We Learnt So Far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Rebecca Z; Crompton, A W; Gould, Francois D H; Thexton, Allan J

    2017-02-01

    Research using animal models has contributed significantly to realizing the goal of understanding dysfunction and improving the care of patients who suffer from dysphagia. But why should other researchers and the clinicians who see patients day in and day out care about this work? Results from studies of animal models have the potential to change and grow how we think about dysphagia research and practice in general, well beyond applying specific results to human studies. Animal research provides two key contributions to our understanding of dysphagia. The first is a more complete characterization of the physiology of both normal and pathological swallow than is possible in human subjects. The second is suggesting of specific, physiological, targets for development and testing of treatment interventions to improve dysphagia outcomes.

  8. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  9. Design and evaluation of custom 133Xe trapping and holding system for animal research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.; Pennock, R.E.; Bowman, G.; Hernandez, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A cell for the trapping and holding of 133 Xe by activated charcoal was designed and tested for use in animal experiments. The cell was made from copper tubing with end caps and nipples for attachment of tubing and valves. Results of test indicated that up to 4 animals per day could be studied with complete trapping of all activity in a single cell. 16 of such cells allow continuous studies to be made on 4 animals a day using a different cell each day. By the time each cell is re-used the trapped 132 Xe has decayed for at least 23 days thus greatly reducing any exhausted activity. The cells were arranged in a wall-mounted filter bank inside a shielded cabinet. The outlet of the filter bank was connected into the exhaust stream of a fume hood. (author)

  10. Developmental and reproductive toxicity of inorganic arsenic: animal studies and human concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M S; Macintosh, M S; Baumrind, N

    1998-01-01

    Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, and growth retardation, in four species (hamsters, mice, rats, rabbits). A characteristic pattern of malformations is produced, and the developmental toxicity effects are dependent on dose, route, and the day of gestation when exposure occurs. Studies with gavage and diet administration indicate that death and growth retardation are produced by oral arsenic exposure. Arsenic is readily transferred to the fetus and produces developmental toxicity in embryo culture. Animal studies have not identified an effect of arsenic on fertility in males or females. When females were dosed chronically for periods that included pregnancy, the primary effect of arsenic on reproduction was a dose-dependent increase in conceptus mortality and in postnatal growth retardation. Human data are limited to a few studies of populations exposed to arsenic from drinking water or from working at or living near smelters. Associations with spontaneous abortion and stillbirth have been reported in more than one of these studies, but interpretation of these studies is complicated because study populations were exposed to multiple chemicals. Thus, animal studies suggest that environmental arsenic exposures are primarily a risk to the developing fetus. In order to understand the implications for humans, attention must be given to comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism, likely exposure scenarios, possible mechanisms of action, and the potential role of arsenic as an essential nutrient.

  11. REAC regenerative treatment efficacy in experimental chondral lesions: a pilot study on ovine animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Passino E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eraldo Sanna Passino,1,2 Stefano Rocca,1 Sabrina Caggiu,1 Nicolò Columbano,1,2 Alessandro Castagna,3 Vania Fontani,3–5 Salvatore Rinaldi3–51Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Comparative Surgery Research Laboratory, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 4Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Florence, Italy; 5Research Department, IRF Shanghai Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC technology is a platform designed to optimize cell polarity. Cell polarity is a universal biological phenomenon that is implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, aging, and rejuvenation. In this work, we investigate a timing and administration protocol for tissue optimization regenerative treatment type C, in order to treat aging-related chondral damage or injuries and gain insights into regenerative processes of articular cartilage in humans. The chondral lesion produced in this study in an animal model (6 knee joints of 4 adult sheep was 6 mm in diameter and about 2 mm deep. These lesions, which did not involve subchondral bone, tend to increase in size and depth and are not completely repaired with normal hyaline articular cartilage since adult articular cartilage is avascular and has a very slow turnover at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the hydration of articular cartilage is reduced with aging and with decreased mitotic activity, synthesis, and population size of chondrocytes. Six months posttreatment, lesions appeared filled, though not completely, with newly generated tissue of the light opalescent color of healthy articular cartilage, which otherwise covered the underlying subchondral bone. The newly formed tissue surface appeared to be quite regular. Nearly complete regeneration of subchondral bone occurred, with

  12. Fluorescence excitation studies of molecular photoionization in external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliakoff, E.D.; Dehmer, J.L.; Parr, A.C.; Leroi, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Using molecular nitrogen as an example, we show that fluorescence excitation spectroscopy can be used to measure partial photoionization cross sections of free molecules in external electric fields. The production of the N 2 + (B 2 Σ/sub u/ + ) state was studied and the threshold for this process was found to shift linearly with the square root of the applied field. This behavior is compared with the hydrogenic case and with previously studied systems

  13. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  14. A population-based study of animal component sensitization, asthma, and rhinitis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, Anders; Winberg, Anna; Berthold, Malin; Mattsson, Lars; Borres, Magnus P; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Animal sensitization is a major determinant of asthma in children. Component-resolved studies of unselected pediatric populations are lacking. The aim was to describe sensitization to animal components and the association with asthma and rhinitis in animal-sensitized schoolchildren. A random sample of 696 children (11-12 years) from a Swedish population-based cohort was tested for sensitization to cat, dog, and horse dander using ImmunoCAP. Sera from animal-sensitized children were further analyzed by microarray including three allergen components from cat, four from dog, and two from horse. The parents completed an expanded ISAAC questionnaire. Of 259 animal-sensitized children (≥0.1 kUA /l), 51% were sensitized to all three, 23% to two, and 25% to one species. Current asthma and asthma symptoms following contact with cats were associated with co-sensitization to Fel d 1 and Fel d 4. This association was seen already at moderate-level sensitization (1-15 ISU) to Fel d 4, at which level most children were sensitized to Fel d 1, as well. In dog-sensitized children, the majority was sensitized to more than one dog component, and co-sensitization to Can f 5 and Can f 1/f 2 conferred the greatest risk for asthma. Sensitization to the highly cross-reactive serum albumins was uncommon and not associated with asthma. Among schoolchildren in northern Sweden, where mite allergy is uncommon, furry animals were the primary perennial sensitizers. Asthma was associated with higher levels of component sensitization, and sensitization to more than one component from the same animal conferred the greatest risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. News in livestock research - use of Omics-technologies to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusch, Simon; Tilocca, Bruno; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in the field of next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics facilitates the study of highly complex biological samples such as taxonomic and functional characterization of microbial communities that virtually colonize all present ecological niches. Compared to the structural information obtained by metagenomic analyses, metaproteomic approaches provide, in addition, functional data about the investigated microbiota. In general, integration of the main Omics-technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in live science promises highly detailed information about the specific research object and helps to understand molecular changes in response to internal and external environmental factors. The microbial communities settled in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract are essential for the host metabolism and have a major impact on its physiology and health. The microbiotas of livestock like chicken, pig and ruminants are becoming a focus of interest for veterinaries, animal nutritionists and microbiologists. While pig is more often used as an animal model for human-related studies, the rumen microbiota harbors a diversity of enzymes converting complex carbohydrates into monomers which bears high potential for biotechnological applications. This review will provide a general overview about the recent Omics-based research of the microbiota in livestock including its major findings. Differences concerning the results of pre-Omics-approaches in livestock as well as the perspectives of this relatively new Omics-platform will be highlighted.

  16. Statistical ensembles and molecular dynamics studies of anisotropic solids. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.R.; Rahman, A.

    1985-01-01

    We have recently discussed how the Parrinello--Rahman theory can be brought into accord with the theory of the elastic and thermodynamic behavior of anisotropic media. This involves the isoenthalpic--isotension ensemble of statistical mechanics. Nose has developed a canonical ensemble form of molecular dynamics. We combine Nose's ideas with the Parrinello--Rahman theory to obtain a canonical form of molecular dynamics appropriate to the study of anisotropic media subjected to arbitrary external stress. We employ this isothermal--isotension ensemble in a study of a fcc→ close-packed structural phase transformation in a Lennard-Jones solid subjected to uniaxial compression. Our interpretation of the Nose theory does not involve a scaling of the time variable. This latter fact leads to simplifications when studying the time dependence of quantities

  17. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  18. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucar, I. Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.

    2014-01-01

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH + (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH + systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found

  19. Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucar, I. Agustín, E-mail: agustin.aucar@conicet.gov.ar; Gomez, Sergio S., E-mail: ssgomez@exa.unne.edu.ar [Institute for Modeling and Technological Innovation, IMIT (CONICET-UNNE) and Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Northeastern University of Argentina, Avenida Libertad 5400, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-11-21

    An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.

  20. Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) as a model for studying the molecular mechanism of seasonal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroko; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Mizutani, Makoto; Namikawa, Takao; Iigo, Masayuki; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    Photoperiodism is an adaptation mechanism that enables animals to predict seasonal changes in the environment. Japanese quail is the best model organism for studying photoperiodism. Although the recent availability of chicken genome sequences has permitted the expansion from single gene to genome-wide transcriptional analysis in this organism, the photoperiodic response of the domestic chicken is less robust than that of the quail. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the photoperiodic response of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), a predecessor of the domestic chicken, to test whether this animal could be developed as an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. When red jungle fowls were transferred from short-day- to long-day conditions, gonadal development and an increase in plasma LH concentration were observed. Furthermore, rapid induction of thyrotropin beta subunit, a master regulator of photoperiodism, was observed at 16 h after dawn on the first long day. In addition, the long-day condition induced the expression of type 2 deiodinase, the key output gene of photoperiodism. These results were consistent with the results obtained in quail and suggest that the red jungle fowl could be an ideal model animal for the genome-wide transcriptional analysis of photoperiodism.

  1. Introducing Therioepistemology: the study of how knowledge is gained from animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joseph P; Gaskill, Brianna N; Weber, Elin M; Ahloy-Dallaire, Jamie; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2017-03-22

    This focus issue of Lab Animal coincides with a tipping point in biomedical research. For the first time, the scale of the reproducibility and translatability crisis is widely understood beyond the small cadre of researchers who have been studying it and the pharmaceutical and biotech companies who have been living it. Here we argue that an emerging literature, including the papers in this focus issue, has begun to congeal around a set of recurring themes, which themselves represent a paradigm shift. This paradigm shift can be characterized at the micro level as a shift from asking "what have we controlled for in this model?" to asking "what have we chosen to ignore in this model, and at what cost?" At the macro level, it is a shift from viewing animals as tools (the furry test tube), to viewing them as patients in an equivalent human medical study. We feel that we are witnessing the birth of a new discipline, which we term Therioepistemology, or the study of how knowledge is gained from animal research. In this paper, we outline six questions that serve as a heuristic for critically evaluating animal-based biomedical research from a therioepistemological perspective. These six questions sketch out the broad reaches of this new discipline, though they may change or be added to as this field evolves. Ultimately, by formalizing therioepistemology as a discipline, we can begin to discuss best practices that will improve the reproducibility and translatability of animal-based research, with concomitant benefits in terms of human health and animal well-being.

  2. [Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.

  3. Coprological study of gastrointestinal parasites of captive animals at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Khatun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different groups of mammals housed at Rangpur Recreational Garden and Zoo in Bangladesh. A total of 45 fecal samples of different animals (11 carnivores, 26 herbivores and 8 primates were examined from April to September 2011 for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 60% (27/45 of which 35.6% (16/45 were helminth infections and 24% (11/45 were protozoic infections. The identified parasites included protozoa (Balantidium coli and Coccidia sp., nematodes (Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Strongyloides sp., Dictyocaulus sp., Trichuris sp. and stomach worm, cestodes (Spirometra sp. and Moniezia benedeni and trematodes (Fasciola sp.. At least one parasite was identified in the fecal samples of all animals except of the samples from bear, python, water buck and olive baboon. Mixed infections were observed in Rhesus monkey (Trichuris sp. and Balantidium coli, in deer (Strongyloides sp. and Coccidia sp. and in lion (Toxascaris leonina and Spirometra sp.. Helminth infections were more common than protozoic infections in carnivores and herbivores, whereas in primates, protozoic infections were more common than helminth infections. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites found in zoo animals in this study emphasizes the importance of controlling these parasitic infections in order to safeguard the health of housed wild animals and of the humans working with these animals.

  4. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Renbao; Liu, Xudong; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner.

  5. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna].

  6. Metaldehyde poisoning of companion animals: a three-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Antonella De

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and accidental poisoning of animals is often caused by readily available commercial pesticides, such as the molluscicide metaldehyde. A retrospective analysis of suspected metaldehyde poisonings between 2014 and 2016 in Italy was conducted. Material and Methods: Biological matrices were collected for toxicological analyses in the course of routine Institute activity. A total of 183 organs from dogs and cats and 49 pieces of bait, here specificall y poisoned food used to lure animals, were analysed and the presence of metaldehyde was confirmed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Results: A high content of metaldehyde was demonstrated in the analysed samples from dogs and cats: 50 (27.3% animals were found positive for metaldehyde intoxication together with 17 pieces of bait. Conclusion: The study emphasised the need for the control of metaldehyde use by the veterinary service.

  7. Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Aly, Magdy; Kheader, Afaf; Mabrok, Khaled

    2012-05-01

    Meat commonly contain the same Aeromonas spp. which occur in human diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal faecal samples. Motile Aeromonas were isolated from 5.6% of total 302 samples. The distribution of the isolates were 5.9 and 5.2% in fresh and frozen samples, respectively. Of the 302 samples taken of the four animal meat species investigated, the genus Aeromonas were isolated in 12.3% of the fresh samples collected from buffalo meat, in 6.5% of the samples collected from sheep meat and 14.0% from the samples collected from the cattle frozen meat samples. The camel meat did not reveal any Aeromonas isolates. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated as the most prevalent species with 6.8%, followed by Aeromonas caviae with 2.7% and Aeromonas sobria with 2.1% from the total meat samples. Aerolysin toxin gene (aerA) was detected in 3/17 isolates of A. hydrophila isolated from contaminated meat. Infection due to bacterial pathogen with such virulent factor through contact with contaminated meat while handling them, poses health hazards to humans.

  8. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.

  9. New insights into the molecular pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome and therapeutic perspectives from the animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common monogenetic form of intellectual disability and is a leading cause of autism. This syndrome is produced by the reduced transcription of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene, and it is characterized by a range of symptoms heterogeneously expressed in patients such as cognitive impairment, seizure susceptibility, altered pain sensitivity and anxiety. The recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved have opened novel potential therapeutic approaches identified in preclinical rodent models as a necessary preliminary step for the subsequent evaluation in patients. Among those possible therapeutic approaches, the modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling or the GABA receptor signaling have focused most of the attention. New findings in the animal models open other possible therapeutic approaches such as the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway or the endocannabinoid system. This review summarizes the emerging data recently obtained in preclinical models of fragile X syndrome supporting these new therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and assessment of a novel SPECT system for desktop open-gantry imaging of small animals: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1419733141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmim, Arman [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Sarkar, Saeed [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417613151, Iran and Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1419733141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ay, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: mohammadreza-ay@sina.tums.ac.ir [Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1419733141, Iran and Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417613151 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Given increasing efforts in biomedical research utilizing molecular imaging methods, development of dedicated high-performance small-animal SPECT systems has been growing rapidly in the last decade. In the present work, we propose and assess an alternative concept for SPECT imaging enabling desktop open-gantry imaging of small animals. Methods: The system, PERSPECT, consists of an imaging desk, with a set of tilted detector and pinhole collimator placed beneath it. The object to be imaged is simply placed on the desk. Monte Carlo (MC) and analytical simulations were utilized to accurately model and evaluate the proposed concept and design. Furthermore, a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm, finite-aperture-based circular projections (FABCP), was developed and validated for the system, enabling more accurate modeling of the system and higher quality reconstructed images. Image quality was quantified as a function of different tilt angles in the acquisition and number of iterations in the reconstruction algorithm. Furthermore, more complex phantoms including Derenzo, Defrise, and mouse whole body were simulated and studied. Results: The sensitivity of the PERSPECT was 207 cps/MBq. It was quantitatively demonstrated that for a tilt angle of 30°, comparable image qualities were obtained in terms of normalized squared error, contrast, uniformity, noise, and spatial resolution measurements, the latter at ∼0.6 mm. Furthermore, quantitative analyses demonstrated that 3 iterations of FABCP image reconstruction (16 subsets/iteration) led to optimally reconstructed images. Conclusions: The PERSPECT, using a novel imaging protocol, can achieve comparable image quality performance in comparison with a conventional pinhole SPECT with the same configuration. The dedicated FABCP algorithm, which was developed for reconstruction of data from the PERSPECT system, can produce high quality images for small-animal imaging via accurate modeling of the system as

  11. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  12. BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE STUDY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling method that is used to determine the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain. The method can be applied to conscious and unrestrained animals and is very suitable for the study of the chemistry of endogenous behaviour. This article reviews the

  13. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other

  14. A Study of Firesetting and Animal Cruelty in Children: Family Influences and Adolescent Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…

  15. Use Of Antibiotics In Food Animals: A Case Study Of A Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on the pattern of antimicrobial use in animals in Ekiti State. A weight by weight comparison of the various drugs showed prevalent use of gentamycin, benzyl penicillin tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and neomycin in that order. This is ascribed to high dosage volume of the respective drugs.

  16. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  17. Epidemiological and demographic study of acute animal biting in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics. Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5% and hands (22.7% were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population. Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.

  18. Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color diffuse optical tomography imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Christoph H.; Graber, Harry L.; Pei Yaling; Farber, Mark; Stewart, Mark; Levina, Rita D.; Levin, Mikhail B.; Xu Yong; Barbour, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    We present newly developed instrumentation for full-tomographic four-wavelength, continuous wave, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging on small animals. A small-animal imaging stage was constructed, from materials compatible with in-magnet studies, which offers stereotaxic fixation of the animal and precise, stable probe positioning. Instrument performance, based on calibration and phantom studies, demonstrates excellent long-term signal stability. DOT measurements of the functional rat brain response to electric paw stimulation are presented, and these demonstrate high data quality and excellent sensitivity to hemodynamic changes. A general linear model analysis on individual trials is used to localize and quantify the occurrence of functional behavior associated with the different hemoglobin state responses. Statistical evaluation of outcomes of individual trials is employed to identify significant regional response variations for different stimulation sites. Image results reveal a diffuse cortical response and a strong reaction of the thalamus, both indicative of activation of pain pathways by the stimulation. In addition, a weaker lateralized functional component is observed in the brain response, suggesting presence of motor activation. An important outcome of the experiment is that it shows that reactions to individual provocations can be monitored, without having to resort to signal averaging. Thus the described technology may be useful for studies of long-term trends in hemodynamic response, as would occur, for example, in behavioral studies involving freely moving animals

  19. Comparative study between deep learning and bag of visual words for wild-animal recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambert; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 IEEE.Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed

  20. Sensitivity analysis by experimental design and metamodelling : case study on simulation in national animal disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Nielen, M.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Simulation is a frequently applied tool in the discipline of animal health economics. Application of sensitivity analysis, however, is often limited to changing only one factor at a time (OAT designs). In this study, the statistical techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) and regression

  1. An animal model for oroantral communications : a pilot study with Gottingen minipigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, B; Stegenga, B; Zuidema, J; Hissink, CE; van Leeuwen, MBM; van Kooten, TG; Bos, RRM

    A pilot study was performed to investigate whether the Gottingen minipig is a suitable animal model for creating and closing oroantral communications (OACs) and to test whether these defects can be closed with a biodegradable polyurethane (PU) foam. In three adult minipigs, an OAC was created on

  2. Life-span radiation effects studies in animals: what can they tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1984-05-01

    Results from life-span studies in a variety of animal species have found relatively little application in the development of radiation risk factors for various organs of man. This paper discusses possible reasons for this situation and presents recommendations to correct it

  3. Comparative Study Between Deep Learning and Bag of Visual Words for Wild-Animal Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed two variants

  4. SCARDINIUS GENUS IN MOLECULAR STUDIES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Popescul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scardinius is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family commonly called rudds. The common rudd(Scardinius erithrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish that occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetatedlowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes and it is widespread in Europe and middle Asia. It has a mediumlength of 20-30 cm, but it can reach 50 cm. The classification of cyprinids has always been controversial the morphologicaltraits have an unclear homology this led to the idea that the recognized monophyletic groups are surely misinterpreted. Thispaper aims to assess the current level of molecular data regarding Scardinius genera. Some of the molecular data obtainedfor Scardinius genus is from DNA barcoding studies on fresh water fishes, but studies regarding this genus and Cyprinidaefamily used mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (cyt b and cytochrome oxidase (CO, but nuclear genes or nuclearmicrosatellites were also used. We found that molecular data exists for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but this genuswasn’t studied separately and as many of the researchers suggest more taxonomic studies are required in order to solve theuncertainties within it.

  5. Gene Therapy for Bone Defects in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliefel, Riham; Kühnisch, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven

    2017-02-15

    Craniofacial bone defects are challenging problems for maxillofacial surgeons over the years. With the development of cell and molecular biology, gene therapy is a breaking new technology with the aim of regenerating tissues by acting as a delivery system for therapeutic genes in the craniofacial region rather than treating genetic disorders. A systematic review was conducted summarizing the articles reporting gene therapy in maxillofacial surgery to answer the question: Was gene therapy successfully applied to regenerate bone in the maxillofacial region? Electronic searching of online databases was performed in addition to hand searching of the references of included articles. No language or time restrictions were enforced. Meta-analysis was done to assess significant bone formation after delivery of gene material in the surgically induced maxillofacial defects. The search identified 2081 articles, of which 57 were included with 1726 animals. Bone morphogenetic proteins were commonly used proteins for gene therapy. Viral vectors were the universally used vectors. Sprague-Dawley rats were the frequently used animal model in experimental studies. The quality of the articles ranged from excellent to average. Meta-analysis results performed on 21 articles showed that defects favored bone formation by gene therapy. Funnel plot showed symmetry with the absence of publication bias. Gene therapy is on the top list of innovative strategies that developed in the last 10 years with the hope of developing a simple chair-side protocol in the near future, combining improvement of gene delivery as well as knowledge of the molecular basis of oral and maxillofacial structures.

  6. Using human brain imaging studies as a guide towards animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOLKAN, Scott S.; DE CARVALHO, Fernanda D.; KELLENDONK, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous and poorly understood mental disorder that is presently defined solely by its behavioral symptoms. Advances in genetic, epidemiological and brain imaging techniques in the past half century, however, have significantly advanced our understanding of the underlying biology of the disorder. In spite of these advances clinical research remains limited in its power to establish the causal relationships that link etiology with pathophysiology and symptoms. In this context, animal models provide an important tool for causally testing hypotheses about biological processes postulated to be disrupted in the disorder. While animal models can exploit a variety of entry points towards the study of schizophrenia, here we describe an approach that seeks to closely approximate functional alterations observed with brain imaging techniques in patients. By modeling these intermediate pathophysiological alterations in animals, this approach offers an opportunity to (1) tightly link a single functional brain abnormality with its behavioral consequences, and (2) to determine whether a single pathophysiology can causally produce alterations in other brain areas that have been described in patients. In this review we first summarize a selection of well-replicated biological abnormalities described in the schizophrenia literature. We then provide examples of animal models that were studied in the context of patient imaging findings describing enhanced striatal dopamine D2 receptor function, alterations in thalamo-prefrontal circuit function, and metabolic hyperfunction of the hippocampus. Lastly, we discuss the implications of findings from these animal models for our present understanding of schizophrenia, and consider key unanswered questions for future research in animal models and human patients. PMID:26037801

  7. Lycium ruthenicum studies: Molecular biology, Phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanqing; Li, Jiaoning; Tao, Weiwei; Zhang, Xia; Gao, Xiaojuan; Yong, Jingjiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Liming; Li, Yongzhou; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2018-02-01

    Lycium ruthenicum has been used as ethnic medicine and nutraceutical food. Existing studies of L. ruthenicum can be classifies into three areas: (1) those in which molecular biology methods were used to study its origin, genetic variation and relationships with other species; (2) those in which phytochemical methods were used to extract, isolate, and identify compounds; and (3) those in which pharmacological methods were used to study active compounds. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of L. ruthenicum studies. This review will provide a useful bibliography for further investigations and applications of L. ruthenicum in medicines and foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Perceptions of molecular epidemiology studies of HIV among stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Schairer, Cynthia; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Vinterbo, Staal A.; Hoenigl, Martin; Kalichman, Michael; Little, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Advances in viral sequence analysis make it possible to track the spread of infectious pathogens, such as HIV, within a population. When used to study HIV, these analyses (i.e., molecular epidemiology) potentially allow inference of the identity of individual research subjects. Current privacy standards are likely insufficient for this type of public health research. To address this challenge, it will be important to understand how stakeholders feel about the benefits and risks of...

  9. Theoretical study on the molecular and crystal structures of nitrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The molecular and crystal structure of the adduct NF3·BF3 was studied computationally using density functional theory. It shows that the adduct exists in the form of a complex but is not ionic. The heats of formation in the gas and the condensed phase of the adduct are −1266.09 and −1276.37 kJ·mol−1, respectively, which ...

  10. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, H.M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  11. Land use for animal production in global change studies: Defining and characterizing a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Leanne N; Kaplan, Jed O

    2017-11-01

    Land use for animal production influences the earth system in a variety of ways, including local-scale modification to biodiversity, soils, and nutrient cycling; regional changes in albedo and hydrology; and global-scale changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Pasture is furthermore the single most extensive form of land cover, currently comprising about 22-26% of the earth's ice-free land surface. Despite the importance and variable expressions of animal production, distinctions among different systems are effectively absent from studies of land use and land cover change. This deficiency is improving; however, livestock production system classifications are rarely applied in this context, and the most popular global land cover inventories still present only a single, usually poorly defined category of "pasture" or "rangeland" with no characterization of land use. There is a marked lack of bottom-up, evidence-based methodology, creating a pressing need to incorporate cross-disciplinary evidence of past and present animal production systems into global change studies. Here, we present a framework, modified from existing livestock production systems, that is rooted in sociocultural, socioeconomic, and ecological contexts. The framework defines and characterizes the range of land usage pertaining to animal production, and is suitable for application in land use inventories and scenarios, land cover modeling, and studies on sustainable land use in the past, present, and future. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Lipid emulsions in the treatment of acute poisoning: a systematic review of human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaty, Chloé; Bailey, Benoit; Larocque, Alexandre; Notebaert, Eric; Sanogo, Karine; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    To assess the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of intravenous fat emulsion (IFE) in the management of poisoned patients. We performed a systematic review of the literature with no time or language restriction. The electronic databases were searched from their inception until June 1, 2009 (Medline, EMBASE, ISI web of science, Biological abstract, LILACS, ChemIndex, Toxnet, and Proquest). We also examined the references of identified articles and the gray literature. The target interventions eligible for inclusion were administration of any IFE before, during, or after poisoning in human or animals. All types of studies were reviewed. Eligibility for inclusion and study quality scores, based on criteria by Jadad and the STROBE statement, were evaluated by independent investigators. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included neurologic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic variables, as well as adverse effects. Of the 938 publications identified by the search strategies, 74 met the inclusion criteria. We identified 23 animal trials, 50 human, and 1 animal case reports. Overall, the quality of evidence was weak and significant heterogeneity prevented data pooling. Available data suggest some benefits of IFE in bupivacaine, verapamil, chlorpromazine, and some tricyclic antidepressants and beta-blockers toxicity. No trial assessed the safety of IFE in the treatment of acute poisoning. The evidence for the efficacy of IFE in reducing mortality and improving hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, and neurological parameters in the poisoned patients is solely based on animal studies and human case reports. The safety of IFE has not been established.

  13. Robotic Fish to Aid Animal Behavior Studies and Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul

    The application of robotic fish in the fields of animal behavior and informal science learning are new and relatively untapped. In the context of animal behavior studies, robotic fish offers a consistent and customizable stimulus that could contribute to dissect the determinants of social behavior. In the realm of informal science learning, robotic fish are gaining momentum for the possibility of educating the general public simultaneously on fish physiology and underwater robotics. In this dissertation, the design and development of a number of robotic fish platforms and prototypes and their application in animal behavioral studies and informal science learning settings are presented. Robotic platforms for animal behavioral studies focused on the utilization replica or same scale prototypes. A novel robotic fish platform, featuring a three-dimensional swimming multi-linked robotic fish, was developed with three control modes varying in the level of robot autonomy offered. This platform was deployed at numerous science festivals and science centers, to obtain data on visitor engagement and experience.

  14. Molecular characteristics of Clostridium difficile isolates from human and animals in the North Eastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Isfaqul; Borah, P; Sharma, R K; Rajkhowa, S; Rupnik, M; Saikia, D P; Hasin, D; Hussain, Iftikar; Deka, N K; Barkalita, L M; Nishikawa, Y; Ramamurthy, T

    2016-10-01

    A total of 1034 samples were collected from different sources and C. difficile was isolated from 18 (9.04%) of 199 human, 9 (4.89%) of 184 cattle, 29 (12.44%) of 233 pig, and from 23 (13.94%) of 165 poultry samples. Variations were observed on the rate of isolation according to age and clinical conditions (diarrhoea). None of the samples from cow, sheep, goat, local chicken, and wild animals yielded any C. difficile. Out of those isolates, 8, 2, 19 and 6 isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry, respectively were toxigenic. The toxigenic isolates carried both tcdA, and tcdB (A + B + ) and most of the human and the pig isolates were also positive for binary toxin genes (cdtA and cdtB). The A + B + isolates belonged to three different toxinotypes (0, VI and XXXIII). Human and pig A + B + isolates belonged to three (045, 126 and ACD 019) and four (046, 087, 126 and ACD 011) different ribotypes, respectively and the ribotypes of two cattle isolates were 014 and ACD 010. Six A + B + avian isolates belonged to six different ribotypes (014, 087, SLO 134, SLO 160, ACD 012, ACD 014). The non-toxigenic isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry were grouped into 7, 4, 4 and 7 different ribotypes, respectively. PFGE analysis could not differentiate similar ribotypes/toxinotypes of toxigenic isolates. All the toxigenic isolates showed cytopathic effect on Vero and Hela cell monolayers at 1:100 dilutions of cell-free culture supernatants within 18-20 h of inoculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular diversity and conjugal transferability of class 2 integrons among escherichia coli isolates from food, animal and human sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carla Andrea; Cortés-Cortés, Gerardo; Maamar, Elaa; Massó, Mariana; Rocha-Gracia, Rosa Del Carmen; Torres, Carmen; Centrón, Daniela; Quiroga, María Paula

    2018-02-08

    Integrons are genetic platforms able to excise, integrate and express antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. Here, we investigate the complete genetic organization, genetic environment, location and conjugative transferability of a collection of class 2 integrons carried by E. coli strains from different sources (poultry/pork-meat, animals, and humans). PCR cartography was conducted to determine the genetic arrangement of the integrons, their physical linkage to Tn7 and the chromosomal insertion at attTn7 site. Clonal relatedness of specific isolates was determined by MLST and OD-PCR. Transferability of class 2 integrons was tested by conjugation and the resulting transconjugants were characterized by antimicrobial resistance genotyping, S1-PFGE and replicon typing. Although a limited diversity of gene cassettes was shown, a high percentage of novel structures was identified due to the integration of insertion sequences at different sites (IS3/IS4/IS5/IS21 families). The insertion of an IS10 in the attI2 site of a class 2 integron, between Pc2B and Pc2C promoters, was likely mediated by a site-specific transposition event. Chromosomal insertion of the integrons at attTn7 was confirmed in 80% of the isolates. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that 29% of class 2 integrons could be mobilized to E. coli CHS26, demonstrating that they can be located in conjugative/mobilizable elements at a low frequency. Reported structures evidence how class 2 integrons have evolved by the activity of integron integrases and the invasion of ISs. Since most of them are chromosomally located, the dispersion is predominantly vertical, although conjugation events also contribute to the spread of class 2 integrons among bacterial communities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular marker studies in riverine buffaloes, for characterization and diagnosis of genetic defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    The buffalo is probably the last livestock species to have been domesticated, with many genetic, physiological and behavioural traits not yet well understood. Molecular markers have been used for characterizing animals and breeds, diagnosing diseases and identifying anatomical and physiological anomalies. RFLP studies showed low heterozygosity, but genomic and oligonucleotide probes showed species-specific bands useful for identification of carcass or other unknown samples. Use of RAPD revealed band frequencies, band sharing frequencies, genetic distances, and genetic and identity indexes in different breeds. Bovine microsatellite primers indicate that 70.9% of bovine loci were conserved in buffalo. Allele numbers, sizes, frequencies, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content showed breed-specific patterns. Different marker types - genomic and oligonucleotide probes, RAPD and microsatellites - are useful in parent identification. Individual specific DNA fingerprinting techniques were applied with twin-born animal (XX/XY) chimerism, sex identification, anatomically defective and XO individuals. Molecular markers are a potential tool for geneticists and breeders to evaluate existing germplasm and to manipulate it to develop character-specific strains and to provide the basis for effective genetic conservation. (author)

  17. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  18. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  19. Biosecurity and animal disease management in organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelson, Ulf; Sjöström, Karin; Fall, Nils

    2018-04-12

    Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds. A total of 192 useable questionnaires were returned; response rates of 30.3 and 20.2% for organic and conventional farmers, respectively. Herd characteristics of the two herd types were very similar, except that pipeline/tie-stall systems were less common in organic farms and that organic farmers had a higher education level than their conventional counterparts. Also, very few systematic differences in general or specific disease management activities were observed between the two types of farms. The main exceptions being how milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was used, views on policy actions in relation to antibiotic use, and attitudes towards calling for veterinary support. Using milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was more common in conventional herds, although it was mainly given to bull calves. Farmers of organic herds were more positive to policy actions to reduce the use and need for antibiotics, and they reported waiting longer before contacting a veterinarian for calves with diarrhoea and cows with subclinical mastitis. The stated biosecurity and animal disease management was relatively equal in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds. Our results thus indicate that animal health is as important in conventionally managed dairy herds in Sweden as in organically managed herds.

  20. Otitis media with effusion in an allergic animal model: A functional and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Kee; Park, Hyu Eun; Back, Sang-A; Park, Hyang Rim; Kim, Soo Whan; Park, Yooyeon; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi-Nae

    2016-05-01

    Allergy is considered as one of important etiologic factor of otitis media with effusion (OME). In present study, we evaluated the causal effect of allergy on OME in an animal model, and investigated the secondary effect of bacterial infection. Allergy and control animals were subdivided into groups with and without intratympanic injection of lipopolysaccharide (IT-LPS). Allergic otitis media was induced via intraperitoneal ovo-albumin injection with intranasal challenge. We assessed the occurrence of OME in allergic animals and the effect of IT-LPS on allergic otitis media. We also investigated the Th1 and Th2 responses in the middle-ear mucosa. Hearing of the animals was measured by ABR and DPOAE. OME was observed in 75% of the allergic animals. After IT-LPS, 100% of the control and allergy groups showed otitis media. Light microscopy revealed that the middle-ear mucosa of animals of both groups also was significantly increased after IT-LPS, and the Th1 response (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 response (IL-5 and IL-13) cytokines were expressed at higher levels in the allergy group with IT-LPS than in control group with IT-LPS. Hearing tests between the allergy and control group with IT-LPS did not reveal any differences. Our findings may be direct evidence of an allergic causal effect on OME. Th2 response cytokines were strongly expressed in allergic OME, and the inflammatory reaction to LPS was more intense in the allergic group, which indicates that otitis media related to allergy can be severely aggravated by an inflammatory reaction to bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  2. Efficacy of systemic bisphosphonate delivery on osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions: lessons from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Fahim; Al-Rifaiy, Mohammad Qasim; Almas, Khalid; Javed, Fawad

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to systematically review the role of systemic bisphosphonate (BP) delivery on osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions. The addressed focused question was "Does systemic BP delivery enhance osseointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions?" PubMed/MEDLINE and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1994 up to and including December 2013 using different combinations of the following keywords: "bone to implant contact", "implant", "bisphosphonate", "osseointegration" and "osteoporosis". Review articles, case-reports, commentaries, letters to the Editor, unpublished articles and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Fifteen animal studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Osteoporotic conditions were induced via bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). BPs used in the studies were ibandronate, zoledronic acid and alendronate. Results from 12 studies showed that systemic BP delivery significantly increased bone volume and bone-to-implant contact under osteoporotic conditions. Two studies reported no significant difference in osseointegration among OVX animals with and without systemic BP delivery. In one study, systemic BP delivery negatively influenced implant osseointegration. Rough-surfaced and polished implants were used in 11 and one study respectively. In 3 studies implant surface characteristics remained unclear. Within the limits of the present study, it is concluded that systemic BP delivery enhances implant osseointegration in animals with induced osteoporotic conditions. However, in a clinical scenario, the potential risk of BP related ONJ in osteoporotic patients undergoing dental implant therapy cannot be disregarded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Cann

    Full Text Available The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level, the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  4. Pedicle Screw Fixation Study in Immature Porcine Spines to Improve Pullout Resistance during Animal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Cachon, Thibaut; Viguier, Eric; Miladi, Lotfi; Odent, Thierry; Rossi, Jean-Marie; Chabrand, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The porcine model is frequently used during development and validation of new spinal devices, because of its likeness to the human spine. These spinal devices are frequently composed of pedicle screws with a reputation for stable fixation but which can suffer pullouts during preclinical implantation on young animals, leading to high morbidity. With a view to identifying the best choices to optimize pedicle screw fixation in the porcine model, this study evaluates ex vivo the impact of weight (age) of the animal, the level of the vertebrae (lumbar or thoracic) and the type of screw anchorage (mono- or bi-cortical) on pedicle screw pullouts. Among the 80 pig vertebrae (90- and 140-day-old) tested in this study, the average screw pullout forces ranged between 419.9N and 1341.2N. In addition, statistical differences were found between test groups, pointing out the influence of the three parameters stated above. We found that the the more caudally the screws are positioned (lumbar level), the greater their pullout resistance is, moreover, screw stability increases with the age, and finally, the screws implanted with a mono-cortical anchorage sustained lower pullout forces than those implanted with a bi-cortical anchorage. We conclude that the best anchorage can be obtained with older animals, using a lumbar fixation and long screws traversing the vertebra and inducing bi-cortical anchorage. In very young animals, pedicle screw fixations need to be bi-cortical and more numerous to prevent pullout.

  5. Human-Animal Relationship: A Comparative Study in Working and Breeding Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a good human-horse relationship in every equestrian discipline is recognized by the specialists all over the world. The aim of the study was to comparatively assess the behavioural response towards humans in different horse categories, in two seasons. The human-animal relationship was investigated during a year, in two different seasons in working horses (171 in the winter, 168 in the summer, stallions (62 in the winter, 66 in the summer and broodmares and young horses (137 in the winter, 146 in the summer. Using specific methods, the general attitude of the horses was evaluated (apathetic or alert and their reactions (aggressiveness, fear/avoidance, indifference, friendliness to the: (1 assessors’ approach (2 walking besides and (3 the attempt of touching the animal. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The value of minimal significance was considered at P 0.05. For the behavioural responses (aggressiveness, fear, indifference or friendly response, statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 were found among the assessed horse categories. The season had no significant influence on the variability of responses in the behavioural tests in none of the horse categories. The results indicate an inadequate human-animal relationship in all the studied horse categories, with negative implications on the welfare of the animals. This problem has low remedial possibilities, because it needs human mentality change of those working with horses.

  6. Short animation movies as advance organizers in physics teaching: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscianski, André; João Ribeiro, Rafael; Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2012-11-01

    Background : Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose : The study aimed to determine guidelines for the construction of an instructional short animation movie, with the role of an advance organizer. A film was created in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, making part of a physics lesson and concerning the subject 'moment of a force'. Sample : The study took place in a Brazilian school in the city of Arapoti, in the south region of the country. Thirty-eight students participated, having an average age of 16 and following the third year of high school. Design and methods : Criteria drawn from a literature review directed the construction of the movie and the lesson. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests; registers of oral comments were also done during the class. The post-test included open-ended questions, allowing students to write remarks concerning the lesson and the animation. Conclusions : The article describes steps and guidelines to orient the process of designing an animation movie with the role of advance organizer. Data indicated that the movie facilitated the construction of links between pre-existent knowledge and the new information presented in the lesson. The proposed methodology can be considered a valid framework to derive similar approaches.

  7. Performance evaluation of a mouse-sized camera for dynamic studies in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudos, George; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randy; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakellios, Nicolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Varvarigou, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    A mouse sized camera has been built in terms of collaboration between the presenting institutions. The system is used for the performance of dynamic studies in small animals, in order to evaluate novel radiopharmaceuticals. The active area of the detector is approximately 48x96 mm allowing depiction of the entire mouse in a single view. The system is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixellated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a copper-beryllium (CuBe) parallel-hole collimator. In this work, the evaluation results of the system are presented, using phantoms and small animals injected with conventional radiophrmaceuticals. Average resolution was ∼1.6 mm on the collimator surface and increased to ∼4.1 mm in 12 cm distance from the detector. The average energy resolution was measured and found to be ∼15.6% for Tc 99m . Results from imaging thin capillaries demonstrated system's high resolution and sensitivity in activity variations was shown. Initial dynamic studies have been carried out in small animals injected with Tc 99m -DTPA and Tc 99m -MDP. The results show system's ability to perform kinetic imaging in small animals

  8. Application of isolated hepatocytes to studies of drug metabolism in large food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, L R; Kirsch, D G; Lohse, C L; Wisniewski, J A

    1987-03-01

    A definitive hazard assessment of xenobiotics translocated through food animals into edible products such as meat or milk requires a complete analysis of metabolism in food animals. However, large animal metabolism studies present many experimental difficulties. None of several in vitro alternatives such as subcellular fractions has been established as an acceptable predictor of in vivo metabolism. The feasibility of using isolated hepatocytes to predict the metabolism of xenobiotics, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in large ruminant animals (e.g. cattle) is being studied in our laboratory. A procedure was developed for isolating hepatocytes aseptically from the caudate process of the liver which was obtained surgically from 100-125 kg calves. A modified two-step vascular perfusion procedure provides hepatocyte suspensions that are typically greater than or equal to 85% viable and greater than or equal to 1 X 10(7) viable hepatocytes/g of liver (wet wt). Xenobiotic metabolism has been evaluated in suspensions and primary cultures using aldrin epoxidation, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation and sulfation. Metabolic activities are relatively short-lived in suspensions less than or equal to 4 h, but quite stable up to 10 h when cultured on collagen-coated plates in chemically defined medium. Bovine hepatocytes behave similarly in culture to rodent hepatocytes. Although primary culturing of hepatocytes is more difficult than suspensions, primarily due to the asepsis requirements, it is the method of choice for xenobiotic metabolism determinations in isolated hepatocytes of cattle.

  9. Toolbox of Molecular Techniques for Studying Leptospira Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardeau, Mathieu

    2017-08-29

    This chapter covers the progress made in the Leptospira field since the application of mutagenesis techniques and how they have allowed the study of virulence factors and, more generally, the biology of Leptospira. The last decade has seen advances in our ability to perform molecular genetic analysis of Leptospira. Major achievements include the generation of large collections of mutant strains and the construction of replicative plasmids, enabling complementation of mutations. However, there are still no practical tools for routine genetic manipulation of pathogenic Leptospira strains, slowing down advances in pathogenesis research. This review summarizes the status of the molecular genetic toolbox for Leptospira species and highlights new challenges in the nascent field of Leptospira genetics.

  10. Double rotation NMR studies of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, Raz [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Goal is to study the organization and structures of guest atoms and molecules and their reactions on internal surfaces within pores of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves. 27Al and 23Na double rotation NMR (DOR) is used since it removes the anisotropic broadening in NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, thus increasing resolution. This work concentrates on probing aluminum framework atoms in aluminophosphate molecular sieves and sodium extra framework cations in porous aluminosilicates. In aluminophosphates, ordering and electronic environments of the framework 27Al nuclei are modified upon adsorption of water molecules within the channels; a relation is sought between the sieve channel topology and the organization of adsorbed water, as well as the interaction between the Al nuclei and the water molecules. Extra framework Na+ cations are directly involved in adsorption processes and reactions in zeolite cavities.

  11. Optical polarimetry and molecular line studies of L1157 dark molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ekta; Soam, Archana; Gopinathan, Maheswar

    2018-04-01

    Filaments are omnipresent in molecular clouds which are believed to fragment into cores. The detailed process of the evolution from filaments to cores depends critically on the physical conditions in the star forming region. This study aims at characterising gas motions using velocity structure and finding the dynamical importance of magnetic fields in the filament morphology. The plane-of-the-sky component of the magnetic field has been measured using optical polarization of the background stars. The orientation is found to be almost perpendicular to the filament implying its dynamical importance in the evolution of the cloud. Optical polarimetric results match very well with the sub millimetre polarization angles obtained in the inner core regions. The magnetic fields are found to have an orientation of 130° east with respect to north. The angular offset between the outflow axis and the magnetic field direction is found to be 25°. Values for parameters like the excitation temperature, optical depth and column densities have been derived using molecular lines. Optically thick lines show non-gaussian features. The non-thermal widths tell about the presence of turbulent motions whereas the C180 lines follow Gaussian features almost at all the locations observed in the filament.

  12. Understanding molecular interactions between scavenger receptor A and its natural product inhibitors through molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagare, Piyusha P; Zaidi, Saheem A; Zhang, Xiaomei; Li, Xia; Yu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Scavenger receptor A (SRA), as an immune regulator, has been shown to play important roles in lipid metabolism, cardiovascular diseases, and pathogen recognition. Several natural product inhibitors of SRA have been studied for their potential application in modulating SRA functions. To understand the binding mode of these inhibitors on SRA, we conducted systematic molecular modeling studies in order to identify putative binding domain(s) that may be responsible for their recognition to the receptor as well as their inhibitory activity. Treatment of SRA with one of the natural product inhibitors, rhein, led to significant dissociation of SRA oligomers to its trimer and dimer forms, which further supported our hypothesis on their putative mechanism of action. Such information is believed to shed light on design of more potent inhibitors for the receptor in order to develop potential therapeutics through immune system modulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  14. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microspor-idia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Con-tact to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab ASKARI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can in­fect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas world­wide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infec­tion particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoono­tic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with close – contact to human.Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-con­tact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced.Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopi­cally in 15 (10.56% samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15% small white mice and 1 (10% laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%. Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10% samples of sheep, 2 (5.12% cattle, 1 (10% rabbit, 3 (11.53% cats and 2 (11.76% ownership dogs (totally 7.74%. Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with close – contact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis.

  15. Innovation Policy and Development of Creative Industries: Case Study of Lithuanian Animation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Mitkus; Vaida Nedzinskaitė-Mitkė

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify and explore how adequate is modern innovation support mechanism to developed creative industries. We argue that current development and support strategy for creative industries, although acknowledge high correlation between innovation and creativity, do not seek to improve conditions to promote systematic innovation development in the creative sector. Using the Lithuanian animation industry as a case study, this paper will examine innovation contribu...

  16. Molecular dynamics studies of protein folding and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng

    This thesis applies molecular dynamics simulations and statistical mechanics to study: (i) protein folding; and (ii) protein aggregation. Most small proteins fold into their native states via a first-order-like phase transition with a major free energy barrier between the folded and unfolded states. A set of protein conformations corresponding to the free energy barrier, Delta G >> kBT, are the folding transition state ensemble (TSE). Due to their evasive nature, TSE conformations are hard to capture (probability ∝ exp(-DeltaG/k BT)) and characterize. A coarse-grained discrete molecular dynamics model with realistic steric constraints is constructed to reproduce the experimentally observed two-state folding thermodynamics. A kinetic approach is proposed to identify the folding TSE. A specific set of contacts, common to the TSE conformations, is identified as the folding nuclei which are necessary to be formed in order for the protein to fold. Interestingly, the amino acids at the site of the identified folding nuclei are highly conserved for homologous proteins sharing the same structures. Such conservation suggests that amino acids that are important for folding kinetics are under selective pressure to be preserved during the course of molecular evolution. In addition, studies of the conformations close to the transition states uncover the importance of topology in the construction of order parameter for protein folding transition. Misfolded proteins often form insoluble aggregates, amyloid fibrils, that deposit in the extracellular space and lead to a type of disease known as amyloidosis. Due to its insoluble and non-crystalline nature, the aggregation structure and, thus the aggregation mechanism, has yet to be uncovered. Discrete molecular dynamics studies reveal an aggregate structure with the same structural signatures as in experimental observations and show a nucleation aggregation scenario. The simulations also suggest a generic aggregation mechanism

  17. Study of structural and conformational change in cytochrome, C through molecular dynamic simulation in presence of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgil, Lovika; Singh, Baljinder; Kaura, Aman; Singh, Gurinder; Tripathi, S. K.; Saini, G. S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Proteins are the most abundant organic molecules in living system having diverse structures and various functions than the other classes of macromolecules. We have done Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of the Cytochrome,C (Cyt,c) protein found in plants, animals and many unicellular animals in the presence of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). MD results helped to recognize the amino acids that play important role to make the interaction possible between protein and gold surface. In the present study we have examined the structural change of protein in the presence of gold surface and its adsorption on the surface through MD simulations with the help of Gold-Protein (GolP) force field. Results were further analyzed to understand the protein interaction up to molecular level.

  18. From cineradiography to biorobots: an approach for designing robots to emulate and study animal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakasiliotis, K.; Thandiackal, R.; Melo, K.; Horvat, T.; Mahabadi, N. K.; Tsitkov, S.; Cabelguen, J. M.; Ijspeert, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Robots are increasingly used as scientific tools to investigate animal locomotion. However, designing a robot that properly emulates the kinematic and dynamic properties of an animal is difficult because of the complexity of musculoskeletal systems and the limitations of current robotics technology. Here, we propose a design process that combines high-speed cineradiography, optimization, dynamic scaling, three-dimensional printing, high-end servomotors and a tailored dry-suit to construct Pleurobot: a salamander-like robot that closely mimics its biological counterpart, Pleurodeles waltl. Our previous robots helped us test and confirm hypotheses on the interaction between the locomotor neuronal networks of the limbs and the spine to generate basic swimming and walking gaits. With Pleurobot, we demonstrate a design process that will enable studies of richer motor skills in salamanders. In particular, we are interested in how these richer motor skills can be obtained by extending our spinal cord models with the addition of more descending pathways and more detailed limb central pattern generator networks. Pleurobot is a dynamically scaled amphibious salamander robot with a large number of actuated degrees of freedom (DOFs: 27 in total). Because of our design process, the robot can capture most of the animal's DOFs and range of motion, especially at the limbs. We demonstrate the robot's abilities by imposing raw kinematic data, extracted from X-ray videos, to the robot's joints for basic locomotor behaviours in water and on land. The robot closely matches the behaviour of the animal in terms of relative forward speeds and lateral displacements. Ground reaction forces during walking also resemble those of the animal. Based on our results, we anticipate that future studies on richer motor skills in salamanders will highly benefit from Pleurobot's design. PMID:27358276

  19. Animal Science Experts' Opinions on the Non-Technical Skills Secondary Agricultural Education Graduates Need for Employment in the Animal Science Industry: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Wendy L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Non-technical, employability skills are in high demand for entry-level job-seekers. As such, this study sought to describe the perceptions of Oklahoma's animal science industry leaders as it related to the employability skills needed for entry-level employment of high school graduates who had completed coursework in Oklahoma's Agricultural, Food…

  20. Ti and Zr surfaces studied by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Passianot, Roberto C.; Monti, Ana M.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between point defects technique and the (0001), (1-210), (10-10) surfaces in Ti and Zr is studied by the molecular dynamics technique. Both of metals are in the hexagonal structure and within a temperature range of 100 to 900 K. The atomic interactions are modeled by EAM-type many-body potentials, that were used previously in static simulations. New migration mechanisms are unraveled and others are verified with respect to those already proposed in the static studies. Also included is an analysis of the vacancy stability in the sub-surface layers of the prismatic surfaces. (author)

  1. A comparative study of free oligosaccharides in the milk of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simone; Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Al Busadah, Khalid A; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M; Rudd, Pauline M

    2014-04-14

    The present study was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of oligosaccharides present in the milk of a variety of important domestic animals including cows, goats, sheep, pigs, horses and dromedary camels. Using an analytical workflow that included ultra-performance liquid chromatography-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight MS, detailed oligosaccharide libraries were established. The partial or full characterisation of the neutral/fucosylated, phosphorylated and sialylated structures was facilitated by sequencing with linkage- and sugar-specific exoglycosidases. Relative peak quantification of the 2-aminobenzamide-labelled oligosaccharides provided additional information. Milk from domestic animals contained a much larger variety of complex oligosaccharides than was previously assumed, and thirteen of these structures have been identified previously in human milk. The direct comparison of the oligosaccharide mixtures reflects their role in the postnatal maturation of different types of gastrointestinal systems, which, in this way, are prepared for certain post-weaning diets. The potential value of animal milk for the commercial extraction of oligosaccharides to be used in human and animal health is highlighted.

  2. Optical spectroscopic studies of animal skin used in modeling of human cutaneous tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.; Sianoudis, J. A.

    2007-03-01

    Optical spectroscopy and in particular laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), provide excellent possibilities for real-time, noninvasive diagnosis of different skin tissue pathologies. However, the introduction of optical spectroscopy in routine medical practice demands a statistically important data collection, independent from the laser sources and detectors used. The scientists collect databases either from patients, in vivo, or they study different animal models to obtain objective information for the optical properties of various types of normal and diseased tissue. In the present work, the optical properties (fluorescence and reflectance) of two animal skin models are investigated. The aim of using animal models in optical spectroscopy investigations is to examine the statistics of the light induced effects firstly on animals, before any extrapolation effort to humans. A nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used as an excitation source for the autofluorescence measurements, while a tungsten-halogen lamp was used for the reflectance measurements. Samples of chicken and pig skin were measured in vitro and were compared with results obtained from measurements of normal human skin in vivo. The specific features of the measured reflectance and fluorescence spectra are discussed, while the limits of data extrapolation for each skin type are also depicted.

  3. Can results from animal studies be used to estimate dose or low dose effects in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been devised to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats, and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines have been reviewed, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to human is discussed

  4. Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Casillas, Yeray; Melián, Carlos; Wägner, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Most research in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been conducted in animals, and their replacement is currently a chimera. As compared to when they started to be used by modern science in the 17th century, a very high number of animal models of diabetes is now available, and they provide new insights into almost every aspect of diabetes. Approaches combining human, in vitro, and animal studies are probably the best strategy to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diabetes, and the choice of the best model to achieve such objective is crucial. Traditionally classified based on pathogenesis as spontaneous or induced models, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common animal models of diabetes are described, and in addition to non-obese diabetic mice, biobreeding diabetes-prone (BB-DP) rats, streptozotocin-induced models, or high-fat diet-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice, new valuable models, such as dogs and cats with spontaneous diabetes, are described. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular docking, spectroscopic studies and quantum calculations on nootropic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Maheswari, J; Muthu, S; Sundius, Tom

    2014-04-05

    A systematic vibrational spectroscopic assignment and analysis of piracetam [(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide)] have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral data. The vibrational analysis was aided by an electronic structure calculation based on the hybrid density functional method B3LYP using a 6-311G++(d,p) basis set. Molecular equilibrium geometries, electronic energies, IR and Raman intensities, and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been computed. The assignments are based on the experimental IR and Raman spectra, and a complete assignment of the observed spectra has been proposed. The UV-visible spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies and the maximum absorption wavelengths λmax were determined by the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method. The geometrical parameters, vibrational frequencies and absorption wavelengths were compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments are performed on the basis of the potential energy distributions (PED) of the vibrational modes in terms of natural internal coordinates. The simulated FT-IR, FT-Raman, and UV spectra of the title compound have been constructed. Molecular docking studies have been carried out in the active site of piracetam by using Argus Lab. In addition, the potential energy surface, HOMO and LUMO energies, first-order hyperpolarizability and the molecular electrostatic potential have been computed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sutureless vascular anastomoses by N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate adhesive: an experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, D; Yilmaz, M; Yavuz, H; Noyan, S; Avci, B; Ercan, A; Ozkan, H; Cengiz, M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to find out whether sutureless anastomoses using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate were effective in the suppression of neointimal hyperplasia or not. Ten male adult mongrel dogs were used in this animal study. The animals were randomly divided into a control group (n = 5) and a study group (n = 5). The study group underwent sutureless anastomoses using N-buthyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive. Infrarenal aortoaortic graft was interposed using polytetrafluoroethylene. In the study group, the mean intimal thickness at the proximal anastomosis was 27.4 +/- 1.94 microm and 27.4 +/- 1.51 microm at the distal anastomosis. In the control group, the mean intimal thickness was 138.4 +/- 5.02 mum at the proximal anastomosis and 67.6 +/- 6.42 microm at the distal anastomosis. Intimal thickness at the proximal and distal anastomoses in the control group was significantly (p anastomoses using with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive might be a good alternative to conventional suture technique. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytus Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake, intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding, and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease—with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function.

  8. Molecular determinants of epidermal growth factor binding: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Sanders

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family that plays a role in multiple cellular processes. Activation of EGFR requires binding of a ligand on the extracellular domain to promote conformational changes leading to dimerization and transphosphorylation of intracellular kinase domains. Seven ligands are known to bind EGFR with affinities ranging from sub-nanomolar to near micromolar dissociation constants. In the case of EGFR, distinct conformational states assumed upon binding a ligand is thought to be a determining factor in activation of a downstream signaling network. Previous biochemical studies suggest the existence of both low affinity and high affinity EGFR ligands. While these studies have identified functional effects of ligand binding, high-resolution structural data are lacking. To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of EGFR binding affinities, we docked each EGFR ligand to the putative active state extracellular domain dimer and 25.0 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed. MM-PBSA/GBSA are efficient computational approaches to approximate free energies of protein-protein interactions and decompose the free energy at the amino acid level. We applied these methods to the last 6.0 ns of each ligand-receptor simulation. MM-PBSA calculations were able to successfully rank all seven of the EGFR ligands based on the two affinity classes: EGF>HB-EGF>TGF-α>BTC>EPR>EPG>AR. Results from energy decomposition identified several interactions that are common among binding ligands. These findings reveal that while several residues are conserved among the EGFR ligand family, no single set of residues determines the affinity class. Instead we found heterogeneous sets of interactions that were driven primarily by electrostatic and Van der Waals forces. These results not only illustrate the complexity of EGFR dynamics but also pave the way for structure-based design of

  9. Animal studies on the role of sleep in memory : From behavioral performance to molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Although the exact functions of sleep remain a topic of debate, several hypotheses propose that sleep benefits neuronal plasticity, which ultimately supports brain function and cognition. For over a century, researchers have applied a wide variety of behavioral, electrophysiological, biochemical and

  10. A Study on Impact of Informatization on Tourist Behavior : Analysis of Anime Pilgrimage

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 健

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows impact of informatization on tourist behavior in Japan. This research adopts analysis of "Anime Pilgrimage" in order to accomplish the above mentioned objective. Recently, in Japan, some of anime fans make "Anime Pilgrimage" which is a kind of tourist behavior. It would appear that this behavior was affected by informatization strongly. As a result, it was found that "Anime Pilgrim" was affected by informatization not only before "Anime Pilgrimage" but also throughout "Anime ...

  11. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  12. The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J

    2008-09-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.

  13. Reporter systems for in vivo tracking of lactic acid bacteria in animal model studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Winschau F; Deane, Shelly M; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence (BLI) and fluorescence imaging (FI) allow for non-invasive detection of viable microorganisms from within living tissue and are thus ideally suited for in vivo probiotic studies. Highly sensitive optical imaging techniques detect signals from the excitation of fluorescent proteins, or luciferase-catalyzed oxidation reactions. The excellent relation between microbial numbers and photon emission allow for quantification of tagged bacteria in vivo with extreme accuracy. More information is gained over a shorter period compared to traditional pre-clinical animal studies. The review summarizes the latest advances in in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging and points out the advantages and limitations of different techniques. The practical application of BLI and FI in the tracking of lactic acid bacteria in animal models is addressed. PMID:26516656

  14. Making Humanoid Robots More Acceptable Based on the Study of Robot Characters in Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maleki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we take an approach in Humanoid Robots are not considered as robots who resembles human beings in a realistic way of appearance and act but as robots who act and react like human that make them more believable by people. Regarding this approach we will study robot characters in animation movies and discuss what makes some of them to be accepted just like a moving body and what makes some other robot characters to be believable as a living human. The goal of this paper is to create a rule set that describes friendly, socially acceptable, kind, cute... robots and in this study we will review example robots in popular animated movies. The extracted rules and features can be used for making real robots more acceptable.

  15. Molecular mechanisms in radiation carcinogenesis: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Molecular studies of radiation carcinogenesis are discussed in relation to theories for extrapolating from cellular and animal models to man. Skin cancer is emphasized because of sunlight-induced photochemical damage to DNA. It is emphasized that cellular and animal models are needed as well as molecular theories for quantitative evaluation of hazardous environmental agents. (U.S.)

  16. Are we getting the full picture? Animal responses to camera traps and implications for predator studies

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, Paul; Ballard, Guy; Fleming, Peter; Falzon, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Camera trapping is widely used in ecological studies. It is often considered nonintrusive simply because animals are not captured or handled. However, the emission of light and sound from camera traps can be intrusive. We evaluated the daytime and nighttime behavioral responses of four mammalian predators to camera traps in road?based, passive (no bait) surveys, in order to determine how this might affect ecological investigations. Wild dogs, European red foxes, feral cats, and spott...

  17. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Mami; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5’ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequent...

  18. Molecular beam studies with a time-of-flight machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study concerns the development of the time-of-flight method for the velocity analysis of molecular beams and its application to the measurement of the velocity dependence of the total cross-section of the noble gases. It reviews the elastic scattering theory, both in the framework of classical mechanics and in the quantum mechanical description. Attention is paid to the semiclassical correspondence of classical particle trajectories with the partial waves of the quantum mechanical solution. The total cross-section and the small angle differential cross-section are discussed with special emphasis on their relation. The results of this chapter are used later to derive the correction on the measured total cross-section due to the finite angular resolution of the apparatus. Reviewed also is the available information on the intermolecular potential of the Ar-Ar system. Then a discussion of the measurement of total cross-sections with the molecular beam method and the time-of-flight method is compared to other methods used. It is shown that the single burst time-of-flight method can be developed into a reliable and well-calibrated method for the analysis of the velocity distribution of molecular beams. A comparison of the single burst time-of-flight method with the cross-correlation time-of-flight method shows that the two methods are complementary and that the specific experimental circumstances determine which method is to be preferred. Molecular beam sources are discussed. The peaking factor formalism is introduced and helps to compare the performance of different types of sources. The effusive and the supersonic source are treated and recent experimental results are given. The multichannel source is treated in more detail. For the opaque mode, an experimental investigation of the velocity distribution and the angular distribution of the flow pattern is presented. Comparison of these results with Monte Carlo calculations for free molecular flow in a cylindrical

  19. A conceptual framework for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Diego P; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Urbani, Pasquinell; Valdovinos, Fernanda S

    2015-04-01

    The strength of species interactions influences strongly the structure and dynamics of ecological systems. Thus, quantifying such strength is crucial to understand how species interactions shape communities and ecosystems. Although the concepts and measurement of interaction strength in food webs have received much attention, there has been comparatively little progress in the context of mutualism. We propose a conceptual scheme for studying the strength of plant-animal mutualistic interactions. We first review the interaction strength concepts developed for food webs, and explore how these concepts have been applied to mutualistic interactions. We then outline and explain a conceptual framework for defining ecological effects in plant-animal mutualisms. We give recommendations for measuring interaction strength from data collected in field studies based on a proposed approach for the assessment of interaction strength in plant-animal mutualisms. This approach is conceptually integrative and methodologically feasible, as it focuses on two key variables usually measured in field studies: the frequency of interactions and the fitness components influenced by the interactions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681