WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal structures

  1. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  2. 3D Animations for Exploring Nucleon Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Waverly; Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years many intuitive pictures have been developed for the interpretation of electron hadron scattering experiments, such as a mechanism for transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering experiments. While Dr. Burkardt's pictures have been helpful for many researchers in the field, they are still difficult to visualize for broader audiences since they rely mostly on 2-dimensional static images. In order to make more accessible for a broader audience what can be learned from Jefferson Lab experiments, we have started to work on developing 3-dimensional animations for these processes. The goal is to enable the viewer to repeatedly look at the same microscopic mechanism for a specific reaction, with the viewpoint of the observer changing. This should help an audience that is not so familiar with these reactions to better understand what can be learned from various experiments at Jefferson Lab aimed at exploring the nucleon structure. Jefferson Lab Minority/Female Undergraduate Research Assistantship.

  3. Animal Structures and Functions, Science (Experimental): 5314.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Barbara A.

    This unit of instruction was designed to introduce the student to the relationship between structure and function in the animal kingdom, with emphasis given to: (1) the evolution of physiological systems in the major animal phyla, (2) the complementarity of structure and function, and (3) the concept of homeostasis. The booklet lists the relevant…

  4. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  5. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. What is the animal doing? Tools for exploring behavioural structure in animal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurarie, Eliezer; Bracis, Chloe; Delgado, Maria; Meckley, Trevor D; Kojola, Ilpo; Wagner, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    Movement data provide a window - often our only window - into the cognitive, social and biological processes that underlie the behavioural ecology of animals in the wild. Robust methods for identifying and interpreting distinct modes of movement behaviour are of great importance, but complicated by the fact that movement data are complex, multivariate and dependent. Many different approaches to exploratory analysis of movement have been developed to answer similar questions, and practitioners are often at a loss for how to choose an appropriate tool for a specific question. We apply and compare four methodological approaches: first passage time (FPT), Bayesian partitioning of Markov models (BPMM), behavioural change point analysis (BCPA) and a fitted multistate random walk (MRW) to three simulated tracks and two animal trajectories - a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) tracked for 12 h and a wolf (Canis lupus) tracked for 1 year. The simulations - in which, respectively, velocity, tortuosity and spatial bias change - highlight the sensitivity of all methods to model misspecification. Methods that do not account for autocorrelation in the movement variables lead to spurious change points, while methods that do not account for spatial bias completely miss changes in orientation. When applied to the animal data, the methods broadly agree on the structure of the movement behaviours. Important discrepancies, however, reflect differences in the assumptions and nature of the outputs. Important trade-offs are between the strength of the a priori assumptions (low in BCPA, high in MRW), complexity of output (high in the BCPA, low in the BPMM and MRW) and explanatory potential (highest in the MRW). The animal track analysis suggests some general principles for the exploratory analysis of movement data, including ways to exploit the strengths of the various methods. We argue for close and detailed exploratory analysis of movement before fitting complex movement models. © 2015

  7. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  8. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  9. Modeling DNA structure and processes through animation and kinesthetic visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Christine

    There have been many studies regarding the effectiveness of visual aids that go beyond that of static illustrations. Many of these have been concentrated on the effectiveness of visual aids such as animations and models or even non-traditional visual aid activities like role-playing activities. This study focuses on the effectiveness of three different types of visual aids: models, animation, and a role-playing activity. Students used a modeling kit made of Styrofoam balls and toothpicks to construct nucleotides and then bond nucleotides together to form DNA. Next, students created their own animation to depict the processes of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Finally, students worked in teams to build proteins while acting out the process of translation. Students were given a pre- and post-test that measured their knowledge and comprehension of the four topics mentioned above. Results show that there was a significant gain in the post-test scores when compared to the pre-test scores. This indicates that the incorporated visual aids were effective methods for teaching DNA structure and processes.

  10. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  11. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  12. Phobic dimensions : IV. The structure of animal fears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA

    Research designed to determine the number and kind of dimensions- underlying self-reports of animal fears is relatively rare. To contribute further knowledge to this area of study, Davey's methodology [Davey, G. C. L. (1994a). Self-reported fears to common indigenous animals in an adult UK

  13. Effect of structural animal health planning on antimicrobial use and animal health variables in conventional dairy farming in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, David C; Graveland, Haitske; Eijck, Ineke A J M; Schepers, René W M; Heederik, Dick J J; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    Widespread veterinary use of antimicrobials might contribute to the increasing burden of antimicrobial resistance. Despite many successful efforts to reduce veterinary antimicrobial use in the Netherlands, antimicrobial use on a substantial number of farms has remained relatively high over the past few years. Farm-specific solutions are required to further lower antimicrobial use on these farms. Reducing the burden of animal diseases at the farm level by means of a structured approach to animal health planning could be promising. This intervention study aimed to evaluate the main effects of an animal health planning program developed by an advisory team consisting of a dairy farmer, his veterinarian, and his feed adviser under the guidance of a professional facilitator. During an initial farm visit, the advisory team developed a farm-specific animal health planning program with support from the facilitator. After 1 yr, the effects of this program on animal health, production parameters, and antimicrobial use were evaluated and compared with control farms that did not have a facilitated animal health planning program. Antimicrobial use on intervention farms was significantly reduced between the start and the end of the study period; however, no significant differences in the rate of reduction between the intervention and control groups could be observed (-19% and -14%, respectively). Reduced antimicrobial use did not result in negative effects on animal health and production parameters during the study period in both groups. On intervention farms, a significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of completed action points at farm level and the percentage reduction in antimicrobial use. The level of compliance with action points and the quality of collaboration between farmer and advisers were positively associated with the accomplishment of corresponding objectives. However, the total number of objectives was negatively associated with the level

  14. Animal behaviour and algal camouflage jointly structure predation and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Start, Denon

    2018-05-01

    Trait variation can structure interactions between individuals, thus shaping selection. Although antipredator strategies are an important component of many aquatic systems, how multiple antipredator traits interact to influence consumption and selection remains contentious. Here, I use a common larval dragonfly (Epitheca canis) and its predator (Anax junius) to test for the joint effects of activity rate and algal camouflage on predation and survival selection. I found that active and poorly camouflaged Epitheca were more likely to be consumed, and thus, survival selection favoured inactive and well-camouflaged individuals. Notably, camouflage dampened selection on activity rate, likely by reducing attack rates when Epitheca encountered a predator. Correlational selection is therefore conferred by the ecological interaction of traits, rather than by opposing selection acting on linked traits. I suggest that antipredator traits with different adaptive functions can jointly structure patterns of consumption and selection. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Spatio-Temporal Story Mapping Animation Based On Structured Causal Relationships Of Historical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y.; Tsuruoka, K.; Arikawa, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a user interface that displays visual animations on geographic maps and timelines for depicting historical stories by representing causal relationships among events for time series. We have been developing an experimental software system for the spatial-temporal visualization of historical stories for tablet computers. Our proposed system makes people effectively learn historical stories using visual animations based on hierarchical structures of different scale timelines and maps.

  16. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-05-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials.

  17. The Use of Polymerized Genipin for the Stabilization of the Collagen Structure of Animal Hides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal hides are the major byproduct of meat industry and the collagen fibers is the main constituent. Crosslinkers play a key role in stabilizing the collagen structure for useful applications. Genipin is widely used as an ideal biological protein crosslinking agent due to its low toxicity compare...

  18. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  19. A comparison of VRML and animation of rotation for teaching 3-dimensional crystal lattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauls, Barbara Lynn

    Chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing abstract concepts of molecules and atoms, which may lead to misconceptions. The three-dimensionality of these structures presents a challenge to educators. Typical methods of teaching include text with two-dimensional graphics and structural models. Improved methods to allow visualization of 3D structures may improve learning of these concepts. This research compared the use of Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and animation of rotation for teaching three-dimensional structures. VRML allows full control of objects by altering angle, size, rotation, and provides the ability to zoom into and through objects. Animations may only be stopped, restarted and replayed. A web-based lesson teaching basic concepts of crystals, which requires comprehension of their three-dimensional structure was given to 100 freshmen chemistry students. Students were stratified by gender then randomly to one of two lessons, which were identical except for the multimedia method used to show the lattices and unit cells. One method required exploration of the structures using VRML, the other provided animations of the same structures rotating. The students worked through an examination as the lesson progressed. A Welch t' test was used to compare differences between groups. No significant difference in mean achievement was found between the two methods, between genders, or within gender. There was no significant difference in mean total SAT in the animation and VRML group. Total time on task had no significant difference nor did enjoyment of the lesson. Students, however, spent 14% less time maneuvering VRML structures than viewing the animations of rotation. Neither method proved superior for presenting three-dimensional information. The students spent less time maneuvering the VRML structures with no difference in mean score so the use of VRML may be more efficient. The investigator noted some manipulation difficulties using VRML to

  20. Greek classicism in living structure? Some deductive pathways in animal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweers, G A

    1985-01-01

    Classical temples in ancient Greece show two deterministic illusionistic principles of architecture, which govern their functional design: geometric proportionalism and a set of illusion-strengthening rules in the proportionalism's "stochastic margin". Animal morphology, in its mechanistic-deductive revival, applies just one architectural principle, which is not always satisfactory. Whether a "Greek Classical" situation occurs in the architecture of living structure is to be investigated by extreme testing with deductive methods. Three deductive methods for explanation of living structure in animal morphology are proposed: the parts, the compromise, and the transformation deduction. The methods are based upon the systems concept for an organism, the flow chart for a functionalistic picture, and the network chart for a structuralistic picture, whereas the "optimal design" serves as the architectural principle for living structure. These methods show clearly the high explanatory power of deductive methods in morphology, but they also make one open end most explicit: neutral issues do exist. Full explanation of living structure asks for three entries: functional design within architectural and transformational constraints. The transformational constraint brings necessarily in a stochastic component: an at random variation being a sort of "free management space". This variation must be a variation from the deterministic principle of the optimal design, since any transformation requires space for plasticity in structure and action, and flexibility in role fulfilling. Nevertheless, finally the question comes up whether for animal structure a similar situation exists as in Greek Classical temples. This means that the at random variation, that is found when the optimal design is used to explain structure, comprises apart from a stochastic part also real deviations being yet another deterministic part. This deterministic part could be a set of rules that governs

  1. The triple helix of collagens - an ancient protein structure that enabled animal multicellularity and tissue evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Aaron L; Boudko, Sergei P; Rokas, Antonis; Hudson, Billy G

    2018-04-09

    The cellular microenvironment, characterized by an extracellular matrix (ECM), played an essential role in the transition from unicellularity to multicellularity in animals (metazoans), and in the subsequent evolution of diverse animal tissues and organs. A major ECM component are members of the collagen superfamily -comprising 28 types in vertebrates - that exist in diverse supramolecular assemblies ranging from networks to fibrils. Each assembly is characterized by a hallmark feature, a protein structure called a triple helix. A current gap in knowledge is understanding the mechanisms of how the triple helix encodes and utilizes information in building scaffolds on the outside of cells. Type IV collagen, recently revealed as the evolutionarily most ancient member of the collagen superfamily, serves as an archetype for a fresh view of fundamental structural features of a triple helix that underlie the diversity of biological activities of collagens. In this Opinion, we argue that the triple helix is a protein structure of fundamental importance in building the extracellular matrix, which enabled animal multicellularity and tissue evolution. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. [The current and future organisational structure of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L

    2003-12-01

    The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.

  3. Three-dimensional segmentation and skeletonization to build an airway tree data structure for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Lee, Zhenghong

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of intrathoracic airway tree geometry is important for objective evaluation of bronchial tree structure and function. Currently, there is more human data than small animal data on airway morphometry. In this study, we implemented a semi-automatic approach to quantitatively describe airway tree geometry by using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) images to build a tree data structure for small animals such as rats and mice. Silicon lung casts of the excised lungs from a canine and a mouse were used for micro-CT imaging of the airway trees. The programming language IDL was used to implement a 3D region-growing threshold algorithm for segmenting out the airway lung volume from the CT data. Subsequently, a fully-parallel 3D thinning algorithm was implemented in order to complete the skeletonization of the segmented airways. A tree data structure was then created and saved by parsing through the skeletonized volume using the Python programming language. Pertinent information such as the length of all airway segments was stored in the data structure. This approach was shown to be accurate and efficient for up to six generations for the canine lung cast and ten generations for the mouse lung cast

  4. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose......) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying...... of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte...

  5. Convergence of Domain Architecture, Structure, and Ligand Affinity in Animal and Plant RNA-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raquel; Manny, Austin; Kolaczkowski, Oralia; Kolaczkowski, Bryan

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction of ancestral protein sequences using phylogenetic methods is a powerful technique for directly examining the evolution of molecular function. Although ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) is itself very efficient, downstream functional, and structural studies necessary to characterize when and how changes in molecular function occurred are often costly and time-consuming, currently limiting ASR studies to examining a relatively small number of discrete functional shifts. As a result, we have very little direct information about how molecular function evolves across large protein families. Here we develop an approach combining ASR with structure and function prediction to efficiently examine the evolution of ligand affinity across a large family of double-stranded RNA binding proteins (DRBs) spanning animals and plants. We find that the characteristic domain architecture of DRBs-consisting of 2-3 tandem double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsrms)-arose independently in early animal and plant lineages. The affinity with which individual dsrms bind double-stranded RNA appears to have increased and decreased often across both animal and plant phylogenies, primarily through convergent structural mechanisms involving RNA-contact residues within the β1-β2 loop and a small region of α2. These studies provide some of the first direct information about how protein function evolves across large gene families and suggest that changes in molecular function may occur often and unassociated with major phylogenetic events, such as gene or domain duplications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. [Peculiarities of secondary structure of serum albumin of some representatives of the animal kingdom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekhymenko, G V; Kuchmerovskaia, T M

    2011-01-01

    Methods of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) are suitable techniques for detection of proteins structural changes. These methods were used for determinating peculiarities of the secondary structure of serum albumins in some representatives of two classes of reptiles: Horsfield's tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), water snake (Natrix tessellata) and grass snake (Natrix natrix) and birds: domestic goose (Anser anser), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic duck (Anas platyrhyncha) and dove colored (Columba livia). An analysis of IR spectra and spectra obtained by the method of CD of serum albumins of both classes representatives revealed that beta-folding structure and alpha-helical sections that form the alpha-conformation play an important role in conformational structure formation of polypeptide chain and also disordered sites of molecules of these proteins. It was observed that certain redistribution depending on animals species exists, in the formation of secondary structure of serum albumins of the investigated representatives of reptiles and birds classes between the content of beta-folding structure, alpha-helical sections and disordered sites in molecules of these proteins.

  7. Large-scale trends in the evolution of gene structures within 11 animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Yandell

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have used the annotations of six animal genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Ciona intestinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans together with the sequences of five unannotated Drosophila genomes to survey changes in protein sequence and gene structure over a variety of timescales--from the less than 5 million years since the divergence of D. simulans and D. melanogaster to the more than 500 million years that have elapsed since the Cambrian explosion. To do so, we have developed a new open-source software library called CGL (for "Comparative Genomics Library". Our results demonstrate that change in intron-exon structure is gradual, clock-like, and largely independent of coding-sequence evolution. This means that genome annotations can be used in new ways to inform, corroborate, and test conclusions drawn from comparative genomics analyses that are based upon protein and nucleotide sequence similarities.

  8. 3D reconstruction of internal structure of animal body using near-infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung Nghia; Yamamoto, Kohei; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    To realize three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging of the internal structure of animal body, we have developed a new technique to reconstruct CT images from two-dimensional (2D) transillumination images. In transillumination imaging, the image is blurred due to the strong scattering in the tissue. We had developed a scattering suppression technique using the point spread function (PSF) for a fluorescent light source in the body. In this study, we have newly proposed a technique to apply this PSF for a light source to the image of unknown light-absorbing structure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was examined in the experiments with a model phantom and a mouse. In the phantom experiment, the absorbers were placed in the tissue-equivalent medium to simulate the light-absorbing organs in mouse body. Near-infrared light was illuminated from one side of the phantom and the image was recorded with CMOS camera from another side. Using the proposed techniques, the scattering effect was efficiently suppressed and the absorbing structure can be visualized in the 2D transillumination image. Using the 2D images obtained in many different orientations, we could reconstruct the 3D image. In the mouse experiment, an anesthetized mouse was held in an acrylic cylindrical holder. We can visualize the internal organs such as kidneys through mouse's abdomen using the proposed technique. The 3D image of the kidneys and a part of the liver were reconstructed. Through these experimental studies, the feasibility of practical 3D imaging of the internal light-absorbing structure of a small animal was verified.

  9. Novel Threadlike Structures May Be Present on the Large Animal Organ Surface: Evidence in Swine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hee Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens.

  10. Music in film and animation: experimental semiotics applied to visual, sound and musical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Roger A.

    2010-02-01

    The relationship of music to film has only recently received the attention of experimental psychologists and quantificational musicologists. This paper outlines theory, semiotical analysis, and experimental results using relations among variables of temporally organized visuals and music. 1. A comparison and contrast is developed among the ideas in semiotics and experimental research, including historical and recent developments. 2. Musicological Exploration: The resulting multidimensional structures of associative meanings, iconic meanings, and embodied meanings are applied to the analysis and interpretation of a range of film with music. 3. Experimental Verification: A series of experiments testing the perceptual fit of musical and visual patterns layered together in animations determined goodness of fit between all pattern combinations, results of which confirmed aspects of the theory. However, exceptions were found when the complexity of the stratified stimuli resulted in cognitive overload.

  11. Animating Instructional Materials in Computer Education: An Approach to Designing and Teaching Concepts in Data Structures Using LATEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Osikoya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animation gives a different perception on what is being visually presented. Research has shown that students are likely to understand what is being taught from the combination of animation and text than just with text. Students easily understand scientific concepts in narrative and animated forms. Data structure is a way of storing and arranging data. The efficacy of searching these stored data is very important, so is it vital that they are stored with the right algorithm. This paper presents animations designed to support teaching in computer education. Our main focus is to present controlled animated instructional materials in teaching topics in data structures. We have created three scientifically animated instructional materials in data structures consisting of the Stacks, Queues and Trees. These scientific spheres have been chosen to demonstrate the basic ideas of this work, because of its simplicity in representing the animations. We hope to develop reasonable sets of instructional material of different subject areas that will be stored in a database repository. These are intended to be delivered to students through an e-learning website and/or Mobile phones to support them with additional learning opportunities.

  12. Structure and function of complex I in animals and plants - a comparative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkler, Jennifer; Senkler, Michael; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex (complex I) has a molecular mass of about 1000 kDa and includes 40-50 subunits in animals, fungi and plants. It is composed of a membrane arm and a peripheral arm and has a conserved L-like shape in all species investigated. However, in plants and possibly some protists it has a second peripheral domain which is attached to the membrane arm on its matrix exposed side at a central position. The extra domain includes proteins resembling prokaryotic gamma-type carbonic anhydrases. We here present a detailed comparison of complex I from mammals and flowering plants. Forty homologous subunits are present in complex I of both groups of species. In addition, five subunits are present in mammalian complex I, which are absent in plants, and eight to nine subunits are present in plant complex I which do not occur in mammals. Based on the atomic structure of mammalian complex I and biochemical insights into complex I architecture from plants we mapped the species-specific subunits. Interestingly, four of the five animal-specific and five of the eight to nine plant-specific subunits are localized at the inner surface of the membrane arm of complex I in close proximity. We propose that the inner surface of the membrane arm represents a workbench for attaching proteins to complex I, which are not directly related to respiratory electron transport, like nucleoside kinases, acyl-carrier proteins or carbonic anhydrases. We speculate that further enzyme activities might be bound to this micro-location in other groups of organisms. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus in Animals and Food: Methicillin Resistance, Prevalence and Population Structure. A Review in the African Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lozano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest about Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA in livestock, and domestic and wild animals has significantly increased. The spread of different clonal complexes related to livestock animals, mainly CC398, and the recent description of the new mecC gene, make it necessary to know more about the epidemiology and population structure of this microorganism all over the world. Nowadays, there are several descriptions about the presence of S. aureus and/or MRSA in different animal species (dogs, sheep, donkeys, bats, pigs, and monkeys, and in food of animal origin in African countries. In this continent, there is a high diversity of ethnicities, cultures or religions, as well as a high number of wild animal species and close contact between humans and animals, which can have a relevant impact in the epidemiology of this microorganism. This review shows that some clonal lineages associated with humans (CC1, CC15, CC72, CC80, CC101, and CC152 and animals (CC398, CC130 and CC133 are present in this continent in animal isolates, although the mecC gene has not been detected yet. However, available studies are limited to a few countries, very often with incomplete information, and many more studies are necessary to cover a larger number of African countries.

  14. The CCK(-like) receptor in the animal kingdom: functions, evolution and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staljanssens, Dorien; Azari, Elnaz Karimian; Christiaens, Olivier; Beaufays, Jérôme; Lins, Laurence; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-03-01

    In this review, the cholecystokinin (CCK)(-like) receptors throughout the animal kingdom are compared on the level of physiological functions, evolutionary basis and molecular structure. In vertebrates, the CCK receptor is an important member of the G-protein coupled receptors as it is involved in the regulation of many physiological functions like satiety, gastrointestinal motility, gastric acid secretion, gall bladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, panic, anxiety and memory and learning processes. A homolog for this receptor is also found in nematodes and arthropods, called CK receptor and sulfakinin (SK) receptor, respectively. These receptors seem to have evolved from a common ancestor which is probably still closely related to the nematode CK receptor. The SK receptor is more closely related to the CCK receptor and seems to have similar functions. A molecular 3D-model for the CCK receptor type 1 has been built together with the docking of the natural ligands for the CCK and SK receptors in the CCK receptor type 1. These molecular models can help to study ligand-receptor interactions, that can in turn be useful in the development of new CCK(-like) receptor agonists and antagonists with beneficial health effects in humans or potential for pest control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; André, François-Xavier; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-07-09

    While Staphylococcus epidermidis, as part of the commensal flora, is a well-known human opportunistic pathogen, only little is known about the genetic relatedness of S. epidermidis carriage isolates from animal and human origin. This study aimed to compare S. epidermidis recovered from livestock, livestock-farmers and humans associated with the hospital environment. A total of 193 S. epidermidis isolates from three populations [animals (n=33), farmers (n=86) and hospital-associated (n=74)] were characterized by broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The overall S. epidermidis nasal colonization rate was low in animals (1-9%) but high among farmers (75%). High levels of multi-resistance were found in all populations. Tetracycline resistance was high in animal and farmer isolates; resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim was high in animal and hospital-associated isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis - MRSE isolates were found in all collections, with 22 (67%) MRSE in animals, 44 (51%) MRSE in farmers and 42 (57%) MRSE associated with the hospital-setting. Known SCCmec types and variants were detected in 79% of MRSE; the rest were non-typeable cassettes. In total 79 PFGE-types were found, of which 22 were shared between livestock, farmers and the hospital settings. Clonal complex 2 was predominant in all three populations and most STs corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. S. epidermidis isolates from livestock, farmers and hospital-setting showed a high level of diversity, but some clones can be found in humans as well as in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  17. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour - their diversity, structure and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields,

  18. Animal Models for Evaluation of Bone Implants and Devices: Comparative Bone Structure and Common Model Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancket, L M

    2015-09-01

    Bone implants and devices are a rapidly growing field within biomedical research, and implants have the potential to significantly improve human and animal health. Animal models play a key role in initial product development and are important components of nonclinical data included in applications for regulatory approval. Pathologists are increasingly being asked to evaluate these models at the initial developmental and nonclinical biocompatibility testing stages, and it is important to understand the relative merits and deficiencies of various species when evaluating a new material or device. This article summarizes characteristics of the most commonly used species in studies of bone implant materials, including detailed information about the relevance of a particular model to human bone physiology and pathology. Species reviewed include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, sheep, goats, and nonhuman primates. Ultimately, a comprehensive understanding of the benefits and limitations of different model species will aid in rigorously evaluating a novel bone implant material or device. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Animal models of maternal nutrition and altered offspring bone structure – Bone development across the lifecourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Lanham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspring is determined during gestation.

  20. Renaissance of morphological studies: the examination of functional structures in living animal organs using the in vivo cryotechnique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Medical and biological scientists wish to understand the in vivo structures of the cells and tissues that make up living animal organs, as well as the locations of their molecular components. Recently, the live imaging of animal cells and tissues with fluorescence-labeled proteins produced via gene manipulation has become increasingly common. Therefore, it is important to ensure that findings derived from histological or immunohistochemical tissue sections of living animal organs are compatible with those obtained from live images of the same organs, which can be assessed using recently developed digital imaging techniques. Over the past two decades, we have performed immunohistochemical and morphological studies of the cells and tissues in living animal organs using a novel in vivo cryotechnique. The use of a specially designed liquid cryogen system with or without a cryoknife during this cryotechnique solved the technical problems that inevitably arise during the conventional preparation methods employed prior to light or electron microscopic examinations. Our in vivo cryotechnique has been found to be extremely useful for arresting transient physiological processes in cells and tissues and for maintaining their functional components-such as rapidly changing signaling molecules, membrane channels, or receptors-in situ. The purpose of the present review is to describe the basic mechanism underlying cryotechniques and the significance of our in vivo cryotechnique. In addition, it describes various morphological or immunohistochemical findings, observations made using quantum dots, and a Raman cryomicroscopy-based method for assessing oxygen saturation in the erythrocytes flowing through intestinal tissues.

  1. Comparison of structure, function and regulation of plant cold shock domain proteins to bacterial and animal cold shock domain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikam, Vijay; Karlson, Dale T

    2010-01-01

    The cold shock domain (CSD) is among the most ancient and well conserved nucleic acid binding domains from bacteria to higher animals and plants. The CSD facilitates binding to RNA, ssDNA and dsDNA and most functions attributed to cold shock domain proteins are mediated by this nucleic acid binding activity. In prokaryotes, cold shock domain proteins only contain a single CSD and are termed cold shock proteins (Csps). In animal model systems, various auxiliary domains are present in addition to the CSD and are commonly named Y-box proteins. Similar to animal CSPs, plant CSPs contain auxiliary C-terminal domains in addition to their N-terminal CSD. Cold shock domain proteins have been shown to play important roles in development and stress adaptation in wide variety of organisms. In this review, the structure, function and regulation of plant CSPs are compared and contrasted to the characteristics of bacterial and animal CSPs. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 1-8].

  2. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  3. DOES AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING PROMOTE CHANGES IN STRUCTURAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TENDONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio A. Bezerra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To develop a systematic review to evaluate, through the best scientific evidence available, the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in improving the biomechanical characteristics of tendons in experimental animals. Two independent assessors conducted a systematic search in the databases Medline/PUBMED and Lilacs/BIREME, using the following descriptors of Mesh in animal models. The ultimate load of traction and the elastic modulus tendon were used as primary outcomes and transverse section area, ultimate stress and tendon strain as secondary outcomes. The assessment of risk of bias in the studies was carried out using the following methodological components: light/dark cycle, temperature, nutrition, housing, research undertaken in conjunction with an ethics committee, randomization, adaptation of the animals to the training and preparation for the mechanical test. Eight studies, comprising 384 animals, were selected; it was not possible to combine them into one meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of the samples. There was a trend to increasing ultimate load without changes in the other outcomes studied. Only one study met more than 80% of the quality criteria. Physical training performed in a structured way with imposition of overloads seems to be able to promote changes in tendon structure of experimental models by increasing the ultimate load supported. However, the results of the influence of exercise on the elastic modulus parameters, strain, transverse section area and ultimate stress, remain controversial and inconclusive. Such a conclusion must be evaluated with reservation as there was low methodological control in the studies included in this review.

  4. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Huang

    Full Text Available Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different.

  5. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the structure of follicular system of animal ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banetskaya, N.B.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a chronic gamma - irradiation in a low doze (0.5 Gy, capacity of a doze 1.8 * 10 -7 Gy / s) on follicular apparatus of ovary of young white female rats was investigated. Quantity of the follicles on the all stages of development was calculated. It is detected that the chronic irradiation by a low doze of young rats causes to morphological changes in ovaries. At once after an irradiation is marked the ovulation stimulation, it can be connected with change of the hormone balance in a body of the animals. In one month after an irradiation quantity of follicles on the all stages of development is reduced and number of atretic bodies is increased. The similar disorders can be connected as with direct influence of ionizing radiation on oocytes and them follicular cells, and also with action through change in bodies of the endocrine system. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Structural and functional features of lysine acetylation of plant and animal tubulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayevsky, Alexey V; Sharifi, Mohsen; Samofalova, Dariya A; Karpov, Pavel A; Blume, Yaroslav B

    2017-10-10

    The study of the genome and the proteome of different species and representatives of distinct kingdoms, especially detection of proteome via wide-scaled analyses has various challenges and pitfalls. Attempts to combine all available information together and isolate some common features for determination of the pathway and their mechanism of action generally have a highly complicated nature. However, microtubule (MT) monomers are highly conserved protein structures, and microtubules are structurally conserved from Homo sapiens to Arabidopsis thaliana. The interaction of MT elements with microtubule-associated proteins and post-translational modifiers is fully dependent on protein interfaces, and almost all MT modifications are well described except acetylation. Crystallography and interactome data using different approaches were combined to identify conserved proteins important in acetylation of microtubules. Application of computational methods and comparative analysis of binding modes generated a robust predictive model of acetylation of the ϵ-amino group of Lys40 in α-tubulins. In turn, the model discarded some probable mechanisms of interaction between elements of interest. Reconstruction of unresolved protein structures was carried out with modeling by homology to the existing crystal structure (PDBID: 1Z2B) from B. taurus using Swiss-model server, followed by a molecular dynamics simulation. Docking of the human tubulin fragment with Lys40 into the active site of α-tubulin acetyltransferase, reproduces the binding mode of peptidomimetic from X-ray structure (PDBID: 4PK3). © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Science Inquiry into Local Animals: Structure and Function Explored through Model Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Tallakson, Denise A.; Glascock, Alex L.; Chao, Astoria

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an arts- and spatial thinking skill--integrated inquiry project applied to life science concepts from the Next Generation Science Standards for fourth grade students that focuses on two unifying or crosscutting themes: (1) structure (or "form") and function and (2) use of models. Students made observations and…

  8. Integrating Model-Based Learning and Animations for Enhancing Students' Understanding of Proteins Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Hussein-Farraj, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the context of chemistry education reforms in Israel. The study examined a new biochemistry learning unit that was developed to promote in-depth understanding of 3D structures and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Our goal was to examine whether, and to what extent teaching and learning via…

  9. Effect of acid deposition on soil animals and microorganisms: influence on structures and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Principal effects of acid stress on the soil subsystem are increase or decrease in faunal and microfloral populations, changes in species assemblages and overall reductions in several soil microbiological processes. Little is known about the effects on nitrogen transformation (ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). Some possible but hypothetical scenarios for the effect of acidification stress on the forest ecosystem level are: (1) Inhibition of decomposition leads to an accumulation of litter. Immission and other disturbances may lead to humus disintegration and nitrate leaching; (2) Inhibition of mineralization reduces the availability of plant nutrients; (3) Decrease of the microfauna may cause disturbances of matter microcycling in the root zone; (4) Increase of the mesofauna may enhance the gracing pressure on mycorrhizal mycelia for even fine roots; (5) Decrease of the macrofauna (especially earthworms) lead to less bioturbation which impairs the buffer capacity of the litter and topsoil. A general outcome of liming experiments is stimulation of decomposition and mineralization: (1) Increased in nutrient arailability could lead to increased productivityin nutrient limited stands; (2) More irregular effects of animals on microbial activity may result in low stability of the soil-litter system and high liability to perturbations. (orig./vhe)

  10. Evaluating multiple determinants of the structure of plant-animal mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P; Cagnolo, Luciano

    2009-08-01

    The structure of mutualistic networks is likely to result from the simultaneous influence of neutrality and the constraints imposed by complementarity in species phenotypes, phenologies, spatial distributions, phylogenetic relationships, and sampling artifacts. We develop a conceptual and methodological framework to evaluate the relative contributions of these potential determinants. Applying this approach to the analysis of a plant-pollinator network, we show that information on relative abundance and phenology suffices to predict several aggregate network properties (connectance, nestedness, interaction evenness, and interaction asymmetry). However, such information falls short of predicting the detailed network structure (the frequency of pairwise interactions), leaving a large amount of variation unexplained. Taken together, our results suggest that both relative species abundance and complementarity in spatiotemporal distribution contribute substantially to generate observed network patters, but that this information is by no means sufficient to predict the occurrence and frequency of pairwise interactions. Future studies could use our methodological framework to evaluate the generality of our findings in a representative sample of study systems with contrasting ecological conditions.

  11. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  12. Structure Activity Relationships of α-L-LNA Modified Phosphorothioate Gapmer Antisense Oligonucleotides in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punit P Seth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the structure activity relationships of short 14-mer phosphorothioate gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs modified with α-L-locked nucleic acid (LNA and related modifications targeting phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN messenger RNA in mice. α-L-LNA represents the α-anomer of enantio-LNA and modified oligonucleotides show LNA like binding affinity for complementary RNA. In contrast to sequence matched LNA gapmer ASOs which showed elevations in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels indicative of hepatotoxicity, gapmer ASOs modified with α-L-LNA and related analogs in the flanks showed potent downregulation of PTEN messenger RNA in liver tissue without producing elevations in plasma ALT levels. However, the α-L-LNA ASO showed a moderate dose-dependent increase in liver and spleen weights suggesting a higher propensity for immune stimulation. Interestingly, replacing α-L-LNA nucleotides in the 3′- and 5′-flanks with R-5′-Me-α-L-LNA but not R-6′-Me- or 3′-Me-α-L-LNA nucleotides, reversed the drug induced increase in organ weights. Examination of structural models of dinucleotide units suggested that the 5′-Me group increases steric bulk in close proximity to the phosphorothioate backbone or produces subtle changes in the backbone conformation which could interfere with recognition of the ASO by putative immune receptors. Our data suggests that introducing steric bulk at the 5′-position of the sugar-phosphate backbone could be a general strategy to mitigate the immunostimulatory profile of oligonucleotide drugs. In a clinical setting, proinflammatory effects manifest themselves as injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. Thus, a mitigation of these effects could increase patient comfort and compliance when treated with ASOs.

  13. An overview of the roles and structure of international high-security veterinary laboratories for infectious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P K

    1998-08-01

    The unique structure, role and operations of government high-security (HS) laboratories which work on animal diseases are described, with particular reference to the laboratories of nine countries. High-security laboratories provide cost-effective insurance against catastrophic losses which could occur following exotic disease outbreaks. The importance of these laboratories is reflected in the fact that several new laboratories have recently been constructed at considerable expense and older facilities have undergone major renovations. Biosecurity is fundamental to the operation of high-security laboratories, so good facility design and microbiological security practices are very important. High-security laboratories conduct exotic disease diagnosis, certification and surveillance, and also perform research into virology, disease pathogenesis and improvements to diagnostic tests and vaccines. The mandate of these laboratories includes the training of veterinarians in the recognition of exotic diseases. One extremely important role is the provision of expert advice on exotic diseases and participation (both nationally and internationally) in policy decisions regarding animal disease issues.

  14. T-pattern analysis for the study of temporal structure of animal and human behavior: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Jonsson, G K; Faulisi, F; Sorbera, F; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Crescimanno, G; Magnusson, M S

    2015-01-15

    A basic tenet in the realm of modern behavioral sciences is that behavior consists of patterns in time. For this reason, investigations of behavior deal with sequences that are not easily perceivable by the unaided observer. This problem calls for improved means of detection, data handling and analysis. This review focuses on the analysis of the temporal structure of behavior carried out by means of a multivariate approach known as T-pattern analysis. Using this technique, recurring sequences of behavioral events, usually hard to detect, can be unveiled and carefully described. T-pattern analysis has been successfully applied in the study of various aspects of human or animal behavior such as behavioral modifications in neuro-psychiatric diseases, route-tracing stereotypy in mice, interaction between human subjects and animal or artificial agents, hormonal-behavioral interactions, patterns of behavior associated with emesis and, in our laboratories, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors in rodents. After describing the theory and concepts of T-pattern analysis, this review will focus on the application of the analysis to the study of the temporal characteristics of behavior in different species from rodents to human beings. This work could represent a useful background for researchers who intend to employ such a refined multivariate approach to the study of behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of microwell chip structure on cell microsphere production of various animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Yoshida, Shirou; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Mori, Rhuhei; Tamura, Tomoko; Yahiro, Kanji; Mori, Hideki; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Yamasaki, Mami; Nakazawa, Kohji

    2010-08-01

    The formation of three-dimensional cell microspheres such as spheroids, embryoid bodies, and neurospheres has attracted attention as a useful culture technique. In this study, we investigated a technique for effective cell microsphere production by using specially prepared microchip. The basic chip design was a multimicrowell structure in triangular arrangement within a 100-mm(2) region in the center of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plate (24x24 mm(2)), the surface of which was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to render it nonadhesive to cells. We also designed six similar chips with microwell diameters of 200, 300, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 microm to investigate the effect of the microwell diameter on the cell microsphere diameter. Rat hepatocytes, HepG2 cells, mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and mouse neural progenitor/stem (NPS) cells formed hepatocyte spheroids, HepG2 spheroids, embryoid bodies, and neurospheres, respectively, in the microwells within 5 days of culture. For all the cells, a single microsphere was formed in each microwell under all the chip conditions, and such microsphere configurations remained throughout the culture period. Furthermore, the microsphere diameters of each type of cell were strongly positively correlated with the microwell diameters of the chips, suggesting that microsphere diameter can be factitiously controlled by using different chip conditions. Thus, this chip technique is a promising cellular platform for tissue engineering or regenerative medicine research, pharmacological and toxicological studies, and fundamental studies in cell biology. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural characterization of a unique marine animal family 7 cellobiohydrolase suggests a mechanism of cellulase salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Marcelo; McGeehan, John E; Streeter, Simon D; Martin, Richard N A; Besser, Katrin; Elias, Luisa; Eborall, Will; Malyon, Graham P; Payne, Christina M; Himmel, Michael E; Schnorr, Kirk; Beckham, Gregg T; Cragg, Simon M; Bruce, Neil C; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2013-06-18

    Nature uses a diversity of glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes to convert polysaccharides to sugars. As lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction for biofuel production remains costly, natural GH diversity offers a starting point for developing industrial enzymes, and fungal GH family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases, in particular, provide significant hydrolytic potential in industrial mixtures. Recently, GH7 enzymes have been found in other kingdoms of life besides fungi, including in animals and protists. Here, we describe the in vivo spatial expression distribution, properties, and structure of a unique endogenous GH7 cellulase from an animal, the marine wood borer Limnoria quadripunctata (LqCel7B). RT-quantitative PCR and Western blot studies show that LqCel7B is expressed in the hepatopancreas and secreted into the gut for wood degradation. We produced recombinant LqCel7B, with which we demonstrate that LqCel7B is a cellobiohydrolase and obtained four high-resolution crystal structures. Based on a crystallographic and computational comparison of LqCel7B to the well-characterized Hypocrea jecorina GH7 cellobiohydrolase, LqCel7B exhibits an extended substrate-binding motif at the tunnel entrance, which may aid in substrate acquisition and processivity. Interestingly, LqCel7B exhibits striking surface charges relative to fungal GH7 enzymes, which likely results from evolution in marine environments. We demonstrate that LqCel7B stability and activity remain unchanged, or increase at high salt concentration, and that the L. quadripunctata GH mixture generally contains cellulolytic enzymes with highly acidic surface charge compared with enzymes derived from terrestrial microbes. Overall, this study suggests that marine cellulases offer significant potential for utilization in high-solids industrial biomass conversion processes.

  17. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  18. Hierarchical temporal structure in music, speech and animal vocalizations: jazz is like a conversation, humpbacks sing like hermit thrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T; Bella, Simone Dalla; Médé, Butovens; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance. AF variances were analysed and compared for over 200 different recordings from more than 16 different categories of signals, including recordings of speech in different contexts and languages, musical compositions and performances from different genres. Non-human vocalizations from two bird species and two types of marine mammals were also analysed for comparison. The resulting patterns of AF variance across timescales were distinct to each of four natural categories of complex sound: speech, popular music, classical music and complex animal vocalizations. Comparisons within and across categories indicated that nested clustering in longer timescales was more prominent when prosodic variation was greater, and when sounds came from interactions among individuals, including interactions between speakers, musicians, and even killer whales. Nested clustering also was more prominent for music compared with speech, and reflected beat structure for popular music and self-similarity across timescales for classical music. In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Estimating diagnostic test accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae accounting for the complexities of population structure in food animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hartnack

    Full Text Available For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard" is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect, robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9 and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3, respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8. For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.

  20. Global occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated and methoxylated structural analogues in an important animal feed (fishmeal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Dong, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xia; Li, Yang; Wang, Ruiguo; Su, Xiaoou

    2018-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH) and methoxylated (MeO) structural analogues have been found widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems, and may exhibit potential adverse effects to humans due to their bioaccumulative behavior through food chain. Fishmeal is an important animal feed applied around the world and is generally of marine origin. However, the levels and sources of PBDEs in fishmeal have not been thoroughly evaluated and their structural analogues have not been reported to date. The present study collected ninety-two fishmeal samples from world main fishmeal producing area to determine 27 PBDEs, 10 MeO-PBDEs and 11 OH-PBDEs. The concentrations of Σ 27 PBDEs, Σ 10 MeO-PBDEs and Σ 11 OH-PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.1-1498 (mean: 75.8), 1.14-881 (37.4) and 1.00-47.5 (8.17) ng/g lipid, respectively. PBDEs were found primarily correlated with the historically commercial production, meaning higher production of certain commercial product in a country, higher corresponding PBDE congeners in local fishmeal. A market shift from penta- and octa-formulations toward deca-formulation was observed. BDE209 was identified as a major congener in fishmeal. Both the MeO-PBDEs and the OH-PBDEs were influenced by fishmeal producing areas (p 1 in the northern hemisphere and <1 in the southern hemisphere in the present study, which was consistent with the results obtained from previous published papers. Both MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs were in accordance with the specialties of naturally produced halogenated compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dairy farmers' use and non-use values in animal welfare: Determining the empirical content and structure with anchored best-worst scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to identify empirically the types of use and non-use values that motivate dairy farmers in their work relating to animal welfare of dairy cows. We also sought to identify how they prioritize between these use and non-use values. Use values are derived from productivity considerations; non-use values are derived from the wellbeing of the animals, independent of the present or future use the farmer may make of the animal. In particular, we examined the empirical content and structure of the economic value dairy farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows. Based on a best-worst scaling approach and data from 123 Swedish dairy farmers, we suggest that the economic value those farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows covers aspects of both use and non-use type, with non-use values appearing more important. Using principal component factor analysis, we were able to check unidimensionality of the economic value construct. These findings are useful for understanding why dairy farmers may be interested in considering dairy cow welfare. Such understanding is essential for improving agricultural policy and advice aimed at encouraging dairy farmers to improve animal welfare; communicating to consumers the values under which dairy products are produced; and providing a basis for more realistic assumptions when developing economic models about dairy farmers' behavior. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  4. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  5. The evolution of animal societies : An exploration of the effects of population structure, life-history and behavioural plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Why do animals invest time and resources in social interactions and help each other, when the natural world is driven by fierce competition? Cooperation indeed abounds in the natural world, where organisms form societies whose fabric is made by the seemingly selfless actions of individuals. In this

  6. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  7. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  8. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  9. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  10. The organization structure and regulatory elements of Chlamydomonas histone genes reveal features linking plant and animal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, S; Müller, K; Lindauer, A; Park, P B; Cornelius, T; Schmitt, R

    1995-09-01

    The genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains approximately 15 gene clusters of the nucleosomal (or core) histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 genes and at least one histone H1 gene. Seven non-allelic histone gene loci were isolated from a genomic library, physically mapped, and the nucleotide sequences of three isotypes of each core histone gene species and one linked H1 gene determined. The core histone genes are organized in clusters of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 pairs, in which each gene pair shows outwardly divergent transcription from a short (< 300 bp) intercistronic region. These intercistronic regions contain typically conserved promoter elements, namely a TATA-box and the three motifs TGGCCAG-G(G/C)-CGAG, CGTTGACC and CGGTTG. Different from the genes of higher plants, but like those of animals and the related alga Volvox, the 3' untranslated regions contain no poly A signal, but a palindromic sequence (3' palindrome) essential for mRNA processing is present. One single H1 gene was found in close linkage to a H2A-H2B pair. The H1 upstream region contains the octameric promoter element GGTTGACC (also found upstream of the core histone genes) and two specific sequence motifs that are shared only with the Volvox H1 promoters. This suggests differential transcription of the H1 and the core histone genes. The H1 gene is interrupted by two introns. Unlike Volvox H3 genes, the three sequenced H3 isoforms are intron-free. Primer-directed PCR of genomic DNA demonstrated, however, that at least 8 of the about 15 H3 genes do contain one intron at a conserved position. In synchronized C. reinhardtii cells, H4 mRNA levels (representative of all core histone mRNAs) peak during cell division, suggesting strict replication-dependent gene control. The derived peptide sequences place C. reinhardtii core histones closer to plants than to animals, except that the H2A histones are more animal-like. The peptide sequence of histone H1 is closely related to the V. carteri VH1-II

  11. The use of non-structural proteins of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has a long history of coordinating isotope aided research projects for improving animal productivity in developing countries. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remains a tremendous problem in developing countries and is a constant threat to developed countries. Tests to determine the immune status of animals form the basis of understanding the control of the disease. Vaccination is widely employed and has to be on a continuous basis. The antibodies produced against the FMD virus (FMDV) after infection are the same as those produced on vaccination. However, tests have been devised to use non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMDV since it is only on infection that antibodies are produced against such proteins. Thus, through their specific detection, it is possible to determine whether animals are infected in the face of vaccination. This is important since any contact with replicating virus in cattle, sheep and goats may result in a non-clinical situation where virus is carried by the affected animal without symptoms, and may be a threat to others. There is great suspicion over animals where virus has multiplied and so their identification is paramount and essential where countries are trying to demonstrate virus freedom. There have been many developments in this field and the IAEA sought to try and validate methods in this coordinated research project (CRP). Validation per se is always addressed by the IAEA and they have been instrumental in improving guidelines for test certification through the OIE. Although FMD tests had been devised they were not fully examined in a large geographical spread, nor were they compared directly. During the CRP many variations of tests were produced and this complicated the validation process. The resulting TECDOC reflects the relative instability of developments but value adds to the latest opinions on the use of NSP tests in the control of FMD. Several commercial kits

  12. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  13. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  14. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  15. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  16. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  17. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  18. Water infiltration and surface soil structural properties as influenced by animal traffic in the Southern Piedmont USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface-soil structural condition in long-term perennial pastures is expected to be modified by how forage is (a) harvested through haying or grazing and (b) stimulated through source of nutrient application. We determined the effects of harvest management and nutrient source on macropore filling, ...

  19. Is the Oxygen Atom Static or Dynamic? The Effect of Generating Animations on Students' Mental Models of Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaygun, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing the chemical structure and dynamics of particles has been challenging for many students; therefore, various visualizations and tools have been used in chemistry education. For science educators, it has been important to understand how students visualize and represent particular phenomena--i.e., their mental models-- to design more…

  20. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  1. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  2. Predicting animal home-range structure and transitions using a multistate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck biased random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Greg A.; Golson, Emily A.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2017-01-01

    The home‐range concept is central in animal ecology and behavior, and numerous mechanistic models have been developed to understand home range formation and maintenance. These mechanistic models usually assume a single, contiguous home range. Here we describe and implement a simple home‐range model that can accommodate multiple home‐range centers, form complex shapes, allow discontinuities in use patterns, and infer how external and internal variables affect movement and use patterns. The model assumes individuals associate with two or more home‐range centers and move among them with some estimable probability. Movement in and around home‐range centers is governed by a two‐dimensional Ornstein‐Uhlenbeck process, while transitions between centers are modeled as a stochastic state‐switching process. We augmented this base model by introducing environmental and demographic covariates that modify transition probabilities between home‐range centers and can be estimated to provide insight into the movement process. We demonstrate the model using telemetry data from sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in California. The model was fit using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, which estimated transition probabilities, as well as unique Ornstein‐Uhlenbeck diffusion and centralizing tendency parameters. Estimated parameters could then be used to simulate movement and space use that was virtually indistinguishable from real data. We used Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) scores to assess model fit and determined that both wind and reproductive status were predictive of transitions between home‐range centers. Females were less likely to move between home‐range centers on windy days, less likely to move between centers when tending pups, and much more likely to move between centers just after weaning a pup. These tendencies are predicted by theoretical movement rules but were not previously known and show that our model can extract meaningful

  3. Predicting animal home-range structure and transitions using a multistate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck biased random walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Greg A; Golson, Emily A; Tinker, M Tim

    2017-01-01

    The home-range concept is central in animal ecology and behavior, and numerous mechanistic models have been developed to understand home range formation and maintenance. These mechanistic models usually assume a single, contiguous home range. Here we describe and implement a simple home-range model that can accommodate multiple home-range centers, form complex shapes, allow discontinuities in use patterns, and infer how external and internal variables affect movement and use patterns. The model assumes individuals associate with two or more home-range centers and move among them with some estimable probability. Movement in and around home-range centers is governed by a two-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, while transitions between centers are modeled as a stochastic state-switching process. We augmented this base model by introducing environmental and demographic covariates that modify transition probabilities between home-range centers and can be estimated to provide insight into the movement process. We demonstrate the model using telemetry data from sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in California. The model was fit using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, which estimated transition probabilities, as well as unique Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusion and centralizing tendency parameters. Estimated parameters could then be used to simulate movement and space use that was virtually indistinguishable from real data. We used Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) scores to assess model fit and determined that both wind and reproductive status were predictive of transitions between home-range centers. Females were less likely to move between home-range centers on windy days, less likely to move between centers when tending pups, and much more likely to move between centers just after weaning a pup. These tendencies are predicted by theoretical movement rules but were not previously known and show that our model can extract meaningful behavioral insight from complex

  4. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  5. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  6. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  7. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  8. Structural and functional responses of extremity veins to long-term gravitational loading or unloading—lessons from animal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monos, Emil; Raffai, Gábor; Dörnyei, Gabriella; Nádasy, György L.; Fehér, Erzsébet

    2007-02-01

    Long, transparent tubular tilt-cages were developed to maintain experimental rats either in 45∘ head-up (orthostasis model), or in 45∘ head-down body position (antiorthostasis model) for several weeks. In order to study the functional and structural changes in extremity blood vessels, also novel pressure angiograph systems, as well as special quantitative electron microscopic methods were applied. It was found that several adaptive mechanisms are activated in the lower limb superficial veins and microvessels of muscles when an organism is exposed to long-term (1-2 weeks) orthostatic-type gravitational load including a reversible amplification of the pressure-dependent myogenic response, tuning of the myogenic tone by Ca++- and voltage-sensitive K+ channels in humans, augmentation of the intramural sympathetic innervation involving an increased nerve terminal density and synaptic vesicle count with functional remodeling, reorganization of vascular network properties (microvascular rarefaction in muscles, decreased branching angles in superficial veins), and responses of an endothelin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) containing vesicle system in the endothelium. On the other hand, when applying long-term head-down tilting, the effects are dichotomous, e.g. it suppresses significantly the pressure-induced myogenic response, however does not diminish the adventitial sympathetic innervation density.

  9. Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Risatti, Guillermo R; Holinka, Lauren G; O'Donnell, Vivian; Carlson, Jolene; Alfano, Marialexia; Rodriguez, Luis L; Carrillo, Consuelo; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-07-01

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  11. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  12. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  13. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  14. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  15. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  16. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  17. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  18. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  1. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  2. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  3. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  4. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo; Zhou, Shizhe; Liu, Ligang; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study

  6. eEcoLiDAR, eScience infrastructure for ecological applications of LiDAR point clouds : reconstructing the 3D ecosystem structure for animals at regional to continental scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissling, W.D.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Foppen, R.P.B.; Bouten, W.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of high-resolution measurements of 3D ecosystem structure across broad spatial extents impedes major advancements in animal ecology and biodiversity science. We aim to fill this gap by using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology to characterize the vertical and horizontal

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  8. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  9. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  10. Animal imaging using immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Rand, Kendra; Faris, Gregory W.

    2003-07-01

    We are using rodent animal models to study and compare contrast mechanisms for detection of breast cancer. These measurements are performed with the animals immersed in a matching scattering medium. The matching scattering medium or liquid tissue phantom comprises a mixture of Ropaque (hollow acrylic/styrene microspheres) and ink. We have previously applied matched imaging to imaging in humans. Surrounding the imaged region with a matched tissue phantom compensates for variations in tissue thickness and geometry, provides more uniform illumination, and allows better use of the dynamic range of the imaging system. If the match is good, the boundaries of the imaged region should almost vanish, enhancing the contrast from internal structure as compared to contrast from the boundaries and surface topography. For our measurements in animals, the immersion plays two additional roles. First, we can readily study tumors through tissue thickness similar to that of a human breast. Although the heterogeneity of the breast is lost, this is a practical method to study the detection of small tumors and monitor changes as they grow. Second, the immersion enhances our ability to quantify the contrast mechanisms for peripheral tumors on the animal because the boundary effects on photon migration are eliminated. We are currently developing two systems for these measurements. One is a continuous-wave (CW) system based on near-infrared LED illumination and a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera. The second system, a frequency domain system, can help quantify the changes observed with the CW system.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  13. Effect of Tskaltubo radon mineral waters on aggressive behavior of animals and distribution of free amino acids in structures of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniani, D.; Mchedluri, T.; Oniani, T.; Museliani, T.; Grebenchuk, G.; Nikolaishvili, M.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of experimental results allow claiming that desamination of the amino acids by radon after treatment with Tskaltubo radon mineral water, decreases and normalizes free amino acids, which is reflected in behavior of animals - aggressive behavior is decreasing and they became more tame. (author)

  14. Classical Cosmology Through Animation Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, Milan; Kang, E. Y. E.; Longson, T.; State LA SciVi Project, Cal

    2010-05-01

    Computer animations are a powerful tool for explanation and communication of ideas, especially to a younger generation. Our team completed a three part sequence of short, computer animated stories about the insight and discoveries that lead to the understanding of the overall structure of the universe. Our principal characters are Immanuel Kant, Henrietta Leavitt, and Edwin Hubble. We utilized animations to model and visualize the physical concepts behind each discovery and to recreate the characters, locations, and flavor of the time. The animations vary in length from 6 to 11 minutes. The instructors or presenters may wish to utilize them separately or together. The animations may be used for learning classical cosmology in a visual way in GE astronomy courses, in pre-college science classes, or in public science education setting.

  15. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  16. An Active-Radio-Frequency-Identification system capable of identifying co-locations and social-structure: validation with a wild free-ranging animal

    OpenAIRE

    Ellwood, SA; Newman, C; Montgomery, RA; Nicosia, V; Buesching, CD; Markham, A; Mascolo, C; Trigoni, N; Pasztor, B; Dyo, V; Latora, V; Baker, SE; Macdonald, DW

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural events that are important for understanding sociobiology and movement ecology are often rare, transient and localised, but can occur at spatially distant sites e.g. territorial incursions and co-locating individuals. Existing animal tracking technologies, capable of detecting such events, are limited by one or more of: battery life; data resolution; location accuracy; data security; ability to co-locate individuals both spatially and temporally. Technology that at least partly res...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  1. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  2. How animals move: comparative lessons on animal locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Paul J; Lindstedt, Stan L

    2013-01-01

    Comparative physiology often provides unique insights in animal structure and function. It is specifically through this lens that we discuss the fundamental properties of skeletal muscle and animal locomotion, incorporating variation in body size and evolved difference among species. For example, muscle frequencies in vivo are highly constrained by body size, which apparently tunes muscle use to maximize recovery of elastic recoil potential energy. Secondary to this constraint, there is an expected linking of skeletal muscle structural and functional properties. Muscle is relatively simple structurally, but by changing proportions of the few muscle components, a diverse range of functional outputs is possible. Thus, there is a consistent and predictable relation between muscle function and myocyte composition that illuminates animal locomotion. When animals move, the mechanical properties of muscle diverge from the static textbook force-velocity relations described by A. V. Hill, as recovery of elastic potential energy together with force and power enhancement with activation during stretch combine to modulate performance. These relations are best understood through the tool of work loops. Also, when animals move, locomotion is often conveniently categorized energetically. Burst locomotion is typified by high-power outputs and short durations while sustained, cyclic, locomotion engages a smaller fraction of the muscle tissue, yielding lower force and power. However, closer examination reveals that rather than a dichotomy, energetics of locomotion is a continuum. There is a remarkably predictable relationship between duration of activity and peak sustainable performance.

  3. Structural and evolutionary aspects of two families of non-catalytic domains present in starch and glycogen binding proteins from microbes, plants and animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E. Ann

    2011-01-01

    kinase SNF1 complex, and an adaptor–regulator related to the SNF1/AMPK family, AKINβγ. CBM20s and CBM48s of amylolytic enzymes occur predominantly in the microbial world, whereas the non-amylolytic proteins containing these modules are mostly of plant and animal origin. Comparison of amino acid sequences...... that they exhibit independent behaviour, i.e. each family forms its own part in an evolutionary tree, with enzyme specificity (protein function) being well represented within each family. The distinction between CBM20 and CBM48 families is not sharp since there are representatives in both CBM families that possess...

  4. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  5. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  6. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  7. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  9. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  10. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  11. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  12. Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, J C; Hughes, D B

    1975-03-01

    A review has been made of factors of importance when using large animals for organ or partial body irradiation research. The problem has been considered from the viewpoint of the clinician. The rabbit, cat, dog, pig and monkey have been examined in detail for suitability as laboratory animals. Dosimetric and volume features have been reviewed.

  13. eEcoLiDAR, eScience infrastructure for ecological applications of LiDAR point clouds: reconstructing the 3D ecosystem structure for animals at regional to continental scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Daniel Kissling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of high-resolution measurements of 3D ecosystem structure across broad spatial extents impedes major advancements in animal ecology and biodiversity science. We aim to fill this gap by using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology to characterize the vertical and horizontal complexity of vegetation and landscapes at high resolution across regional to continental scales. The newly LiDAR-derived 3D ecosystem structures will be applied in species distribution models for breeding birds in forests and marshlands, for insect pollinators in agricultural landscapes, and songbirds at stopover sites during migration. This will allow novel insights into the hierarchical structure of animal-habitat associations, into why animal populations decline, and how they respond to habitat fragmentation and ongoing land use change. The processing of these massive amounts of LiDAR point cloud data will be achieved by developing a generic interactive eScience environment with multi-scale object-based image analysis (OBIA and interpretation of LiDAR point clouds, including data storage, scalable computing, tools for machine learning and visualisation (feature selection, annotation/segmentation, object classification, and evaluation, and a PostGIS spatial database. The classified objects will include trees, forests, vegetation strata, edges, bushes, hedges, reedbeds etc. with their related metrics, attributes and summary statistics (e.g. vegetation openness, height, density, vertical biomass distribution etc.. The newly developed eScience tools and data will be available to other disciplines and applications in ecology and the Earth sciences, thereby achieving high impact. The project will foster new multi-disciplinary collaborations between ecologists and eScientists and contribute to training a new generation of geo-ecologists.

  14. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  15. FIBRAS ANIMALES ARQUEOLÓGICAS. ESTUDIO DE LA ESTRUCTURA FÍSICA CELULAR DE LAS FIBRAS/Archaeological animal fibres. Study of their physical cellular structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Reigadas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El análisis microscópico de la morfología de fibras animales se ha empleado conjuntamente con otras líneas de evidencia, brindando información taxonómica útil para reconstruir posibles escenarios que den cuenta de las estrategias implementadas por las sociedades cazadoras- recolectoras y/ o productoras, en vistas a la explotación y aprovechamiento de los recursos animales. En esta oportunidad y en el marco de la vía mencionada, se presenta como complemento de los resultados obtenidos a partir de las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas tales como grosor, médula, tipo de fibra y color, el avance realizado en el estudio de la corteza, estructura no contemplada hasta el presente. Se evalúa a partir de la información generada su relevancia en la búsqueda de indicadores interespecíficos. El análisis fue realizado en muestras correspondientes al nivel 4 del sitio Cueva Salamanca 1 (7500 + 60 AP [Beta 178223] (Pintar 2004 y nivel 4 de Quebrada Seca 3 (Cal. 3684- 4226 1s (Aschero et al. 1993-94, ambos localizados en la puna meridional (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Argentina de las cuales ya se disponen designaciones taxonómicas obtenidas por análisis morfológico. Abstract Microscopic analysis of the morphology of animal fibers has been used in conjunction with other lines of evidence, providing useful taxonomic information to reconstruct scenarios that account for the strategies implemented by hunter-gatherers and producers, in view of the use of animal resources. Here, the advance made in the study of cortical cells is offered as a complement to results obtained from qualitative and quantitative variables such as thickness, medulla, fiber type and color. The information gained is used to evaluate the relevance in the search of interspecific indicators. The analysis was performed on samples corresponding to level 4 from Cueva Salamanca 1 (7500 ± 60 BP [Beta 178223] (Pintar 2004 and level 4 from Quebrada Seca 3 (Cal. 3684 to 4226 1s

  16. Animal Models in Burn Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  17. Detection of the anatomic structure and pathology in animal lung specimens: comparison of micro CT and multi-detector row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kun Young [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Chang Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    We wanted to compare the capability of micro CT and the clinically available thin-slice multi-detector row CT (MDCT) for demonstrating fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions in formalin-fixed lung specimens. The porcine lung with shark liver oil-induced lipoid pneumonia and the canine lung with pulmonary paragonimiasis were fixed by ventilating them with formalin vapor, and they were then sliced into one-centimeter thick sections. Micro CT (section thickness, 18 micrometer) and MDCT (section thickness, 0.75 mm) images were acquired in four of the lung slices of the lipoid pneumonia specimen and in five of the lung slices of the paragonimiasis specimen. On 62 pairs of micro CT and MDCT images, 169 pairs of rectangular ROIs were manually drawn in the corresponding locations. Two chest radiologists recorded the detectability of three kinds of anatomic structures (lobular core structure, interlobular septum and small bronchiolar lumen) and two kinds of pathological lesions (ground-glass opacity and consolidation) with using a five-point scale. The statistical comparison was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated with kappa statistics. For all observers, all the kinds of anatomic structures and pathological lesions were detected better on the micro CT images than on the MDCT images ({rho} < 0.01). Agreement was fair between two observers ({kappa} = 0.38, {rho} < 0.001). The fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions of the lung were more accurately demonstrated on micro CT than on thin-slice MDCT in the inflated and fixed lung specimens.

  18. Detection of the anatomic structure and pathology in animal lung specimens: comparison of micro CT and multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Chang Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to compare the capability of micro CT and the clinically available thin-slice multi-detector row CT (MDCT) for demonstrating fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions in formalin-fixed lung specimens. The porcine lung with shark liver oil-induced lipoid pneumonia and the canine lung with pulmonary paragonimiasis were fixed by ventilating them with formalin vapor, and they were then sliced into one-centimeter thick sections. Micro CT (section thickness, 18 micrometer) and MDCT (section thickness, 0.75 mm) images were acquired in four of the lung slices of the lipoid pneumonia specimen and in five of the lung slices of the paragonimiasis specimen. On 62 pairs of micro CT and MDCT images, 169 pairs of rectangular ROIs were manually drawn in the corresponding locations. Two chest radiologists recorded the detectability of three kinds of anatomic structures (lobular core structure, interlobular septum and small bronchiolar lumen) and two kinds of pathological lesions (ground-glass opacity and consolidation) with using a five-point scale. The statistical comparison was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated with kappa statistics. For all observers, all the kinds of anatomic structures and pathological lesions were detected better on the micro CT images than on the MDCT images (ρ < 0.01). Agreement was fair between two observers (κ = 0.38, ρ < 0.001). The fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions of the lung were more accurately demonstrated on micro CT than on thin-slice MDCT in the inflated and fixed lung specimens

  19. Noise exposure and oxidative balance in auditory and extra-auditory structures in adult and developing animals. Pharmacological approaches aimed to minimize its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S J; Miceli, M; Guelman, L R

    2016-07-01

    Noise coming from urban traffic, household appliances or discotheques might be as hazardous to the health of exposed people as occupational noise, because may likewise cause hearing loss, changes in hormonal, cardiovascular and immune systems and behavioral alterations. Besides, noise can affect sleep, work performance and productivity as well as communication skills. Moreover, exposure to noise can trigger an oxidative imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different structures, which can contribute to tissue damage. In this review we systematized the information from reports concerning noise effects on cell oxidative balance in different tissues, focusing on auditory and non-auditory structures. We paid specific attention to in vivo studies, including results obtained in adult and developing subjects. Finally, we discussed the pharmacological strategies tested by different authors aimed to minimize the damaging effects of noise on living beings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  1. Chemical and structural analysis of the bone-implant interface by TOF-SIMS, SEM, FIB and TEM: Experimental study in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmquist, Anders; Emanuelsson, Lena; Sjövall, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Although bone-anchored implants are widely used in reconstructive medicine, the mechanism of osseointegration is still not fully understood. Novel analytical tools are needed to further understand this process, where both the chemical and structural aspects of the bone-implant interface are important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of combining time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) with optical (LM), scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for studying the bone-implant interface of bone-anchored implants. Laser-modified titanium implants with surrounded bone retrieved after 8 weeks healing in rabbit were dehydrated and resin embedded. Three types of sample preparation were studied to evaluate the information gained by combining TOF-SIMS, SEM, FIB and TEM. The results show that imaging TOF-SIMS can provide detailed chemical information, which in combination with structural information from microscopy methods provide a more complete characterization of anatomical structures at the bone-implant interface. By investigating various sample preparation techniques, it is shown that grinded cross section samples can be used for chemical imaging using TOF-SIMS, if careful consideration of potential preparation artifacts is taken into account. TOF-SIMS analysis of FIB-prepared bone/implant cross section samples show distinct areas corresponding to bone tissue and implant with a sharp interface, although without chemical information about the organic components.

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  4. Occupational Animal Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M

    2018-02-16

    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  6. Animal Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt

  7. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  8. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yours Today » Give the Gift of Health to Animals This Holiday Season. Until December 31, your gift ... bizarre molecules. Learn More » A Tireless Advocate for Animals and Science. “If it has a heartbeat, I ...

  9. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  12. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  13. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  14. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  15. Concepts of animal welfare in relation to positions in animal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2011-06-01

    When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science.

  16. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  17. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  18. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  19. Draught animals and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  20. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  1. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  2. ANIMALS IN RESOCIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Czerw, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of relations between humans and animals have encouraged both scientists and members of other communities to popularize the knowledge in the field of animal-assisted therapy. Currently, animal-assisted therapy has been used not only in therapy, but also in resocialization. The increasing popularity of this form of supporting maladjusted people who are isolated from society or people with disabilities encouraged both practitioners and researchers to organize knowledge, thus reducin...

  3. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  4. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  5. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  6. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  7. Urban Animals and Us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    species. But instead of teaching animals like the parrot to mimic and understand people, the sound conducted by humans become translated into non-human message through the ‘BirdFlute’. 3) The experiment 'InterFed' explores power relationships through the device ‘PhotoTwin’ - that traps both animal...

  8. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  9. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  10. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  11. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  12. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  13. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  14. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  15. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  16. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  17. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual......-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  18. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead......, the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching....

  19. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  20. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways......'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...

  1. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  2. Structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  3. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo

    2011-12-01

    Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing.

  4. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo

    2011-12-01

    Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists\\' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible to estimate a reasonable drawing order from a static line drawing with clearly defined shape geometry, which looks plausible to a human viewer. We map the key principles of drawing order from drawing cognition to computational procedures in our framework. Our system produces plausible animated constructions of input line drawings, with no or little user intervention. We test our algorithm on a range of input sketches, with varying degree of complexity and structure, and evaluate the results via a user study. We also present applications to gesture drawing synthesis and drawing animation creation especially in the context of video scribing. © 2011 ACM.

  5. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  6. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  7. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  8. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of ... and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  12. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  14. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lawmakers, consumer representatives and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable ... English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food ...

  17. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  18. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  19. Nanotechnology and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 567-569

  20. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  1. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  2. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  3. [The metaphysical dimension of animal ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Utilitarian ethics recognises animals as moral objects, but it does not attribute an absolute value to human or non-human individuals. Animal ethics according to Regan defines the non-human individual as an inherent value, but concedes that humans should be given precedence over animals if a situation involves a decision between life and death. Such life and death decisions relate to the fundamental structures of biological nature. To individuals these fundamental structures (the paradox of life and death) will necessarily appear absurd. The metaphysical dimension of animal ethics tries to shed light on the connections between life and death, body and mind that underly ethical discussions and searches for alternatives to the natural organisation of life.

  4. Other Sources of Animal Protein in Ogun State, Nigeria | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate animal protein intake is widely orchestrated among Nigerians especially Ogun State indigenes. This led to investigating other sources of animal protein in the rural and suburban areas of the state that could bridge inadequate supply from the conventional sources of animal protein. Structured questionnaires ...

  5. Genomics of coloration in natural animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Jose, Luis M; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-07-05

    Animal coloration has traditionally been the target of genetic and evolutionary studies. However, until very recently, the study of the genetic basis of animal coloration has been mainly restricted to model species, whereas research on non-model species has been either neglected or mainly based on candidate approaches, and thereby limited by the knowledge obtained in model species. Recent high-throughput sequencing technologies allow us to overcome previous limitations, and open new avenues to study the genetic basis of animal coloration in a broader number of species and colour traits, and to address the general relevance of different genetic structures and their implications for the evolution of colour. In this review, we highlight aspects where genome-wide studies could be of major utility to fill in the gaps in our understanding of the biology and evolution of animal coloration. The new genomic approaches have been promptly adopted to study animal coloration although substantial work is still needed to consider a larger range of species and colour traits, such as those exhibiting continuous variation or based on reflective structures. We argue that a robust advancement in the study of animal coloration will also require large efforts to validate the functional role of the genes and variants discovered using genome-wide tools.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  7. Animal coloration research: why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-07-05

    While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Animal Autobiography; Or, Narration beyond the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In engaging with acts of self-narration that cross species lines, creators of animal autobiographies also broach questions about genre, truth status, and the structure as well as the politics of narrative representation. To address these questions, the present article draws not just on scholarship on (animal autobiography but also on ideas from the fields of linguistic semantics, politeness theory, and discourse analysis, including the “framing and footing” approach that focuses on talk emerging in contexts of face-to-face interaction and that derives most directly from the work of Erving Goffman. On the basis of this research, and using case studies that range from animal riddles to Ceridwen Dovey’s Only the Animals (2014, a collection of life stories posthumously narrated by a variety of nonhuman tellers, I profile autobiographical acts that reach beyond the human as ways of speaking for or in behalf of animal others. Some animal autobiographies correlate with acts of telling for which humans themselves remain the principals as well as authors; their animal animators remain relegated to the role of commenting on human institutions, values, practices, and artifacts. Other examples, however, can be read as co-authored acts of narrating in behalf of equally hybrid (or “humanimal” principals. These experiments with narration beyond the human afford solidarity-building projections of other creatures’ ways of being-in-the-world—projections that enable a reassessment, in turn, of forms of human being.

  9. Naturalness and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, James

    2018-04-05

    Naturalness is considered important for animals, and is one criterion for assessing how we care for them. However, it is a vague and ambiguous term, which needs definition and assessments suitable for scientific and ethical questions. This paper makes a start on that aim. This paper differentiates the term from other related concepts, such as species-typical behaviour and wellbeing. It identifies contingent ways in which naturalness might be used, as: (i) prompts for further welfare assessment; (ii) a plausible hypothesis for what safeguards wellbeing; (iii) a threshold for what is acceptable; (iv) constraints on what improvements are unacceptable; and (v) demarcating what is not morally wrong, because of a lack of human agency. It then suggests an approach to evaluating animals' behaviour that is quantitative, is based on reality, and which assesses naturalness by degrees. It proposes classing unaffected wild populations as natural by definition. Where animals might have been affected by humans, they should be compared to the closest population(s) of unaffected animals. This approach could allow us both to assess naturalness scientifically, and to make practical decisions about the behaviour of domestic animals.

  10. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  11. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  12. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  13. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  14. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  15. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  16. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  17. Animals exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.; Morlier, J.P.; Chameaud, J.; Bredon, P.

    1992-01-01

    'There is sufficient evidence that 222 Rn is a carcinogen in animals': this statement was important for the classification of radon as carcinogenic to man, outside of uranium mine atmospheres, clearly identified by epidemiology as causing lung cancer. Since recent reviews of animal experiments have been given by NCRP and by IARC, this review will be mainly limited to the recent results which came from two laboratories in the last 20 years. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), USA, and COGEMA Laboratoire de Pathologie Professionnelle (LPP) France. (author)

  18. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  19. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  20. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  1. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... key to prevent problems from a bite. CAUSES Animal Bites Millions of animal bites occur in the ...

  2. FERM proteins in animal morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepass, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    Proteins containing a FERM domain are ubiquitous components of the cytocortex of animal cells where they are engaged in structural, transport, and signaling functions. Recent years have seen a wealth of genetic studies in model organisms that explore FERM protein function in development and tissue organization. In addition, mutations in several FERM protein-encoding genes have been associated with human diseases. This review will provide a brief overview of the FERM domain structure and the FERM protein superfamily and then discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism of function and developmental requirement of several FERM proteins including Moesin, Myosin-VIIA, Myosin-XV, Coracle/Band4.1 as well as Yurt and its vertebrate homologs Mosaic Eyes and EPB41L5/YMO1/Limulus.

  3. Animal rights and animal experimentation. Implications for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Practicing physicians are just becoming aware of the animal rights movement, which during the 1980s spawned numerous acts of violence against research facilities throughout the United States. The animal rightists are challenging physicians to show moral justification for the human exploitation of nature and the world of subhuman species. They have aroused public interest in animal welfare, sparked protective legislation for experimental animals, and indirectly encouraged the creation of committees to oversee the conduct of animal experimentation and the conditions of animal confinement. This controversy has necessitated a closer look at the questions of animal experimentation and animal rights against the backdrop of human experimentation and human rights. Physicians and specialists in animal care seek to alleviate suffering and anxiety, and, as moderates, they may be able to bring both sides of the animal rights controversy together in a spirit of mutual tolerance and in the common cause of promoting both human and animal welfare. PMID:1949772

  4. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Lien; Michiels, Chris W

    2010-03-01

    Lysozymes (EC 3.2.1.17) are hydrolytic enzymes, characterized by their ability to cleave the beta-(1,4)-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been identified--the c-type (chicken or conventional type), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type) lysozyme. Examination of the phylogenetic distribution of these lysozymes reveals that c-type lysozymes are predominantly present in the phylum of the Chordata and in different classes of the Arthropoda. Moreover, g-type lysozymes (or at least their corresponding genes) are found in members of the Chordata, as well as in some bivalve mollusks belonging to the invertebrates. In general, the latter animals are known to produce i-type lysozymes. Although the homology in primary structure for representatives of these three lysozyme types is limited, their three-dimensional structures show striking similarities. Nevertheless, some variation exists in their catalytic mechanisms and the genomic organization of their genes. Regarding their biological role, the widely recognized function of lysozymes is their contribution to antibacterial defence but, additionally, some lysozymes (belonging to different types) are known to function as digestive enzymes.

  5. Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) is a comprehensive resource for scientists performing animal-based research to gain a better understanding of cancer,...

  6. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  7. Killing animals for recreation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Hunters in the Western world today do not need to hunt to obtain food and other animal products. So why do they hunt? This paper examines the motives of hunters, the motives ascribed to hunters by members of the general public, and the role motives play for the moral acceptability of hunting among...

  8. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  9. Georeferencing Animal Specimen Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, M.G.J.; Hensel, R.; Ceolin, D.; van der Meij, M.

    2014-01-01

    For biodiversity research, the field of study that is concerned with the richness of species of our planet, it is of the utmost importance that the location of an animal specimen find is known with high precision. Due to specimens often having been collected over the course of many years, their

  10. ANIMAL MODELS IN SURGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSEMBLED BY

    experiment also requires a project license. Finally, ... driving, overloading, torture, terrifying or cause or process or permit any animal to be so treated, Cause or permit .... all in an attempt to eliminate or reduce to a minimum discomfort and pain ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search ... & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  12. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  13. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An animated virtual drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragtwijk, M.; Giagourta, V.; Nijholt, Antinus; Strintzis, M.G.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes.

  15. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a

  16. Hope for Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Hope for Animals. Prasanna Venkhatesh V. Book Review Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 753-754. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/08/0753-0754. Author Affiliations.

  17. Cancer Statistics Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool allows users to animate cancer trends over time by cancer site and cause of death, race, and sex. Provides access to incidence, mortality, and survival. Select the type of statistic, variables, format, and then extract the statistics in a delimited format for further analyses.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ...

  19. Mapping farm animal genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (1998), s. 386 ISSN 0044-4847. [Genetics Day-International conference on animal genetics /18./. 08.09.1998-10.09.1998, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. ANIMAL MODELS FOR IMMUNOTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater susceptibility to infection is a hallmark of compromised immune function in humans and animals, and is often considered the benchmark against which the predictive value of immune function tests are compared. This focus of this paper is resistance to infection with the pa...

  1. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a

  2. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  3. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  4. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  5. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  6. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  7. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  8. Instant Silverlight 5 animation

    CERN Document Server

    Polyak, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations. If you are a developer looking forward to create great user experience for your Silverlight applications with cool animations or create Silverlight banner ads, then this is the guide for you. It is assumed that the readers have some previous exposure to Silverlight or WPF.

  9. Animal Models of Hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Denise E.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Herzog, Roland W.; Monahan, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia is caused by mutations in coagulation factor VIII (hemophilia A) or factor IX (hemophilia B). Unless prophylactic treatment is provided, patients with severe disease (less than 1% clotting activity) typically experience frequent spontaneous bleeds. Current treatment is largely based on intravenous infusion of recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrate. More effective factor products are being developed. Moreover, gene therapies for sustained correction of hemophilia are showing much promise in pre-clinical studies and in clinical trials. These advances in molecular medicine heavily depend on availability of well-characterized small and large animal models of hemophilia, primarily hemophilia mice and dogs. Experiments in these animals represent important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at development of better and safer treatments for hemophilia, such a protein and gene therapies or immune tolerance protocols. While murine models are excellent for studies of large groups of animals using genetically defined strains, canine models are important for testing scale-up and for longer-term follow-up as well as for studies that require larger blood volumes. PMID:22137432

  10. [The diversity of animal ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, J B Jeangène

    2013-01-01

    Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests".

  11. Cultural Image of Animal Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海燕

    2017-01-01

    This paper,after introducing the definition and forms of cultural image,focuses on the detailed comparison and analysis of cultural image of animal words both in English and in Chinese from four aspects,that is,same animal word,same cultural image;same animal word,different cultural images;different animal words,same cultural image;different animal words,different cultural images.

  12. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  13. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-09-09

    Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  16. Bringing macromolecular machinery to life using 3D animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Janet H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a rapid rise in the use of three-dimensional (3D) animation to depict molecular and cellular processes. Much of the growth in molecular animation has been in the educational arena, but increasingly, 3D animation software is finding its way into research laboratories. In this review, I will discuss a number of ways in which 3d animation software can play a valuable role in visualizing and communicating macromolecular structures and dynamics. I will also consider the challenges of using animation tools within the research sphere. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  18. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  19. Animating climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaPonte, John S.; Sadowski, Thomas; Thomas, Paul

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a collaborative project conducted by the Computer Science Department at Southern Connecticut State University and NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Science (GISS). Animations of output from a climate simulation math model used at GISS to predict rainfall and circulation have been produced for West Africa from June to September 2002. These early results have assisted scientists at GISS in evaluating the accuracy of the RM3 climate model when compared to similar results obtained from satellite imagery. The results presented below will be refined to better meet the needs of GISS scientists and will be expanded to cover other geographic regions for a variety of time frames.

  20. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  1. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  2. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  4. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Dennis

    Animals Alive! is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which, whenever possible, live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. By careful selection and modification of the chapter questions, activities, and…

  5. All about Animal Adaptations. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Animals change to better adapt to their environment. Over long periods of time, nature helps the animals adapt by changing their body shape and color as well as adjusting their methods of getting and eating food, defending themselves, and caring for their young. In this videotape, students learn what changes different animals go through in order…

  6. Greetings from the Animal Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a classification activity that uses holiday greeting cards. Identification of animals, their characteristics, natural habitat, eating patterns, and geography are some of the suggested ways in which to classify the animals. (KR)

  7. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dell, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    ...; and reports on specific issues of humane care and use of laboratory animals. ILAR's mission is to help improve the availability, quality, care, and humane and scientifically valid use of laboratory animals...

  8. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  9. Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    examine only self-powered animal locomotion. ... At different phases of their life cycle both animals and plants are highly mobile but their ... wind driven transport (Figure C). ..... fins which serve the function of rudimentary limbs, particularly.

  10. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  11. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  12. Development of FAME Animation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Shirai, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Hideto; Itakura, Hirofumi; Tahata, Yasunori

    1999-02-01

    In order to monitor an animation of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium calculated by the FAME-II (Fast Analyzer for Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium-II) system, a FAME Animation System was developed. This system provides automatically the animation on workstations connected to network with the same period of JT-60U discharge sequence. Then, the system can supply the important information for JT-60U operators to determine control parameters of the succeeding discharge. This report describes the overview of the FAME Animation System. (author)

  13. Professor: The Animal Planet Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Satish Gajawada

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to everyone who is interested in making this planet a better place to live. In the past, researchers have explored behavior of several animals separately. But there is scope to explore in the direction where various artificial animals together solve the optimization problem. In this paper, Satish Gajawada proposed The AnimalPlanet Optimization. The concept of this paper is to imitate all the animals on this planet. The idea is to solve the optimization problem where al...

  14. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  15. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. 2013 FRAME.

  16. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    An outline review is presented of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research. Techniques covered are the qualitative localization of a radioisotope (static and dynamic measurements, detection procedures involving locating concentration sites of labelled toxins, parasites, abnormal blood cells, etc.), quantitative measurement of isotopes (absorption and excretion, transfer across membranes) comparator studies (determination of mass, volume or flow), isotope dilution and related studies (in vivo and in vitro applications, determination of total body red cell or plasma volume), dynamic systems (single compartmental systems such as rumen studies and the suckling lamb or calf, multiple exits from a compartment and multiple doses), stable isotopes and mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the use of internal irradiation (sterile male technique, control of insects and parasites, production of attenuated vaccines etc.). (U.K.)

  17. Animals & Livestock | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Animals & Livestock NEWT: National Extension fisher occupancy of small, 1 km^2^ grid cells of forest habitat. Animals and Livestock html Data from consisting of IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Animals and Livestock html

  18. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  19. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  20. Progress on dedicated animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography, as the leading technology providing molecular imaging of biological processes, is widely used on living laboratory animals. High-resolution dedicated animal PET scanners have been developed. Although the dedicated animal PET faces obstacles and challenges, this advanced technology would play an important role in molecular biomedicine researches, such as diseases study, medicine development, and gene therapy

  1. Marketing animal-friendly products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  2. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  3. Communication in Animal Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Lysanne; Naguib, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Animal social networks and animal communication networks are key disciplines for understanding animal social behavior, yet these disciplines remain poorly integrated. In this review, we show how communication and social networks are inherently linked, with social signals reflecting and affecting

  4. [Mycoses in domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M E; Blanco, J L

    2000-03-01

    In the present paper we will present a general view of the main mycoses affecting domestic animals. In the dog, we show the importance of the dermatophytoses, increased by its zoonosic character and the problem of the false negatives in the traditional microbiological culture. Under the general term of systemic mycoses we include a series of conditions considered usually as aspergillosis, bat with more and more fungal species implicated as possible etiological agents. In addition, fungi, especially yeasts, are being implicated in canine otitis; in our laboratory 86 % of canine chronic otitis involve a yeast etiology, alone or in collaboration with bacteria. In the cat, dermatophytes are more common than in the dog, and are the main source of infection in man, with the description of a high percentage of healthy carrier animals. Cryptococcosis is a severe disease, usually secondary to other process, especially feline immunodeficiency. In cows we refer to fungal abortion, with three main fungi implicated: Aspergillus, Candida and Zygomycetes. In some areas of our country the percentage of fungal abortion is around 10 %. A consequence of the multiple use of antibiotics in mastitis is selection of yeasts, especially those included in the genera Candida and Cryptococcus. Bovine dermatophytoses is an extensively disseminated disease in our country, with a commercial specific vaccine available. In small ruminants, Cryptococcus causes severe pneumonic processes that could be confused clinically with other conditions. An additional important question is the description of isolation of this fungus from tree leaves. In poultry, aspergillosis is a known and controlled disease, but with more importance in captive wild birds with an ecological value. In horses, we emphasize the lung infections by different fungi, specially Pneumocystis carinii, and arthritis by yeasts as consequence of wound contamination or surgery.

  5. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES... Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the requirements provided in part 108 of this...

  6. Why not look at animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Pick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisiting John Berger’s seminal essay ‘Why Look at Animals?’ (1980, this essay inverts Berger’s title in order to explore instances where the visibility of animals is at stake and where seeing is linked to forms of surveillance and control. In the context of advanced optical and tracking technologies that render animals permanently visible, the possibility of not-seeing emerges as a progressive modality of relation to animals that takes seriously the notion of animal privacy and the exposed animal’s resistance to the human gaze.

  7. Phylogenomic Insights into Animal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Budd, Graham E; Philippe, Hervé

    2015-10-05

    Animals make up only a small fraction of the eukaryotic tree of life, yet, from our vantage point as members of the animal kingdom, the evolution of the bewildering diversity of animal forms is endlessly fascinating. In the century following the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, hypotheses regarding the evolution of the major branches of the animal kingdom - their relationships to each other and the evolution of their body plans - was based on a consideration of the morphological and developmental characteristics of the different animal groups. This morphology-based approach had many successes but important aspects of the evolutionary tree remained disputed. In the past three decades, molecular data, most obviously primary sequences of DNA and proteins, have provided an estimate of animal phylogeny largely independent of the morphological evolution we would ultimately like to understand. The molecular tree that has evolved over the past three decades has drastically altered our view of animal phylogeny and many aspects of the tree are no longer contentious. The focus of molecular studies on relationships between animal groups means, however, that the discipline has become somewhat divorced from the underlying biology and from the morphological characteristics whose evolution we aim to understand. Here, we consider what we currently know of animal phylogeny; what aspects we are still uncertain about and what our improved understanding of animal phylogeny can tell us about the evolution of the great diversity of animal life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  9. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  10. ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN A GRAIN HUNGRY WORLD - or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ted plant matter. animal products are not essen- tial in human ... the energy of plant matter is lost in converting it to animal .... to electricity or by harnessing wind and wave power. nu- ..... nomy. will also adapt to the changing cost structure by.

  11. Selective attention, working memory, and animal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, Louis D; Kolata, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the storage and processing capabilities of the human working memory system co-vary with individuals' performance on a wide range of cognitive tasks. The ubiquitous nature of this relationship suggests that variations in these processes may underlie individual differences in intelligence. Here we briefly review relevant data which supports this view. Furthermore, we emphasize an emerging literature describing a trait in genetically heterogeneous mice that is quantitatively and qualitatively analogous to general intelligence (g) in humans. As in humans, this animal analog of g co-varies with individual differences in both storage and processing components of the working memory system. Absent some of the complications associated with work with human subjects (e.g., phonological processing), this work with laboratory animals has provided an opportunity to assess otherwise intractable hypotheses. For instance, it has been possible in animals to manipulate individual aspects of the working memory system (e.g., selective attention), and to observe causal relationships between these variables and the expression of general cognitive abilities. This work with laboratory animals has coincided with human imaging studies (briefly reviewed here) which suggest that common brain structures (e.g., prefrontal cortex) mediate the efficacy of selective attention and the performance of individuals on intelligence test batteries. In total, this evidence suggests an evolutionary conservation of the processes that co-vary with and/or regulate "intelligence" and provides a framework for promoting these abilities in both young and old animals.

  12. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  13. Three dimensional animated images of anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Muro, Isao; Komiya, Taizo; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Mitomi, Toshio; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structures is a most important factor in obtaining a desirable result after anorectoplasty for a patient with anorectal malformation. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate preoperative evaluation, three dimensional animated images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon tomographic images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Axial 1-mm thick images of the pelvic portion were generated with spoiling pulse gradient echo sequences using short repetition times (13 msec TR) and short echo times (6 msec TE) with a flip angle of 25 degrees with the patient in the jack-knife position. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station and processed on it. The skin surface, the ano-rectum, the lower urinary tract and the sphincter musculature were segmented by thresholding images by the signal intensity. Three dimensional images were displayed by surface rendering method using the segmented data of each organ and then animation images of these organs were obtained. The anatomy of each type of anomaly was easily recognized by 3-D visualization, and animation of the pelvic viscera and the sphincter musculature made the images more realistic. Animated images of the musculature were especially useful for simulating surgical procedures and could be helpful for reviewing surgical results. (author)

  14. Animal Models of Diverticulosis: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh; Guo, Xiaomei; Noblet, Jillian; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2018-06-01

    Diverticulosis is a structural alteration of the colon tissue characterized by the development of pouch-like structures called diverticula. It afflicts a significant portion of the population in Western countries, with a higher prevalence among the elderly. Diverticulosis is believed to be the result of a synergetic interaction between inherent tissue weakness, diet, colonic microstructure, motility, and genetic factors. A validated etiology has, however, not yet been established. Non-surgical treatment is currently lacking due to this poor understanding, and surgical colon resection is the only long-term solution following recurrent complications. With rising prevalence, the burden of diverticulosis on patients and hospital resources has increased over the past several years. More efficient and less invasive treatment approaches are, thus, urgently needed. Animal models of diverticulosis are crucial to enable a preclinical assessment and evaluation of such novel approaches. This review discusses the animal models of diverticulosis that have been proposed to date. The current models require either a significant amount of time to develop diverticulosis, present a relatively low success rate, or seriously deteriorate the animals' systemic health. Recommendations are thus provided to address these pitfalls through the selection of a suitable animal and the combination of multiple risk factors for diverticulosis.

  15. Multiciliated Cells in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Alice; Azimzadeh, Juliette

    2016-12-01

    Many animal cells assemble single cilia involved in motile and/or sensory functions. In contrast, multiciliated cells (MCCs) assemble up to 300 motile cilia that beat in a coordinate fashion to generate a directional fluid flow. In the human airways, the brain, and the oviduct, MCCs allow mucus clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and egg transportation, respectively. Impairment of MCC function leads to chronic respiratory infections and increased risks of hydrocephalus and female infertility. MCC differentiation during development or repair involves the activation of a regulatory cascade triggered by the inhibition of Notch activity in MCC progenitors. The downstream events include the simultaneous assembly of a large number of basal bodies (BBs)-from which cilia are nucleated-in the cytoplasm of the differentiating MCCs, their migration and docking at the plasma membrane associated to an important remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and the assembly and polarization of motile cilia. The direction of ciliary beating is coordinated both within cells and at the tissue level by a combination of planar polarity cues affecting BB position and hydrodynamic forces that are both generated and sensed by the cilia. Herein, we review the mechanisms controlling the specification and differentiation of MCCs and BB assembly and organization at the apical surface, as well as ciliary assembly and coordination in MCCs. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    reproduced by biological or non-biological “alternative” methods. The term “alternative” has come to be used by some to refer to a replacement of the use of living animals by other procedures, as well as methods which lead to a reduction in the numbers of animals required or to the refinement of experimental procedures.The experimental procedures that are considered to be “alternatives” include biological and non-biological methods. The biological methods include the use of micro-organisms, in vitropreparations (subcellular fractions, short-term cellular systems, whole organ perfusion, and cell and organ culture and under some circumstances, invertebrates and vertebrate embryos. The non-biological methods include mathematical modeling of structure-activity relationships based on the physico-chemical properties of drugs and other chemicals, and computer modeling of other biological processes. In addition to experimental procedures, retrospective and prospective epidemiological investigations on human and animal populations represent other approaches of major importance.There no need specialy underline that the adoption of “alternative” approaches is viewed as being complementary to the use of intact animals and their development and use should be actively encouraged for both scientific and humane reasons.

  17. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.

  18. Animal Social Network Theory Can Help Wildlife Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Lysanne; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Stanley, Christina R.; Franks, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    Many animals preferentially associate with certain other individuals. This social structuring can influence how populations respond to changes to their environment, thus making network analysis a promising technique for understanding, predicting, and potentially manipulating population dynamics.

  19. Weird Animals, Sex, and Genome Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2018-02-15

    Making my career in Australia exposed me to the tyranny of distance, but it gave me opportunities to study our unique native fauna. Distantly related animal species present genetic variation that we can use to explore the most fundamental biological structures and processes. I have compared chromosomes and genomes of kangaroos and platypus, tiger snakes and emus, devils (Tasmanian) and dragons (lizards). I particularly love the challenges posed by sex chromosomes, which, apart from determining sex, provide stunning examples of epigenetic control and break all the evolutionary rules that we currently understand. Here I describe some of those amazing animals and the insights on genome structure, function, and evolution they have afforded us. I also describe my sometimes-random walk in science and the factors and people who influenced my direction. Being a woman in science is still not easy, and I hope others will find encouragement and empathy in my story.

  20. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.4...

  1. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Complete records shall be kept for all animals at a licensed establishment. Results of tests performed... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...

  2. Genomic Tools and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Ricardo

    2016-09-07

    Animals have been selected to improve their productivity in order to increase the profitability to the producer. In this scenario, not much attention was given to health traits. As a consequence of that, selection was made for animals with higher production and a shortened productive life. In addition to that, the intense production system used in livestock has forced animals to be exposed to higher pathogen loads, therefore predisposing them to infections. Infectious diseases are known to be caused by micro-organisms that are able to infect and colonize the host, affecting their physiological functions and causing problems in their production and on animal welfare. Even with the best management practices, diseases are still the most important cause of economic losses in the animal industry. In this review article we have addressed the new tools that could be used to select animals to better cope with diseases and pathogens.

  3. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  4. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  5. Why Animal Agriculture is Unsustainable

    OpenAIRE

    Heppner, Janae

    2017-01-01

    Animal agriculture causes many unsustainable, destructive problems to individuals, the environment, and the economy. The amount of destruction that animal agriculture does to the planet, to environments and to species is devastating as animal agriculture is the root problem for the worlds increasing temperatures, species extinction, deforestation, and water quality. These issues should come to light when the University of California, Merced talks about its 2020 Project; however, these problem...

  6. Graph Algorithm Animation with Grrr

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    2000-01-01

    We discuss geometric positioning, highlighting of visited nodes and user defined highlighting that form the algorithm animation facilities in the Grrr graph rewriting programming language. The main purpose of animation was initially for the debugging and profiling of Grrr code, but recently it has been extended for the purpose of teaching algorithms to undergraduate students. The animation is restricted to graph based algorithms such as graph drawing, list manipulation or more traditional gra...

  7. Sixty years of animal biometeorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, John B.; Lees, Angela M.; Sejian, Veerasamy

    2017-10-01

    Animal biometeorology (insects excluded) has been part of the International Journal of Biometeorology since its inception in 1958. Over the first 60 years of the journal, 480 animal biometeorology papers were published. Thus, approximately 14% of published papers dealt with animals. Over the first 60 years, data from more than 50 animal species was presented, with the lead authors coming from 48 countries. The two most common species used in animal papers between 1957 and 2016 were cattle (109 papers: 22.7% of all animal papers) and rats (96 papers: 20.0% of all animal papers). Although cattle and rats dominated, the species in the most cited paper (240 citations) was chickens, followed by bird migration (155 citations), and general livestock (118 citations). Overall, five papers exceeded 100 citations, and a further two exceeded 200 citations. In the last decade, 126 animal papers were published (26% of all animal papers). Many of these papers had a focus on livestock production in developing countries especially Brazil.

  8. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...... of support is comparable to those held by the general public found in national surveys. A clear majority of researchers were positive towards animal testing, and large statistical differences between patients and researchers were found regarding their attitudes towards testing animals commonly held as pets...... (Pattitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical...

  9. Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

  10. [Ethical issue in animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, André-Laurent

    2009-11-01

    In the 1970s, under pressure from certain sections of society and thanks to initiatives by several scientific research teams, committees charged with improving the conditions of laboratory animals started to be created, first in the United States and subsequently in Europe. This led to the development of an ethical approach to animal experimentation, taking into account new scientific advances. In addition to the legislation designed to provide a legal framework for animal experimentation and to avoid abuses, this ethical approach, based on the concept that animals are sentient beings, encourages greater respect of laboratory animals and the implementation of measures designed to reduce their suffering. Now, all animal experiments must first receive ethical approval--from in-house committees in the private sector and from regional committees for public institutions. Very recently, under the impetus of the French ministries of research and agriculture, the National committee for ethical animal experimentation published a national ethical charter on animal experimentation, setting the basis for responsible use of animals for scientific research and providing guidelines for the composition and functioning of ethics committees. Inspired by the scientific community itself this ethical standardization should help to assuage--but not eliminate--the reticence and hostility expressed by several sections of society.

  11. Social Constraints on Animate Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  12. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Dennis

    This guide is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. This book addresses such concerns of life science teachers as the environmental soundness of methods and…

  13. Emotional Support Animals, Service Animals, and Pets on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Bergen, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, universities have been accommodating physically disabled students who require guide dogs and other types of service animals. Within the past several years, however, mentally disabled students have increasingly petitioned colleges with no-pet policies to permit them to bring their animals on campus because they need a companion or…

  14. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  15. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated...... the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...... MSSA belonging to fourteen spa types, including three novel spa types. MLST revealed the occurrence of seven STs. The study of the ecology of commensal S. aureus in captive wild animals revealed that ST133 has a broader host range than previously thought....

  16. ERIC/RCS Report: Animals in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Holly

    1980-01-01

    Notes children's continuing interest in animal stories, examines some characteristics of animal stories as discussed in ERIC documents, and suggests booklists that include listings of animal stories. (ET)

  17. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Wilson, Rory P; Rees, W Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Vosper, Simon B

    2013-09-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of "energy landscapes," which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well documented in some fields (notably, the selection of tailwinds by aerial migrants) and scales (typically large), the principles of the energy landscape extend across habitat types and spatial scales. We provide a brief synthesis of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven changes in the cost of transport can modulate the behavioral ecology of animal movement in different media, develop example cost functions for movement in heterogeneous environments, present methods for visualizing these energy landscapes, and derive specific predictions of expected outcomes from individual- to population- and species-level processes. Animals modulate a suite of movement parameters (e.g., route, speed, timing of movement, and tortuosity) in relation to the energy landscape, with the nature of their response being related to the energy savings available. Overall, variation in movement costs influences the quality of habitat patches and causes nonrandom movement of individuals between them. This can provide spatial and/or temporal structure to a range of population- and species-level processes, ultimately including gene flow. Advances in animal-attached technology and geographic information systems are opening up new avenues for measuring and mapping energy landscapes that are likely to provide new insight into their influence in animal ecology.

  18. Polycystic ovarian disease: animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, D K

    1988-12-01

    The reproductive systems of human beings and other vertebrates are grossly similar. In the ovary particularly, the biochemical and physiologic processes are identical not only in the formation of germ cells, the development of primordial follicles and their subsequent growth to Graafian follicles, and eventual ovulation but also in anatomic structure. In a noncarcinogenic human ovary, hypersecretion of androgen causes PCOD. Such hypersecretion may result from a nonpulsatile, constant elevated level of circulating LH or a disturbance in the action of neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus. In studying the pathophysiology of PCOD in humans, one must be aware of the limitations for manipulating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Although the rat is a polytocous rodent, the female has a regular ovarian cyclicity of 4 or 5 days, with distinct proestrus, estrus, and diestrus phases. Inasmuch as PCOD can be experimentally produced in the rat, that species is a good model for studying the pathophysiology of human PCOD. These PCOD models and their validity have been described: (1) estradiol-valerate, (2) DHA, (3) constant-light (LL), and (4) neonatally androgenized. Among these, the LL model is noninvasive and seems superior to the others for study of the pathophysiology of PCOD. The production of the polycystic ovarian condition in the rat by the injection of estrogens or androgens in neonate animals, or estradiol or DHA in adult rats, or the administration of antigonadotropins to these animals all cause a sudden appearance of the persistent estrus state by disturbing the metabolic and physiologic processes, whereas exposure of the adult rat to LL causes polycystic ovaries gradually, similar to what is seen in human idiopathic PCOD. After about 50 days of LL, the rat becomes anovulatory and the ovaries contain thickened tunica albuginea and many atretic follicles, and the tertiary follicles are considerably distended and cystic. The granulosa and theca cells appear normal

  19. What's Wrong with "Animal Rights"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1992-01-01

    School leaders must withstand the pressures of the animal rights movement to disrupt the science curriculum. It would be tragic if this movement succeeded in turning a large number of students against the legitimate use of animals and, ultimately, against biomedical research. (MLF)

  20. Initial Reading through Computer Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrion, Leo D.; Bergeron, R. Daniel

    The Computer Animated Reading Instruction System (CARIS) was developed to introduce reading to children with varied sensory, cognitive, and physical handicaps. CARIS employs an exploratory learning approach which encourages children to experiment with the reading and writing of words and sentences. Brief computer-animated cartoons provide the…

  1. Nutrient requirements of laboratory animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Laboratory Animal Nutrition; Committee on Animal Nutrition; Board on Agriculture, National Research Council; Institute for Laboratory Animal Research; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1995-01-01

    ... Animal Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995 i Copyrightline as original; publication to the this true are version of breaks print Page files. the use Please typesetting inserted. original accidentally from been not have book, may paper errors the original typog...

  2. Radioactivity transfer to animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Information on the behaviour of strontium, caesium, ruthenium, plutonium and americium in a range of domestic animals is reviewed to form a basis for the specification of time-dependent mathematical models describing uptake, distribution and retention in various domestic animals. Transfer factors relating concentration in animal product to daily radioactivity intake are derived after 100 d continuous intake and at equilibrium. These transfer factors are compared with the available published literature and used as a basis for the derivation of feedingstuff conversion factors relating limiting concentrations in animal feedingstuffs to limiting concentrations in human foodstuffs for application to animals receiving commercial feedingstuffs after a nuclear accident. Recommended transfer factors for animal products in conditions of continuous discharge and models for application to field conditions after a nuclear accident are also presented. Transfer of caesium to animal products is more effective than that for the other elements considered here. Transfer to meat of lamb, fattening pig, and chickens is generally more effective than that for other animals and other products

  3. Animal Production Research Advances: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where this is not possible, authors should submit two copies of original article not yet published anywhere and accompanied with a 3.5” diskette containing the article labeled appropriately in MS Word version to: Editor–in–Chief, Animal Production Research Advances Tropical Animal Health and Production Research Lab

  4. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  5. Animal ethics based on friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fröding, B.; Peterson, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses some aspects of animal ethics from an Aristotelian virtue ethics point of view. Because the notion of friendship (philia) is central to Aristotle's ethical theory, the focus of the article is whether humans and animals can be friends. It is argued that new empirical findings

  6. Animals in Atomic Research (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciuti, Edward R. [Bronx Zoo

    1969-01-01

    This booklet explains what use animals are to science and why they are important to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses. It contains examples of the roles animals of many kinds play in the development of nuclear science for the well-being of mankind.

  7. Rare Animal Education Usingaugmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Artdias

    2018-01-01

    They are extinction because destruction of forest habitats, a conflict between humans and animals, trade, hunting, the arrests beyond capacity. [1]. Is that the issue of the extinction of the animals is dominated by human behavior and nature of the wrath of them. For that, education game “Rare Animal” become formulations to raise awareness of endangered species.

  8. Categorization: The View from Animal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnson, Jennifer M; Valleau, Jeanette C; Church, Barbara A

    2016-06-15

    Exemplar, prototype, and rule theory have organized much of the enormous literature on categorization. From this theoretical foundation have arisen the two primary debates in the literature-the prototype-exemplar debate and the single system-multiple systems debate. We review these theories and debates. Then, we examine the contribution that animal-cognition studies have made to them. Animals have been crucial behavioral ambassadors to the literature on categorization. They reveal the roots of human categorization, the basic assumptions of vertebrates entering category tasks, the surprising weakness of exemplar memory as a category-learning strategy. They show that a unitary exemplar theory of categorization is insufficient to explain human and animal categorization. They show that a multiple-systems theoretical account-encompassing exemplars, prototypes, and rules-will be required for a complete explanation. They show the value of a fitness perspective in understanding categorization, and the value of giving categorization an evolutionary depth and phylogenetic breadth. They raise important questions about the internal similarity structure of natural kinds and categories. They demonstrate strong continuities with humans in categorization, but discontinuities, too. Categorization's great debates are resolving themselves, and to these resolutions animals have made crucial contributions.

  9. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  10. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...... of the areas where synergy between classic model organism proteomics and farm animal proteomics is rapidly emerging. Focus will be on introducing the special biological traits that play an important role in food production, and on how proteomics may help optimize farm animal production...

  11. Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

  12. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  13. Radiation stability of animate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, G.N.; Spirin, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The main principles of radiation safety for animate nature including provisions for biological species protection and main requirement for animate nature radiation protection, which is the guarantee of any ecosystem integrity, are discussed. Ecosystem should be taken as the objective unit for animate nature radiation protection. The maximum dose of biot irradiation may amount to 0.5 Gy/year, which is 20-fold lower than the main dose limit for animate nature and 40-fold lower than ecological dose limits for conifers as the weakest radiostable member in ecosystem, at environment radioactive contamination determined by radiation safety standards. The radiation protection of animate nature is guaranteed at such levels of environment radioactive contamination

  14. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  15. Animal computer interaction (ACI) & designing for animal interaction (AXD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann Judith; Turner, Jane; Farley, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This workshop invites researchers and practitioners from HCI and related fields who work in some capacity with animals and who recognise the sentient nature of their being. We call for those who want to better understand how to work with animals and learn from them. We are a small team looking...... to build an Australian chapter of the Animal Computer Interaction Community. The workshop will elicit discussion, forge new partnerships and head up a new group on the state of the art within this field in Australia, including comparative international studies. For more information see http://www.ozaci.org/...

  16. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  17. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  18. Refining animal experiments: the first Brazilian regulation on animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A e Tréz, Thales

    2010-06-01

    The very first law on animal experimentation has been approved recently in Brazil, and now is part of a set of the legal instruments that profile the Brazilian government's attitude toward the use of animals in experiments. Law 11794/08 establishes a new legal instrument that will guide new methods of conduct for ethics committees, researchers and representatives of animal protection societies. This comment aims to analyse critically the implications that this law brings to Brazilian reality. The link between it and the Russell and Burch's Three Rs concept is defined, and certain problems are identified. The conclusion is that the body of the law emphasises the refinement of animal experiments, but gives little importance to the principles of reduction and replacement.

  19. The economics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T J; Jackson, E L

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines four examples of animal welfare issues, demonstrating the interactions between welfare and economic principles. Welfare issues associated with purebred companion animals are examined in terms of predicted inherited diseases, highlighting the power of supply and demand in perpetuating traits in pets that compromise their well-being. The livestock industry is presented from the point of view of pig production and the impact that a major disease (pleurisy) has on production and the animals' welfare. The authors investigate the conflicting and complementary demands of animal welfare and economic gains during the transport and slaughter of livestock and poultry. Finally, wildlife species are considered in terms of their prevalence as pests, and the different types of economic analysis that have been conducted to understand the losses caused by these organisms. Also included in this example are decisions made about cost effectiveness and opportunity costs, and regulatory and financial barriers to the development of humane control agents. In conclusion, animal welfare is illustrated as a central factor in the benefits that humans enjoy from the role played by animals in society. There are, however, tradeoffs between optimal animal welfare and meeting the needs of modern human society.

  20. Organic Animal Production and Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Çetinkaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic animal production; is a form of production without using any chemical inputs from production to consumption. In organic livestock production; organic breeding, feedstuff and animal nutrition conditions are stated in the Regulation on the Principles and Implementation of Organic Agriculture. Organic animal products must be prevented from recontamination. There are three different contamination hazards; biological (mold-toxins and pathogenic micro-organisms, chemical (pesticide residues, and physical (broken metal or glass, etc.. Molding and mycotoxin formation in organic feeds is one of the most important problems since they adversly affect animal health and toxines pass through the products. Since any chemical method cannot be applied to the organic feedstuffs especially in the struggle with mycotoxin in organic animal production, this should be considered in the measures to be taken and in the systems to be applied and the system should be planned to include organic agriculture. Countries that have established HACCP and ISO 22000 food safety management systems are able to avoid the problem of mycotoxin pollution in organic animal foods. The establishment of the feed safety system based on HACCP principles and its application in production have been made compulsory by Feed Hygiene Regulation issued in Turkey since 2011. In this review, the relationship between organic animal production and mycotoxin, and the precautions to be taken are discussed.

  1. The Biblical Word of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Wajda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous references to animals in the Bible show that biblical authors had a broad knowledge of nature. According to the current classification of living organisms and method of research used by modern zoology, it is stated that these observations do not have the characteristics of scientific research. In spite of this, they are the evidence of the clear-sighted observation of animals, which is reflected not only in the knowledge of the appearance of individual species, but also of specific behaviours related to their way of life. It concerns not only domestic animals, raised for the purpose of gaining meat, fur, hide and labour, but also wild representatives of the fauna. Bible references concerning the latter apply to the species perceived as highly dangerous to man and domestic animals, i.e.: lions, wolves, bears, leopards or snakes. Amongst the Bible animals one can distinguish these which aroused admiration because of their appearance, such as gazelle, deer, ibex or dove. At the same time, it is essential to emphasise the fact that this rich animal world is just a vivid background of the biblical story of Salvation and a tool used to translate God’s address into human language. For this reason, the knowledge of animal symbolism in the Sacred Scripture makes more accurate understanding of the pericopes possible.

  2. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  3. Gaps in US Animal Welfare Law for Laboratory Animals: Perspectives From an Animal Law Attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Pamela D

    2016-05-01

    The use of animals in biomedical, toxicological, and basic research has been common practice, and a tool for scientists and researchers, for many years. And yet, serious conflict continues to exist between those who believe that the use of animals in research will yield scientific results that benefit humans and those who believe such practices are unethical regardless of use or outcome. High-profile undercover cases have further raised public awareness and have put the entire industry under pressure to be transparent, accountable, and aggressive in its adoption of reduction, refinement, and replacement (3R) principles. Many animal law attorneys are deeply frustrated by what they see as weak US laws that are unevenly enforced, especially when compared with legal advances in other countries and regions. This article (1) explores those gaps in US animal welfare laws with an emphasis on the Animal Welfare Act, (2) argues in favor of stronger laws and rigorous enforcement, and (3) suggests steps to advance these goals. These steps include (1) expanding the definition of "animal" in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), (2) improving and expanding minimum care requirements in USDA regulations, (3) instituting mandatory reporting requirements, improving Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, and allowing easier accessibility to laboratory reports and plans, (4) adding a citizen suit provision to the AWA, and (5) continuing education about the emotional and social capacities of animals and a stronger commitment to 3R principles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Surgical management of animal bites in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of animal welfare needs in Soweto : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic phase of an interactive research evaluation model was used in the investigation of the animal welfare needs of a low-income urban community in South Africa. Data were gathered by means of a structured interview and direct observations by animal welfare officers. During the survey of 871 animal owners in Soweto, it was found that dogs were owned by 778 households and cats by 88 households. The dog to human ratio was estimated at 1:12.4. Respondents were asked whether they enjoyed owning animals and 96.1 % said that they did. Only 26.3 % mentioned that they had problems with their own animals and 16.6 % had problems with other people's animals. Treatment of sick animals (29.7 % was seen as a priority. However, less than 1 % (n = 6 used the services of private veterinarians. Others took their animals to welfare organisations or did not have them treated. Perceptions of affordable costs of veterinary treatments were also recorded. In addition to treatment, respondents indicated a need for vaccination (22.5 %, sterilisation (16.5 %, control of internal (3.7 % and external (8.8 % parasites, education and extension (6.6 %, prevention of cruelty to animals (3.2 % and expansion of veterinary clinics to other parts of Soweto (1.3 %.

  6. Research on improving animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to improve animal nutrition, studies have been carried out on the utilization of animal feeds using radioisotopes. Improvement of the nutritive value of straws, digestibility and VFA production by alkali treatment and other treatments has been studied by injecting VFA labelled with C 14 and H 3 . Microbial protein synthesis rates in ruminants were studied using C 14 and S 35 labelled mixed culture of bacterial protozca. Results obtained are helpful in understanding the metabolism in rumens and the microbial proteins available to the host animals on various dietary regimen. (A.K.)

  7. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  8. Computer animation algorithms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Parent, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition establ

  9. [Atopic dermatitis and domestic animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M

    2000-09-01

    Several arguments are raised attributing to aeroallergens an important role in atopic dermatitis. The aeroallergens that penetrate the epidermis could be fixed by IgE on the Langerhans cells and then induce a cellular mediator reaction comparable to that of allergic contact eczema. Patch tests have been developed to evaluate the role of aeroallergens (dust mites, animal dander, etc.). Preventive anti-dust mites measures in the home of atopic patients are recommended. Eviction of domestic animals (cat, dog, etc.) or avoidance measures for animal dander in the home can produce improvement in atopic dermatitis. Oral specific immunotherapy is being validated as a treatment for this disease.

  10. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  11. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  12. WE-EF-BRA-12: Magnetic Resonance- Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Localized Ablation of Head and Neck Tissue Structures: A Feasibility Study in An Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partanen, A; Ellens, N; Noureldine, S; Tufano, R; Burdette, E; Farahani, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is feasible in the head and neck [1]. This study aims to expand upon these findings to assess the feasibility of treatment planning and monitoring via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance using a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform. Methods: Two 31 kg pigs were anaesthetized, shaved, and positioned prone on the HIFU table (Sonalleve, Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland). The necks were acoustically coupled to the integrated transducer using gel pads and degassed water. MR imaging verified acoustic coupling and facilitated target selection in the thyroid and thymus. Targets were thermally ablated with 130–200 W of acoustic power over a period of 16 s at a frequency of 1.2 MHz while being monitored through real-time, multi-planar MR-thermometry. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging was used to assess treatment efficacy. Post-treatment, animals were euthanized and sonicated tissues were harvested for histology assessment. Results: MR-thermometry, post-contrast-imaging, and gross pathology demonstrated that the system was capable of causing localized thermal ablation in both the thyroid and the thymus without damaging the aerodigestive tract. In one animal, superficial bruising was observed in the ultrasound beam path. Otherwise, there were no adverse events. Analysis of the tissue histology found regions of damage consistent with acute thermal injury at the targeted locations. Conclusion: It is feasible to use a clinical MR-guided HIFU platform for extracorporeal ablation of porcine head and neck tissues. MR guidance and thermometry are sufficient to target and monitor treatment in the thyroid region, despite the presence of the inhomogeneous aerodigestive tract. Further study is necessary to assess efficacy and survival using a tumor model, and to examine what modifications should be made to the transducer positioning system and associated patient positioning aids to adapt it for clinical head and neck targets

  13. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohani Usha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  14. Algab animafilmide festival "Animated dreams"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nukufilmi stuudio ja animafilmide festival "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) korraldavad Nukufilmi 50. juubeli tähistamiseks 22.-24. novembrini rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Voodoo hing". Filmiprogrammist tutvustavalt

  15. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been ... reveals that c-type lysozymes are predominantly present in the phylum of the Chordata and in different classes of the Arthropoda. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  16. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review articles should cover new development in a field of livestock production. ... of earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos) cultured in different animal dung media ... of commercial layer feeds and their impact on performance and egg quality ...

  17. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  18. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  19. What Causes Animals to Disperse?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research involving animal behaviour and ecology for a very long time. ... shall examine two different types of dispersals that occur, try to understand the ... finally look at some practical methods through which the phe- ..... further qualitative or.

  20. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  1. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  2. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Simulation Exercises Info list & RSS National Disease Contingency Plans WAHIS-Wild Interface World Animal Health Official ... FOOD SAFETY ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE View more themes The OIE in brief PRESS ROOM ...

  3. An animal model for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1988-03-01

    Subjective tinnitus remains obscure, widespread, and without apparent cure. In the absence of a suitable animal model, past investigations took place in humans, resulting in studies that were understandably restricted by the nature of human investigation. Within this context, the development of a valid animal model would be considered a major breakthrough in this field of investigation. Our results showed changes in the spontaneous activity of single neurons in the inferior colliculus, consistent with abnormally increased neuronal activity within the auditory pathways after manipulations known to produce tinnitus in man. A procedure based on a Pavlovian conditioned suppression paradigm was recently developed that allows us to measure tinnitus behaviorally in conscious animals. Accordingly, an animal model of tinnitus is proposed that permits tests of hypotheses relating to tinnitus generation, allowing the accommodation of interventional strategies for the treatment of this widespread auditory disorder.

  4. Insights into Animal and Plant Lectins with Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  5. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  6. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    special issues: Special Issues on Animal Models in Biomedical Research1 °, New Ra Models of Obesity and Type II Diabetes ", and Pain in Animals and...country of Central and South America, as well as to the Caribbean, and Mexico and published notices in newsletters. Young scientists from Mexico, Peru , and... diabetes ) Kom MowaKi Ph.D, Department of Cell Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, 25 S . . .. ,2

  7. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  8. Utilization of Animals in Psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    SEMECKÁ, Margita

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of animals in the therapy of neurotic disorders under the settings of mental hospitals. First part of this work desribes neurotic disorders and their therapy with a particular emphasis on AAT (Anima-Assisted-Therapy, pet therapy) and its subdivisions (hippotherapy, canistherapy, etc.) Principals of AAT are explained. Further, contraindications and possible risks are mentioned and the inherent possibility of animal misuse is discussed. The theses in...

  9. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  10. The Reincarnation of Animated Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šošková Eva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its entire history, Slovak animated film has had the form of figurative narrative art or craft. For this reason, the author of this study examines its post-1989 development through the prism of the body. Since the most visible change that has affected contemporary film aesthetics is the feminization of animated film in terms of authorship, the study primarily focuses on the ability of an animated body to represent gender and gender roles. It attempts to capture the most significant changes in the depiction of the body in authorial animated film before and after 1989, in more detail record the post-revolution changes in the body, and relate this to the changes in the institutional background of animated film. Animated bodies have developed from “ordinary people” from a dominant male point of view in socio-critical socialist production through female characters in interaction with clearly distinguished male characters in the films of female authors from the Academy of Performing Arts, the crisis of stereotypical masculinity in the production of male authors to independent women looking for their own identity inside themselves, without relating themselves to their male counterparts.

  11. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  12. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  13. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  14. Nuclear techniques in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear technology plays an integral part in research to improve the health and productivity of animals. The use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in animal agriculture is briefly reviewed. The radioimmunoassay techniques give the opportunity of measuring and following precisely hormonal patterns in animals over the reproductive cycle. Simply by analysing a sample of blood, milk, or other body fluid, minute hormone concentrations can be assayed and the reproductive status of the animal assessed. The radioimmunoassay procedure uses antigens which are isotopically labelled, usually with 125 I, and antibodies specifically developed for each hormone. The onset of sexual maturity, of oestrus, or the influence of environmental, nutritional or other factors on the reproductive state of an animal can be studied. An example of the use of the radioimmunoassay technique is illustrated in the coordinated research program of the IAEA which focuses on improving domestic buffalo production. Nuclear techniques, particularly the use of stable and radioactive tracers are providing important insights into the functioning of the digestive system of ruminants, its qualitative dynamics and metabolism. For assessing the products of the rumen, particularly volatile fatty acids which become an energy source, and microbial proteins which become a protein source for the animal, materials labelled with 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 15 N and 32 P are used. As an illustrative example, the results of one study of nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein and rumen bypass protein synthesis in cattle are shown

  15. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of High-Resolution Animal Networks: What Can We Learn from Domestic Animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    Full Text Available Animal social network is the key to understand many ecological and epidemiological processes. We used real-time location system (RTLS to accurately track cattle position, analyze their proximity networks, and tested the hypothesis of temporal stationarity and spatial homogeneity in these networks during different daily time periods and in different areas of the pen. The network structure was analyzed using global network characteristics (network density, subgroup clustering (modularity, triadic property (transitivity, and dyadic interactions (correlation coefficient from a quadratic assignment procedure at hourly level. We demonstrated substantial spatial-temporal heterogeneity in these networks and potential link between indirect animal-environment contact and direct animal-animal contact. But such heterogeneity diminished if data were collected at lower spatial (aggregated at entire pen level or temporal (aggregated at daily level resolution. The network structure (described by the characteristics such as density, modularity, transitivity, etc. also changed substantially at different time and locations. There were certain time (feeding and location (hay that the proximity network structures were more consistent based on the dyadic interaction analysis. These results reveal new insights for animal network structure and spatial-temporal dynamics, provide more accurate descriptions of animal social networks, and allow more accurate modeling of multiple (both direct and indirect disease transmission pathways.

  16. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronesi Paola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy. Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities.

  17. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  18. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  19. THE GRAMMAR OF DISNEY LONG ANIMATIONS: A STRUCTURALIST READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyrna Santosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating several animated films as texts, the analysis of this particular genre of entertainment is using structuralist narratology, which is applied to establish a general grammar of Disney long animations by revealing the underlying rules governing the tilm narratives. Discussing the typical characters and actions, the construction of "function", and the significant actions which shape the story, this study reveals the six actant/roles based on the prescribed characterization, three basic patterns of how each actant is related to one another, and the twelve sets of basic arrangement of functions as the single basic structure of all Disney long animations. This study proves how loyal and consistent the creators of Disney long animations are toward the underlying basic structure of the story.

  20. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...] Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY... available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for the National Animal Health Laboratory... biological threats to the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

  1. A framework for investigating animal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Paula; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of consciousness in nonverbal animals requires a framework for research that extends testing methods beyond subjective report. This chapter proposes a working definition of consciousness in terms of temporal representation that provides the critical link between internal phenomenology and external behavior and neural structure. Our claim is that consciousness represents the present moment as distinct from the past and the future in order to flexibly respond to stimuli. We discuss behavioral and neural evidence that indicates the capacity for both flexible response and temporal representation, and we illustrate these capacities in fish, a taxonomic group that challenges human intuitions about consciousness.

  2. THE ROMANIAN EXTERNAL TRADE IN LIVE ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MiĠuko VLAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of foreign trade, in Romania there were some major changes over the past 20 years. In this paper we have focused on the Romanian external trade. The products which have been taken into account were live animals and animal products. Thus, we have made an analyse on the Romanian imports and exports at the global level and at the European level. Focused on the animal products, on the global level, there were registered major differences during the first seven years in the analysed period. Breaking by branches, we have pointed out huge distinctions between imports and exports, where the balance of trade was completely negative. Meanwhile, to have a good view on the international trade there were made links, based on some indexes between imports, exports, GDP and investments.

  3. TRIBO DE CONSUMO DE ANIMES: O ANIME COMO UM TOTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Alves Catão; Claudia Rosa Acevedo; Eduardo Correa de Godoy

    2017-01-01

    O presente estudo é uma análise etnográfica das tribos de animes, com o objetivo de desvendar os valores, as práticas de consumo, a organização, o comportamento e a cultura da tribo. Utilizamos registros de vídeo, fotos e anotações de campo para coletar as informações da pesquisa de observação participante. Concluímos que os animes influenciam os estilos visuais, hábitos e padrões de consumo dos integrantes. O anime é o centro da atenção dos jovens. É uma espécie de “totem” da tribo de consum...

  4. Enfermedad, lenguaje y vida animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martínez García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo planteamos una aproximación crítica a la «cuestión animal» desde la perspectiva de la enfermedad. El problema de la «animalidad», en efecto, y de su relación con lo humano, constituye un problema clave en las experiencias modernas de «lo patológico». Es frecuente, ciertamente, que en un contexto de enfermedad grave o ante un proceso patológico agudo se produzca un efecto de acercamiento o de asimilación entre el sujeto enfermo y el animal. En la mayoría de los casos, dicha animalización está íntimamente relacionada con el discurso y la práctica médica. Sin embargo, creemos que «lo animal» está irrumpiendo también de otro modo en nuestras experiencias de enfermedad. Para entender esta irrupción, creemos que es adecuado volver a recurrir a la idea del «devenir animal» de Deleuze. Con esta herramienta, nos enfrentamos a un corpus de textos literarios recientes en los se aprecia un «devenir animal» del enfermo que contesta a los procesos de animalización ligados a la clínica. El «devenir animal» del enfermo se materializa específicamente, en estos casos, en relación con un particular «devenir animal de la lengua».

  5. JUNGIAN GENDER IN ANIMAL ANIMATION FROM ANTHROPOMORPHISM PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustin Sartika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bear is usually depicted as a strong, brawny and blood-curdling animal. On the contrary, Pooh Bear is the fun-loving and caring main character while Masha Bear can handle all house works. Their characteristics can be related to Jungian gender theory which states that man is bisexual having both feminine and masculine sides. A focus on anima animus is established through qualitative research analysis of bear characters' actions and the characters around within the plots of Winnie-the-Pooh and Masha and the Bear. Masha and the Bear is adapted from the real story in Russia. The use of anthropomorphic storytelling in those animations can bridge the conceptual and moral gulf which separate human from animal. By using anthropomorphism perspective, this research is aimed to find the feminine and masculine stereotype of Pooh and Bear characters. Anthropomorphism is divided into the animation of physical and psychological qualities. The result shows that small bright yellow body on a short red t-shirt makes Pooh look more lovable. Another woman stereotype is portrayed from the name given, Winnie, and his most favorite honey. Masha Bear‘s physical qualities are quite identical to a real bear. Beyond his strong and brawny body, he is a spick-and-span bear. He is a merciful bear who becomes a caregiver for Masha, the parentless girl. Anthropomorphism creates great empathy in humans. This empathy can be combined with a simplified narrative to provoke genuine feeling from audiences. It draws attention to feminine and masculine stereotype of human to identify in animal animation.

  6. Animal models of papillomavirus pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, M Saveria

    2002-11-01

    Tumorigenesis due to papillomavirus (PV) infection was first demonstrated in rabbits and cattle early last century. Despite the evidence obtained in animals, the role of viruses in human cancer was dismissed as irrelevant. It took a paradigm shift in the late 1970s for some viruses to be recognised as 'tumour viruses' in humans, and in 1995, more than 60 years after Rous's first demonstration of CRPV oncogenicity, WHO officially declared that 'HPV-16 and HPV-18 are carcinogenic to humans'. Experimental studies with animal PVs have been a determining factor in this decision. Animal PVs have been studied both as agents of disease in animals and as models of human PV infection. In addition to the study of PV infection in whole animals, in vitro studies with animal PV proteins have contributed greatly to the understanding of the mechanisms of cell transformation. Animal PVs cause distressing diseases in both farm and companion animals, such as teat papillomatosis in cattle, equine sarcoids and canine oral papillomatosis and there is an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of these problematic infections. Persistent and florid teat papillomatosis in cows can lead to mastitis, prevent the suckling of calves and make milking impossible; heavily affected animals are culled and so occasionally are whole herds. Equine sarcoids are often recurrent and untreatable and lead to loss of valuable animals. Canine oral papillomatosis can be very extensive and persistent and lead to great distress. Thus the continuing research in the biology of animal PVs is amply justified. BPVs and CRPV have been for many years the model systems with which to study the biology of HPV. Induction of papillomas and their neoplastic progression has been experimentally demonstrated and reproduced in cattle and rabbits, and virus-cofactor interactions have been elucidated in these systems. With the advancements in molecular and cell culture techniques, the direct study of HPV has become less

  7. Large Mammalian Animal Models of Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Camacho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biological complexity of the cardiovascular system, the animal model is an urgent pre-clinical need to advance our knowledge of cardiovascular disease and to explore new drugs to repair the damaged heart. Ideally, a model system should be inexpensive, easily manipulated, reproducible, a biological representative of human disease, and ethically sound. Although a larger animal model is more expensive and difficult to manipulate, its genetic, structural, functional, and even disease similarities to humans make it an ideal model to first consider. This review presents the commonly-used large animals—dog, sheep, pig, and non-human primates—while the less-used other large animals—cows, horses—are excluded. The review attempts to introduce unique points for each species regarding its biological property, degrees of susceptibility to develop certain types of heart diseases, and methodology of induced conditions. For example, dogs barely develop myocardial infarction, while dilated cardiomyopathy is developed quite often. Based on the similarities of each species to the human, the model selection may first consider non-human primates—pig, sheep, then dog—but it also depends on other factors, for example, purposes, funding, ethics, and policy. We hope this review can serve as a basic outline of large animal models for cardiovascular researchers and clinicians.

  8. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Animal models for auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  10. Mainstreaming animal-assisted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Lori S; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Niemi, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    The term animal-assisted therapy (AAT) commonly refers to the presentation of an animal to one or more persons for the purpose of providing a beneficial impact on human health or well-being. AAT is an ideal example of "One Health" because of numerous studies and widespread testimonials indicating that many humans feel better in the presence of pets and other domesticated animals, and, conversely, that some of those creatures appear to respond positively to human company for their emotional and perhaps physical betterment. Many AAT studies have claimed a wide range of human health benefits, but much of the research is characterized by small-scale interventions among disparate fields, resulting in criticisms about weak study design or inconsistent methodology. Such criticisms contrast with the strongly held belief among many that interaction with friendly animals has a strong and innate value for the persons involved. Consequently the appeal of AAT in human medicine today may be generally characterized as a "push" by enthusiastic advocates rather than a "pull" by prescribing physicians. To fully integrate AAT into conventional medical practice as an accepted therapeutic modality, more convincing intervention studies are necessary to confirm its clinical merits, along with an understanding of the underlying mechanism of the human response to the company of friendly animals.

  11. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    绿波

    2011-01-01

    The pig is wronged Long, long ago, the pig often helped people with their work. There was a family which had a pig and a dog. The master told the pig and the dog to tilt land (耕地) . The pig dug the land with its snout (猪嘴), but the dog lay on the ground sleeping.

  12. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... a source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown......, are important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  13. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  14. Animal data on plutonium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Animal data are necessary in the assessment of plutonium toxicity since it is unlikely that the necessary information on effects from humans will be obtained. Experiments on animals must be designed to provide understanding of the mechanisms at work if the results are to be applied to man since it is a statistical impossibility to design experiments to measure directly the low levels of risk that are of concern. Cancer induction appears to be the risk of greatest concern with the lung and bone apparently the most susceptible organs, depending upon the method of administration. Current limitations on these organs do not appear to have the safety margin formerly believed and there are some uncertainties in the extrapolation from animal data to man. (author)

  15. Biocentric ethics and animal prosperity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchustegui, A T

    2005-01-01

    Singer's utilitarian and Regan's deontological views must be rejected because: (1) they rely on criteria for moral standing that can only be known a priori and (2) if these criteria were successful, they'd be too restrictive. I hold that while mental properties may be sufficient for moral standing, they are not necessary. (3) Their criteria of moral standing do not unambiguously abrogate needless harm to animals. I defend a theory of biocentric individualism that upholds the principle of species egalitarianism while at the same time recognizing that in certain cases, human needs must outweigh the needs of non-humans. On this view, moral consideration is not conferred only on beings that have human-life mental properties. Finally, it offers an unambiguous recommendation for the abolition of harmful animal experimentation, factory farming, and killing animals for sport.

  16. Data base on animal mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A data base on animal mortality has been compiled. The literature on LD 50 and the dose-response function for radiation-induced lethality, reflect several inconsistencies - primarily due to dose assignments and to analytical methods and/or mathematical models used. Thus, in order to make the individual experiments which were included in the data base as consistent as possible, an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment group was made so that the interspecies differences are minimized. The LD 50 was recalculated using a single estimation procedure for all studies for which sufficient experimental data are available. For small animals such as mice, the dose to the hematopoietic system is approximately equal to the treatment dose, but for large animals the marrow dose may be about half of the treatment dose

  17. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  18. Rejecting empathy for animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Ethicists have become increasingly skeptical about the importance of empathy in producing moral concern for others. One of the main claims made by empathy skeptics is a psychological thesis: empathy is not the primary psychological process responsible for producing moral concern. Some of the best...... evidence that could confirm or disconfirm this thesis comes from research on empathizing with animals. However, this evidence has not been discussed in any of the prominent critiques of empathy. In this paper, I investigate six different empirical claims commonly made about empathy toward animals. I find...... all six claims to be problematic, though some are more plausible than others, and argue that empathy is indeed not psychologically central to producing moral concern for animals. I also review evidence indicating that other moral emotions, particularly anger, are more strongly engaged with producing...

  19. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  20. Priority issues in tropical animal health management | Etuk | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of livestock to sustain family and local economies have been acknowledged worldwide. However, the major constraints to the attainment of this potential especially in the tropics have been the incidence of disease and sundry ill health. Thus the development of an effective animal health management strategy ...

  1. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  2. 11th Animation Film Festival Animated Dreams : Animatheque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali alafestivali Animated Dreams lühitutvustus. Festival toimub 18. - 22. nov. 2009 Tallinnas. Alates 2008. aastast teeb festival koostööd Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Animatsiooni osakonnaga ja kord kuus toimuvad KUMU Auditooriumis animafilmide linastused programmis Animatheque

  3. Animal cloning: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D N

    2005-04-01

    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  4. Animal rights and environmental terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Cooke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many paradigmatic forms of animal rights and environmental activism have been classed as terrorism both in popular discourse and in law. This paper argues that the labelling of many violent forms of direct action carried out in the name of animal rights or environmentalism as ‘terrorism’ is incorrect. Furthermore, the claim is also made that even those acts which are correctly termed as terrorism are not necessarily wrongful acts. The result of this analysis is to call into question the terms of public debate and the legitimacy of anti-terrorism laws targeting and punishing radical activism.

  5. Android 30 Animations Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Written in Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book takes a step-by-step approach with each chapter made up of three to five tutorials that introduce and explain different animation concepts. All concepts are explained with real-world examples that are fun to read and work with. If you are familiar with developing Android applications and want to bring your apps to life by adding smashing animations, then this book is for you. The book assumes that you are comfortable with Java development and have familiarity with creating Android Views in XML and Java. The tutorials assume that you will wa

  6. New technologies and animal improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The simplification of genetic selection to the pragmatic choice of an appropriate base population, together with the adoption of such techniques as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer to accelerate the rate of response within the chosen population, would increase the contribution of genetic methods to the improvement of the performance of domestic animals. This is particularly relevant to developing countries where limited funds may constrain the opportunities for husbandry improvement, where it is important to select animals under the local conditions and where the infrastructure might limit the use of extensive programmes such as those based on progeny testing. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  7. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included

  8. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Newsletter announces meetings and training programs in animal husbandry and animal health related activities undertaken by the IAEA. Short communications on coordinated research programs in animal production and health are included.

  9. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  10. Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 2 - Safety & Security Chapter 2 - Environmental Hazards Animal-Associated Hazards Heather Bair-Brake, Ryan M. Wallace, G. Gale Galland, Nina Marano HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ANIMALS: A RISK FACTOR FOR INJURY AND ILLNESS Animals, ...

  11. Positive animal welfare states and encouraging environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Affective neuroscience, incorporating neurophysiology and neuropsychology, is providing increasing evidence that certain behaviours of animals may be interpreted in terms of what they are intending to achieve, i.e. their goals. It is also providing evidence that allows inferences to be made about the affective contents of some goal-directed behaviours. These neuroscience-supported inferences are aligned with recommendations based on prior behaviour-based investigations of animals' preferences, aversions and priorities, and these observations together support the cautious use of particular behaviours to infer what the accompanying affects may be. In this review, therefore, some attention is given to negative affects and their relationships to poor animal welfare, but the primary focus is the positive affects animals may experience when they successfully engage in rewarding goal-directed behaviours, encapsulated in the concept of positive affective engagement. The review draws together reports of environment-focused and animal-to-animal interactive behaviours observed in a range of species and under diverse circumstances in order to illustrate the likely widespread occurrence of the positive affects that may accompany them. Particular consideration is given to affects that are potentially associated with some aspects of exploration and food acquisition in stimulus rich or impoverished environments, and to those that may be associated with aspects of the affiliative interactions of bonding or bond affirmation, maternal care, play and sexual activity. It is concluded that animals given the opportunity to engage in such activities may experience some positive affects. However, the intensity of an animal's experience of particular positive affects is likely to range from zero to very high because the associated behaviours occur intermittently, variation may occur during different phases of a goal-directed behaviour, and other positive or negative affects experienced at

  12. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  13. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  14. The ethics of international animal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyzes international animal law, understood broadly as any international legal regulation pertaining to animals. The purpose of the thesis is to explain the moral implications of this branch of international law: how the law perceives the animal and how it believes animals ought to be treated. It attempts to do so by contrasting the law with moral philosophy pertaining to the status and treatment of animals as well as the core characteristics of the branch of animal law found in...

  15. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  16. Director, Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIAMS Laboratory Animal Care and Use Section (LACU) provides support to all NIAMS Intramural Research Program (IRP) Branches and Laboratories using animals. The...

  17. Animations in medical education: You can do it!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvikar Purushottam Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations are the best suited to convey and create an impact of an idea or concept in media business. Animations are sequential frames of pictures shown across this fourth dimension, namely "time." Cartoons are the best examples of animations; needless to say, animations grab the attentions of every one. Animations can also be effectively used in medical education especially in teaching human embryology. It communicates of a concept of three-dimensional structures against one more dimension, namely time. However, to create a module of animation, knowledge, and operative skills of animation software like Flash® , Author ware® , Macromedia® or other high-ended software is necessary. Aim: To design simple, user-friendly and easy to make an effective animation using one of the office tools of Windows® , Power Point® . Materials and Methods: A personal computer with following configuration was used. Pentium III processor with 1.3 Gz speed, 40 GB HDD, 128 MB RAM, with multimedia kit, key pad, and scroll mouse was used. Programs used were Power Point® and MS Paint® . A screen play of sequences of diagrams was written. Frames consisting of diagrams of stages of development were drawn in MS Paint® , and were pasted in PowerPoint slides and animation tool was applied. Previewing was done at every stage. Results: Stages of development of storyboard have been shown as print screen images, 1-6. Conclusion: Emphasis is that such simple animations can be easily made. It is cheap and does not require any sophisticated software. However, it is time consuming but can be taken up as phased assignments or can be given as undergraduate student projects. This will certainly help to build teaching material in the department.

  18. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilis O Nams

    Full Text Available Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1 find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2 generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight. When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  19. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  20. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  1. Animal Rights Activism Threatens Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the movement against the use of dissections in science laboratories. Examples of protests across the United States are included. Compared is the plight of using animals in a biology classroom and the demise of the teaching of evolution in some areas. (KR)

  2. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, D.I.; Bray, R.A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B.B.; Scholz, T.; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pojmanska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, A.; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, F.; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E.T.; de Jong, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  3. Tropical Animal Tour Packet. Metro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro Washington Park Zoo, Portland, OR. Educational Services Div.

    This packet is designed to assist teachers in creating a tropical animals lesson plan that centers around a visit to the zoo. A teacher packet is divided into eight parts: (1) goals and objectives; (2) what to expect at the zoo; (3) student activities (preparatory activities, on-site activities, and follow-up activities); (4) background…

  4. Animal Research International: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Animal Research International: Advanced Search ... containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ... Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of Chemical Education ...

  5. Comment: Between Human and Animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den H.

    2017-01-01

    As in the other parts of the book, in this part culturally entrenched boundaries and demarcations are also critically re-examined in light of the arrival of the Anthropocene as a new geological era. Here the focus is on rethinking the received distinction between humans and non-human animals. In a

  6. Animal Research International: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal Research International is an online Journal inaugurated in University of Nigeria to meet the growing need for an indigenous and authoritative organ for the dissemination of the results of scientific research into the fauna of Africa and the world at large. Concise contributions on investigations on ...

  7. Animal lifespan and human influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

    2002-01-01

    Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

  8. Micro RNAs in animal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plasterk, R.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22 nucleotide single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules that bind to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and silence their expression. This Essay explores the importance of miRNAs in animal development and their possible roles in disease and evolution.

  9. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  10. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  11. Refresher Course on Animal Behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Referesher Course on Animal Behaviour. Information and Announcements Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 103-103. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/07/0103-0103 ...

  12. Natural selection and animal personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemanse, NJ; Reale, D

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress has been made on the study of personality in animals, both from a mechanistic and a functional perspective. While we start knowing more about the proximal mechanisms responsible for the consistent differences in behaviour between individuals in a population, little is known yet about

  13. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  14. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

  15. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Helieh S.; Puleo, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis) in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed. PMID:21331345

  16. Radiography atlas of domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P.; Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE) [de

  17. Nietzsche y el olvido animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemm, Vanessa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a reading of Nietzsche’s second Untimely Consideration and the second essay of his On the Genealogy of Morals that reevaluates the importance of animal forgetfulness in Nietzsche’s conception of history and politics. On my account the insight in the value of animal forgetfulness allows Nietzsche to redefine memory as an artistic force, and historiography as an art of interpretation. This article relates this insight to the relation between politics and the promise in the second essay of On the Genealogy of Morals, arguing that here the rediscovery of the value of animal forgetfulness allows Nietzsche to redefine politics as a realm in which the animality of the human being can take on a creative and productive role exemplified by the promise of the sovereign individual instead of being considered as an object of domination.Este ensayo presenta una lectura de la segunda Consideración intempestiva y del segundo ensayo de La genealogía de la moral que revaloriza la importancia del olvido animal en la concepción de la historia y de la política propuesta por Nietzsche. En mi interpretación, el reconocimiento del valor del olvido animal permite a Nietzsche redefinir la memoria como una fuerza artística y la historiografía como un arte de la interpretación. Este artículo conecta esta intuición con la relación entre política y promesa establecida por Nietzsche en el segundo ensayo de La genealogía de la moral, argumentando que el descubrimiento del valor del olvido animal permite a Nietzsche redefinir la esfera de la política como una esfera en la cual la animalidad del ser humano pude tomar un rol creativo y productivo ejemplificado por la promesa del individual soberano en vez de ser considerado como un objeto de dominación y explotación.

  18. Animal model of thermal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bečić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of burns require the use of different animal models with the aim to imitate and reproduce pathophysiological conditions. The aim of this work was to establish experimental model of thermal injury.New Zealand rabbits, weighted from 1.8 kg to 2.3 kg, were utilised during our study. Another, also utilized, animal types were laboratory Rattus rats, species Wistar, albino type, females with body weight of about 232 g. All animals were from our own litter (Institute of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine in Sarajevo. During the experiment, animal were properly situated in adequate cages and rooms, at the controlled temperature (22 ± 2°C, and in the air with normal humidity level. All animals took food and water ad libitum.Rabbits received anesthesia - intravenous pentobarbital sodium in a dose of 60 mg/kg, and then, hair from the upper side of the each rabbit ear was removed and burns were caused by a metal seal in the same manner as in rats. Rats were primarily anesthesied by intraperitoneal pentobarbital sodium in a dose of 35 mg/kg, and then, their hair was removed from the scapula zone (5 cm x 5 cm. Burns were caused by contact with a round metal seal, heated at 80°C in a water bath, during the period of 14 seconds together with contact thermometer control. Round metal seal (radius: 2.5 cm; weight: 100 g; surface: 5 cm2 was just placed on the rat skin without any additional pressure. In order to maintain the microcirculation in the burn wound and to reduce the conversion of partial-thickness skin burns to the burns of the full-thickness skin, all burn wounds were immediately sunk in the 4°C water. Subsequent to that procedure, all animals were individually situated in the proper cages, and left to rest for 4 hours with a constant cautious monitoring of the wound development and animal general state.

  19. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  20. Associations between different motivations for animal cruelty, methods of animal cruelty, and facets of impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Associations between specific motivations for animal cruelty, particular methods of animal cruelty and different facets of impulsivity were explored among 130 undergraduate students. Participants completed an adapted version of the Boat Inventory on Animal-Related Experiences (BIARE) which asked participants to state whether they had intentionally harmed or killed an animal, the species of animal(s) involved, their motivations for harming or killing the animal(s) and the method(s) used. Parti...

  1. Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlat, Sarah J; Nielsen, Claus; Economou, Andrew D; Telford, Maximilian J

    2008-10-01

    The new animal phylogeny inferred from ribosomal genes some years ago has prompted a number of radical rearrangements of the traditional, morphology based metazoan tree. The two main bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia and Protostomia, find strong support, but the protostomes consist of two sister groups, Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, not seen in morphology based trees. Although widely accepted, not all recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have supported the tripartite structure of the new animal phylogeny. Furthermore, even if the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) based phylogeny is correct, there is a frustrating lack of resolution of relationships between the phyla that make up the three clades of this tree. To address this issue, we have assembled a dataset including a large number of aligned sequence positions as well as a broad sampling of metazoan phyla. Our dataset consists of sequence data from ribosomal and mitochondrial genes combined with new data from protein coding genes (5139 amino acid and 3524 nucleotide positions in total) from 37 representative taxa sampled across the Metazoa. Our data show strong support for the basic structure of the new animal phylogeny as well as for the Mandibulata including Myriapoda. We also provide some resolution within the Lophotrochozoa, where we confirm support for a monophyletic clade of Echiura, Sipuncula and Annelida and surprising evidence of a close relationship between Brachiopoda and Nemertea.

  2. Using web-based animations to teach histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, Marc A S; Chin, Susan S-L; Melnyk, Erica; Begg, David A

    2002-02-15

    We have been experimenting with the use of animations to teach histology as part of an interactive multimedia program we are developing to replace the traditional lecture/laboratory-based histology course in our medical and dental curricula. This program, called HistoQuest, uses animations to illustrate basic histologic principles, explain dynamic processes, integrate histologic structure with physiological function, and assist students in forming mental models with which to organize and integrate new information into their learning. With this article, we first briefly discuss the theory of mental modeling, principles of visual presentation, and how mental modeling and visual presentation can be integrated to create effective animations. We then discuss the major Web-based animation technologies that are currently available and their suitability for different visual styles and navigational structures. Finally, we describe the process we use to produce animations for our program. The approach described in this study can be used by other developers to create animations for delivery over the Internet for the teaching of histology.

  3. Monitoring residue in animals and primary products of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of control and systematic monitoring of residue is to secure, by the examination of a corresponding number of samples, the efficient monitoring of the residue level in tissues and organs of animals, as well as in primary products of animal origin. This creates possibilities for the timely taking of measures toward the securing of food hygiene of animal origin and the protection of public health. Residue can be a consequence of the inadequate use of medicines in veterinary medicine and pesticides in agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as the polluting of the environment with toxic elements, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and others. Residue is being monitored in Serbia since 1972, and in 2004, national monitoring was brought to the level of EU countries through significant investments by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. This is also evident in the EU directives which permit exports of all kinds of meat and primary products of animal origin, covered by the Residue Monitoring Program. The program of systematic examinations of residue has been coordinated with the requirements of the European Union, both according to the type of examined substance, as well as according to the number of samples and the applied analytical techniques. In addition to the development of methods and the including of new harmful substances into the monitoring programme, it is also necessary to coordinate the national regulations that define the maximum permitted quantities of certain medicines and contaminants with the EU regulations, in order to protect the health of consumers as efficiently as possible, and for the country to take equal part in international trade.

  4. Changes in leptospirosis etiology in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Andreychyn, Mykhaylo; Kravchuk, Yulia; Chervinska, Оlena; Iosyk, Iaryna

    2017-12-23

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Ternopil region. In Ukraine, the disease is registered in almost all regions, including the Ternopil region. The aim of the research is to study the regularities of epidemic and epizootic processes of leptospirosis, and the circulation of its pathogens among different sources (small mammals, animals) and humans. Etiologic spectrum of leptospirosis registered in Ternopil region in 1972-2016 among small mammals, farm animals and sick people was studied. Due to the analysis of pathogens circulation among different sources (small mammals, animals), as well as the annual morbidity in humans, it was proved that new leptospira serovars are endemic and brought into the regions mostly by farm animals. Farm animals introduce the infection to humans through the environment, sometimes within 3-5-years. The spread was observed of pathogen serovars, which are new in certain areas, among all types of mouse-like small mammals and rats. It was established that livestock and small mammals are parallel reservoirs. In the regions with endemic species, the structural modification in the etiology of leptospirosis in humans is caused by additional reservoirs among animals, as well as the circulation of other pathogen serovars that were absent in the main natural reservoir, i.e. mouse-like small mammals and rats. The constant monitoring of the population, contamination and carrier state of mouse-like small mammals, rats and farm animals, is required In order to predict the future epidemiological situation on leptospirosis among the population and to improve leptospirosis diagnosis.

  5. Discriminating tests of information and topological indices. Animals and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Elena V; Vidyuk, Maxim V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider 13 information and topological indices based on the distance in a molecular graph with respect to their discrimination power. The numerical results of discriminating tests on 3490528 trees up to 21 vertices are given. The indices of the highest sensitivity are listed on the set of 1528775 alkane trees. The discrimination powers of indices are also examined on the classes of 849285 hexagonal, 298382 square, and 295365 triangular simply connected animals. The first class of animals corresponds to the structural formulas of planar benzenoid hydrocarbons. The values of all indices were calculated for all classes of animals as well as for the united set of 1443032 animals. The inspection of the data indicates the great sensitivity of four information indices and one topological index.

  6. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  7. Neuropharmacologic responses of animals to extreme effects: exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlichenko, P.P.; Tikhonchuk, V.S.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    The functional state of neurochemical structures of male mice was investigated after their gamma-irradiation with 137 Cs (1.9 Gy/min) at a dose of 100 Gy. The animals were treated with the following drugs that produce selective effects on specific receptors: galanthamine, amizyl, arpenal, phenamine, phentolamine and obsidan, haloperidol, apomorphine, phenazepam, phenibut and strychnin. The results point to the development of heterologous desensibilization of receptors at early post-irradiation periods. The high effectiveness of agonists and antagonists of CNS transmitters in the nonirradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals and their low effectiveness in the irradiated animals may be considered as an indicator of post-radiation injury of specific receptors. These neuropharmacological interactions may obviously be modified in response to the combined effects of space flight factors

  8. Protein folding pathology in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, Erik

    2004-10-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals, AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAI, AApoAII, localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Abeta and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to amyloid fibrils on small beta-sheeted fragments, the 'amyloid enhancing factor' (AEF), is known and the AEF has been shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein, whereas in the prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. Abeta-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis

  9. 43 CFR 423.35 - Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animals. 423.35 Section 423.35 Public... Animals. (a) You must not bring pets or other animals into public buildings, public transportation vehicles, or sanitary facilities. This provision does not apply to properly trained animals assisting...

  10. The peculiarity of animal complexes of chernozem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The genetic connection of animal complexes and soil cover is in the basis of diagnostic ability of animals to indicate and quantity assessment of soil processes. The ecoiGgical view and peculiarity of soil animal complexes has the most impotent value. The soil animal complexes of steppe and their trans-formation under artificial forest are discussed

  11. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  12. Seamless Merging of Hypertext and Algorithm Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavirta, Ville

    2009-01-01

    Online learning material that students use by themselves is one of the typical usages of algorithm animation (AA). Thus, the integration of algorithm animations into hypertext is seen as an important topic today to promote the usage of algorithm animation in teaching. This article presents an algorithm animation viewer implemented purely using…

  13. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  14. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  15. Emotional Communicative Body Animation for Multiple Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2005-01-01

    Current body animation systems for Interactive Virtual Humans are mostly procedural or key-frame based. Although such methods provide for a high flexibility of the animation system, often it is not possible to create animations that are as realistic as animations obtained using a motion capture

  16. 21 CFR 178.3120 - Animal glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Animal glue. 178.3120 Section 178.3120 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3120 Animal glue. Animal glue may be safely used as a component of articles..., transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Animal glue consists of the...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme preparation obtained from edible forestomach tissue of calves, kids, or lambs, or from animal pancreatic...

  18. Incorporation of a stand-alone elective course in animal law within animal and veterinary science curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    Animal law is a burgeoning area of interest within the legal profession, but to date it seems to have received little attention as a discrete discipline area for animal and veterinary scientists. Given the increased focus on animal welfare both within curricula and among the public, it would be remiss of educators not to consider this allied subject, especially since it provides those tools necessary for implementing welfare standards and reducing cruelty. Recommended subject matter, teaching modality, and methods of assessment have been outlined in this article. Such a course should take a multidisciplinary approach and highlight contentious areas of animal law and trends within the wider societal framework of human-animal interactions. From a pedagogical standpoint, a variety of teaching methods and assessment techniques should be included. A problem-based learning approach to encourage the assimilation of facts and promote higher-order learning is favored. The purpose of this article is to provide some guidance on the structure of such a course based on the author's experience in teaching animal law to veterinary and animal science undergraduates in Australia.

  19. [Pigeon sport and animal rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, M

    2007-03-01

    To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals.

  20. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...

  1. Utilisation of sulfites by animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F.

    1955-01-01

    It studied the uptake of radioactive sulfates and sulfites in sulfinic cysteine acid, taurine and cystine in animal organism. The experiments are conducted on rabbits. The experimental procedures are described: one experiment is to sterilize intestines of the animal before to inject it radioactive sulfites or sulfates, the rabbit is sacrificed 28 hours after and its organs analysed. The other experiment is to inject radioactive sulfites or sulfates in an eviscerated rabbit and sacrificed it 30 minutes after. Sulfinic cysteine acid is mainly found in liver extracts after 30 minutes and only after injection of radioactive sulfites, whereas cystine is found after 28 hours in a majority of organ extracts. It showed that sulfur used for the synthesis of sulfinic cysteine acid comes from sulfites intake and that sulfinic cysteine acid is a precursor of taurine and cystine. (M.P.)

  2. Animal models of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehlata V Gajbhiye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have contributed to a great extent to understanding and advancement in the field of sexual medicine. Many current medical and surgical therapies in sexual medicine have been tried based on these animal models. Extensive literature search revealed that the compiled information is limited. In this review, we describe various experimental models of erectile dysfunction (ED encompassing their procedures, variables of assessment, advantages and disadvantages. The search strategy consisted of review of PubMed based articles. We included original research work and certain review articles available in PubMed database. The search terms used were "ED and experimental models," "ED and nervous stimulation," "ED and cavernous nerve stimulation," "ED and central stimulation," "ED and diabetes mellitus," "ED and ageing," "ED and hypercholesteremia," "ED and Peyronie′s disease," "radiation induced ED," "telemetric recording," "ED and mating test" and "ED and non-contact erection test."

  3. Associative learning and animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-10-05

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.

  4. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    environment. In video surveillance, the behavior of humans and animals is monitored based on extremes: event is present/event is not present, objects behave normally/objects behave abnormally, action 1/action 2/action 3, etc. In nature, the motion of humans and animals is continuous with transitions from one...... action to another. The second aim of this thesis is to propose a method to monitor motion as a continuous process using common classification methods....... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...

  5. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  6. Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zaragoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Animal models of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begoña; Mallavia, Beñat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Fluorosis in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirona Palczewska-Komsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine compounds occur quite commonly in nature. They are exist in water, in soil, in geological decks, in living organisms. On human and animal bodies can influence moderately preferably or more often unfavorably. The deficiency or excess of this element results in undesirable effects in hard tissue, nervous tissue and other organs. Due to adverse effect of this element to a living organism it comes to fluorosis. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the toxic effect of fluoride compounds on the human and other vertebrate animals depending on the time and dosage F- and the type of tissue and / or organ on the basis of the scientific literature. On the basis of the available publications, it was revealed that F- toxicity substantially depends on time and dose exposure on these element. Chronic fluorosis, more often than acute is observed in human and animals. Biological factors (including species differences susceptibility, metabolic activity of tissue and environmental factors can accumulate, which increases probability of F- toxicity for living organisms.

  9. Irradiation of laboratory animal diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing demand for well-defined, standardized laboratory animals fr use in experimental research has led to the development of many new methods aimed at keeping the animals free of pathogenic micro-organisms. In this respect the problem of contaminated feeds has become more and more widely recognized. Chemial treatments and heat-treatments, which are the methods most commonly used at present, do have many disadvantages and this has led to an increasing interest in the application of irradiation for sterilizing animal feeds. The author reviews in some detail the various feeding studies which have been performed to date to establish whether or not irradiated feeds are safe for consumption. Much attention is now being given to feed irradiation throughout the world; it is estimated, for example, that approximately 700 tons of feed are already being irradiated per year and that this amount is likely to increase steadily in the future. These activities and recent developments are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  10. Animal Health in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Jainudeen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing countries in Africa and Asia are located in the tropics (23° north and south of the equator. The poor productivity of ruminants in these countries is mostly due to inadequate nutrition, infectious diseases, low rates of reproduction, poor genotype, high ambient temperatures and socioeconomic constraints. In addition to infectious diseases which have long since been eradicated or brought under control in developed countries, there are diseases unique to the tropical environment. In the past, the diagnosis of most diseases was based on serological tests. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, a rapid method of identifying viral and bacterial infections, is contributing to the eradication or control of most epidemic diseases which inflict high mortality. Less attention has; however, been given to subclinical diseases which adversely affect reproduction, growrh rates and reduced performance (draught power, milk and meat. The interaction of veterinary epidemiology and agricultural economics has helped epidemiologists and veterinarians to focus on the economic importance of animal diseases. The emerging trends in animal health include new diagnostic methods using DNA probes, new vaccines, sustainable parasite control schemes and herd health monitoring. The study of infectious diseases of veterinary importance will continue to he supported by modern techniques of molecular biology. Veterinary curricula should emphasis both animal health and production in the context of current national development occurring in the livestock sector.

  11. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  12. Skepticism, empathy, and animal suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltola, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    The suffering of nonhuman animals has become a noted factor in deciding public policy and legislative change. Yet, despite this growing concern, skepticism toward such suffering is still surprisingly common. This paper analyzes the merits of the skeptical approach, both in its moderate and extreme forms. In the first part it is claimed that the type of criterion for verification concerning the mental states of other animals posed by skepticism is overly (and, in the case of extreme skepticism, illogically) demanding. Resting on Wittgenstein and Husserl, it is argued that skepticism relies on a misguided epistemology and, thus, that key questions posed by it face the risk of absurdity. In the second part of the paper it is suggested that, instead of skepticism, empathy together with intersubjectivity be adopted. Edith Stein's take on empathy, along with contemporary findings, are explored, and the claim is made that it is only via these two methods of understanding that the suffering of nonhuman animals can be perceived.

  13. Animal models of cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Rosano, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cachexia is the loss of body weight associated with several chronic diseases including chronic heart failure (CHF). The cachectic condition is mainly due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue depletion. The majority of experimental in vivo studies on cachexia rely on animal models of cancer cachexia while a reliable and appropriate model for cardiac cachexia has not yet been established. A critical issue in generating a cardiac cachexia model is that genetic modifications or pharmacological treatments impairing the heart functionality and used to obtain the heart failure model might likely impair the skeletal muscle, this also being a striated muscle and sharing with the myocardium several molecular and physiological mechanisms. On the other hand, often, the induction of heart damage in the several existing models of heart failure does not necessarily lead to skeletal muscle loss and cachexia. Here we describe the main features of cardiac cachexia and illustrate some animal models proposed for cardiac cachexia studies; they include the genetic calsequestrin and Dahl salt-sensitive models, the monocrotaline model and the surgical models obtained by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and ascending aortic banding. The availability of a specific animal model for cardiac cachexia is a crucial issue since, besides the common aspects of cachexia in the different syndromes, each disease has some peculiarities in its etiology and pathophysiology leading to cachexia. Such peculiarities need to be unraveled in order to find new targets for effective therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  15. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  16. "Sport Guts" in Japanese Girl Anime

    OpenAIRE

    Miho Tsukamoto

    2015-01-01

    "Sport Guts" in Japanese anime developed not only to strengthen mentality but also to challenge for objectives. This paper helps to understand the development of Japanese girl anime, and its philosophical concepts of Japanese amine. This paper focuses on girls' sport anime "Sport Guts,", which is the major philosophy of Japanese girl anime and centers on a girl who is enthusiastic about volleyball and makes an effort to compete in the World Series by focusing on girl anime b...

  17. Animal experimentation--a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Stanley N

    2009-02-01

    Disagreement about the use of animals in biomedical research has resulted in absurd positions by both sides. Increasingly, some zealots against animal experimentation have resorted to violence or other illegal acts to support their points of view. The value of animal research in providing better health for man and animals is incontrovertible. This is illustrated by references to animal research in the field of nutrition.

  18. Narrating Animal Trauma in Bulgakov and Tolstoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassiya Andrianova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent “animal turn” in literary studies, which has inspired scholars to revisit traditional human-centered interpretations of texts narrated by animals, this article focuses on the convergence of animal studies and trauma theory. It offers new animal-centered close readings of Tolstoy’s Strider and Bulgakov’s Heart of a Dog, paying attention to animal pain rather than seeing it, and the text as a whole, as an allegory of human society. Like many other authors of literary fiction featuring animal narrators, Tolstoy and Bulgakov employ a kind of empathic ventriloquism to narrate animal pain, an important project which, however, given the status of both the animal and trauma outside human language, and thus susceptible to being distorted by it, produces inauthentic discourse (animal-like, rather than animal narration; therefore, these authors get closest to animal pain, not through sophisticated narration, but through the use of ellipses and onomatopoeia. Ultimately, any narratological difficulty with animal focalization is minor compared to the ethical imperative of anti-speciesist animal-standpoint criticism, and the goal is to reconceive the status of animals in literature so as to change their ontological place in the world, urging that this critical work and animal rights advocacy be continued in the classroom.

  19. Relevance of animal symbolism in corporate communications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of animals as symbol in communication and other corporate organization was carried out for a period of five months in the year 2001, by the use of structured questionnaire in three local governments within Ibadan metropolis; Ibadan North West, North East and South West. Simple percentage and student T tests ...

  20. Characteristics, management and use of draught animals in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study was conducted to examine the characteristics, management and use of draught animals in Bauchi State, Northeastern, Nigeria. A total of 100 farmers made up of 10 from each of the 10 Local Government Areas of the state were personally interviewed using structured pre-tested questionnaires. Data were generated ...

  1. An Intelligent Recommendation System for Animation Scriptwriters' Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Te; Chang, Ting-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Producing an animation requires extensive labor, time, and money. Experienced directors and screenwriters are required to design scenes using standard props and actors in position. This study structurally analyzes the script and defines scenes, characters, positions, dialogue, etc., according to their dramatic attributes. These are entered into a…

  2. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipold, A.; Tipold, E.

    1991-01-01

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  3. All about Mammals. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this videotape, students learn more about the characteristics of common warm-blooded mammals and what makes them different from other animals. Children also find out how humans are more advanced in structure than other mammals, but how they still share the same basic traits. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education…

  4. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  5. Corollary discharge across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapse, Trinity B; Sommer, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Our movements can hinder our ability to sense the world. Movements can induce sensory input (for example, when you hit something) that is indistinguishable from the input that is caused by external agents (for example, when something hits you). It is critical for nervous systems to be able to differentiate between these two scenarios. A ubiquitous strategy is to route copies of movement commands to sensory structures. These signals, which are referred to as corollary discharge (CD), influence sensory processing in myriad ways. Here we review the CD circuits that have been uncovered by neurophysiological studies and suggest a functional taxonomic classification of CD across the animal kingdom. This broad understanding of CD circuits lays the groundwork for more challenging studies that combine neurophysiology and psychophysics to probe the role of CD in perception.

  6. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SIMULATED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.

  8. Chapter 7. Radioactivity of animals and animal organs and factors influencing their value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of animals and animal organs and factors influencing their value. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of animals; (2) Radioactive contamination of animal tissues; (3) Connection of radioactive contamination with species of animals and discriminatingly ability of animal organism; (4) Connection of radioactive contamination with age of animal and with biological half-life T b ; (5) Factors influencing radioactive contamination of biological cycle: food - animal; (6) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of foods with animal origin

  9. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  10. The Portrayal of Families across Generations in Disney Animated Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D. Zurcher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Disney animated films continue to serve as an influential form of media that shapes children’s development of beliefs about the world surrounding them, including the construct of the family. However, a census analysis as to how Disney animated films represent depictions of families has yet to be conducted. To fill this gap, we assessed the qualities of family demographics, structure, and function in a census analysis of 85 Disney animated films from the years 1937–2018. Results indicated that single parent families (41.3% was the most predominantly represented family structure, followed by nuclear (25% and guardian (19.2%. We also observed that the first depiction of a non-Caucasian family was presented in the 1990s, with a growing number of ethnically diverse families since that time. However, minimal interactions between families of differing ethnicities are noted. Overall, over 75% of all Disney animated films depicted warm and supportive familial interactions, with 78.8% of the films illustrating a positive relationship between the protagonist and his/her family. Analysis and implications are offered for parents and educators who wish to further understand the content Disney animated films offer in depicting families.

  11. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. When Humans Become Animals: Development of the Animal Category in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we…

  14. Animal subjectivity : a study into philosophy and theory of animal experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijmbach, S.

    1998-01-01

    For many people, laypeople as well as animal scientists and philosophers, animal welfare involves animal feelings. Scientifically, however, animal feelings are problematic. In the concluding remarks of a conference about the welfare of domestic animals in 1994, for example, two questions

  15. Demonstrating idAnimate : a multi-touch system for sketching and rapidly manipulating animations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quevedo Fernandez, Javier; Martens, J.B.O.S.

    2012-01-01

    This demonstration presents idAnimate, a multi-touch application for sketching animations. Thanks to the affordances provided by multitouch interfaces, idAnimate yields a novel, intuitive and easy to use animation technique named transformation-by-example, that allows users to author animations in

  16. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine... (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div. of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The...

  17. 75 FR 7555 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin AGENCY: Food... amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal drug... generic copy of NADA 141-146, sponsored by Phibro Animal Health, for combination use of BACIFERM...

  18. 76 FR 65109 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin; Tylosin AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The...

  19. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin AGENCY: Food and... amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The supplemental ANADA...

  20. Animated Character Analysis and Costume Design with Structured Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım Artaç, Berna; Ağaç, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    In various genres, costumes complement fictional characters and not onlyconstitute the external appearance of the fictional character, but are alsoused for purposes of fun or style by fans who dress up as the character andinternalize that character’s state of mind. This phenomenon is calledcosplay. A literature review of the field has revealed no study made previouslyon the cosplay costume design process according to character analysis. Thepresent study emphasizes the link between an...