WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal model species

  1. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367161

  2. A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shuhao; Zheng Lulu; Li Yun; Li Chunyan; Ma Chenchen; Li Yixue; Li Xuan; Hao Pei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible an...

  3. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  4. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns

  5. Plasma lipid profiling across species for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G; Mendoza, Vivienne H; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N; Eiermann, George J; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C; Akiyama, Taro E; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A; Donnelly, Marcie J; Voronin, Gregory O; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H; Hansen, Barbara C; Koblan, Ken S; Roddy, Thomas P; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650

  6. To eat and not be eaten: modelling resources and safety in multi-species animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey-prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time.

  7. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  8. Obtaining Human Ischemic Stroke Gene Expression Biomarkers from Animal Models: A Cross-species Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Cai, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the systematic altering of gene expression in human peripheral blood during the early stages of ischemic stroke, which suggests a new potential approach for the rapid diagnosis or prediction of stroke onset. Nevertheless, due to the difficulties of collecting human samples during proper disease stages, related studies are rather restricted. Many studies have instead been performed on manipulated animal models for investigating the regulation patterns of biomarkers during different stroke stages. An important inquiry is how well the findings of animal models can be replicated in human cases. Here, a method is proposed based on PageRank scores of miRNA-mRNA interaction network to select ischemic stroke biomarkers derived from rat brain samples, and biomarkers are validated with two human peripheral blood gene expression datasets. Hierarchical clustering results revealed that the achieved biomarkers clearly separate the blood gene expression of stroke patients and healthy people. Literature searches and functional analyses further validated the biological significance of these biomarkers. Compared to the traditional methods, such as differential expression, the proposed approach is more stable and accurate in detecting cross-species biomarkers with biological relevance, thereby suggesting an efficient approach of re-using gene biomarkers obtained from animal-model studies for human diseases. PMID:27407070

  9. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who......This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  10. Influence of Species Differences on the Neuropathology of Transgenic Huntington's Disease Animal Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jiang Li; Shihua Li

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have revealed much about the pathogenesis of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases and proved to be a useful tool for uncovering therapeutic targets.Huntington's disease is a well-characterized neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat,which results in expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (HTT).Similar CAG/glutamine expansions are also found to cause eight other neurodegenerative diseases that affect distinct brain regions in an agedependent manner.Identification of this CAG/glutamine expansion has led to the generation of a variety of transgenic animal models.Of these different animal models,transgenic mice have been investigated extensively,and they show similar neuropathology and phenotypes as seen in their respective diseases.The common pathological hallmark of age-dependent neurodegeneration is the formation of aggregates or inclusions consisting of misfolded proteins in the affected brain regions; however,overt or striking neurodegeneration and apoptosis have not been reported in most transgenic mouse models for age-dependent diseases,including HD.By comparing the neuropathology of transgenic HD mouse,pig,and monkey models,we found that mutant HTT is more toxic to larger animals than mice,and larger animals also show neuropathology that has not been uncovered by transgenic mouse models.This review will discuss the importancc of transgenic large animal models for analyzing the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and developing effective treatments.

  11. Collective behaviour across animal species

    OpenAIRE

    DeLellis, P.; G. Polverino; Ustuner, G.; Abaid, N.; Macri, S.; Bollt, E. M.; M. Porfiri

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, whe...

  12. Collective behaviour across animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  13. Plasma lipid profiling across species for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G.; Mendoza, Vivienne H.; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S.; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N.; Eiermann, George J.; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L. Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L.; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A.; Donnelly, Marcie J.; Voronin, Gregory O.; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J.; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H.; Hansen, Barbara C.; Koblan, Ken S.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650

  14. Drug delivery systems in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Oudot, Emilie J M; Baird, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of biologically active agents to animals is often perceived to be the poor relation of human drug delivery. Yet this field has a long and successful history of species-specific device and formulation development, ranging from simple approaches and devices used in production animals to more sophisticated formulations and approaches for a wide range of species. While several technologies using biodegradable polymers have been successfully marketed in a range of veterinary and human products, the transfer of delivery technologies has not been similarly applied across species. This may be due to a combination of specific technical requirements for use of devices in different species, inter-species pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physiological differences, and distinct market drivers for drug classes used in companion and food-producing animals. This chapter reviews selected commercialised and research-based parenteral and non-parenteral veterinary drug delivery technologies in selected domestic species. Emphasis is also placed on the impact of endogenous drug transporters on drug distribution characteristics in different species. In vitro models used to investigate carrier-dependent transport are reviewed. Species-specific expression of transporters in several tissues can account for inter-animal or inter-species pharmacokinetic variability, lack of predictability of drug efficacy, and potential drug-drug interactions. PMID:20204584

  15. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  16. Animal models of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or

  17. Animal Models for imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Barbara Y.

    2002-01-01

    Animal models can be used in the study of disease. This chapter discusses imaging animal models to elucidate the process of human disease. The mouse is used as the primary model. Though this choice simplifies many research choices, it necessitates compromises for in vivo imaging. In the future, we can expect improvements in both animal models and imaging techniques.

  18. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Rincon, Mercedes; Irvin, Charles G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animal models form the basis for much of our current understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, and are central to the preclinical development of drug therapies. No animal model completely recapitulates all features of the human disease, however. Research has focused primarily on ways to generate allergic inflammation by sensitizing and challenging animals with a variety of foreign proteins, leading to an increased understanding of the immunological factors that mediate the in...

  19. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Shimamura; Nobuo Kubota; Kazutoshi Shibuya

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host’s normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the presen...

  20. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, Grant; Blackwell, Paul; Goodall, Victoria; King, Ruth; Niu, Mu; Patterson, Toby; Pedersen, Martin; Skarin, Anna; Schick, Robert Schilling

    2013-01-01

    1). Group dynamics are a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognized, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However, to date, practical statistical methods, which can include group dynamics in animal movement models, have been lacking. 2). We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level ...

  1. Animal Models of Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagakura, Yukinori; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of disease states are valuable tools for developing new treatments and investigating underlying mechanisms. They should mimic the symptoms and pathology of the disease and importantly be predictive of effective treatments. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain with associated co-morbid symptoms that include fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleep dysfunction. In this review, we present different animal models that mimic the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia. T...

  2. Animal models of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rod...

  3. Muscle fibre ontogenesis in farm animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Brigitte; Lefaucheur, Louis; Berri, Cécile; Duclos, Michel

    2002-01-01

    International audience In farm animals (bovine, ovine, swine, rabbit and poultry), muscle fibre characteristics play a key role in meat quality. The present review summarises the knowledge on muscle fibre characteristics and ontogenesis in these species. Myofibre ontogenesis begins very early during embryonic life, with the appearance of two or three successive waves of myoblasts which constitute the origin of the different types of muscle fibres. In small animals (rodents and poultry), a ...

  4. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  5. Animal models of ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  6. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    John Webster

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary When making a choice of species for animal experimentation we must balance its suitability as a model for human medicine against the potential harms to the animals both from the procedures and the quality of their lifetime experience. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primate...

  7. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  8. Animal Models of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey S Getz; Reardon, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. Both cells of the vessel wall and cells of the immune system participate in atherogenesis. This process is heavily influenced by plasma lipoproteins, genetics and the hemodynamics of the blood flow in the artery. A variety of small and large animal models have been used to study the atherogenic process. No model is ideal as each has its own advantages and limitations with respect to...

  9. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  10. Animal models of sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Mitchell P.

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis remains a common, serious, and heterogeneous clinical entity that is difficult to define adequately. Despite its importance as a public health problem, efforts to develop and gain regulatory approval for a specific therapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of sepsis have been remarkably unsuccessful. One step in the critical pathway for the development of a new agent for adjuvant treatment of sepsis is evaluation in an appropriate animal model of the human condition. Unfortunately, ...

  11. Animal Models of Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCARLEY, ROBERT W.

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic sy...

  12. Modeling animal landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  13. Experimental Animal Models in Periodontology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Struillou, Xavier; Boutigny, Hervé; Soueidan, Assem; Layrolle, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In periodontal research, animal studies are complementary to in vitro experiments prior to testing new treatments. Animal models should make possible the validation of hypotheses and prove the safety and efficacy of new regenerating approaches using biomaterials, growth factors or stem cells. A review of the literature was carried out by using electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Science). Numerous animal models in different species such as rats, hamsters, rabbits, ferrets, canines and pr...

  14. Monte Carlo modeling of the effect of extreme events on the extinction dynamics of animal species with 2-year life cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sukanto; Malakar, Sreepurna

    2005-01-01

    Our paper computationally explores the extinction dynamics of an animal species effected by a sudden spike in mortality due to an extreme event. In our study, the animal species has a 2-year life cycle and is endowed with a high survival probability under normal circumstances. Our proposed approach does not involve any restraining assumptions concerning environmental variables or predator-prey relationships. Rather it is based on the simple premise that if observed on an year-to-year basis, t...

  15. Animal models and conserved processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is

  16. A Brief History of Animal Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Crim, Marcus J; Franklin, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative medicine is founded on the concept that other animal species share physiological, behavioral, or other characteristics with humans. Over 2,400 years ago it was recognized that by studying animals, we could learn much about ourselves. This technique has now developed to the point that animal models are employed in virtually all fields of biomedical research including, but not limited to, basic biology, immunology and infectious disease, oncology, and behavior.

  17. Comparative mortality levels among selected species of captive animals

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel H. Preston; Laurie Bingaman Lackey; Iliana Kohler

    2006-01-01

    We present life tables by single year of age and sex for groups of animals and for 42 individual mostly mammalian species. Data are derived from the International Species Information System. The survivorship of most of these species has never been mapped systematically. We demonstrate that, in most of the groups, female survivorship significantly exceeds that of males above age five. Wild-born animals do not have mortality that differs significantly from captive-born animals. While most speci...

  18. Stochastic modelling of animal movement

    OpenAIRE

    Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal poi...

  19. Animal Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nestler, Eric J.; Steven E Hyman

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of human neuropsychiatric disorders in animals is extremely challenging given the subjective nature of many key symptoms, the lack of biomarkers and objective diagnostic tests, and the early state of the relevant neurobiology and genetics. Nonetheless, progress in understanding pathophysiology and in treatment development would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here we review the current state of animal models of mental illness, with a focus on schizophrenia, depression, a...

  20. Public decisions on animal species : does body size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Edo; van der Windt, Henny J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, Anton J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic knowledge about factors affecting the willingness of societies to conserve biodiversity is still scarce. This study investigates the role of body size in national decisions on wild animal species by analysing the average body sizes of the animal species subject to species-specific legisla

  1. Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L.; Fleet, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the United States. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist. PMID:23076650

  2. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  3. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Liechty ER; Bergin IL; Bell JD

    2015-01-01

    Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologic co...

  4. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologi...

  5. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework can provide both an ontology of concepts and their relations, and a working model of an animal’s cognitive processes that can compliment active empirical research. In addition to helping to account for a broad range of cognitive processes, such a model can help to comparatively assess the cognitive capabilities of different animal species. After deriving an ontology for animal cognition from the LIDA model, we apply it to develop the beginnings of a database that maps the cognitive facilities of a variety of animal species. We conclude by discussing future avenues of research, particularly the use of computational models of animal cognition as valuable tools for hypotheses generation and testing [Current Zoology 57 (4: 499–513, 2011].

  6. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also establish...

  7. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  8. Animal models in peritoneal dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitidou, Olga; Peppa, Vasiliki I.; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G.; Liakopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been extensively used over the past years as a method of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). In an attempt to better understand the properties of the peritoneal membrane and the mechanisms involved in major complications associated with PD, such as inflammation, peritonitis and peritoneal injury, both in vivo and ex vivo animal models have been used. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the animal models that have been used, and comment on the main problems encountered while working with these models. Moreover, the differences characterizing these animal models, as well as, the differences with humans are highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that the use of standardized protocols is a necessity in order to take full advantage of animal models, extrapolate their results in humans, overcome the problems related to PD and help promote its use. PMID:26388781

  9. Animal Models in Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA eNIKITIDOU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal dialysis (PD has been extensively used over the past years as a method of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end stage renal disease. In an attempt to better understand the properties of the peritoneal membrane and the mechanisms involved in major complications associated with PD, such as inflammation, peritonitis and peritoneal injury, both in vivo and ex vivo animal models have been used. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the animal models that have been used, and comment on the main problems encountered while working with these models. Moreover, the differences characterizing these animal models, as well as, the differences with humans are highlighted. Finally, it is suggested that the use of standardized protocols is a necessity in order to take full advantage of animal models, extrapolate their results in humans, overcome the problems related to PD and help promote its use.

  10. Animal Models of Ricin Toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chad J; Song, Kejing; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Gardner, Donald J.; Seth H Pincus

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of ricin toxicosis are necessary for testing the efficacy of therapeutic measures, as well studying the mechanisms by which ricin exerts its toxicity in intact animals. Because ricin can serve as a particularly well-characterized model of tissue damage, and the host response to that damage, studies of the mechanisms of ricin toxicity may have more general applicability. For example, our studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ricin-induced hypoglycemia ...

  11. Animal models for human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J H

    1982-01-01

    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  12. Animal models of portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan G Abraldes; Marcos Pasarín; Juan Carlos; García-Pagán

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have allowed detailed study of hemodynamic alterations typical of portal hypertension and the molecular mechanisms involved in abnormalities in splanchnic and systemic circulation associated with this syndrome. Models of prehepatic portal hypertension can be used to study alterations in the splanchnic circulation and the pathophysiology of the hyperdynamic circulation. Models of cirrhosis allow study of the alterations in intrahepatic microcirculation that lead to increased resistance to portal flow. This review summarizes the currently available literature on animal models of portal hypertension and analyzes their relative utility. The criteria for choosing a particular model,depending on the specific objectives of the study, are also discussed.

  13. Animal Models for Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Huppler, Anna R.; Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Multiple forms of candidiasis are clinically important in humans. Established murine models of disseminated, oropharyngeal, vaginal, and cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans are described in this unit. Detailed materials and methods for C. albicans growth and detection are also described.

  14. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoç, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Allergic disease such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing prevelanceand affect up to 15% of population in Westernized countries. Among them, asthma is achronic inflammatory disease of airways and the underlying physiological and immunologicalprocesses are not fully understood. Mouse models of asthma dupicates many featuresof human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, andairway inflammation. Therefore, relevantmodels for asthma are important to understand the mechanis...

  15. Animal models in myopia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffel, Frank; Feldkaemper, Marita

    2015-11-01

    Our current understanding of the development of refractive errors, in particular myopia, would be substantially limited had Wiesel and Raviola not discovered by accident that monkeys develop axial myopia as a result of deprivation of form vision. Similarly, if Josh Wallman and colleagues had not found that simple plastic goggles attached to the chicken eye generate large amounts of myopia, the chicken model would perhaps not have become such an important animal model. Contrary to previous assumptions about the mechanisms of myopia, these animal models suggested that eye growth is visually controlled locally by the retina, that an afferent connection to the brain is not essential and that emmetropisation uses more sophisticated cues than just the magnitude of retinal blur. While animal models have shown that the retina can determine the sign of defocus, the underlying mechanism is still not entirely clear. Animal models have also provided knowledge about the biochemical nature of the signal cascade converting the output of retinal image processing to changes in choroidal thickness and scleral growth; however, a critical question was, and still is, can the results from animal models be applied to myopia in children? While the basic findings from chickens appear applicable to monkeys, some fundamental questions remain. If eye growth is guided by visual feedback, why is myopic development not self-limiting? Why does undercorrection not arrest myopic progression even though positive lenses induce myopic defocus, which leads to the development of hyperopia in emmetropic animals? Why do some spectacle or contact lens designs reduce myopic progression and others not? It appears that some major differences exist between animals reared with imposed defocus and children treated with various optical corrections, although without the basic knowledge obtained from animal models, we would be lost in an abundance of untestable hypotheses concerning human myopia. PMID:26769177

  16. Animal Models of Human Granulocyte Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve di...

  17. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Harris; Simona Zompi

    2012-01-01

    The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV) infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs) can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe deng...

  18. XX. Animal models of pneumocystosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dei-Cas, E.; Brun-Pascaud, M.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1998-01-01

    As in vitro culture systems allowing to isolate Pneumocystis samples from patients or other mammal hosts are still not available, animal models have critical importance in Pneumocystis research. The parasite was reported in numerous mammals but P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) experimental models were...... source of parasites taxonomically related to P. carinii sp. f hominis. Moreover, primates might be used as experimental hosts to human Pneumocystis. A marked variability of parasite levels among corticosteroid-treated animals and the fact that the origin of the parasite strain remains unknown, are...... important drawbacks of the corticosteroid-treated models. For these reasons, inoculated animal models of PCP were developed. The intratracheal inoculation of lung homogenates containing viable parasites in corticosteroid-treated non-latently infected rats resulted in extensive, reproducible Pneumocystis...

  19. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;

    2014-01-01

    , to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...... in an encamped state. Though the attraction to the group centroid is relatively weak, our model successfully captures group-influenced movement dynamics. Specifically, as compared to a regular mixture of correlated random walks, the group dynamic model more accurately predicts the non-diffusive behaviour...

  20. ANIMAL MODELS FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models have been used to provide insight into the complex immunological and pathophysioligical mechanisms of human Type 1 allergic diseases. Research efforts that include mechanistic studies in search of new therapies and screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens in a...

  1. The Political Animal: Species-Being and Bare Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hudson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Marxism has been justifiably skeptical of animal rights. Indeed, deep ecology and animal-rights discourse are, in their native habitats, deeply problematic and self-contradictory. But recent theories of “bare life,” when brought into dialogue with Marx’s concept of species-being, offer a perspective from which animal rights discourse and Marxism share a common political horizon.

  2. Importance of toxigenic Fusarium species in animal food

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja V.; Lević J.; Stanković S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous plant species, which are main components of various mixtures used in animal nutrition, can be contaminated by mycotoxins created by large number of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi (moulds). From the aspect of animal nutrition, most important are cereals and oil crops (in form of meals) because they constitute the highest share in preparation of animal food, and on the other hand, they are especially sensitive to toxigenic fungi and can contain mycot...

  3. The Political Animal: Species-Being and Bare Life

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Hudson

    2008-01-01

    Marxism has been justifiably skeptical of animal rights. Indeed, deep ecology and animal-rights discourse are, in their native habitats, deeply problematic and self-contradictory. But recent theories of “bare life,” when brought into dialogue with Marx’s concept of species-being, offer a perspective from which animal rights discourse and Marxism share a common political horizon.

  4. Animal models of cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Rosano, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cachexia is the loss of body weight associated with several chronic diseases including chronic heart failure (CHF). The cachectic condition is mainly due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue depletion. The majority of experimental in vivo studies on cachexia rely on animal models of cancer cachexia while a reliable and appropriate model for cardiac cachexia has not yet been established. A critical issue in generating a cardiac cachexia model is that genetic modifications or pharmacological treatments impairing the heart functionality and used to obtain the heart failure model might likely impair the skeletal muscle, this also being a striated muscle and sharing with the myocardium several molecular and physiological mechanisms. On the other hand, often, the induction of heart damage in the several existing models of heart failure does not necessarily lead to skeletal muscle loss and cachexia. Here we describe the main features of cardiac cachexia and illustrate some animal models proposed for cardiac cachexia studies; they include the genetic calsequestrin and Dahl salt-sensitive models, the monocrotaline model and the surgical models obtained by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and ascending aortic banding. The availability of a specific animal model for cardiac cachexia is a crucial issue since, besides the common aspects of cachexia in the different syndromes, each disease has some peculiarities in its etiology and pathophysiology leading to cachexia. Such peculiarities need to be unraveled in order to find new targets for effective therapies. PMID:27317993

  5. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. PMID:26807698

  6. Animal models of CNS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is intense interest in the development and application of animal models of CNS disorders to explore pathology and molecular mechanisms, identify potential biomarkers, and to assess the therapeutic utility, estimate safety margins and establish pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters of new chemical entities (NCEs). This is a daunting undertaking, due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of these disorders, the subjective and sometimes contradictory nature of the clinical endpoints and the paucity of information regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. Historically, these models have been invaluable in the discovery of therapeutics for a range of disorders including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Recently, however, they have been increasingly criticized in the wake of numerous clinical trial failures of NCEs with promising preclinical profiles. These failures have resulted from a number of factors including inherent limitations of the models, over-interpretation of preclinical results and the complex nature of clinical trials for CNS disorders. This review discusses the rationale, strengths, weaknesses and predictive validity of the most commonly used models for psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurological disorders as well as critical factors that affect the variability and reproducibility of these models. It also addresses how progress in molecular genetics and the development of transgenic animals has fundamentally changed the approach to neurodegenerative disorder research. To date, transgenic animal models\\have not been the panacea for drug discovery that many had hoped for. However continual refinement of these models is leading to steady progress with the promise of eventual therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:23811310

  7. Animal models of human herpesvirus 6 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Joséphine eReynaud; Branka eHorvat

    2013-01-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B are two enveloped DNA viruses of β-herpesvirus family, infecting over 90% of the population and associated with several diseases, including exanthema subitum (for HHV-6B), multiple sclerosis and encephalitis, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. Animal models are highly important to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infections. Naturally developed neutralizing antibodies to HHV-6 or a related virus were found in different species of monkey...

  8. Animal Models of Williams Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Lucy R.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have generated a variety of mouse models in an attempt to dissect the contribution of individual genes to the complex phenotype associated with Williams syndrome (WS). The mouse genome is easily manipulated to produce animals that are copies of humans with genetic conditions, be it with null mutations, hypomorphic mutations, point mutations, or even large deletions encompassing many genes. The existing mouse models certainly seem to implicate hemizygosity for ELN,...

  9. ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL MODELS OF TINNITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Qiuju; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood and treatments are often unsuccessful. A number of animal models have been developed in order to gain a better understanding of tinnitus. A great deal has been learned from these models re-garding the electrophysiological and neuroanatomical correlates of tinnitus following exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Re-liable behavioral data is important for determining whether such electrophysiological or neuroanatomical changes are indeed related to tinnitus. Of the many documented tinnitus animal behavioral paradigms, the acoustic startle reflex had been pro-posed as a simple method to identify the presence or absence of tinnitus. Several behavioral models based on conditioned re-sponse suppression paradigms have also been developed. In addition to determining the presence or absence of tinnitus, some of the behavioral paradigms have provided signs of the onset, frequency, and intensity of tinnitus in animals. Although none of these behavioral models have been proved to be a perfect model, these studies provide useful information on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying tinnitus.

  10. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research. PMID:25063426

  11. Bridging Animal and Human Models

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetics play an important role in the development and course of alcohol abuse, and understanding genetic contributions to this disorder may lead to improved preventative and therapeutic strategies in the future. Studies both in humans and in animal models are necessary to fully understand the neurobiology of alcoholism from the molecular to the cognitive level. By dissecting the complex facets of alcoholism into discrete, well-defined phenotypes that are measurable in both human populations ...

  12. Animal models of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet develop...

  13. Modeling Autistic Features in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of features of autism can be simulated in rodents, including the core behavioral hallmarks of stereotyped and repetitive behaviors, and deficits in social interaction and communication. Other behaviors frequently found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) such as neophobia, enhanced anxiety, abnormal pain sensitivity and eye blink conditioning, disturbed sleep patterns, seizures, and deficits in sensorimotor gating are also present in some of the animal models. Neuropathology and some...

  14. Animal Models in Burn Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the...

  15. Animal models for microbicide studies

    OpenAIRE

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Shattock, Robin J.; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P.

    2012-01-01

    There have been encouraging recent successes in the development of safe and effective topical microbicides to prevent vaginal or rectal HIV-1 transmission, based on the use of anti-retroviral drugs. However, much work remains to be accomplished before a microbicide becomes a standard element of prevention science strategies. Animal models should continue to play an important role in pre-clinical testing, with emphasis on safety, pharmacokinetic and efficacy testing.

  16. Animal Migraine Models for Drug Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is number seven in WHO's list of all diseases causing disability and the third most costly neurological disorder in Europe. Acute attacks are treatable by highly selective drugs such as the triptans but there is still a huge unmet therapeutic need. Unfortunately, drug development for...... headache has almost come to a standstill partly because of a lack of valid animal models. Here we review previous models with emphasis on optimal characteristics of a future model. In addition to selection of animal species, the method of induction of migraine-like changes and the method of recording...... responses elicited by such measures are crucial. The most naturalistic way of inducing attacks is by infusion of endogenous signaling molecules that are known to cause migraine in patients. The most valid response is recording of neural activity in the trigeminal system. The most useful headache related...

  17. Animal models of contraception: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liechty ER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emma R Liechty,1 Ingrid L Bergin,1 Jason D Bell2 1Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2Program on Women's Health Care Effectiveness Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Appropriate animal modeling is vital for the successful development of novel contraceptive devices. Advances in reproductive biology have identified novel pathways for contraceptive intervention. Here we review species-specific anatomic and physiologic considerations impacting preclinical contraceptive testing, including efficacy testing, mechanistic studies, device design, and modeling off-target effects. Emphasis is placed on the use of nonhuman primate models in contraceptive device development. Keywords: nonhuman primate, preclinical, in vivo, contraceptive devices

  18. Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin P. Dhondt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed.

  19. Henipavirus infections: lessons from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Kévin P; Horvat, Branka

    2013-01-01

    The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed. PMID:25437037

  20. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-01-01

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large. PMID:26479009

  1. Bounding species distribution models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].

  2. Animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The preterm baboon models

    OpenAIRE

    Yoder, Bradley A.; Coalson, Jacqueline J.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the progress in improved neonatal care, particularly management of underdeveloped preterm lungs, has been aided by investigations of multiple animal models, including the neonatal baboon (Papio species). In this article we highlight how the preterm baboon model at both 140 and 125 days gestation (term equivalent 185 days) has advanced our understanding and management of the immature human infant with neonatal lung disease. Not only is the 125-day baboon model extremely relevant to the...

  3. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  4. Evaluation of animal models of neurobehavioral disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist Rebecca E; Arndt Saskia S; van der Staay F Josef

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Animal models play a central role in all areas of biomedical research. The process of animal model building, development and evaluation has rarely been addressed systematically, despite the long history of using animal models in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral dysfunctions. An iterative, multi-stage trajectory for developing animal models and assessing their quality is proposed. The process starts with defining the purpose(s) of the model, preferentiall...

  5. Counting animal species with DNA barcodes: Canadian insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Paul D N; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Zakharov, Evgeny V; Telfer, Angela C; Levesque-Beaudin, Valerie; Milton, Megan A; Pedersen, Stephanie; Jannetta, Paul; deWaard, Jeremy R

    2016-09-01

    Recent estimates suggest that the global insect fauna includes fewer than six million species, but this projection is very uncertain because taxonomic work has been limited on some highly diverse groups. Validation of current estimates minimally requires the investigation of all lineages that are diverse enough to have a substantial impact on the final species count. This study represents a first step in this direction; it employs DNA barcoding to evaluate patterns of species richness in 27 orders of Canadian insects. The analysis of over one million specimens revealed species counts congruent with earlier results for most orders. However, Diptera and Hymenoptera were unexpectedly diverse, representing two-thirds of the 46 937 barcode index numbers (=species) detected. Correspondence checks between known species and barcoded taxa showed that sampling was incomplete, a result confirmed by extrapolations from the barcode results which suggest the occurrence of at least 94 000 species of insects in Canada, a near doubling from the prior estimate of 54 000 species. One dipteran family, the Cecidomyiidae, was extraordinarily diverse with an estimated 16 000 species, a 10-fold increase from its predicted diversity. If Canada possesses about 1% of the global fauna, as it does for known taxa, the results of this study suggest the presence of 10 million insect species with about 1.8 million of these taxa in the Cecidomyiidae. If so, the global species count for this fly family may exceed the combined total for all 142 beetle families. If extended to more geographical regions and to all hyperdiverse groups, DNA barcoding can rapidly resolve the current uncertainty surrounding a species count for the animal kingdom. A newly detailed understanding of species diversity may illuminate processes important in speciation, as suggested by the discovery that the most diverse insect lineages in Canada employ an unusual mode of reproduction, haplodiploidy.This article is part of the

  6. An animal model of fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Falih; Domjan, Michael; Kurt, Adnan; Sertel, Ozlem; Orüng, Sabiha; Bowers, Rob; Kumru, Gulsen

    2004-12-01

    An animal model of sexual fetishism was developed with male Japanese quail based on persistence of conditioned sexual responding during extinction to an inanimate object made of terrycloth (Experiments 1 and 3). This persistent responding occurred only in subjects that came to copulate with the terrycloth object, suggesting that the copulatory behavior served to maintain the fetishistic behavior. Sexual conditioning was carried out by pairing a conditioned stimulus (CS) with the opportunity to copulate with a female (the unconditioned stimulus or US). Copulation with the CS object and persistent responding did not develop if the CS was a light (Experiment 1) or if conditioning was carried out with a food US (Experiment 2). In addition, subjects that showed persistence in responding to the terrycloth CS did not persist in their responding to a light CS (Experiment 3). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned copulatory behavior creates a form of self-maintenance that leads to persistent responding to an inanimate object. The development of an animal model of such fetishistic behavior should facilitate experimental analysis of the phenomenon. PMID:15500813

  7. Choosing the best animal species to mimic clinical colon anastomotic leakage in humans: a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, J; Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla;

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are valuable for studying pathogenic factors and preventive measures for colon anastomotic leakage. The suitability of the species as models varies greatly; however, no consensus exists on which species to use. The aim of this review was to evaluate different experimental animals for...

  8. Targeted mutagenesis in pathogenic Leptospira species: disruption of the LigB gene does not affect virulence in animal models of leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croda, Julio; Figueira, Claudio Pereira; Wunder, Elsio A; Santos, Cleiton S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2008-12-01

    The pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira interrogans, the causal agent of leptospirosis, remain largely unknown. This is mainly due to the lack of tools for genetically manipulating pathogenic Leptospira species. Thus, homologous recombination between introduced DNA and the corresponding chromosomal locus has never been demonstrated for this pathogen. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like repeat (Lig) proteins were previously identified as putative Leptospira virulence factors. In this study, a ligB mutant was constructed by allelic exchange in L. interrogans; in this mutant a spectinomycin resistance (Spc(r)) gene replaced a portion of the ligB coding sequence. Gene disruption was confirmed by PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunofluorescence studies. The ligB mutant did not show decrease virulence compared to the wild-type strain in the hamster model of leptospirosis. In addition, inoculation of rats with the ligB mutant induced persistent colonization of the kidneys. Finally, LigB was not required to mediate bacterial adherence to cultured cells. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence of site-directed homologous recombination in pathogenic Leptospira species. Furthermore, our data suggest that LigB does not play a major role in dissemination of the pathogen in the host and in the development of acute disease manifestations or persistent renal colonization. PMID:18809657

  9. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques. PMID:26265551

  10. Animal Species Identification by PCR – RFLP of Cytochrome b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Minarovič

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An alternative DNA detection system is based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Subsequent cleavage by a restriction enzymes gives rise to a specie-specific pattern on an agarose gel. We used five animal species (Mustela vison, Mustela putorius furo, Sus scrofa domesticus, Oryctolagus cuninculus, Anser anser. Length of PCR product was 359 bp and we used universal primers. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was analyzed by using the restriction endonuclease AluI. Results of cleavage were visualized by using electrophoresis and UV transiluminator. Every animal specie has a unique combination of restriction fragments i.e. Mustela vison 81 bp, 109 bp and 169 bp, Mustela putorius furo 169 bp and 190 bp, Sus scrofa domesticus 115 bp and 244 bp, Oryctolagus cunninculus is not cleaved by AluI so it has whole 359 bp fragment on agarose gel, Anser anser 130 bp and 229 bp. The results suggest that the method of PCR - RFLP is rapid and simple method for identification of species. PCR – RFLP can reliably identify chosen species. Application of genetic methods is very useful for breeding of livestock and protection of biodiversity.

  11. The impacts of wind farms on animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterže Jana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind farms are constructed in various areas without considering the protected animal species that are present there. In problem areas, there are some mitigation measures taken. In 55% of the studies, bird mortality rates ranges from 0.0 to 2.0 fatalities/turbine/year. 79.4% of the evaluated mortality rates for raptors range from 0.0 to 0.1 fatalities/ turbine/year. The highest number of wind turbine fatalities has been recorded with a raptor Buteo jamaicensis, followed by seagull Larus argentatus, passerine Eremophila alpestris and domestic pigeon Columbia livia. The only species that has been recorded as a wind turbine fatality and is a part of the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species is red kite (Milvus milvus. The European wind power studies pay more attention to the disturbance of particular species. The species that are most commonly considered threatened are the raptors (common buzzard, common kestrel and red kite, grassland birds (common quail, corn crake, lapwing, ringed plover, migrating birds (migrant goose, crane, lapwing, golden plover and waterbirds (geese species. Bat annual mortality rates range from 0.0 to 47.5 fatalities/turbine/year at different wind farms. The highest mortality rate has been reported for bat species Laisurus cinereus, Lasiurus borealis, Lasionycteris noctivagans and Nyctalus noctula.

  12. Animal models of extracranial pediatric solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Guido; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; WARMANN, STEVEN; Fuchs, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Animal models, including xenografts, models of metastatic invasion, syngeneic models and transgenic models, are important tools for basic research in solid pediatric tumors, while humanized animal models are useful for novel immunotherapeutical approaches. Optical and molecular imaging techniques are used for in vivo imaging and may be used in conjunction with alternative treatment approaches, including photodynamic therapy. The aim of this review is to highlight the various animal models tha...

  13. The Laboratory Rat as an Animal Model for Osteoporosis Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Xanthos, Theodoros T; Thoma, Sofia E; Lyritis, George P; Dontas, Ismene A

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is an important systemic disorder, affecting mainly Caucasian women, with a diverse and multifactorial etiology. A large variety of animal species, including rodents, rabbits, dogs, and primates, have been used as animal models in osteoporosis research. Among these, the laboratory rat is the preferred animal for most researchers. Its skeleton has been studied extensively, and although there are several limitations to its similarity to the human condition, these can be overcome th...

  14. The methods of inducing polymyositis animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the methods of inducing polymyosistis(PM) animal model. Methods: In order to develope a induce PM animal model in purified guinea pia muscle myosin mixed with complete Freund adjuvant was injected subcutaneously to SD rats many times and the results of the clinical finding, the EMG, the pathologic changes and the musclar MRI changes in SD rats was assessed. Results: The PM animal models were similar to the human in clinical findings, the EMG, the pathologic changes, the musclar MRI changes and so on. Conclusion: The animal model is similar to the human PM, it is an ideal animal model to investigate PM. (authors)

  15. Animal Models of Human Placentation - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however...... is no trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels, and the immunology of pregnancy may be quite different. We conclude that continued research on non-human primates is needed to clarify embryonic-endometrial interactions. The interstitial implantation of human is unusual, but the initial interaction...... and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial, there...

  16. Animal models of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Darryl R; Clark, Abbot F

    2015-12-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases and conditions. While unmatched in their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, GC therapy is often associated with the significant ocular side effect of GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and iatrogenic open-angle glaucoma. Investigators have generated GC-induced OHT and glaucoma in at least 8 different species besides man. These models mimic many features of this condition in man and provide morphologic and molecular insights into the pathogenesis of GC-OHT. In addition, there are many clinical, morphological, and molecular similarities between GC-induced glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), making animals models of GC-induced OHT and glaucoma attractive models in which to study specific aspects of POAG. PMID:26051991

  17. Animal models for Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Götz; Naeman N Götz

    2009-01-01

    In dementia research, animal models have become indispensable tools. They not only model aspects of the human condition, but also simulate processes that occur in humans and hence provide insight into how disease is initiated and propagated. The present review discusses two prominent human neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. It discusses what we would like to model in animals and highlights some of the more recent achievements using species as ...

  18. Animal modelling for inherited central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Disease-causing variants of a large number of genes trigger inherited retinal degeneration leading to photoreceptor loss. Because cones are essential for daylight and central vision such as reading, mobility, and face recognition, this review focuses on a variety of animal models for cone diseases. The pertinence of using these models to reveal genotype/phenotype correlations and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies is discussed. Interestingly, several large animal models recapitulate human diseases and can serve as a strong base from which to study the biology of disease and to assess the scale-up of new therapies. Examples of innovative approaches will be presented such as lentiviral-based transgenesis in pigs and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-gene transfer into the monkey eye to investigate the neural circuitry plasticity of the visual system. The models reported herein permit the exploration of common mechanisms that exist between different species and the identification and highlighting of pathways that may be specific to primates, including humans. PMID:26387748

  19. Directed animals and Gas Models Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Le Borgne, Yvan; Marckert, Jean-François

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the enumeration of directed animals using gas models. We show that there exists a natural construction of random directed animals on any directed graph together with a particle system that explains at the level of objects the formal link known between the density of the gas model and the generating function of directed animals counted according to the area. This provides some new methods to compute the generating function of directed animals counted according to area...

  20. Animal Models for Vascular Tissue-Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Daniel D.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2013-01-01

    Due to rise in cardiovascular disease throughout the world, there is increasing demand for small diameter blood vessels as replacement grafts. The present review focuses on the animal models that have been used to test small-diameter TEVs with emphasis on the attributes of each model. Small animal models are used to test short-term patency and address mechanistic hypotheses; and large, pre-clinical animal models are employed to test long-term patency, remodeling and function in an environment...

  1. The impacts of wind farms on animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Sterže Jana; Pogačnik M.

    2008-01-01

    Wind farms are constructed in various areas without considering the protected animal species that are present there. In problem areas, there are some mitigation measures taken. In 55% of the studies, bird mortality rates ranges from 0.0 to 2.0 fatalities/turbine/year. 79.4% of the evaluated mortality rates for raptors range from 0.0 to 0.1 fatalities/ turbine/year. The highest number of wind turbine fatalities has been recorded with a raptor Buteo jamaicensis, followed by seagull Larus argent...

  2. Near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of amyloid beta species and monitoring therapy in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xueli; Tian, Yanli; Zhang, Can; Tian, Xiaoyu; Ross, Alana W.; Moir, Robert D.; Sun, Hongbin; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2015-01-01

    Drug development for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been largely unsuccessful to date. Although numerous agents are reportedly effective in vitro, only an inadequate number of them have been tested in vivo, partially because of the lack of reliable and cost-efficient imaging methods to monitor their in vivo therapeutic effectiveness. Several amyloid beta (Aβ)-specific PET tracers have been used for clinical studies. However, their application for monitoring drug treatment in small animals is li...

  3. Animal models of tuberculosis for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, U D; Katoch, V M

    2009-01-01

    Animal models for testing different vaccine candidates have been developed since a long time for studying tuberculosis. Mice, guinea pigs and rabbits are animals most frequently used. Each model has its own merits for studying human tuberculosis, and none completely mimics the human disease. Different animal models are being used depending upon the availability of the space, trained manpower as well as other resources. Efforts should continue to develop a vaccine which can replace/outperform the presently available vaccine BCG. PMID:19287053

  4. Developing better and more valid animal models of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-01-01

    Valid sensitive animal models are crucial for understanding the pathobiology of complex human disorders, such as anxiety, autism, depression and schizophrenia, which all have the 'spectrum' nature. Discussing new important strategic directions of research in this field, here we focus i) on cross-species validation of animal models, ii) ensuring their population (external) validity, and iii) the need to target the interplay between multiple disordered domains. We note that optimal animal models of brain disorders should target evolutionary conserved 'core' traits/domains and specifically mimic the clinically relevant inter-relationships between these domains. PMID:24384129

  5. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  6. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  7. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Reizner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorised by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarised and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting.

  8. Animal models for implant biomaterial research in bone: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A I Pearce

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of an optimal interface between bone and orthopaedic and dental implants has taken place for many years. In order to determine whether a newly developed implant material conforms to the requirements of biocompatibility, mechanical stability and safety, it must undergo rigorous testing both in vitro and in vivo. Results from in vitro studies can be difficult to extrapolate to the in vivo situation. For this reason the use of animal models is often an essential step in the testing of orthopaedic and dental implants prior to clinical use in humans. This review discusses some of the more commonly available and frequently used animal models such as the dog, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit models for the evaluation of bone-implant interactions. Factors for consideration when choosing an animal model and implant design are discussed. Various bone specific features are discussed including the usage of the species, bone macrostructure and microstructure and bone composition and remodelling, with emphasis being placed on the similarity between the animal model and the human clinical situation. While the rabbit was the most commonly used of the species discussed in this review, it is clear that this species showed the least similarities to human bone. There were only minor differences in bone composition between the various species and humans. The pig demonstrated a good likeness with human bone however difficulties may be encountered in relation to their size and ease of handling. In this respect the dog and sheep/goat show more promise as animal models for the testing of bone implant materials. While no species fulfils all of the requirements of an ideal model, an understanding of the differences in bone architecture and remodelling between the species is likely to assist in the selection of a suitable species for a defined research question.

  9. Animal Models of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of animal models of dengue virus (DENV infection and disease has been challenging, as epidemic DENV does not naturally infect non-human species. Non-human primates (NHPs can sustain viral replication in relevant cell types and develop a robust immune response, but they do not develop overt disease. In contrast, certain immunodeficient mouse models infected with mouse-adapted DENV strains show signs of severe disease similar to the ‘vascular-leak’ syndrome seen in severe dengue in humans. Humanized mouse models can sustain DENV replication and show some signs of disease, but further development is needed to validate the immune response. Classically, immunocompetent mice infected with DENV do not manifest disease or else develop paralysis when inoculated intracranially; however, a new model using high doses of DENV has recently been shown to develop hemorrhagic signs after infection. Overall, each model has its advantages and disadvantages and is differentially suited for studies of dengue pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis and/or pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines.

  10. Engineering large animal models of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Timothy P Sheets; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site‐specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of...

  11. Ethological concepts enhance the translational value of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Suzanne M; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Spruijt, Berry M

    2015-07-15

    The translational value of animal models is an issue of ongoing discussion. We argue that 'Refinement' of animal experiments is needed and this can be achieved by exploiting an ethological approach when setting up and conducting experiments. Ethology aims to assess the functional meaning of behavioral changes, due to experimental manipulation or treatment, in animal models. Although the use of ethological concepts is particularly important for studies involving the measurement of animal behavior (as is the case for most studies on neuro-psychiatric conditions), it will also substantially benefit other disciplines, such as those investigating the immune system or inflammatory response. Using an ethological approach also involves using more optimal testing conditions are employed that have a biological relevance to the animal. Moreover, using a more biological relevant analysis of the data will help to clarify the functional meaning of the modeled readout (e.g. whether it is psychopathological or adaptive in nature). We advocate for instance that more behavioral studies should use animals in group-housed conditions, including the recording of their ultrasonic vocalizations, because (1) social behavior is an essential feature of animal models for human 'social' psychopathologies, such as autism and schizophrenia, and (2) social conditions are indispensable conditions for appropriate behavioral studies in social species, such as the rat. Only when taking these elements into account, the validity of animal experiments and, thus, the translation value of animal models can be enhanced. PMID:25823814

  12. Towards a reliable animal model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry shows a decreasing interest in the development of drugs for migraine. One of the reasons for this could be the lack of reliable animal models for studying the effect of acute and prophylactic migraine drugs. The infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is the best validated...... and most studied human migraine model. Several attempts have been made to transfer this model to animals. The different variants of this model are discussed as well as other recent models....

  13. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  14. Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hraiech S; Papazian L.; Rolain JM; Bregeon F

    2015-01-01

    Sami Hraiech,1,2 Laurent Papazian,1,2 Jean-Marc Rolain,1 Fabienne Bregeon1,3IHU Méditerranée Infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France; 2Réanimation – Détresses respiratoires et Infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France; 3Service d’Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, FranceAbstract: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasion...

  15. Models of breast cancer: quo vadis, animal modeling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodent models for breast cancer have for many decades provided unparalleled insights into cellular and molecular aspects of neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis. Despite recent improvements in the fidelity of genetically engineered mice, rodent models are still being criticized by many colleagues for not being 'authentic' enough to the human disease. Motives for this criticism are manifold and range from a very general antipathy against the rodent model system to well-founded arguments that highlight physiological variations between species. Newly proposed differences in genetic pathways that cause cancer in humans and mice invigorated the ongoing discussion about the legitimacy of the murine system to model the human disease. The present commentary intends to stimulate a debate on this subject by providing the background about new developments in animal modeling, by disputing suggested limitations of genetically engineered mice, and by discussing improvements but also ambiguous expectations on the authenticity of xenograft models to faithfully mimic the human disease

  16. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Potashkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  17. A REVIEW ON ANIMAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Devi* and Ramica Sharma

    2013-01-01

    As described by the world health organization (WHO), depression is the most common and serious disorder leading to suicide. Numbers of synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of this fatal disease, but are associated with serious complications. A wide diversity of animal models has been used to examine antidepressant activity. These range from relatively simple models sensitive to acute treatment, to highly sophisticated models. The number of validated animal models for affective diso...

  18. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term “arteriovenous malformation,” limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal models or investigated AVM-related mechanisms and treatments using these models were reviewed. More than 100 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were identified, and from them eight different types of the original models were summarized. The backgrounds and procedures of these models, their applications, and research findings were demonstrated. Animal models are useful in studying the pathogenesis of AVM formation, growth, and rupture, as well as in developing and testing new treatments. Creations of preferable models are expected.

  19. Animal Models in Studying Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xu; Hongzhi Xu; Zhiyong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an important cause of hemorrhagic stroke. The etiology is largely unknown and the therapeutics are controversial. A review of AVM-associated animal models may be helpful in order to understand the up-to-date knowledge and promote further research about the disease. We searched PubMed till December 31, 2014, with the term “arteriovenous malformation,” limiting results to animals and English language. Publications that described creations of AVM animal ...

  20. Development of osteoporosis animal model using micropigs

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Solis, Chester D.; Lee, Myeong-Seop; Hyun, Byung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a known major health problem and a serious disease of the bone, there has been a great need to develop more and newer animal models for this disease. Among animal models used for testing drug efficacy, the minipig model has become useful and effective due to its close similarity with humans (validity), particularly with the pharmacokinetics of compounds via subcutaneous administration, the structure and function of the organs, the morphology of bone and the overall metabolic n...

  1. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  2. Evaluation of animal models of neurobehavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordquist Rebecca E

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models play a central role in all areas of biomedical research. The process of animal model building, development and evaluation has rarely been addressed systematically, despite the long history of using animal models in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral dysfunctions. An iterative, multi-stage trajectory for developing animal models and assessing their quality is proposed. The process starts with defining the purpose(s of the model, preferentially based on hypotheses about brain-behavior relationships. Then, the model is developed and tested. The evaluation of the model takes scientific and ethical criteria into consideration. Model development requires a multidisciplinary approach. Preclinical and clinical experts should establish a set of scientific criteria, which a model must meet. The scientific evaluation consists of assessing the replicability/reliability, predictive, construct and external validity/generalizability, and relevance of the model. We emphasize the role of (systematic and extended replications in the course of the validation process. One may apply a multiple-tiered 'replication battery' to estimate the reliability/replicability, validity, and generalizability of result. Compromised welfare is inherent in many deficiency models in animals. Unfortunately, 'animal welfare' is a vaguely defined concept, making it difficult to establish exact evaluation criteria. Weighing the animal's welfare and considerations as to whether action is indicated to reduce the discomfort must accompany the scientific evaluation at any stage of the model building and evaluation process. Animal model building should be discontinued if the model does not meet the preset scientific criteria, or when animal welfare is severely compromised. The application of the evaluation procedure is exemplified using the rat with neonatal hippocampal lesion as a proposed model of schizophrenia. In a manner congruent to

  3. Animal Models for the Study of Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Mitul; Rojavin, Yuri; Jamali, Amir A.; Wasielewski, Samantha J.; Salgado, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process of the bone and its related structures secondary to an infection with pyogenic organisms. Because of the variety in disease presentations and pathophysiology of osteomyelitis, it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical studies. Therefore, animal models have been created for in vivo experimentation. A PubMed and OVID search was performed on March 31, 2008, using keywords osteomyelitis, animal model (rabbit, rat, mouse, avian, dog, she...

  4. ANIMAL MODELS OF CANCER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Archana M Navale

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In USA three persons out of five will develop some type of cancer. Beyond these statistics of mortality, the morbidity due to cancer presents a real scary picture. Last 50 years of research has rendered some types of cancer curable, but still the major fear factor associated with this disease is unchanged. Animal models are classified according to the method of induction of cancer in the animal. Spontaneous tumor models are the most primi...

  5. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Potashkin; Blume, S. R.; Runkle, N. K.

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of t...

  6. Use of animal models in musculoskeletal research.

    OpenAIRE

    Neyt, J. G.; Buckwalter, J. A.; Carroll, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and common clinical disorders of bones, joints and soft tissues has been enhanced by the use of experimental animal models. Articles reporting on the results of these biomedical experiments frequently include conclusions that are based on the assumption that the biology of the animal model is similar to that of a human being for the disease process under investigation. The purpose of this investigation was to study the criteria and the conside...

  7. Animal models for the study of tendinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common and significant clinical problem characterised by activity‐related pain, focal tendon tenderness and intratendinous imaging changes. Recent histopathological studies have indicated the underlying pathology to be one of tendinosis (degeneration) as opposed to tendinitis (inflammation). Relatively little is known about tendinosis and its pathogenesis. Contributing to this is an absence of validated animal models of the pathology. Animal models of tendinosis represent po...

  8. Animal models of osteoporosis - necessity and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Turner A. Simon

    2001-01-01

    There is a great need to further characterise the available animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis, for the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, investigation of new therapies (e.g. selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)) and evaluation of prosthetic devices in osteoporotic bone. Animal models that have been used in the past include non-human primates, dogs, cats, rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and minipigs, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Sheep ar...

  9. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Damaser, Margot S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to S...

  10. A cognitive model's view of animal cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney D'MELLO, Stan FRANKLIN

    2011-01-01

    Although it is a relatively new field of study, the animal cognition literature is quite extensive and difficult to synthesize. This paper explores the contributions a comprehensive, computational, cognitive model can make toward organizing and assimilating this literature, as well as toward identifying important concepts and their interrelations. Using the LIDA model as an example, a framework is described within which to integrate the diverse research in animal cognition. Such a framework c...

  11. Animal models of osteoporosis - necessity and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner A. Simon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need to further characterise the available animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis, for the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, investigation of new therapies (e.g. selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs and evaluation of prosthetic devices in osteoporotic bone. Animal models that have been used in the past include non-human primates, dogs, cats, rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs and minipigs, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Sheep are a promising model for various reasons: they are docile, easy to handle and house, relatively inexpensive, available in large numbers, spontaneously ovulate, and the sheep's bones are large enough to evaluate orthopaedic implants. Most animal models have used females and osteoporosis in the male has been largely ignored. Recently, interest in development of appropriate prosthetic devices which would stimulate osseointegration into osteoporotic, appendicular, axial and mandibular bone has intensified. Augmentation of osteopenic lumbar vertebrae with bioactive ceramics (vertebroplasty is another area that will require testing in the appropriate animal model. Using experimental animal models for the study of these different facets of osteoporosis minimizes some of the difficulties associated with studying the disease in humans, namely time and behavioral variability among test subjects. New experimental drug therapies and orthopaedic implants can potentially be tested on large numbers of animals subjected to a level of experimental control impossible in human clinical research.

  12. Progress With Nonhuman Animal Models of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, John C

    2016-09-01

    Nonhuman animals have been major contributors to the science of the genetics of addiction. Given the explosion of interest in genetics, it is fair to ask, are we making reasonable progress toward our goals with animal models? I will argue that our goals are changing and that overall progress has been steady and seems likely to continue apace. Genetics tools have developed almost incredibly rapidly, enabling both more reductionist and more synthetic or integrative approaches. I believe that these approaches to making progress have been unbalanced in biomedical science, favoring reductionism, particularly in animal genetics. I argue that substantial, novel progress is also likely to come in the other direction, toward synthesis and abstraction. Another area in which future progress with genetic animal models seems poised to contribute more is the reconciliation of human and animal phenotypes, or consilience. The inherent power of the genetic animal models could be more profitably exploited. In the end, animal research has continued to provide novel insights about how genes influence individual differences in addiction risk and consequences. The rules of the genetics game are changing so fast that it is hard to remember how comparatively little we knew even a generation ago. Rather than worry about whether we have been wasting time and resources asking the questions we have been, we should look to the future and see if we can come up with some new ones. The valuable findings from the past will endure, and the sidetracks will be forgotten. PMID:27588527

  13. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  14. ANIMAL MODELS OF CANCER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana M. Navale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. In USA three persons out of five will develop some type of cancer. Beyond these statistics of mortality, the morbidity due to cancer presents a real scary picture. Last 50 years of research has rendered some types of cancer curable, but still the major fear factor associated with this disease is unchanged. Animal models are classified according to the method of induction of cancer in the animal. Spontaneous tumor models are the most primitive models. Although these models show good resemblance to the natural disease in humans, they were not capable of keeping pace with developing experimental therapeutics programs. It has therefore been necessary to take a further step towards artificiality, away from the clinical problem in the search for satisfactory testing method. From this step, the journey of artificially induced tumor models started. It is possible to induce cancer reproducibly in animals by exposing them to various agents and now, by transplanting tumor cells or tissue. The development of Genetically Engineered Animal models has provided a great help in knowing the disease. This article takes a review of present animal models used in anti-cancer drug discovery.

  15. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  16. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM;

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  17. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Alline C; Manoela V. Fogaca; Daniele C. Aguiar; Guimaraes, Francisco S.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents). The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mecha...

  18. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Linda L.; Vasil Pani; Sandra Smole; Werner, Barbara G.; Xingtai Wang

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species with raccoon rabies variant virus in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Abstract We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV) in ...

  19. High Rates of Species Accumulation in Animals with Bioluminescent Courtship Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Emily A; Oakley, Todd H

    2016-07-25

    One of the great mysteries of evolutionary biology is why closely related lineages accumulate species at different rates. Theory predicts that populations undergoing strong sexual selection will more quickly differentiate because of increased potential for genetic isolation [1-6]. Whether or not these population genetic processes translate to more species at macroevolutionary scales remains contentious [7]. Here we show that lineages with bioluminescent courtship, almost certainly a sexually selected trait, have more species and faster rates of species accumulation than their non-luminous relatives. In each of ten distantly related animal lineages from insects, crustaceans, annelid worms, and fishes, we find more species in lineages with bioluminescent courtship compared to their sister groups. Furthermore, we find under a Yule model that lineages with bioluminescent courtship displays have significantly higher rates of species accumulation compared to a larger clade that includes them plus non-luminous relatives. In contrast, we do not find more species or higher rates in lineages that use bioluminescence for defense, a function presumably not under sexual selection. These results document an association between the origin of bioluminescent courtship and increased accumulation of species, supporting theory predicting sexual selection increases rates of speciation at macroevolutionary scales to influence global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:27345160

  20. Pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals. 1. Models and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, M.G.; Stehly, Guy R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    While clinical and toxicological applications of pharmacokinetics have continued to evolve both conceptually and experimentally, pharmacokinetics modeling in aquatic animals has not progressed accordingly. In this paper we present methods and concepts of pharmacokinetic modeling in aquatic animals using multicompartmental, clearance-based, non-compartmental and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models. These models should be considered as alternatives to traditional approaches, which assume that the animal acts as a single homogeneous compartment based on apparent monoexponential elimination.

  1. Comparison of animal models of hyperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-mei LIU

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To select the proper experimental animal model for research on prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. Method: Hyperlipidemia models of mouse, rat, golden hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, pigeon and quail often used in the last ten years were compared. Results: Golden hamster and guinea pig models are similar to human beings in lipid metabolism and have unique superiority in experimental study, while the models of rat, mouse, pigeon and quail have significant difference as compared...

  2. Animal Models of Depression: Molecular Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Much of the current understanding about the pathogenesis of altered mood, impaired concentration and neurovegetative symptoms in major depression has come from animal models. However, because of the unique and complex features of human depression, the generation of valid and insightful depression models has been less straightforward than modeling other disabling diseases like cancer or autoimmune conditions. Today’s popular depression models creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral ass...

  3. Animal and cellular models of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Arends, Mark; White, Eric; Whitelaw, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this eighteenth (2016) Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present a collection of 19 invited review articles that cover different aspects of cellular and animal models of disease. These include genetically-engineered models, chemically-induced models, naturally-occurring models, and combinations thereof, with the focus on recent methodological and conceptual developments across a wide range of human diseases.

  4. Phenotyping animal models of diabetic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biessels, G J; Bril, V; Calcutt, N A;

    2014-01-01

    NIDDK, JDRF, and the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of EASD sponsored a meeting to explore the current status of animal models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The goal of the workshop was to develop a set of consensus criteria for the phenotyping of rodent models of diabetic neuropathy. The...

  5. Animal models of preeclampsia; uses and limitations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, F P

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and has an unknown etiology. The limited progress made regarding new treatments to reduce the incidence and severity of preeclampsia has been attributed to the difficulties faced in the development of suitable animal models for the mechanistic research of this disease. In addition, animal models need hypotheses on which to be based and the slow development of testable hypotheses has also contributed to this poor progress. The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of preeclampsia and the development of viable reproducible animal models has contributed significantly to these advances. Although many of these models have features of preeclampsia, they are still poor overall models of the human disease and limited due to lack of reproducibility and because they do not include the complete spectrum of pathophysiological changes associated with preeclampsia. This review aims to provide a succinct and comprehensive assessment of current animal models of preeclampsia, their uses and limitations with particular attention paid to the best validated and most comprehensive models, in addition to those models which have been utilized to investigate potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia.

  6. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  7. Animal models of henipavirus infection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Czub, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) form a separate genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae, and are classified as biosafety level four pathogens due to their high case fatality rate following human infection and because of the lack of effective vaccines or therapy. Both viruses emerged from their natural reservoir during the last decade of the 20th century, causing severe disease in humans, horses and swine, and infecting a number of other mammalian species. The current review summarises current published data relating to experimental infection of small and large animals, including the natural reservoir species, the Pteropus bat, with HeV or NiV. Susceptibility to infection and virus distribution in the individual species is discussed, along with the pathogenesis, pathological changes, and potential routes of transmission. PMID:19084436

  8. Consideration of other primate species as flight animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    The different types of primates which might be used as flight animals are surveyed, and the pros and cons of using them are discussed. Various factors suggest that the most desirable animals for space studies are the rhesus, pig-tailed, Java, and squirrel monkeys. The capuchin monkey has assets for certain types of space experimentation.

  9. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  10. Differential Paradigms in Animal Models of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, S Manoj Kumar; Bhat, B Vishnu

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is a serious clinical problem involving complex mechanisms which requires better understanding and insight. Animal models of sepsis have played a major role in providing insight into the complex pathophysiology of sepsis. There have been various animal models of sepsis with different paradigms. Endotoxin, bacterial infusion, cecal ligation and puncture, and colon ascendens stent peritonitis models are the commonly practiced methods at present. Each of these models has their own advantages and also confounding factors. We have discussed the underlying mechanisms regulating each of these models along with possible reasons why each model failed to translate into the clinic. In animal models, the timing of development of the hemodynamic phases and the varied cytokine patterns could not accurately resemble the progression of clinical sepsis. More often, the exuberant and transient pro-inflammatory cytokine response is only focused in most models. Immunosuppression and apoptosis in the later phase of sepsis have been found to cause more damage than the initial acute phase of sepsis. Likewise, better understanding of the existing models of sepsis could help us create a more relevant model which could provide solution to the currently failed clinical trials in sepsis. PMID:27432263

  11. Novel Animal Models of Pediatric Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Auvin, Stéphane; Pineda, Eduardo; Shin, Don; Gressens, Pierre; Mazarati, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    When mimicking epileptic processes in a laboratory setting, it is important to understand the differences between experimental models of seizures and epilepsy. Because human epilepsy is defined by the appearance of multiple spontaneous recurrent seizures, the induction of a single acute seizure without recurrence does not constitute an adequate epilepsy model. Animal models of epilepsy might be useful for various tasks. They allow for the investigation of pathophysiological mechanisms of the ...

  12. Animal models of focal brain ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard Kenneth M; Fisher Marc

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death in many countries. Understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic injury and developing therapies is an important endeavor that requires much additional research. Animal stroke models provide an important mechanism for these activities. A large number of stroke models have been developed and are currently used in laboratories around the world. These models are overviewed as are approaches for measuring infarct size and functional outcome.

  13. DNA barcoding in animal species: progress, potential and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, John

    2007-02-01

    Despite 250 years of work in systematics, the majority of species remains to be identified. Rising extinction rates and the need for increased biological monitoring lend urgency to this task. DNA sequencing, with key sequences serving as a "barcode", has therefore been proposed as a technology that might expedite species identification. In particular, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been employed as a possible DNA marker for species and a number of studies in a variety of taxa have accordingly been carried out to examine its efficacy. In general, these studies demonstrate that DNA barcoding resolves most species, although some taxa have proved intractable. In some studies, barcoding provided a means of highlighting potential cryptic, synonymous or extinct species as well as matching adults with immature specimens. Higher taxa, however, have not been resolved as accurately as species. Nonetheless, DNA barcoding appears to offer a means of identifying species and may become a standard tool. PMID:17226815

  14. Animal models of gene-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Danielle R

    2008-12-01

    Food intake of humans is governed by the food's nutritional value and pleasing taste, but also by other factors such as food cost and availability, cultural imperatives, and social status. The biological determinants of human food intake are not easily parsed from these other factors, making them hard to study against the whirligig aspects of human life in a modern age. The study of animals provides a useful alternative. Humans have a history of studying animal food intake, for agricultural reasons (e.g., pigs and cows), and for personal reasons (e.g., dogs and cats), and these practical concerns have been joined with the appreciation that other models can teach us the principles of behavior, genetics, and nutrition. Thus there is a steady use of the traditional animal models in this type of research, as well as growth in the use of other systems such as worms and flies. Rats and mice occupy a special niche as animal models for two reasons; first, they share with humans a love of the same types of food, and second, they are the target of a number of well-developed genetic tools. The available genetic tools that make mice a popular model include a well-annotated genome (Mouse Build 37), profiles of RNA expression from many tissues, a diverse panel of inbred strains, and the ability to manipulate genes in the whole animal, including removing a gene only in specific tissues (e.g., Cre-lox system). Mice have been harnessed to find genotypes that contribute to sweet-liking, and other studies are underway to understand how genetic variation might at least partially explain other puzzles of human appetites. Animal models provide a way to study the genetic determinants of food selection with experimental rigor and therefore complement human genetics studies. PMID:19037208

  15. Validating animal models for preclinical research: a scientific and ethical discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Orsolya E.; Axel K. Hansen; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S

    2010-01-01

    The use of animals to model humans in biomedical research relies on the notion that basic processes are sufficiently similar across species to allow extrapolation. Animal model validity is discussed in terms of the similarity between the model and human condition it is intended to model, but no formal validation of models is applied. There is a stark contrast here with non-animal alternatives in toxicology and safety studies, for which an extensive validation is required. In the present paper...

  16. Animal species endangerment: the role of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.; Fellows, V.L.; Bounds, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Summary & conclusions: Multiple factors contribute to the decline of species. Habitat destruction is the primary factor that threatens species. affecting 73 % of endangered species. The second major factor causing species decline is the introduction of nonnative species. affecting 68% of endangered species. Pollution and overharvesting were identified as impacting, respectively, 38 and 15% of endangered species. Other factors affecting species decline include hybridization, competition, disease, and other interspecific interactions. Once a species is reduced to a remnant of its former population size and distribution, its vulnerability to catastrophic pollution events increases, frequently exceeding or replacing the factors responsible for the initial decline. Small, isolated populations are particularly vulnerable to catastrophic loss by an acute event. such as a chemical spill or pesticide application. However, when it comes to surviving a single disaster, widespread subpopulations of a species are far more resilient and ensure genetic survival. Hypothesizing theoretical concerns of potential factors that could affect an endangered species could predispose the scientific and political communities to jeopardizing threats. The user of recovery plans as a data source must be aware of the bias within the data set. These data should be used with the caveat that the source of information in recovery plans is not always based on scientific research and rigorous data collection. Over 58% of the information identifying species threats is based on estimates or personal communication. while only 42% is based on peer reviewed literature, academic research. or government reports. Many recovery plans were written when a species was initially listed in the 1970s or 1980s. Politics, human disturbance, and habitat demand issues evolve over a 20- to 30-year period. leaving much of the threats facing endangered species outdated and inadequate. These data are most valuable when used

  17. Animal models for studying penile hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HiroyaMizusawa; OsamuIshizuka

    2002-01-01

    Animal models for the study of erectile function monitoring the changes in intracavernous pressure(ICP)during penile erection was reviewed.The development of new modwls using small commercially-available experimen-tal animals,rats and mice,in the last edcade facilitated in vivo investigation of erectile physiology.The technique enabled to evaluate even subtle erectile responses by analyzing ICPand systemic blood pressure,Moreover,the method has been well improved and studies using conscious animal models without the influence of any drug or anesthesia are more appropriate in exploring the precise physiological and pharmacological mechanisms in erection.Also,more natural and physiological sexual arousal instead of electrical or pharmacological stimulation is desirable in most of the studies.This article reviewed the development of ICPstudies in rats and mice.

  18. Animal Models of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda; Haruo Takahashi; Takehiko Koji

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear acquired cholesteatoma is a pathological condition associated with otitis media, which may be associated with temporal bone resorption, otorrhea and hearing loss, and occasionally various other complications. Cholesteatoma is characterized by the enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphologic characteristics. Unfortunately, our understanding of the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis is limited. To investigate its pathogenesis, different animal models have b...

  19. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  20. Animal models for meniscus repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deponti, Daniela; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Scotti, Celeste; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Martin, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The meniscus plays an important role in knee function and mechanics. Meniscal lesions, however, are common phenomena and this tissue is not able to achieve spontaneous successful repair, particularly in the inner avascular zone. Several animal models have been studied and proposed for testing different reparative approaches, as well as for studying regenerative methods aiming to restore the original shape and function of this structure. This review summarizes the gross anatomy, function, ultrastructure and biochemical composition of the knee meniscus in several animal models in comparison with the human meniscus. The relevance of the models is discussed from the point of view of basic research as well as of clinical translation for meniscal repair, substitution and regeneration. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of each model for various research directions are critically discussed. PMID:23712959

  1. Exotic and invasive terrestrial and freshwater animal species in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of 72 invasive animals of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Dutch Caribbean, eleven of which are no longer present. All invasive animals that are principally agricultural pests and or animal and plant diseases (46 species) are excluded as these are discussed separately e

  2. Automated identification of animal species in camera trap images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, X.; Wang, J.; Kays, R.; Jansen, P.A.; Wang, T.; Huang, T.

    2013-01-01

    Image sensors are increasingly being used in biodiversity monitoring, with each study generating many thousands or millions of pictures. Efficiently identifying the species captured by each image is a critical challenge for the advancement of this field. Here, we present an automated species identif

  3. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sider, Krista L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the u...

  4. Update on Animal Models for HIV Research

    OpenAIRE

    Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Animal models for HIV research have been indispensible in fulfilling Koch’s postulate and in exploring issues of viral infectivity and pathogenesis, sequence divergence, route(s) of acquisition, tissue distribution and tropism, immunogenicity and protection capacity of vaccine candidates, escape from adaptive immunity, and more. Did they fail to predict the efficacy of T cell vaccines in humans? This article summarizes progress and status of models to inform and complement clinical work.

  5. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the ...

  6. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy: insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Catherine L; Glasser, Rebecca L; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a relatively common and often devastating complication of diabetes. The major clinical signs are tachycardia, exercise intolerance, and orthostatic hypotension, but the most severe aspects of this complication are high rates of cardiac events and mortality. One of the earliest manifestations of CAN is reduced heart rate variability, and detection of this, along with abnormal results in postural blood pressure testing and/or the Valsalva maneuver, are central to diagnosis of the disease. The treatment options for CAN, beyond glycemic control, are extremely limited and lack evidence of efficacy. The underlying molecular mechanisms are also poorly understood. Thus, CAN is associated with a poor prognosis and there is a compelling need for research to understand, prevent, and reverse CAN. In this review of the literature we examine the use and usefulness of animal models of CAN in diabetes. Compared to other diabetic complications, the number of animal studies of CAN is very low. The published studies range across a variety of species, methods of inducing diabetes, and timescales examined, leading to high variability in study outcomes. The lack of well-characterized animal models makes it difficult to judge the relevance of these models to the human disease. One major advantage of animal studies is the ability to probe underlying molecular mechanisms, and the limited numbers of mechanistic studies conducted to date are outlined. Thus, while animal models of CAN in diabetes are crucial to better understanding and development of therapies, they are currently under-used. PMID:23562143

  7. The effect of fragment shape and species' sensitivity to habitat edges on animal population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K

    2007-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation causes extinction of local animal populations by decreasing the amount of viable "core" habitat area and increasing edge effects. It is widely accepted that larger fragments make better nature reserves because core-dwelling species have a larger amount of suitable habitat. Nevertheless, fragments in real landscapes have complex, irregular shapes. We modeled the population sizes of species that have a representative range of preferences for or aversions to habitat edges at five spatial scales (within 10, 32, 100, 320, and 1000 m of an edge) in a nation-wide analysis of forest remnants in New Zealand. We hypothesized that the irregular shapes of fragments in real landscapes should generate statistically significant correlations between population density and fragment area, purely as a "geometric" effect of varying species responses to the distribution of edge habitat. Irregularly shaped fragments consistently reduced the population size of core-dwelling species by 10-100%, depending on the scale over which species responded to habitat edges. Moreover, core populations within individual fragments were spatially discontinuous, containing multiple, disjunct populations that inhabited small spatial areas and had reduced population size. The geometric effect was highly nonlinear and depended on the range of fragment sizes sampled and the scale at which species responded to habitat edges. Fragment shape played a strong role in determining population size in fragmented landscapes; thus, habitat restoration efforts may be more effective if they focus on connecting disjunct cores rather than isolated fragments. PMID:17650243

  8. Evaluation of surrogate animal models of melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Mark Warawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for the disease melioidosis. B. pseudomallei establishes disease in susceptible individuals through multiple routes of infection, all of which may proceed to a septicemic disease associated with a high mortality rate. B. pseudomallei opportunistically infects humans and a wide range of animals directly from the environment, and modeling of experimental melioidosis has been conducted in numerous biologically relevant models including mammalian and invertebrate hosts. This review seeks to summarize published findings related to established animal models of melioidosis, with an aim to compare and contrast the virulence of B. pseudomallei in these models. The effect of the route of delivery on disease is also discussed for intravenous, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intranasal, aerosol, oral, and intratracheal infection methodologies, with a particular focus on how they relate to modeling clinical melioidosis. The importance of the translational validity of the animal models used in B. pseudomallei research is highlighted as these studies have become increasingly therapeutic in nature.

  9. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronesi Paola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy. Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities.

  10. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  11. Animal models of anxiety disorders and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alline C. Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect performance in daily tasks and represent a high cost to public health. The initial observation of Charles Darwin that animals and human beings share similar characteristics in the expression of emotion raise the possibility of studying the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders in other mammals (mainly rodents. The development of animal models of anxiety and stress has helped to identify the pharmacological mechanisms and potential clinical effects of several drugs. Animal models of anxiety are based on conflict situations that can generate opposite motivational states induced by approach-avoidance situations. The present review revisited the main rodent models of anxiety and stress responses used worldwide. Here we defined as “ethological” the tests that assess unlearned/unpunished responses (such as the elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open field, whereas models that involve learned/punished responses are referred to as “conditioned operant conflict tests” (such as the Vogel conflict test. We also discussed models that involve mainly classical conditioning tests (fear conditioning. Finally, we addressed the main protocols used to induce stress responses in rodents, including psychosocial (social defeat and neonatal isolation stress, physical (restraint stress, and chronic unpredictable stress.

  12. Animal models for Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Götz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In dementia research, animal models have become indispensable tools. They not only model aspects of the human condition, but also simulate processes that occur in humans and hence provide insight into how disease is initiated and propagated. The present review discusses two prominent human neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. It discusses what we would like to model in animals and highlights some of the more recent achievements using species as diverse as mice, fish, flies and worms. Advances in imaging and therapy are explored. We also discuss some anticipated new models and developments. These will reveal how key players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, such as the peptide Aβ (amyloid β and the protein tau, cause neuronal dysfunction and eventually, neuronal demise. Understanding these processes fully will lead to early diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kizek*; Libuse Trnkova; Jaromir Hubalek; Jiri Pikula; Miroslava Beklova; Vojtech Adam

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metals and in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Excepting humans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animal species. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records were obtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other inte...

  14. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  15. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Cheung, Jackie K; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2015-08-31

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats. PMID:25770894

  16. Animal models of epilepsy: use and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandratavicius L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ludmyla Kandratavicius,1 Priscila Alves Balista,1 Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar,1 Rafael Naime Ruggiero,1 Eduardo Henrique Umeoka,2 Norberto Garcia-Cairasco,2 Lezio Soares Bueno-Junior,1 Joao Pereira Leite11Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, 2Department of Physiology, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, BrazilAbstract: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy and other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that are able to induce chemical, molecular, and anatomic alterations. In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. Major uses and limitations were highlighted, and neuropathological, behavioral, and neurophysiological similarities and differences between the model and the human equivalent were considered. The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research.Keywords: epilepsy, animal model, pilocarpine, kindling, neurodevelopment

  17. Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra S. Planeta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overview of the preclinical procedures used to study drug abuse and dependence and describe recent progress that has been made in studying more specific aspects of addictive behavior in animals.

  18. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  19. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appropriate protective action. (v) Assisting recovery teams, as appropriate, in preparing species recovery... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals....

  20. Experimental Diabetes Mellitus in Different Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awar, Amin; Kupai, Krisztina; Veszelka, Médea; Szűcs, Gergő; Attieh, Zouhair; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology and target identification and in the evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments in vivo. Diabetes mellitus disease, commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood glucose levels for a prolonged time. To avoid late complications of diabetes and related costs, primary prevention and early treatment are therefore necessary. Due to its chronic symptoms, new treatment strategies need to be developed, because of the limited effectiveness of the current therapies. We overviewed the pathophysiological features of diabetes in relation to its complications in type 1 and type 2 mice along with rat models, including Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, BB rats, LEW 1AR1/-iddm rats, Goto-Kakizaki rats, chemically induced diabetic models, and Nonobese Diabetic mouse, and Akita mice model. The advantages and disadvantages that these models comprise were also addressed in this review. This paper briefly reviews the wide pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, particularly focusing on the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of these models as ideal animal models for preclinical assessments and discovering new drugs and therapeutic agents for translational application in humans. PMID:27595114

  1. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Seyam, Raouf M.; Said A Kattan; Assad, Lina W.; Raafat M El-Sayed; Falah H Almohanna

    2013-01-01

    Context: Penile allotransplantation might be a viable option for patients who need penile reconstruction. Aims: A successful autotransplantation rat model is the first step toward proceeding for allotransplantation. We herein evaluate autotransplantation following transaction of the rat penis just distal to the urethral bulb. Settings and Design: Experimental animal study. Materials and Methods: Five Sprague-Dawely rats weighing 520 g (SD 19) were used. Utilizing a magnification o...

  2. Animal Models of Typical Heterotopic Ossification

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Kan; Kessler, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of marrow-containing bone outside of the normal skeleton. Acquired HO following traumatic events is a common and costly clinical complication. In contrast, hereditary HO is rarer, progressive, and life-threatening. Substantial effort has been directed towards understanding the mechanisms underlying HO and finding efficient treatments. However, one crucial limiting factor has been the lack of relevant animal models. This article reviews the major ...

  3. Large animal models for stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, John; Roberts, R. Michael; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine is approaching translation to clinical practice, and significant safety concerns and knowledge gaps have become clear as clinical practitioners are considering the potential risks and benefits of cell-based therapy. It is necessary to understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidence for safety and therapeutic efficacy. The role of animal models for gaining this information has increased substantially. There is an urgent need for nov...

  4. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

  5. Evaluation of Surrogate Animal Models of Melioidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Warawa, Jonathan Mark

    2010-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for the disease melioidosis. B. pseudomallei establishes disease in susceptible individuals through multiple routes of infection, all of which may proceed to a septicemic disease associated with a high mortality rate. B. pseudomallei opportunistically infects humans and a wide range of animals directly from the environment, and modeling of experimental melioidosis has been conducted in numerous biologically relevant...

  6. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Farfel-Becker; Vitner, Einat B.; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display sympt...

  7. Diabetic Retinopathy: Animal Models, Therapies, and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Cai; McGinnis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes. Although great efforts have been made to uncover the mechanisms underlying the pathology of DR, the exact causes of DR remain largely unknown. Because of multifactor involvement in DR etiology, currently no effective therapeutic treatments for DR are available. In this paper, we review the pathology of DR, commonly used animal models, and novel therapeutic approaches. Perspectives and future directions for DR treatment a...

  8. Animal Models of Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Messaoudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV results in varicella (chickenpox followed by the establishment of latency in sensory ganglia. Declining T cell immunity due to aging or immune suppressive treatments can lead to VZV reactivation and the development of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles. HZ is often associated with significant morbidity and occasionally mortality in elderly and immune compromised patients. There are currently two FDA-approved vaccines for the prevention of VZV: Varivax® (for varicella and Zostavax® (for HZ. Both vaccines contain the live-attenuated Oka strain of VZV. Although highly immunogenic, a two-dose regimen is required to achieve a 99% seroconversion rate. Zostavax vaccination reduces the incidence of HZ by 51% within a 3-year period, but a significant reduction in vaccine-induced immunity is observed within the first year after vaccination. Developing more efficacious vaccines and therapeutics requires a better understanding of the host response to VZV. These studies have been hampered by the scarcity of animal models that recapitulate all aspects of VZV infections in humans. In this review, we describe different animal models of VZV infection as well as an alternative animal model that leverages the infection of Old World macaques with the highly related simian varicella virus (SVV and discuss their contributions to our understanding of pathogenesis and immunity during VZV infection.

  9. Neuroteratology and Animal Modeling of Brain Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a large number of selective neurotoxins were discovered and developed, making it possible to animal-model a broad range of human neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we highlight those neurotoxins that are most commonly used as neuroteratologic agents, to either produce lifelong destruction of neurons of a particular phenotype, or a group of neurons linked by a specific class of transporter proteins (i.e., dopamine transporter) or body of receptors for a specific neurotransmitter (i.e., NMDA class of glutamate receptors). Actions of a range of neurotoxins are described: 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 6-hydroxydopa, DSP-4, MPTP, methamphetamine, IgG-saporin, domoate, NMDA receptor antagonists, and valproate. Their neuroteratologic features are outlined, as well as those of nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and that of stress. The value of each of these neurotoxins in animal modeling of human neurologic, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed in terms of the respective value as well as limitations of the derived animal model. Neuroteratologic agents have proven to be of immense importance for understanding how associated neural systems in human neural disorders may be better targeted by new therapeutic agents. PMID:26857462

  10. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di Segni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies.

  11. Animal models of compulsive eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating "comfort foods" in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, "food addiction" has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  12. Minireview: Translational Animal Models of Human Menopause: Challenges and Emerging Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Brinton, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Increasing importance is placed on the translational validity of animal models of human menopause to discern risk vs. benefit for prediction of outcomes after therapeutic interventions and to develop new therapeutic strategies to promote health. Basic discovery research conducted over many decades has built an extensive body of knowledge regarding reproductive senescence across mammalian species upon which to advance animal models of human menopause. Modifications to existing animal models co...

  13. Proliferative retinopathies: animal models and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacampa, Pilar; Haurigot, Virginia; Bosch, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative retinopathies are the leading causes of blindness in Western societies. The development of new, more efficacious treatments that take advantage of recent advances in the fields of gene and cell therapy requires further investigations on the mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression, and adequate animal models that recapitulate the pathogenesis of human proliferative retinopathy and allow evaluation of the long-term therapeutic benefits that these therapies can offer. Unfortunately, most models of retinal neovascularization have short-term evolution and diabetic rodents show a very mild retinal phenotype, limited to non-proliferative changes, and do not develop proliferative retinopathy at all. Transgenic mice overexpressing Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) in the retina (TgIGF-I) constitute the only rodent model currently available that develops most of the retinal alterations observed in diabetic eyes, with a temporal evolution that resembles that of the human disease. TgIGF-I have retinal vascular alterations that progress as animals age from non-proliferative to proliferative disease, making these mice an excellent model of proliferative retinopathy that, due to its slow progression, allows long-term evaluation of novel antiangiogenic therapies. At the molecular level, transgenic retinas recapitulate a variety of changes that are also observed in diabetic retinas, which reinforces the validity of this model. In addition to vascular and glial alterations, Tg-IGF-I mice show progressive neurodegeneration that leads to blindness in old animals. Thus, TgIGF-I are a useful model for testing the long-term efficacy and safety of innovative antiangiogenic, glial-modulating and neuroprotective therapies for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other retinal proliferative disorders. PMID:25760215

  14. Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Planeta, Cleopatra S.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overvi...

  15. Physically based modeling and animation of tornado

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Zhang-ye; GONG Zheng; CHEN Fei-fei; PENG Qun-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Realistic modeling and rendering of dynamic tornado scene is recognized as a challenging task for researchers of computer graphics. In this paper a new physically based method for simulating and animating tornado scene is presented. We first propose a Two-Fluid model based on the physical theory of tornado, then we simulate the flow of tornado and its interaction with surrounding objects such as debris, etc. Taking the scattering and absorption of light by the participating media into account, the illumination effects of the tornado scene can be generated realistically. With the support of graphics hardware, various kinds of dynamic tornado scenes can be rendered at interactive rates.

  16. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research

    OpenAIRE

    Panfil, Amanda R.; Al-Saleem, Jacob J; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP). Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examinin...

  17. Conceptual shifts in animal systematics as reflected in the taxonomic history of a common aquatic snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea stagnalis (L., 1758) is among the most widespread and well-studied species of freshwater Mollusca of the northern hemisphere. It is also notoriously known for its huge conchological variability. The history of scientific exploration of this species may be traced back to the end of the 16th century (Ulisse Aldrovandi in Renaissance Italy) and, thus, L. stagnalis has been chosen as a proper model taxon to demonstrate how changes in theoretical foundations and methodology of animal taxon...

  18. Clinical relevance of animal models of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Animal models and endophenotypes of mental disorders are regarded as preclinical heuristic approaches aiming at understanding the etiopathogenesis of these diseases, and at developing drug treatment strategies. A frequently used translational model of sensorimotor gating and its deficits in some neuropsychiatric disorders is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is reduced in schizophrenia patients, but the exact relationship between symptoms and reduced PPI is still unclear. Recent findings suggest that the levels of PPI in humans and animals may be predictive of certain cognitive functions. Hence, this simple measure of reflex suppression may be of use for clinical research. PPI is the reduction of the acoustic startle response that occurs when a weak prestimulus is presented shortly prior to a startling noise pulse. It is considered a measure of sensorimotor gating and is regulated by a cortico-limbic striato-pallidal circuit. However, PPI does not only occur in the domain of startle. PPI of alpha, gamma, and theta oscillations at frontal and central locations has been found, suggesting a relationship between PPI and cognitive processes. In fact, levels of PPI in healthy subjects and in animals predict their performance in cognitive tasks mainly mediated by the frontal cortex. Taken together, PPI might reflect a more general filtering performance leading to gating of intrusive sensory, motor, and cognitive input, thereby improving cognitive function. Hence, PPI might be used in clinical settings to predict the impact of drugs or psychotherapy on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients. PMID:24053035

  19. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.;

    2010-01-01

    species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic and......Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns of...... latitude. Main conclusions Habitat availability and diversity are poor predictors of species richness of the European freshwater fauna across large scales. Our results indicate that the distributions of European freshwater animals are probably not in equilibrium and may still be influenced by history...

  20. Animal models of depression: are there any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Michael F; Moore, Nicholas A

    2003-06-01

    Simple tests for antidepressant-like activity, such as 5-HTP-induced syndrome or reserpine-induced hypomotility, are often mechanism-based tests, pharmacologically specific for certain known classes of therapeutically successful antidepressant agents. Many of these behavioural assays have been superseded by neurochemical techniques such as in vivo microdialysis. In contrast to these mechanistic-based models, investigators have also endeavoured to reproduce in the laboratory, factors that are believed to precipitate depression in people. It is a strong assumption in this approach that depression is a response to stress. This strategy profiles the consequences of chronic stress particularly psychosocial stress or early life events, in order to reproduce in animals the behavioural signs and pathologies associated with depression. The advances in the social psychological, clinical pathological and new areas such as neuroimaging research offer the possibility of establishing more sophisticated models for depression in animals with a broader range of biomarkers from the immunological and endocrinological to neurochemical and behavioural. Combining these novel insights with more traditional tests of depression may not only increase our understanding of the neurobiology of depression but also afford more precise and predictive preclinical models of depression. The responsiveness of different strains or genetically modified animals to stress is likely to be a key area of study. Furthermore we must look to individual differences in subjects, even within the same strain, to more fully understand why some individuals show pathological responses to stress whereas others appear unaffected. Conversely in validating our models using currently available treatments we must include the concept of non-responders so as not to disregard models that may extend therapeutic possibilities in these patients. PMID:12766928

  1. Animal models of craving for ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, G F

    2000-08-01

    Craving has various meanings but can be defined generally in terms of a desire for the previously experienced effects of ethanol. Animal models provide a means by which to study the underlying mechanisms associated with craving and are most useful when they fulfill the requirements for predictive validity and reliability. Craving is a key part of the process of addiction that can lead to relapse and is conceptualized as having at least three components: preoccupation/anticipation, binge/intoxication and withdrawal/negative affect. Animal models of craving are hypothesized at this time to involve three domains of motivation to take drugs: excessive drinking, negative affective states and conditioned reinforcement. Excessive drinking includes the alcohol deprivation effect, drinking during withdrawal and drinking after a history of dependence. Models of the negative affective state include increases in brain reward thresholds, and conditioned reinforcement models include cue-induced resistance to extinction or cue-induced reinstatement. Experimental psychology is a rich resource of sensitive behavioral techniques by which to measure hypothetical constructs associated with the motivation to drink ethanol. Rigorous tests of predictive validity and reliability will be necessary to make them useful for understanding the neurobiology of craving and for the development of new medications for treating craving. PMID:11002904

  2. Animal models of anxiety: an ethological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Rodgers

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of anxiety research, animal models are used as screening tools in the search for compounds with therapeutic potential and as simulations for research on mechanisms underlying emotional behaviour. However, a solely pharmacological approach to the validation of such tests has resulted in distinct problems with their applicability to systems other than those involving the benzodiazepine/GABAA receptor complex. In this context, recent developments in our understanding of mammalian defensive behaviour have not only prompted the development of new models but also attempts to refine existing ones. The present review focuses on the application of ethological techniques to one of the most widely used animal models of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze paradigm. This fresh approach to an established test has revealed a hitherto unrecognized multidimensionality to plus-maze behaviour and, as it yields comprehensive behavioural profiles, has many advantages over conventional methodology. This assertion is supported by reference to recent work on the effects of diverse manipulations including psychosocial stress, benzodiazepines, GABA receptor ligands, neurosteroids, 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and panicolytic/panicogenic agents. On the basis of this review, it is suggested that other models of anxiety may well benefit from greater attention to behavioural detail

  3. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Pierre J; Parent, Marie-Thérèse; Rompré, Pierre H; Lévesque, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia. PMID:22404856

  4. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchet Pierre J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia.

  5. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in Lithuanian pet animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzauskas, Modestas; Couto, Natacha; Kerziene, Sigita; Siugzdiniene, Rita; Klimiene, Irena; Virgailis, Marius; Pomba, Constança

    2015-01-01

    Background The bacterial genus Staphylococcus consists of many species that causes infections in pet animals. Antimicrobial resistant staphylococci cause infections that are difficult to treat and they are important from the point of one health perspective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) species, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in diseased pet animals (Group A) and kennel dogs (Group B) in Lithuania and to c...

  6. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in different animal species from the Southeast of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia L Vitral; Marcelo A Pinto; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia L.; Yuri E Khudyakov; Débora R dos Santos; Ana Maria C. Gaspar

    2005-01-01

    Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) has been observed in both humans and different animal species living in non-endemic areas, suggesting that animals could be important reservoir for virus transmission to man. Antibodies to HEV have been detected in some Brazilian population groups. Nevertheless, sporadic cases of acute HEV infection have never been reported. We collected 271 serum samples from several domestic animals and also from pig handlers from Southeast of Brazil...

  7. Lattice animal model of chromosome organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Arya, Gaurav

    2012-07-01

    Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement.

  8. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of...

  9. Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M R; Olsson, A; Phelps, E A

    2006-07-01

    A goal of fear and anxiety research is to understand how to treat the potentially devastating effects of anxiety disorders in humans. Much of this research utilizes classical fear conditioning, a simple paradigm that has been extensively investigated in animals, helping outline a brain circuitry thought to be responsible for the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear. The findings from non-human animal research have more recently been substantiated and extended in humans, using neuropsychological and neuroimaging methodologies. Research across species concur that the neural correlates of fear conditioning include involvement of the amygdala during all stages of fear learning, and prefrontal areas during the extinction phase. This manuscript reviews how animal models of fear are translated to human behavior, and how some fears are more easily acquired in humans (i.e., social-cultural). Finally, using the knowledge provided by a rich animal literature, we attempt to extend these findings to human models targeted to helping facilitate extinction or abolishment of fears, a trademark of anxiety disorders, by discussing efficacy in modulating the brain circuitry involved in fear conditioning via pharmacological treatments or emotion regulation cognitive strategies. PMID:16472906

  10. Animal models for protein respiratory sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marsha D W; Selgrade, Maryjane K

    2007-01-01

    Protein induced respiratory hypersensitivity, particularly atopic disease in general, and allergic asthma in particular, has increased dramatically over the last several decades in the US and other industrialized nations as a result of ill-defined changes in living conditions in modern western society. In addition, work-related asthma has become the most frequently diagnosed occupational respiratory illness. Animal models have demonstrated great utility in developing an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of many diseases. A few models been developed as predictive models to identify a protein as an allergen or to characterize its potency. Here we describe animal models that have been used to investigate and identify protein respiratory sensitizers. In addition to prototypical experimental design, methods for exposure route, sample collection, and endpoint assessment are described. Some of the most relevant endpoints in assessing the potential for a given protein to induce atopic or allergic asthma respiratory hypersensitivity are the development of cytotropic antibodies (IgE, IgG1), eosinophil influx into the lung, and airway hyperresponsiveness to the sensitizing protein and/or to non-antigenic stimuli (Mch). The utility of technologies such as PCR and multiplexing assay systems is also described. These models and methods have been used to elucidate the potential for protein sources to induce allergy, identify environmental conditions (pollutants) to impact allergy responsiveness, and establish safe exposure limits. As an example, data are presented from an experiment designed to compare the allergenicity of a fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) crude extract with the one of its components, conidia (CON) extract. PMID:17161304

  11. Modeling alcohol's effects on organs in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnappa, B C; Rubin, E

    2000-01-01

    Researchers have developed numerous animal models to investigate the development of various alcohol-related diseases. Such models have provided insights into the mechanism through which alcohol can induce liver damage. Animal models also have helped researchers explore the mechanisms by which both short-term (e.g., binge) and long-term drinking can interfere with the function of the heart, a condition referred to as alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, animal models have provided substantial information on the causes of fetal alcohol syndrome. Such models have demonstrated that exposure to alcohol during gestation can lead to prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, characteristic facial malformations, immune system deficiencies, and alterations in the central nervous system. PMID:11199283

  12. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  13. Clade age and not diversification rate explains species richness among animal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Mark A; Brown, Jonathan M

    2007-04-01

    Animal taxa show remarkable variability in species richness across phylogenetic groups. Most explanations for this disparity postulate that taxa with more species have phenotypes or ecologies that cause higher diversification rates (i.e., higher speciation rates or lower extinction rates). Here we show that clade longevity, and not diversification rate, has primarily shaped patterns of species richness across major animal clades: more diverse taxa are older and thus have had more time to accumulate species. Diversification rates calculated from 163 species-level molecular phylogenies were highly consistent within and among three major animal phyla (Arthropoda, Chordata, Mollusca) and did not correlate with species richness. Clades with higher estimated diversification rates were younger, but species numbers increased with increasing clade age. A fossil-based data set also revealed a strong, positive relationship between total extant species richness and crown group age across the orders of insects and vertebrates. These findings do not negate the importance of ecology or phenotype in influencing diversification rates, but they do show that clade longevity is the dominant signal in major animal biodiversity patterns. Thus, some key innovations may have acted through fostering clade longevity and not by heightening diversification rate. PMID:17427118

  14. Students' Perception of Plant and Animal Species: A Case Study from Rural Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nates, Juliana; Campos, Claudia; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Exotic species seriously affect local biodiversity in Argentina. This article investigates how students in San Juan province perceive native and exotic species. With the help of a written questionnaire, 865 students (9-17 years old) were asked to name the plant and animal they liked most, disliked most, and perceived as most useful, and to name…

  15. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Han

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. The clinical sign of aggression was significantly associated with rabid stray cats (odds ratio, OR = 2.3 and RRV affected major wild terrestrial animal species individually, which included raccoons (OR = 2.8, skunks (OR = 8.0, gray foxes (OR = 21.3, red foxes (OR = 10.4, woodchucks (OR = 4.7 and coyotes (OR = 27.6. While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Pets reported with multiple clinical signs had significantly higher rabies positive testing result than those reported with single clinical sign (p < 0.001. The result suggested the importance of avoiding aggressive terrestrial wild animals and giving additional attention to pets with multiple clinical signs.

  16. Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Million, M; Angelakis, E; Paul, M.; Armougom, Fabrice; Leibovici, L; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with alteration of the gut microbiota. In order to clarify the effect of Lactobacillus-containing probiotics (LCP) on weight we performed a meta-analysis of clinical studies and experimental models. We intended to assess effects by Lactobacillus species. Methods: A broad search with no date or language restriction was performed. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative clinical studies in humans and animals or experimental models assess...

  17. The top 27 animal alien species introduced into Europe for aquaculture and related activities.

    OpenAIRE

    D. SAVINI; A. OCCHIPINTI AMBROGI; Marchini, A; Tricarico, E; GHERARDI F.; Olenin, S.; Gollasch, S.

    2010-01-01

    The information extracted from IMPASSE, DAISIE, Fish-Base, and FAO-DIAS inventories of alien species were used to draw a list of the 27 most utilized animal alien species for aquaculture and related activities (e.g. stocking, sport fishing, ornamental purposes) in Europe. Three variables have been considered to assess their negative ecological impacts when these species escape from aquaculture facilities: (i) their distribution across Europe (including non-EU Member States); (ii) evidence of ...

  18. Animal models of neurological deficits: how relevant is the rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M Angela; Whishaw, Ian Q; Schallert, Timothy

    2002-07-01

    Animal models of neurological deficits are essential for the assessment of new therapeutic options. It has been suggested that rats are not as appropriate as primates for the symptomatic modelling of disease, but a large body of data argues against this view. Comparative analyses of movements in rats and primates show homology of many motor patterns across species. Advances have been made in identifying rat equivalents of akinesia, tremor, postural deficits and dyskinesia, which are relevant to Parkinson's disease. Rat models of hemiplegia, neglect and tactile extinction are useful in assessing the outcome of ischaemic or traumatic brain injury, and in monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions. Studies in rodents that emphasize careful behavioural analysis should continue to be developed as effective and inexpensive models that complement studies in primates. PMID:12094213

  19. ANIMAL MODELS: A REVIEW FROM THREE TESTS USED IN ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Eduardo Góngora; Cristina Vargas-Irwin; Lady Andrea Polanco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review of commonly used animal models tostudy anxiety, looking to make a presentation of three instruments used in thelaboratory. It describes the importance of using animal models for understandinghuman behavior; there are two groups of animal models and the most representativetests for each of these.

  20. Large Animal Stroke Models vs. Rodent Stroke Models, Pros and Cons, and Combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death in many countries. Long-time attempts to salvage dying neurons via various neuroprotective agents have failed in stroke translational research, owing in part to the huge gap between animal stroke models and stroke patients, which also suggests that rodent models have limited predictive value and that alternate large animal models are likely to become important in future translational research. The genetic background, physiological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and brain structure of large animals, especially nonhuman primates, are analogous to humans, and resemble humans in stroke. Moreover, relatively new regional imaging techniques, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow, and sophisticated physiological monitoring can be more easily performed on the same animal at multiple time points. As a result, we can use large animal stroke models to decrease the gap and promote translation of basic science stroke research. At the same time, we should not neglect the disadvantages of the large animal stroke model such as the significant expense and ethical considerations, which can be overcome by rodent models. Rodents should be selected as stroke models for initial testing and primates or cats are desirable as a second species, which was recommended by the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) group in 2009. PMID:26463926

  1. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghdassi Alexander A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed.

  2. Animal models for investigating chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Alexander A; Mayerle, Julia; Christochowitz, Sandra; Weiss, Frank U; Sendler, Matthias; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous or recurrent inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by progressive and irreversible morphological changes. It typically causes pain and permanent impairment of pancreatic function. In chronic pancreatitis areas of focal necrosis are followed by perilobular and intralobular fibrosis of the parenchyma, by stone formation in the pancreatic duct, calcifications in the parenchyma as well as the formation of pseudocysts. Late in the course of the disease a progressive loss of endocrine and exocrine function occurs. Despite advances in understanding the pathogenesis no causal treatment for chronic pancreatitis is presently available. Thus, there is a need for well characterized animal models for further investigations that allow translation to the human situation. This review summarizes existing experimental models and distinguishes them according to the type of pathological stimulus used for induction of pancreatitis. There is a special focus on pancreatic duct ligation, repetitive overstimulation with caerulein and chronic alcohol feeding. Secondly, attention is drawn to genetic models that have recently been generated and which mimic features of chronic pancreatitis in man. Each technique will be supplemented with data on the pathophysiological background of the model and their limitations will be discussed. PMID:22133269

  3. ANIMAL MODELS FOR HUNTINGTON’S DISEASES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Manisha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited autosomal, progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with involuntary abnormal movements (chorea, cognitive impairments and psychiatric disturbances. HD is caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG region located in exon 1 of the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt and is the causative factor in the pathogenesis of HD Animal models of HD have provided insight into disease pathology and the outcomes of thera- peutic strategies. Earlier studies of HD most often used toxin-induced models to study mitochondrial impairment and excitotoxicity-induced cell death, which are both mechanisms of degeneration seen in the HD brain. These models, based on 3-nitropropionic acid and quinolinic acid, respectively, are still often used in HD studies. The discovery in 1993 of the huntingtin mutation led to the creation of newer models that incorporate a similar genetic defect. These models, which include transgenic and knock-in rodents, are more representative of the HD progression and pathology. An even more recent model that uses a ovine transgenic model (sheep model,fly models ,cell cultures models for better understanding of gene mutation in and in mammalian and nonhuman primates, as it is difficult to produce genetic models in these species. This article examines the aforementioned models and describes their use in HD research, including aspects of the creation, de- livery, pathology, and tested therapies for each model.

  4. Development of a recombinant antibody towards PAPP-A for immunohistochemical use in multiple animal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jakob H; Steffensen, Lasse B; Oxvig, Claus

    2014-01-01

    formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. For increased sensitivity, affinity maturation to sub-nanomolar affinity was then carried out. The resulting recombinant antibody, PAC1-D8-mIgG2a, detects PAPP-A specifically and sensitively in human tissue. In addition, this antibody allows detection of PAPP...... normal physiology and under different pathological conditions. However, antibodies for the detection of PAPP-A in non-human tissues have been lacking, although needed for use with several animal models which are currently being developed. To develop a monoclonal antibody suitable for the......-A in non-human species. We demonstrate its usefulness for the visualization of PAPP-A in murine and porcine tissues....

  5. Two new animal models for actinide toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two small rodent species, the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) have tenacious retention in the liver and skeleton of plutonium and americium. The retention following intraperitoneal injection of Pu and Am in citrate solution ranged from 20 to 47% (liver) and 19 to 42% (skeleton), relatively independent of post-injection times, varying from 30 to 125 days. Based on observations extended to 125 days post-injection, the biological half-times appeared to be long. Both of these rodents are relatively long-lived (median lifespans of approximately 1400 days), breed well in captivity, and adapt suitably to laboratory conditions. It is suggested that these two species of mice, in which plutonium is partitioned between the skeleton and liver in a manner similar to that of man, may be useful animal models for actinide toxicity studies

  6. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The narrow host range of infection and lack of suitable tissue culture systems for the propagation of hepatitis B and C viruses are limitations that have prevented a more thorough understanding of persistent infection and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease.

    Despite decades of intensive research and significant progresses in understanding of viral hepatitis, many basic questions and clinical problems still await to be resolved. For example, the HBV cellular receptor and related mechanisms of viral entry have not yet been identified. Little is also known about the function of certain non-structural viral products, such as the hepatitis B e antigen and the X protein, or about the role of excess hepadnavirus subviral particles circulating in the blood stream during infection. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the role of the immune system in determining the fate of infection are not fully understood.

    The reason for these drawbacks is essentially due to the lack of reliable cell-based in vitro infection systems and, most importantly, convenient animal models.

    This lack of knowledge has been partially overcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV, by the discovery and characterization of HBV-like viruses in wild animals while for hepatitis C virus (HCV, related flaviviruses have been used as surrogate systems.

    Other laboratories have developed transgenic mice that express virus gene products and/or support virus replication. Some HBV transgenic mouse models

  7. Assessment of the floristic composition of sward grazed by various animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Czarnecki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the floristic composition of pastures for wild animals (fallow deer, Manchurian deer and mouflons at Przytoczno, pastures for horses at Białka, and cow pastures belonging to the Land Community in Tarnogóra. We analyzed the floristic composition of the pastures under study in the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012, carried out 32 phytosociological relevés in the wild animal pastures, 32 in the horse pastures, and 38 in the cow pastures, using the Braun-Blanquet method. We determined the species diversity of the pastures based on the percentage share of species from the botanical families distinguished, the total number of species, and the Shannon–Wiener and Simpson diversity index. Our floristic surveys indicated that the greatest species diversity occurred in the horse pastures, while it was lower in the wild animal and cow pastures. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index for the sward of the pastures grazed by horses was higher (H' = 5.04 than for those grazed by wild animals (H' = 4.32 and cows (H' = 3.53. The Simpson index of species diversity in a community was higher for the pastures grazed by horses (S = 0.96 than for those grazed by wild animals (S = 0.95 and cows (S = 0.90.

  8. Influence of dose and animal species on accelerated blood clearance of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takuya; Ichihara, Masako; Hyodo, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiichi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2014-12-10

    We recently demonstrated that Doxil loses its long-circulating properties when injected repeatedly at doses below 2 mg/m(2) in dogs. In studies using other animal species, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin has been reported not to induce the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon. We investigated the issue of whether Doxil can elicit the ABC phenomenon in several species. In minipigs, the ABC phenomenon was induced at 2 mg/m(2). In other animal species, the ABC phenomenon was not observed at higher doses (>2 mg/m(2)), but was observed at much lower doses (0.2 mg/m(2)). The pharmacokinetic profile of a second dose of Doxil reflected the circulating anti-PEG IgM level induced by the first dose. The ABC phenomenon was not observed at the clinically recommended DXR dose (20 mg/m(2)) in any animal species. These results indicate that Doxil can cause the ABC phenomenon in all animals tested, the extent of induction was dependent on the first dose of Doxil, and a higher Doxil dose lessened the ABC phenomenon. The current study results suggest that a careful study design including selection of animal species is important for preclinical studies using PEGylated liposomal formulations even if they contain anticancer drugs that suppress the host immune response. PMID:25280884

  9. Interspecies allometric scaling: prediction of clearance in large animal species: part II: mathematical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Mahmood, I; Hunter, R P

    2006-10-01

    Interspecies scaling is a useful tool for the prediction of pharmacokinetic parameters from animals to humans, and it is often used for estimating a first-time in human dose. However, it is important to appreciate the mathematical underpinnings of this scaling procedure when using it to predict pharmacokinetic parameter values across animal species. When cautiously applied, allometry can be a tool for estimating clearance in veterinary species for the purpose of dosage selection. It is particularly valuable during the selection of dosages in large zoo animal species, such as elephants, large cats and camels, for which pharmacokinetic data are scant. In Part I, allometric predictions of clearance in large animal species were found to pose substantially greater risks of inaccuracies when compared with that observed for humans. In this report, we examine the factors influencing the accuracy of our clearance estimates from the perspective of the relationship between prediction error and such variables as the distribution of body weight values used in the regression analysis, the influence of a particular observation on the clearance estimate, and the 'goodness of fit' (R(2)) of the regression line. Ultimately, these considerations are used to generate recommendations regarding the data to be included in the allometric prediction of clearance in large animal species. PMID:16958788

  10. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution

  11. Quantitative Assessment on Endangerment Degree of Rare Animal and Plant Species in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ke; ZHONG Xianghao; LIU Shuzhen

    2007-01-01

    It is of profound theoretical and practical significance to study endangerment status of rare species in Tibet. Index system is firstly set down for quantitative assessment of rare animal and plant species, then endangerment degree of wildlife under special state protection are calculated, which is expressed by value E. The results reveal that Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) and Gigantic Cypress (Cupressus gigantea) have the highest E respectively in animals and plants. According to value E, all species are categorized into 4 ranks: critically endangered(0.6-0.8), endangered (0.4-0.6), vulnerable (0.2-0.4) and lower risk (E≤ 0.2). By comparison of the first five animals and plants of the highest E, each sub-ecozone bears a distinct identity.

  12. RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granton A. Jindal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in the Ras-MAPK pathway, and are characterized by a broad spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities. The high incidence of these disorders (∼1/1000 births motivates the development of systematic approaches for their efficient diagnosis and potential treatment. Recent advances in genome sequencing have greatly facilitated the genotyping and discovery of mutations in affected individuals, but establishing the causal relationships between molecules and disease phenotypes is non-trivial and presents both technical and conceptual challenges. Here, we discuss how these challenges could be addressed using genetically modified model organisms that have been instrumental in delineating the Ras-MAPK pathway and its roles during development. Focusing on studies in mice, zebrafish and Drosophila, we provide an up-to-date review of animal models of RASopathies at the molecular and functional level. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques of genetic engineering can be used to rigorously connect changes in specific components of the Ras-MAPK pathway with observed functional and morphological phenotypes. Establishing these connections is essential for advancing our understanding of RASopathies and for devising rational strategies for their management and treatment.

  13. RASopathies: unraveling mechanisms with animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Granton A; Goyal, Yogesh; Burdine, Rebecca D; Rauen, Katherine A; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y

    2015-08-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in the Ras-MAPK pathway, and are characterized by a broad spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities. The high incidence of these disorders (∼1/1000 births) motivates the development of systematic approaches for their efficient diagnosis and potential treatment. Recent advances in genome sequencing have greatly facilitated the genotyping and discovery of mutations in affected individuals, but establishing the causal relationships between molecules and disease phenotypes is non-trivial and presents both technical and conceptual challenges. Here, we discuss how these challenges could be addressed using genetically modified model organisms that have been instrumental in delineating the Ras-MAPK pathway and its roles during development. Focusing on studies in mice, zebrafish and Drosophila, we provide an up-to-date review of animal models of RASopathies at the molecular and functional level. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques of genetic engineering can be used to rigorously connect changes in specific components of the Ras-MAPK pathway with observed functional and morphological phenotypes. Establishing these connections is essential for advancing our understanding of RASopathies and for devising rational strategies for their management and treatment. PMID:26203125

  14. Information Learned from Animal Models of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Finet, J. Emanuel; Rosenbaum, David S.; Donahue, J. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of atrial fibrillation have taught us about mechanisms of this common disease. A variety of animal models exist, including models of lone atrial fibrillation and models of atrial fibrillation in the setting of heart failure, aging or pericardial inflammation. This chapter reviews these various models.

  15. Niche modelling of salt marsh plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sought to extend the niche model of Spartina anglica to other salt marsh species, and to include tidal submergence in the models. The method used and preliminary data analysis are described. Tidal level and submergence niche models are examined, and niche width, niche overlap and species interaction are considered. Tidal level models and submergence niche models are compared for the 5 most common species. (UK)

  16. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals. PMID:26897404

  17. Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke. Part Two: Modeling Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Bacigaluppi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Dirk M Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Animal models of stroke provide an essential tool for the understanding of the complex cellular and molecular pathophysiology of stroke and for testing novel recanalyzing, neuroprotective, neuroregenerative or anti- inflammatory drugs in pre- clinical setting. Since the first description of the distal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in rats, different techniques and methods to induce focal and global ischemia of the brains have been developed and optimized. The different models,...

  18. Shopping Centers as Panther Habitat: Inferring Animal Locations from Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery L. Larkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent model of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi habitat erred in arbitrarily creating buffers around radio locations collected during daylight hours on the assumption that study animals were only at rest during these times. The buffers generated by this method likely cause an overestimation of the amounts and kinds of habitats that are used by the panther. This, and other errors, could lead to the impression that unfragmented forest cover is unimportant to panther conservation, and could encourage inaccurate characterizations of panther habitat. Previous 24-hour monitoring of activity and activity readings made during routine telemetry flights indicate that high levels of activity occur in the early morning hours. Literature on the behavior of the species does not support the creation of large buffers around telemetry locations to compensate for the lack of nighttime telemetry data. A thorough examination of ongoing studies that use global positioning systems may help calibrate future Florida panther habitat models.

  19. Animal model of Mycoplasma fermentans respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yáñez Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with respiratory, genitourinary tract infections and rheumatoid diseases but its role as pathogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to probe that Mycoplasma fermentans is able to produce respiratory tract infection and migrate to several organs on an experimental infection model in hamsters. One hundred and twenty six hamsters were divided in six groups (A-F of 21 hamsters each. Animals of groups A, B, C were intratracheally injected with one of the mycoplasma strains: Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 (wild strain, Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18 (type strain or Mycoplasma pneumoniae Eaton strain. Groups D, E, F were the negative, media, and sham controls. Fragments of trachea, lungs, kidney, heart, brain and spleen were cultured and used for the histopathological study. U frequency test was used to compare recovery of mycoplasmas from organs. Results Mycoplasmas were detected by culture and PCR. The three mycoplasma strains induced an interstitial pneumonia; they also migrated to several organs and persisted there for at least 50 days. Mycoplasma fermentans P 140 induced a more severe damage in lungs than Mycoplasma fermentans PG 18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae produced severe damage in lungs and renal damage. Conclusions Mycoplasma fermentans induced a respiratory tract infection and persisted in different organs for several weeks in hamsters. This finding may help to explain the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans to induce pneumonia and chronic infectious diseases in humans.

  20. Modeling dopamine system dysfunction in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quite a substantial number of human disorders have been associated with a primary or a secondary impairment of one or several of the dopaminergic pathways. Among disorders associated with a primary impairment of dopaminergic transmission are Parkinson's disease, striatonigral degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and possibly schizophrenia. Diseases of secondary dopamine dysfunction are chiefly represented by Huntington's disease in which dopaminergic transmission is being interrupted by progressive loss of the striatal neurons bearing the postsynaptic D1- and D2-dopamine receptors. Central dopaminergic systems have anatomical as well as organizational properties that render them unique by comparison to other neurotransmission systems, making them able to play a pivotal role in the modulation of various important brain functions such as locomotor activity, attention, and some cognitive abilities. These properties of dopamine neurons have obviously several implications in the clinical expression of human disorders involving dopamine neuron dysfunction. In addition, they can greatly influence the clinical/behavioral consequences of experimental lesions in animal models of dopamine dysfunctions

  1. Varicocele-Induced Infertility in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazdak Razi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is characterized by abnormal tortuosity and dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus within the spermatic cord. Although several reports show the mechanisms by which the varicocele exerts its infertility impact, the exact pathophysiology for varicocele-induced inflammation and its relationship with testicular endocrine disruption remain largely unknown. This review article will update previous findings by discussing the pathophysiology of long term-induced varicocele in rats. Testicular endocrine disruption in experimentally-induced varicocele, new findings related to biochemical alterations in germinal epithelium, and sperm cells apoptosis are highlighted. Recent observations show that varicocele down-regulates first and second maturation divisions, results in Leydig and Sertoli cell inflammation, and increases immune cell infiltration in the testes of the rat as an animal model. Ultimately, previous findings of our laboratory have revealed that varicocele decreased sperm motility, viability and severe DNA damage. Damage in sperm significantly lowers the animal’s fertility potential. Varicocele not only exerts its pathologic impact by lowering the testicular antioxidant capacity but it also down-regulates first and second maturation divisions by exerting biochemical alterations such as reducing the intracytoplasmic carbohydrate ratio in germinal epithelium.

  2. Respirable industrial fibres: deposition, clearance and dissolution in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A D

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the available experimental and theoretical results describing deposition and clearance of mineral fibres inhaled by animals and humans in order to define the limits which these mechanisms impose on the relevance of animal experiments in the assessment of potential human health risks. Direct experimental data for deposition of spherical particles are extended by examination of the physical processes and by some limited experimental data for fibres. This shows that alveolar deposition efficiency (in rat and in man) is sufficiently similar for particles and fibres with aerodynamic diameters less that 5 microns for rats to be a relevant model for airborne dusts in this size range. Inter-species differences in mechanical clearance are substantial, with clearance being faster in the rat than in man, and this is a factor which should be considered in interpreting animal toxicity studies. The durability of fibres in the biochemical conditions of the lung may be more important over the longer lifespan of humans. PMID:8317856

  3. Animal Models of Uveal Melanoma: Methods, Applicability, and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Stei, Marta M.; Loeffler, Karin U.; Holz, Frank G.; Herwig, Martina C.

    2016-01-01

    Animal models serve as powerful tools for investigating the pathobiology of cancer, identifying relevant pathways, and developing novel therapeutic agents. They have facilitated rapid scientific progress in many tumor entities. However, for establishing a powerful animal model of uveal melanoma fundamental challenges remain. To date, no animal model offers specific genetic attributes as well as histologic, immunologic, and metastatic features of uveal melanoma. Syngeneic models with intraocul...

  4. Clinical Forms and Animal Models of Hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is due to mutations of the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene expressed in the liver, kidney, and bone. TNAP substrates include inorganic pyrophosphate cleaved into inorganic phosphate (Pi) in bone, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), the circulating form of vitamin B6, and phosphoethanolamine (PEA). As an autosomal recessive or dominant disease, HPP results in a range of clinical forms. Its hallmarks are low alkaline phosphatase (AP) and elevated PLP and PEA levels. Perinatal HPP may cause early death with respiratory insufficiency and hypomineralization resulting in deformed limbs and sometimes near-absence of bones and skull. Infantile HPP is diagnosed before 6 months of life. Respiratory failure, rib fractures and seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency in the brain indicate poor prognosis. Craniosynostosis is frequent. Unlike in other forms of rickets, calcium and phosphorus are not decreased, resulting in hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Hypercalcemic crisis may occur. Failure to thrive and growth retardation are concerns. In infantile and adult forms of HPP, non-traumatic fractures may be the prominent manifestation, with otherwise unexplained chronic pain. Progressive myopathy has been described. Dental manifestations with early loss of teeth are usual in HPP and in a specific form, odontohypophosphatasia. HPP has been studied in knock-out mice models which mimic its severe form. Animal models have made a major contribution to the development of an original enzyme therapy for human infantile HPP, which is however essentially targeted at mineralized tissues. Better knowledge of its extraskeletal manifestations, including pain and neurological symptoms, is therefore required. PMID:26219704

  5. Systematic Review of Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Helen W

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are to provide an introduction into the variety of animal models available for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to provide a concise systematic review of the general materials and methods involved in each model. Materials and methods were obtained from a literature search of relevant peer-reviewed articles. Strengths and weaknesses of each animal choice were presented to include relative cost, anatomical and physiological features, and mechanism of injury desired. Further, a variety of homologous, isomorphic/induced, and predictive animal models were defined, described, and compared with respect to their relative ease of use, characteristics, range, adjustability (e.g., amplitude, duration, mass/size, velocity, and pressure), and rough order of magnitude cost. Just as the primary mechanism of action of TBI is limitless, so are the animal models available to study TBI. With such a wide variety of available animals, types of injury models, along with the research needs, there exists no single "gold standard" model of TBI rendering cross-comparison of data extremely difficult. Therefore, this chapter reflects a representative sampling of the TBI animal models available and is not an exhaustive comparison of every possible model and associated parameters. Throughout this chapter, special considerations for animal choice and TBI animal model classification are discussed. Criteria central to choosing appropriate animal models of TBI include ethics, funding, complexity (ease of use, safety, and controlled access requirements), type of model, model characteristics, and range of control (scope). PMID:27604713

  6. Presence and metabolism of the anabolic steroid boldenone in various animal species: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, H.F. de; Poelmans, S.; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Bizec, B. le; Draisci, R.; Sterk, S.S.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Courtheyn, D.; Hoof, N. van; Macrì, A.; Wasch, K. de

    2004-01-01

    The review summarizes current knowledge on the possible illegal use of the anabolic steroid boldenone. The presence of boldenone and metabolites in different animal species and the possibility of the occurrence of endogenous boldenone and metabolites is assessed, as are the methods of analysis used

  7. Laboratory Animal Models for Brucellosis Research

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Teane M. A.; Erica A Costa; Tatiane A. Paixão; Renée M. Tsolis; Santos, Renato L

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Brucella spp., a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that affects humans and animals, leading to significant impact on public health and animal industry. Human brucellosis is considered the most prevalent bacterial zoonosis in the world and is characterized by fever, weight loss, depression, hepato/splenomegaly, osteoarticular, and genital infections. Relevant aspects of Brucella pathogenesis have been intensively investigated...

  8. Exploring the Validity of Valproic Acid Animal Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Darine Froy N. Mabunga; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Kim, Ji-Woon; Kim, Ki Chan; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-01-01

    The valproic acid (VPA) animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most widely used animal model in the field. Like any other disease models, it can't model the totality of the features seen in autism. Then, is it valid to model autism? This model demonstrates many of the structural and behavioral features that can be observed in individuals with autism. These similarities enable the model to define relevant pathways of developmental dysregulation resulting from environmenta...

  9. [The popular zootherapy in Bahia State: registration of new animal species used as medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the use of animals as medicinal resources in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The data come from a processional evaluation of academic performance, since it was an exercise requested by the professor of the discipline Ethnobiology (2007.2 semester) to the students of the course Bahia State Teachers' Undergraduation of Feira de Santana State University. They were asked to make a brief survey, in their respective cities, on the use of animals as medicines. Forty-one students, from 21 cities of the country of Bahia State, have participated with data. A total of 95 animals (common names) were recorded, from which 17 are new additions to the list of medicinal animal species already published. The recording of the use of animals as folk medicines in the state of Bahia provides a significant contribution to the phenomenon of zootherapy, because it opens a space to debate about conservation biology, health public policies, sustainable management of natural resources, bioprospection, and patent. It is necessary to carry out more ethnozoological studies both to comprehend the true importance of zootherapy to the traditional communities and to develop some strategies of sustainable management and use of animal species, especially for those under risk of extinction. PMID:21503516

  10. Validity of animal models for the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee diterpenes in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, de, B.; Sawyer, J K; Katan, M.B.; Rudel, L L

    1999-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol, coffee lipids present in unfiltered coffee brews, potently increase LDL-cholesterol concentration in human subjects. We searched for an animal species in which cafestol similarly increases LDL-cholesterol. Such an animal model could be used subsequently as a model to study the mechanism of action of cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol increased serum lipids in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), cebus (Cebus apella) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys,...

  11. Selection of an animal model for implant fixation studies: anatomical aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, V. K.; Drinker, H.; Panjabi, M. M.; Strongwater, A.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different animal models have been employed by investigators to study the biology of the bone-cement interface as it relates to the problem of hip implant loosening in humans. This study compares to the human three species (baboon, dog, and sheep) currently under use as experimental animal models from an anatomical point of view. A number of parameters, important for the dimensional design of a femoral prosthesis, loads at the hip joint and its subsequent performance, were used for...

  12. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  13. Animal models of traumatic brain injury : a critical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, William; Smyth, Aoife; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are necessary to elucidate changes occurring after brain injury and to establish new therapeutic strategies towards a stage where drug efficacy in brain injured patients (against all classes of symptoms) can be predicted. In this review, six established animal models of head trauma, namely fluid percussion, rigid indentation, inertial acceleration, impact acceleration, weight-drop and dynamic cortical deformation are evaluated. While no single animal model is entirely successful...

  14. Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome—From Proliferation to Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS r...

  15. Pedigree-free animal models: the relatedness matrix reloaded

    OpenAIRE

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Clegg, Sonya M.; Chittock, John; Burke, Terry; Blows, Mark W.; Owens, Ian P. F.

    2008-01-01

    Animal models typically require a known genetic pedigree to estimate quantitative genetic parameters. Here we test whether animal models can alternatively be based on estimates of relatedness derived entirely from molecular marker data. Our case study is the morphology of a wild bird population, for which we report estimates of the genetic variance–covariance matrices (G) of six morphological traits using three methods: the traditional animal model; a molecular marker-based approach to estima...

  16. Animal models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sagvolden Terje; Russell Vivienne A; Johansen Espen

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Although animals cannot be used to study complex human behaviour such as language, they do have similar basic functions. In fact, human disorders that have animal models are better understood than disorders that do not. ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder. The relatively simple nervous systems of rodent models have enabled identification of neurobiological changes that underlie certain aspects of ADHD behaviour. Several animal models of ADHD suggest that the dopaminergic system is funct...

  17. Large Animal Models of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Trobridge, Grant D.; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Large animal models have been instrumental in advancing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy. Here we review the advantages of large animal models, their contributions to the field of HSC gene therapy, and recent progress in this field. Several properties of human HSCs including their purification, their cell-cycle characteristics, their response to cytokines, and the proliferative demands put on them after transplantation are more similar in large animal models than in mice. Progress i...

  18. Naturally Occurring Animal Models of Human Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yugo, Danielle M.; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect a...

  19. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert;

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  20. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lefter Radu; Cojocaru Dumitru; Ciobica Alin; Paulet Manuel Ioan; Serban Lacramioara Ionela; Anton Emil

    2014-01-01

    We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on t...

  1. Species identification and authentication of tissues of animal origin using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Dharne, Mahesh S; Walujkar, Sandeep; Kumar, Ashutosh; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated and compared the utility of mitochondrial markers viz. 16S rDNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and a nuclear marker viz. the actin gene to identify the specimens of animal origin for forensic identification, food regulatory control and to prevent illegal trading, poaching and conservation of endangered species. We also tested PCR fingerprinting methods like RAPD and actin barcoding to generate species-specific "fingerprints". Our results suggested that mitochondrial markers are more efficient than nuclear markers for the purpose of species identification and authentication. Among PCR fingerprinting approaches, RAPD was proved to be more discriminatory, accurate and efficient than actin fingerprinting. Considering the present scenario in trading of vertebrate animal tissues like buffalo, cow, pig, goat, chicken, frogs, fishes and snakes etc., mitogenomics based technology proved to be efficient and reliable in resolving problems like meat adulteration and smuggling across countries. PMID:22061243

  2. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail are being infected, and different numbers (“low” 1×102 and “high” 1×106 of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease.

  3. Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando José

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tissue targets (mice footpad, ear, or base of tail) are being infected, and different numbers ("low" 1 × 10(2) and "high" 1 × 10(6)) of metacyclic promastigotes have been inoculated. Recently, new approaches have been proposed to provide more meaningful data regarding the host response and pathogenesis that parallels human disease. The use of sand fly saliva and low numbers of parasites in experimental infections has led to mimic natural transmission and find new molecules and immune mechanisms which should be considered when designing vaccines and control strategies. Moreover, the use of wild rodents as experimental models has been proposed as a good alternative for studying the host-pathogen relationships and for testing candidate vaccines. To date, using natural reservoirs to study Leishmania infection has been challenging because immunologic reagents for use in wild rodents are lacking. This review discusses the principal immunological findings against Leishmania infection in different animal models highlighting the importance of using experimental conditions similar to natural transmission and reservoir species as experimental models to study the immunopathology of the disease. PMID:24553602

  4. The complete guide to blender graphics computer modeling and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, John M

    2014-01-01

    Smoothly Leads Users into the Subject of Computer Graphics through the Blender GUIBlender, the free and open source 3D computer modeling and animation program, allows users to create and animate models and figures in scenes, compile feature movies, and interact with the models and create video games. Reflecting the latest version of Blender, The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, 2nd Edition helps beginners learn the basics of computer animation using this versatile graphics program. This edition incorporates many new features of Blender, including developments

  5. Modeling species-abundance relationships in multi-species collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S.; Yin, Z.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.

    2003-01-01

    Species-abundance relationship is one of the most fundamental aspects of community ecology. Since Motomura first developed the geometric series model to describe the feature of community structure, ecologists have developed many other models to fit the species-abundance data in communities. These models can be classified into empirical and theoretical ones, including (1) statistical models, i.e., negative binomial distribution (and its extension), log-series distribution (and its extension), geometric distribution, lognormal distribution, Poisson-lognormal distribution, (2) niche models, i.e., geometric series, broken stick, overlapping niche, particulate niche, random assortment, dominance pre-emption, dominance decay, random fraction, weighted random fraction, composite niche, Zipf or Zipf-Mandelbrot model, and (3) dynamic models describing community dynamics and restrictive function of environment on community. These models have different characteristics and fit species-abundance data in various communities or collections. Among them, log-series distribution, lognormal distribution, geometric series, and broken stick model have been most widely used.

  6. Experimental animal data and modeling of late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section is restricted to radiation-induced life shortening and cancer and mainly to studies with external radiation. The emphasis will be on the experimental data that are available and the experimental systems that could provide the type of data with which to either formulate or test models. Genetic effects which are of concern are not discussed in this section. Experimental animal radiation studies fall into those that establish general principles and those that demonstrate mechanisms. General principles include the influence of dose, radiation quality, dose rate, fractionation, protraction and such biological factors as age and gender. The influence of these factors are considered as general principles because they are independent, at least qualitatively, of the species studied. For example, if an increase in the LET of the radiation causes an increased effectiveness in cancer induction in a mouse a comparable increase in effectiveness can be expected in humans. Thus, models, whether empirical or mechanistic, formulated from experimental animal data should be generally applicable

  7. Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Geneviève; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-12-15

    This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle à Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frères". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 μg). PMID:22014085

  8. An Annotated Checklist of the Human and Animal Entamoeba (Amoebida: Endamoebidae Species- A Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hooshyar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of valid of pathogen and non-pathogen species of Entamoeba has continuously increased in human and animals. This review is performed to provide an update list and some summarized information on Entamoeba species, which were identified up to the 2014.We evaluated the Entamoeba genus with a broad systematic review of the literature, books and electronic databases until February 2014. The synonyms, hosts, pathogenicity and geographical distribution of valid species were considered and recorded. Repeated and unrelated cases were excluded.Totally 51 defined species of Entamoeba were found and arranged by the number of nuclei in mature cyst according to Levin's grouping. Seven of these species within the 4 nucleate mature cysts group and 1 species with one nucleate mature cyst are pathogen. E. histolytica, E. invadence, E. rananrum and E. anatis causes lethal infection in human, reptiles, amphibians and brides respectively, four species causes non-lethal mild dysentery. The other species were non-pathogen and are important to differential diagnosis of amoebiasis.There are some unknown true species of Entamoeba that available information on the morphology, hosts, pathogenicity and distribution of them are still very limited and more considerable investigation will be needed in order to clarify the status of them.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of synthetic alpha-tocopherol for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The additive synthetic alpha-tocopherol consists of pure all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. In a previous opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin E for all animal species, the FEEDAP Panel assessed the safety of the acetate ester of the additive for all animal species, the consumer, the user and the environment. The FEEDAP Panel is not aware of any more recent scientific findings that would modify its previous conclusions. The FEEDAP Panel extended the conclusions drawn in its opinion on the safety of vitamin E (including all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate to all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. All-rac-alpha-tocopherol at use levels is safe for all animal species and the consumer. No concerns for user safety are expected from the use of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in feed. The use of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in animal nutrition will not result in a substantial increase in concentration in the environment. Since all-rac-alpha-tocopherol is used as antioxidant in food and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  10. Molecular identification and classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains isolated from humans and selected animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Gnat, Sebastian; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer

    2015-03-01

    Species differentiation within Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex group currently poses a major diagnostic challenge, with molecular methods increasingly supplementing classical identification based on the morphological and physiological properties of the fungi. Diagnostic and epidemiological research aimed at determining the source and means of transmission of dermatophytoses in both humans and animals requires not only species differentiation of isolates but also differentiation within species. The study was conducted on 24 isolates originating in humans and various animal species with clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis. The analysis included phenotypical identification methods and molecular methods: internal transcribed spacer sequencing and ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with multi-enzyme restriction. ITS sequence analysis identified the isolates to species - Trichophyton interdigitale, Arthroderma benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii, and ITS-RFLP detected six different genotypes. Genotypes I, II and III characterised strains belonging to A. benhamiae, genotype IV characterised the A. vanbreuseghemii strain, and genotypes V and VI occurred only within the species T. interdigitale. Strains isolated from guinea pigs were dominant within genotype I, while genotype II was found mainly in strains from foxes. Multi-enzyme restriction analysis of this region enables intraspecific differentiation, which may be useful in epidemiological research, particularly in determining the source of infections. PMID:25643744

  11. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Erich

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design

  12. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in different animal species from the Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia L Vitral

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection (HEV has been observed in both humans and different animal species living in non-endemic areas, suggesting that animals could be important reservoir for virus transmission to man. Antibodies to HEV have been detected in some Brazilian population groups. Nevertheless, sporadic cases of acute HEV infection have never been reported. We collected 271 serum samples from several domestic animals and also from pig handlers from Southeast of Brazil in order to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV infection. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in cows (1.42%, dogs (6.97%, chickens (20%, swines (24.3%, and rodents (50%, as well as in pig handlers (6.3%. The recognition of swine HEV infections in pigs in many countries of the world led us to investigate a larger sample of pigs (n = 357 from the same Brazilian region with ages ranging from 1 to > 25 weeks. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 100% of 7-day old pigs. Following a gradual decline between weeks 2 and 8 (probably due to loss of maternal IgG, the prevalence then steady increased until it reached 97.3% of animals older than 25 weeks. Besides the detection of anti-HEV antibodies in different animal species, the results showed that swine HEV infection seems to be almost universal within this Brazilian pig population. This is the first report that shows evidences of HEV circulation in Brazilian animal species and pig handlers.

  13. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in different animal species from the Southeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitral, Cláudia L; Pinto, Marcelo A; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia L; Khudyakov, Yuri E; dos Santos, Débora R; Gaspar, Ana Maria C

    2005-04-01

    Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) has been observed in both humans and different animal species living in non-endemic areas, suggesting that animals could be important reservoir for virus transmission to man. Antibodies to HEV have been detected in some Brazilian population groups. Nevertheless, sporadic cases of acute HEV infection have never been reported. We collected 271 serum samples from several domestic animals and also from pig handlers from Southeast of Brazil in order to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV infection. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in cows (1.42%), dogs (6.97%), chickens (20%), swines (24.3%), and rodents (50%), as well as in pig handlers (6.3%). The recognition of swine HEV infections in pigs in many countries of the world led us to investigate a larger sample of pigs (n = 357) from the same Brazilian region with ages ranging from 1 to > 25 weeks. IgG anti-HEV was detected in 100% of 7-day old pigs. Following a gradual decline between weeks 2 and 8 (probably due to loss of maternal IgG), the prevalence then steady increased until it reached 97.3% of animals older than 25 weeks. Besides the detection of anti-HEV antibodies in different animal species, the results showed that swine HEV infection seems to be almost universal within this Brazilian pig population. This is the first report that shows evidences of HEV circulation in Brazilian animal species and pig handlers. PMID:16021297

  14. An Integrated Approach to Flexible Modelling and Animated Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuliang; Wu Zhenye

    1994-01-01

    Based on the software support of SIMAN/CINEMA, this paper presents an integrated approach to flexible modelling and simulation with animation. The methodology provides a structured way of integrating mathematical and logical model, statistical experinentation, and statistical analysis with computer animation. Within this methodology, an animated simulation study is separated into six different activities: simulation objectives identification , system model development, simulation experiment specification, animation layout construction, real-time simulation and animation run, and output data analysis. These six activities are objectives driven, relatively independent, and integrate through software organization and simulation files. The key ideas behind this methodology are objectives orientation, modelling flexibility,simulation and animation integration, and application tailorability. Though the methodology is closely related to SIMAN/CINEMA, it can be extended to other software environments.

  15. Animation of 3D Model of Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.

  16. Feline Foamy Virus Adversely Affects Feline Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture and Expansion: Implications for Animal Model Development

    OpenAIRE

    Arzi, Boaz; Kol, Amir; Murphy, Brian; Walker, Naomi J.; Wood, Joshua A.; Clark, Kaitlin; Verstraete, Frank J.M.; Borjesson, Dori L.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for various immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders due to their potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties. Naturally occurring diseases in large animal species may serve as surrogate animal models of human disease, as they may better reflect the complex genetic, environmental, and physiologic variation present in outbred populations. We work with naturally occurring diseases in large animal species to better understand ...

  17. Respiratory Animal Models in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Curths

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus are small non-human primates (NHPs that are often used for respiratory research. Translational animal models of various pulmonary diseases in marmosets have been developed in favor of models in old world monkeys (OWM, e.g., rhesus or cynomolgus monkeys. The marmoset has the size of a rat (350–450 g, is easier to handle, and the husbandry, care, and management of colonies is much easier compared to OWMs. In contrast to rodents, marmosets provide a high homology to humans, which become especially visible in lung architecture and branching pattern. Features of inflammatory (e.g., COPD pulmonary diseases can be modeled in marmosets as well the species is used to study bacterial and viral infection. Models for human melioidosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, as well as infections with SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV, influenza A virus and adenovirus are already established. Toxicological studies often use marmoset monkeys for the advantage of immunological identical twins that are produced by a Callitrichinae-specific placentation type, which ultimately causes blood chimerism. Relatively new approaches in gene therapy use marmosets for respiratory disease research. In this review we will give an overview of existing respiratory marmoset models and their impact on biomedical research.

  18. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  19. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Manjeet Mapara; Betsy Sara Thomas; Bhat, K M

    2012-01-01

    Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. T...

  20. Lessons Learned from Animal Models of Inherited Bleeding Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in treatment of hemophilia and von Willebrand disease (VWD) depend heavily on the availability of well-characterized animal models. These animals faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these inherited bleeding disorders. Research in these animal models represents important early and intermediate steps of translational research aimed at addressing current limitations in treatment such as the development of inhibitory antibodies to coagulation ...

  1. Which Models Are Appropriate for Six Subtropical Forests: Species-Area and Species-Abundance Models

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Guang Wei; Lin Li; Zhen Cheng Chen; Ju Yu Lian; Guo Jun Lin; Zhong Liang Huang; Zuo Yun Yin

    2014-01-01

    The species-area relationship is one of the most important topic in the study of species diversity, conservation biology and landscape ecology. The species-area relationship curves describe the increase of species number with increasing area, and have been modeled by various equations. In this paper, we used detailed data from six 1-ha subtropical forest communities to fit three species-area relationship models. The coefficient of determination and F ratio of ANOVA showed all the three models...

  2. Aspects of animal models for major neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefter Radu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will review the main animal models for the major neuropsychiatric disorders, focusing on schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, anxiety and autism. Although these mental disorders are specifically human pathologies and therefore impossible to perfectly replicate in animals, the use of experimental animals is based on the physiological and anatomical similarities between humans and animals such as the rat, and mouse, and on the fact that 99% of human and murine genomes are shared. Pathological conditions in animals can be assessed by manipulating the metabolism of neurotransmitters, through various behavioral tests, and by determining biochemical parameters that can serve as important markers of disorders.

  3. Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the noise impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-level impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, noise-related disturbance, or attentional interference. Noise-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna). PMID:26611055

  4. Stimulation of flower nectar replenishment by removal: A survey of eleven animal-pollinated plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between reward-seeking flower feeding animals and plants requires consideration of the dynamic nature of nectar secretion. Studies on several plants suggest that nectar secretion may increase in response to its removal, but it is not clear whether the phenomenon is widespread. We determined whether 11 species of Colorado mountain wildflowers showed removal-enhanced nectar replenishment (RENR. We measured floral phenology, nectar volumes, rate of replenishment, and compared the cumulative nectar produced following five hourly removals with that accumulated after five hours. Nectar replenishment occurred rapidly, within minutes; statistically significant RENR was observed in 9 of our 11 study species, with the strongest effects in bee-pollinated species. We discuss the implications of RENR in plant species on the measurement of nectar, the adaptive advantage of RENR, and the energetic costs of RENR.

  5. Overview of Vertebrate Animal Models of Fungal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Fungi represent emerging infectious threats to human populations worldwide. Mice and other laboratory animals have proved invaluable in modeling clinical syndromes associated with superficial and life-threatening invasive mycoses. This review outlines salient features of common vertebrate animal model systems to study fungal pathogenesis, host antifungal immune responses, and antifungal compounds.

  6. Animal Models of Cardiac Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Lailiang; Li, Wenzhong; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.); Jie, Shen; Kong, Deling; Steinhoff, Gustav; Ma, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Animal models that mimic cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for understanding the mechanisms underlying the diseases at the cellular and molecular level. This review focuses on various methods in preclinical research to create small animal models of cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, myocarditis and cardiac hypertrophy, and the related stem cell treatment for these diseases.

  7. Animal Models for HIV Cure Research

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin B Policicchio; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unabated worldwide, and no vaccine exists within our grasp. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been developed, but ART cannot clear the virus from the infected patient. A cure for HIV-1 is badly needed to stop both the spread of the virus in human populations and disease progression in infected individuals. A safe and effective cure strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will require multiple tools, and appropriate animal ...

  8. Animal learning models as robot controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Bridget

    2000-01-01

    Robots can do a range of wonderful things, but they can also appear really stupid. I would like my autonomous, sensor-rich, robot to be able to: complete its task whenever possible, despite distractions and disabilities; learn the best, most reliable cues for success of the various task components; have sensible default actions whenever the situation is unknown; cope with an unpredictably changing environment; and pay attention whenever I want to contact it. Dreamland? At the moment. Yet anim...

  9. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Di Segni; Enrico Patrono; Loris Patella; Stefano Puglisi-Allegra; Rossella Ventura

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medica...

  10. Animal personality meets community ecology: founder species aggression and the dynamics of spider communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John L

    2015-11-01

    Silken web-reef created by the spider Anelosimus studiosus (main picture) and close-up (insert picture) of multi-female, adult colony of the same species. (photographs: T. Jones, J. Pruitt and A. Wild) In Focus: Pruitt, J.N. & Modlmeier, A.P. (2015) Animal personality in a foundation species drives community divergence and collapse in the wild. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84 Interspecific interactions form the cornerstone of niche theory in community ecology. The 7-year study In Focus here supports the view that variation within species could also be crucially important. Spider communities created experimentally in the wild, with either aggressive or docile individuals of the same founder species, were highly divergent in patterns of community succession for several years. Eventually, they converged on the same community composition only to collapse entirely shortly after, apparently because of the specific mix of aggression phenotypes within and between species just before collapse. These results suggest numerous avenues of research for behavioural ecology and evolutionary community ecology in metapopulations, and could help to resolve differences between competing theories. PMID:26449191

  11. Sample Size Dependent Species Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Walker, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the fundamental problem of measuring species diversity, this paper introduces the concept of a cluster structure to define an exchangeable cluster probability function that governs the joint distribution of a random count and its exchangeable random partitions. A cluster structure, naturally arising from a completely random measure mixed Poisson process, allows the probability distribution of the random partitions of a subset of a sample to be dependent on the sample size, a dist...

  12. Alveolar Overdistension as a Cause of Lung Injury: Differences among Three Animal Species

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel García-Delgado; Inés Navarrete-Sánchez; Virginia Chamorro-Marín; Juan Carlos Díaz-Monrové; Javier Esquivias; Enrique Fernández-Mondéjar

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses characteristics of lung injuries produced by alveolar overdistension in three animal species. Mechanical ventilation at normal tidal volume (10 mL/Kg) and high tidal volume (50 mL/Kg) was applied for 30 min in each species. Data were gathered on wet/dry weight ratio, histological score, and area of alveolar collapse. Five out of six rabbits with high tidal volume developed tension pneumothorax, and the rabbit results were therefore not included in the histological analysis...

  13. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. However, developing human-animal chimeras has proved to be controversial. Discussion Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world. Summary To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area. The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an

  14. Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-tyrosine for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L-Tyrosine can be synthesised in the body from L-phenylalanine, an essential amino acid. The additive L-tyrosine is produced by acid hydrolysis of feather keratin. L-Tyrosine is considered safe for all animal species, provided that the conditions of use are respected, i.e. supplementation of conventional diets with 0.5 % L-tyrosine for food-producing animals and 1.5 % for non-food-producing species. Higher dietary concentrations may lead to growth rate depression and eye lesions, and, in young animals, behavioural changes. L-Tyrosine will be incorporated into the body protein of the animal. The protein composition will not be changed. Free L-tyrosine will not be stored in the tissues. On the basis of the data available, no risk is expected for the consumer from the use of this L-tyrosine preparation showing a purity > 95 %. In the absence of data, the product is considered potentially irritating to skin and eyes, a potential dermal sensitiser and hazardous by inhalation. The use of L-tyrosine in animal nutrition would not be expected to lead to any localised increase in the concentration of L-tyrosine or its metabolites in the environment. It is concluded that the use of this product as a feed additive does not represent a risk to the environment. The supplementation of feed with L-tyrosine is efficacious in cases where high requirements for tyrosine as a melanin precursor occur. This has been demonstrated in cats for intensively colouring the coat. L-Tyrosine may also have the potential to intensify the pigmentation of the coat/plumage of other species, but limited evidence is available.

  15. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  16. Comparative toxicity of PCBs and related compounds in various species of animals.

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, E E

    1985-01-01

    There are several basic principles that apply to the clinicopathologic syndrome produced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). They are as follows: The degree of halogenation and position of the halogen atoms determine the potency of PCB, PBB, CDD, CDF and CN; in a given species of animals, the clinicopathologic syndrome induced by PCB is comparable to that induced by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF), and chlorinated naphthale...

  17. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    OpenAIRE

    de Koeijer, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for applying such models in real life. In this thesis, models on the spread of infectious diseases in animals are...

  18. Comparison of animal models for the evaluation of radiolabeled androgens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodistribution of two 18F-labeled androgens and an 124I/125I-labeled androgen were studied in five androgen receptor (prostate) animal models with or lacking sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). As models for androgen-receptor positive ovarian cancer, xenografts of three human ovarian cancer cell lines were tested in SCID mice. SHBG in the prostate model systems significantly affects the metabolism, clearance, and distribution of the radiolabeled androgens in several tissues, but ovarian cancer animal models were disappointing

  19. Immunomodulation of cytokine and chemokine production in animal models of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ahmed M. Gadeh EL Dum, Nagat

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that can be actively induced in susceptible animal species and strains by active immunization with heterogeneous peripheral nerve myelin or its component P2 or PO proteins or their peptides emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant. EAN represents an animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis and therapy of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS ) which is ...

  20. Characterizing cognitive aging of spatial and contextual memory in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Thomas C.; Defazio, R. A.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory, especially memory for contextual or spatial information, is particularly vulnerable to age-related decline in humans and animal models of aging. The continuing improvement of virtual environment technology for testing humans signifies that widely used procedures employed in the animal literature for examining spatial memory could be developed for examining age-related cognitive decline in humans. The current review examines cross species considerations for implementing these ...

  1. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones

    OpenAIRE

    Boos Alois; Auer Joerg A; Nuss Katja; Rechenberg Brigitte von

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. Methods A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. Result...

  2. Methods of detection, species identification and quantification of processed animal proteins in feedingstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumière O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs in feed for farmed animals led to a significant reduction of the number of bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. Presently, optical microscopy remains the only reference method for the detection of PAPs to be applied for official control as required by Commission Directive 2003/126/EC. The legislation also foresees that other methods may be applied in addition to classical microscopy, if – for instance – they provide more information about the origin of the animal constituents. Therefore, alternative and complementary techniques were developed as such or in combination. The most promising ones seem to be PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, near infrared microscopy and imaging, as well as immunology. Within the framework of a PAP ban regardless of its species origin (total feed ban, most of the studies were mainly focused on the ability of the techniques to detect the presence of PAPs at 0.1% (mass percentage of constituents of animal origin in feed as indicated as limit of detection in the official method protocol. A possible modification of the legislation requires that the techniques are also able to determine their species origin and to quantify them. The present paper gives a state of the art of the different methods.

  3. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, an

  4. Boys Will Be Boys; Cows Will Be Cows: Children's Essentialist Reasoning about Gender Categories and Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marianne G.; Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies (N = 456) compared the development of concepts of animal species and human gender, using a switched-at-birth reasoning task. Younger children (5- and 6-year-olds) treated animal species and human gender as equivalent; they made similar levels of category-based inferences and endorsed similar explanations for development in these 2…

  5. Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome—From Proliferation to Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.). Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. PMID:27065791

  6. Animal Models of Tourette Syndrome-From Proliferation to Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yael, Dorin; Israelashvili, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.). Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. PMID:27065791

  7. Animal Models of Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Science, Animal Welfare, and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Wendy J.; Nicholson, Katherine L.; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L.

    2010-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial...

  8. Animal models for photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Zenildo Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PSs), which absorb visible light to give the excited singlet state, followed by the long-lived triplet state that can undergo photochemistry. In the presence of ambient oxygen, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are formed that are able to kill cancer cells, inactivate microbial pathogens and destroy unwanted tissue. Although there are already several clinically approved PSs for...

  9. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per Torp; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L;

    2014-01-01

    enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, nutritional interventions and growth factor therapies. Animal studies may...... hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g. PN, milk diets, long/short chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely......, newborn pigs and weanling rats represent a translational advantage for infant SBS due to their immature intestine. A balance among practical, economical, experimental and ethical constraints determines the choice of SBS model for each clinical or basic research question....

  10. Animal models for mucopolysaccharidosis disorders and their clinical relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in understanding how a particular genotype produces the phenotype of an inborn error of metabolism, such as a mucopolysaccharidosis, in human patients has been facilitated by the study of animals with mutations in the orthologous genes. These are not just animal models, but true orthologues of the human genetic disease, with defects involving the same evolutionarily conserved genes and the same molecular, biochemical, and anatomic lesions as in human patients. These animals are often...

  11. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kokras, N.; Dalla, C.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnos...

  12. ANIMAL MODELS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN NEUROTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thesis of this chapter has been that spatial delayed alternation versus position discrimination learning can serve as a valuable rodent model of cognitive development in neurotoxicology. his model captures dual process conceptualizations of memory in human neuropsychology and...

  13. Penile autotransplantation in rats: An animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf M Seyam

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Penile autotransplantation in rats is feasible and provides the basis for evaluation of the corpora cavernosa in an allotransplantation model. Long-term urethral continuity and dorsal neurovascular bundle survival in this model is difficult to establish.

  14. Large animal models for vaccine development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing. PMID:25991698

  15. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Hubalek, Jaromir; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metals and in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Excepting humans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animal species. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records were obtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observed in samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used, well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very low signal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reaching over 20 µM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowest values of about 1-3 µM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  16. A Spatio-temporal Model of African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadou H Dicko

    Full Text Available African animal trypanosomosis (AAT is a major constraint to sustainable development of cattle farming in sub-Saharan Africa. The habitat of the tsetse fly vector is increasingly fragmented owing to demographic pressure and shifts in climate, which leads to heterogeneous risk of cyclical transmission both in space and time. In Burkina Faso and Ghana, the most important vectors are riverine species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides, which are more resilient to human-induced changes than the savannah and forest species. Although many authors studied the distribution of AAT risk both in space and time, spatio-temporal models allowing predictions of it are lacking.We used datasets generated by various projects, including two baseline surveys conducted in Burkina Faso and Ghana within PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign national initiatives. We computed the entomological inoculation rate (EIR or tsetse challenge using a range of environmental data. The tsetse apparent density and their infection rate were separately estimated and subsequently combined to derive the EIR using a "one layer-one model" approach. The estimated EIR was then projected into suitable habitat. This risk index was finally validated against data on bovine trypanosomosis. It allowed a good prediction of the parasitological status (r2 = 67%, showed a positive correlation but less predictive power with serological status (r2 = 22% aggregated at the village level but was not related to the illness status (r2 = 2%.The presented spatio-temporal model provides a fine-scale picture of the dynamics of AAT risk in sub-humid areas of West Africa. The estimated EIR was high in the proximity of rivers during the dry season and more widespread during the rainy season. The present analysis is a first step in a broader framework for an efficient risk management of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases.

  17. Animal Models of Diabetic Neuropathy: Progress Since 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahidul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic or peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN is one of the major complications among some other diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. The use of animal models in the research of diabetes and diabetic complications is very common when rats and mice are most commonly used for many reasons. A numbers of animal models of diabetic and PDN have been developed in the last several decades such as streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models, conventional or genetically modified or high-fat diet-fed C57BL/Ks (db/db mice models, streptozotocin-induced C57BL6/J and ddY mice models, Chinese hamster neuropathic model, rhesus monkey PDN model, spontaneously diabetic WBN/Kob rat model, L-fucose-induced neropathic rat model, partial sciatic nerve ligated rat model, nonobese diabetic (NOD mice model, spontaneously induced Ins2 Akita mice model, leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice model, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rat model, surgically-induced neuropathic model, and genetically modified Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT rat model, none of which are without limitations. An animal model of diabetic or PDN should mimic the all major pathogeneses of human diabetic neuropathy. Hence, this review comparatively evaluates the animal models of diabetic and PDN which are developed since 1960s with their advantages and disadvantages to help diabetic research groups in order to more accurately choose an appropriate model to meet their specific research objectives.

  18. 小鼠模型在不同亚型流感病毒致病性及跨种传播研究中的应用%Application of BALB/c Mouse as Animal Model in Research on Pathogenicity and Trans-species Transmission of Influenza A Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春香

    2012-01-01

    A型流感病毒是目前传播最广泛的人畜共患病病原之一,到目前为止全球至少暴发了5次人流感大流行,尤其是1997年以来多起H5N1亚型高致病性禽流感病毒跨越种间屏障由禽直接感染并致死人的事件造成了极大恐慌.流感病毒致病性和跨种传播的分子机制研究是有效预防和控制流感的基础,而BALB/c小鼠模型的应用极大地促进了这些研究进程,作者就BALB/c小鼠作为试验动物模型在流感病毒致病性及跨种传播研究中的应用作一综述.%Influenza A virus(IAV)was one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogen, and so far at least five pieces of global pandemics of human influenza had outbroken. In particular, since 1997 many events which highly pathogenic H5N1 avian IAV across the species barrier to infect people even to death had posed great threat to human. Research about the molecular mechanism of cross-species infection and pathogenicity of IAV were the fundamental for prevention and control of the diseases, and the application of mouse as an animal model for research on IAV would promote the research process. In this paper, we over-viewed the application of BALB/c mouse as an animal model in the studies on pathogenicity and trans-species transmission of IAV.

  19. Reverse translational strategies for developing animal models of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Malkesman, Oz; Austin, Daniel R.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant portion of the population of the world, yet there has been limited success in developing novel treatments for the disorder. One of the major reasons for this dearth is the absence of suitable animal models for BD. Traditionally, animal models of human phenomena have been evaluated based on similarity to the human syndrome, response to appropriately corresponding medications, and the degree to which a model supports a common mechanistic theory betwee...

  20. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  1. Animal models for the study of arterial hypertension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Waleska C Dornas; Marcelo E Silva

    2011-09-01

    Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disability or death due to stroke, heart attack and kidney failure. Because the etiology of essential hypertension is not known and may be multifactorial, the use of experimental animal models has provided valuable information regarding many aspects of the disease, which include etiology, pathophysiology, complications and treatment. The models of hypertension are various, and in this review, we provide a brief overview of the most widely used animal models, their features and their importance.

  2. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wen; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  3. Peripheral Biomarkers in Animal Models of Major Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Carboni

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of preclinical biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD) encompass the quantification of proteins, peptides, mRNAs, or small molecules in blood or urine of animal models. Most studies aim at characterising the animal model by including the assessment of analytes or hormones affected in depressive patients. The ultimate objective is to validate the model to better understand the neurobiological basis of MDD. Stress hormones or inflammation-related analytes associated with M...

  4. The Use of Animal Models for Cancer Chemoprevention Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Vernon E.; Lubet, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Animal models currently are used to assess the efficacy of potential chemopreventive agents, including synthetic chemicals, chemical agents obtained from natural products and natural product mixtures. The observations made in these models as well as other data are then used to prioritize agents to determine which are qualified to progress to clinical chemoprevention trials. Organ specific animal models are employed to determine which agents or classes of agents are likely to be the most effec...

  5. The capacity of animals to acquire language: do species differences have anything to say to us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage-Rumbaugh, E S; Sevcik, R A; Rumbaugh, D M; Rubert, E

    1985-02-13

    Following the Gardners' discovery that an ape named Washoe could learn to produce and combine a number of hand movements similar to those used by deaf human beings, a variety of 'ape-language projects' sprang up. Some projects used different symbol systems, others used different training techniques, and others used different species of apes. While debate still rages regarding the appropriate way to interpret the symbolic productions of apes, three species of great apes (gorilla, orangutan, and chimpanzee) have now been credited with this capacity while no lesser apes or monkeys have been reported, at present, to have acquired such communicative skills. Among all of the claims made for the various animal species, the philosophers have entered the fray attempting to define the essence of what it is about language that makes it 'human'. This paper will compare and contrast the above positions to arrive at behavioural definitions of symbolic usage that can be applied across species. It will then present new data on a fourth ape species Pan paniscus which is proving to be the first non-human species to acquire symbolic skills in a spontaneous manner. PMID:2858874

  6. [Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for

  7. A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeevan Ratnasingham

    Full Text Available Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs, these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth.

  8. Boys will be boys; cows will be cows: Children’s essentialist reasoning about gender categories and animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Marianne G.; Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies (N = 456) compared the development of concepts of animal species and human gender, using a switched-at-birth reasoning task. Younger children (5- and 6-year-olds) treated animal species and human gender as equivalent; they made similar levels of category-based inferences and endorsed similar explanations for development in these two domains. In contrast, 10-year-olds and adults treated gender and species concepts as distinct from one another. They viewed gender-linked behavioral p...

  9. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong;

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...... sequence similarity with human disease gene orthologs and drug targets. However, we identify several putatively dysfunctional genetic differences between the three macaque species, which may explain functional differences between them previously observed in clinical studies....

  10. An updated overview of animal models in neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, M; Behforuzi, H; Harati, H; Wafai, R Al; Khaku, A; Mondello, S; Gold, M S; Kobeissy, F H

    2013-06-14

    Animal models are vital tools to study the genetic, molecular, cellular, and environmental parameters involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Over the years, these models have expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Although animal models have been widely used in psychiatry, and despite several years of extensive research with these models, their validity is still being investigated and presents a challenge to both investigators and clinicians as well. In this concise review, we will describe the most common animal models utilized in neuropsychiatry, including animal models of depression, anxiety, and psychosis. In addition, we will also discuss the validity and reliability of these models and current challenges in this domain. Furthermore, this work will discuss the role of gene-environment interaction as an additional contributing factor that modulates neuropsychological outcome and its implication on animal models. This overview will give a succinct summary of animal models in psychiatry which will be useful both to the seasoned researcher, as well as novices in the field. PMID:23473749

  11. Opossum as an animal model for studying radiation esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six opossums were evaluated as a possible animal model of radiation esophagitis. In a single exposure to the esophagus, four animals received 60Co radiation of various doses; two served as controls. Pre- and postirradiation evaluations using fiberoptic endoscopy, mucosal biopsy, barium esophagography, and manometry were performed. Esophagitis developed at one week in irradiated animals. Opossums receiving 17.5, 20, and 22.5 Gy (1,750; 2,000; and 2,250 rad) became anorexic one week postirradiation, and abnormal motility subsequently developed. The controls and the animal receiving 15 Gy (1,500 rad) remained normal. Histological changes in the irradiated opossum esophagus resembled those found in humans

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  13. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati eBanerjee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.

  14. An isolated working heart system for large animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Matthew A; Southerland, Kevin W; Feger, Bryan J; Linder, Dean; Ali, Ayyaz A; Njoroge, Linda; Milano, Carmelo A; Bowles, Dawn E

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the late 19(th) century, the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus, and the subsequent development of the working heart model, have been invaluable tools for studying cardiovascular function and disease(1-15). Although the Langendorff heart preparation can be used for any mammalian heart, most studies involving this apparatus use small animal models (e.g., mouse, rat, and rabbit) due to the increased complexity of systems for larger mammals(1,3,11). One major difficulty is ensuring a constant coronary perfusion pressure over a range of different heart sizes - a key component of any experiment utilizing this device(1,11). By replacing the classic hydrostatic afterload column with a centrifugal pump, the Langendorff working heart apparatus described below allows for easy adjustment and tight regulation of perfusion pressures, meaning the same set-up can be used for various species or heart sizes. Furthermore, this configuration can also seamlessly switch between constant pressure or constant flow during reperfusion, depending on the user's preferences. The open nature of this setup, despite making temperature regulation more difficult than other designs, allows for easy collection of effluent and ventricular pressure-volume data. PMID:24962492

  15. Exploring the Validity of Valproic Acid Animal Model of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabunga, Darine Froy N; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Kim, Ji-Woon; Kim, Ki Chan; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-12-01

    The valproic acid (VPA) animal model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most widely used animal model in the field. Like any other disease models, it can't model the totality of the features seen in autism. Then, is it valid to model autism? This model demonstrates many of the structural and behavioral features that can be observed in individuals with autism. These similarities enable the model to define relevant pathways of developmental dysregulation resulting from environmental manipulation. The uncovering of these complex pathways resulted to the growing pool of potential therapeutic candidates addressing the core symptoms of ASD. Here, we summarize the validity points of VPA that may or may not qualify it as a valid animal model of ASD. PMID:26713077

  16. Current Animal Models of Postoperative Spine Infection and Potential Future Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eStavrakis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Implant related infection following spine surgery is a devastating complication for patients and can potentially lead to significant neurological compromise, disability, morbidity, and even mortality. This paper provides an overview of the existing animal models of postoperative spine infection and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each model. In addition there is discussion regarding potential modifications to these animal models to better evaluate preventative and treatment strategies for this challenging complication. Current models are effective in simulating surgical procedures but fail to evaluate infection longitudinally using multiple techniques. Potential future modifications to these models include using advanced imaging technologies to evaluate infection, use of bioluminescent bacterial species, and testing of novel treatment strategies against multiple bacterial strains. There is potential to establish a postoperative spine infection model using smaller animals, such as mice, as these would be a more cost-effective screening tool for potential therapeutic interventions.

  17. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Nijman; C.R. Shepherd; S. van Balen

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the specie

  18. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  19. Diversity and Distribution of Host Animal Species of Hantavirus and Risk to Human Health in Jiuhua Mountain Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xing Qiang; LI Shi Guang; LIU Hong; WANG Jun; HUA Ri Mao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China. Methods The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Results Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%. Conclusion The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health.

  20. Which Models Are Appropriate for Six Subtropical Forests: Species-Area and Species-Abundance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi Guang; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhen Cheng; Lian, Ju Yu; Lin, Guo Jun; Huang, Zhong Liang; Yin, Zuo Yun

    2014-01-01

    The species-area relationship is one of the most important topic in the study of species diversity, conservation biology and landscape ecology. The species-area relationship curves describe the increase of species number with increasing area, and have been modeled by various equations. In this paper, we used detailed data from six 1-ha subtropical forest communities to fit three species-area relationship models. The coefficient of determination and F ratio of ANOVA showed all the three models fitted well to the species-area relationship data in the subtropical communities, with the logarithm model performing better than the other two models. We also used the three species-abundance distributions, namely the lognormal, logcauchy and logseries model, to fit them to the species-abundance data of six communities. In this case, the logcauchy model had the better fit based on the coefficient of determination. Our research reveals that the rare species always exist in the six communities, corroborating the neutral theory of Hubbell. Furthermore, we explained why all species-abundance figures appeared to be left-side truncated. This was due to subtropical forests have high diversity, and their large species number includes many rare species. PMID:24755956

  1. Leading compounds for the validation of animal models of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Vincenzo; Kucerova, Jana; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2013-10-01

    Modelling of complex psychiatric disorders, e.g., depression and schizophrenia, in animals is a major challenge, since they are characterized by certain disturbances in functions that are absolutely unique to humans. Furthermore, we still have not identified the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms, nor do we know precisely the circuits in the brain that function abnormally in mood and psychotic disorders. Consequently, the pharmacological treatments used are mostly variations on a theme that was started more than 50 years ago. Thus, progress in novel drug development with improved therapeutic efficacy would benefit greatly from improved animal models. Here, we review the available animal models of depression and schizophrenia and focus on the way that they respond to various types of potential candidate molecules, such as novel antidepressant or antipsychotic drugs, as an index of predictive validity. We conclude that the generation of convincing and useful animal models of mental illnesses could be a bridge to success in drug discovery. PMID:23942897

  2. GHRH treatment: studies in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakutsui, S; Abe, H; Chihara, K

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of chronic deletion of circulating growth hormone-releasing (GHRH) and/or somatostatin (SRIF) on normal growing male rats, as well as the effects of exogenous GHRH (1-29)NH2 and/or SMS 201-995 administration on the growth of rats with hypothalamic ablation. Passive immunization with anti-rat GHRH goat gamma-globulin (GHRH-Ab) for 3 weeks caused a marked decrease in the levels of pituitary GH mRNA and severe growth failure. Treatment with anti-SRIF goat gamma-globulin (SRIF-Ab) for 3 weeks produced a more modest decrease in GH mRNA levels in the pituitary and a slight but significant inhibition of normal somatic growth. Hypothalamic ablation produced a marked decrease in the level of mRNA in the pituitary. Chronic continuous administration of GHRH (1-29)NH2 stimulated pituitary GH synthesis, elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and increased body weight gain in rats with hypothalamic ablation treated with replacement doses of cortisone, testosterone and L-thyroxine. Combined treatment with GHRH (1-29)NH2 and SMS 201-995 appeared to promote the effect of GHRH on pituitary GH release and somatic growth in these animals. The results suggest that continuous administration of GHRH will be useful in the treatment of children with growth retardation resulting from hypothalamic disorders. In children with combined GHRH and somatostatin deficiencies, the addition of somatostatin to a GHRH treatment regimen may produce better results. PMID:2568726

  3. Animal Models of Uveal Melanoma: Methods, Applicability, and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stei, Marta M.; Loeffler, Karin U.; Holz, Frank G.; Herwig, Martina C.

    2016-01-01

    Animal models serve as powerful tools for investigating the pathobiology of cancer, identifying relevant pathways, and developing novel therapeutic agents. They have facilitated rapid scientific progress in many tumor entities. However, for establishing a powerful animal model of uveal melanoma fundamental challenges remain. To date, no animal model offers specific genetic attributes as well as histologic, immunologic, and metastatic features of uveal melanoma. Syngeneic models with intraocular injection of cutaneous melanoma cells may suit best for investigating immunologic/tumor biology aspects. However, differences between cutaneous and uveal melanoma regarding genetics and metastasis remain problematic. Human xenograft models are widely used for evaluating novel therapeutics but require immunosuppression to allow tumor growth. New approaches aim to establish transgenic mouse models of spontaneous uveal melanoma which recently provided preliminary promising results. Each model provides certain benefits and may render them suitable for answering a respective scientific question. However, all existing models also exhibit relevant limitations which may have led to delayed research progress. Despite refined therapeutic options for the primary ocular tumor, patients' prognosis has not improved since the 1970s. Basic research needs to further focus on a refinement of a potent animal model which mimics uveal melanoma specific mechanisms of progression and metastasis. This review will summarise and interpret existing animal models of uveal melanoma including recent advances in the field. PMID:27366747

  4. Studies on the body composition of different species of animals measured by isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine animals, three each of cattle (Hariana x Holstein), buffalo and sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk) were used to determine body composition by indirect method. There was reduction in TOH space and total body water during summer season in cattle and buffalo as compared to winter season. Percentage of fat was higher in summer than winter in different species of animals. Four adult Barbari goats were taken for studying body composition by direct (slaughter) and indirect (isotope dilution) techniques. The average total body water, protein, fat and ash were 70.03, 15.42, 8.45 and 3.57% on live weight basis and 65.62, 19.16, 10.18 and 4.5 percent on empty weight basis. There was a significant correlation between corrected TOH space and total fat, total protein and total body water. (auth.)

  5. Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keizo Kanasaki; Daisuke Koya

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic problem in the world and is associated with several health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human he...

  6. Animal models of drug addiction: advantages and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Quertemont, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Various animal models have been developed to investigate the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drug addiction. The most popular of these animal models include the locomotor sensitization paradigm, the place conditioning procedure and the self-administration technique. With these techniques, it is possible to mimic in rodents the major aspects of human drug addiction. The self-administration procedure is the most widely used and show an excellent natural and predictive validity. In ...

  7. Animal Models of Diabetic Neuropathy: Progress Since 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shahidul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic or peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is one of the major complications among some other diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. The use of animal models in the research of diabetes and diabetic complications is very common when rats and mice are most commonly used for many reasons. A numbers of animal models of diabetic and PDN have been developed in the last several decades such as streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat...

  8. Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Hypertension and Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Fang Leong; Chun-Yi Ng; Kamsiah Jaarin

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and atherosclerosis are among the most common causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries. Experimental animal models of hypertension and atherosclerosis have become a valuable tool for providing information on etiology, pathophysiology, and complications of the disease and on the efficacy and mechanism of action of various drugs and compounds used in treatment. An animal model has been developed to study hypertension and atherosclerosis for several reasons. Co...

  9. Analysis of animal accelerometer data using hidden Markov models

    OpenAIRE

    Leos-Barajas, Vianey; Photopoulou, Theoni; Langrock, Roland; Patterson, Toby A; Watanabe, Yuuki; Murgatroyd, Megan; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.

    2016-01-01

    Use of accelerometers is now widespread within animal biotelemetry as they provide a means of measuring an animal's activity in a meaningful and quantitative way where direct observation is not possible. In sequential acceleration data there is a natural dependence between observations of movement or behaviour, a fact that has been largely ignored in most analyses. Analyses of acceleration data where serial dependence has been explicitly modelled have largely relied on hidden Markov models (H...

  10. Promise and Pitfalls of Animal Models of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Feifel, David; Shilling, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Animal models are indispensible tools for advancing understanding of the cause of any given disease and developing new treatments. Developing animal models for schizophrenia presents formidable challenges owing to the distinctively human nature of the symptoms that define it and the thus-far-obscured underlying biological mechanisms. Nevertheless, progress has been and continues to be made in this important field of endeavor. This article discusses the challenges facing investigators who seek...

  11. What Constitutes a Relevant Animal Model of the Ketogenic Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory L Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Animal models of human disease have been enormously important in improving our understanding of the pathophysiological basis and the development of novel therapies. In epilepsy, modeling using both in vivo and in vitro preparations has provided insight into fundamental neuronal mechanisms. Indeed, much of our understanding of seizure mechanisms comes from animal studies. The conceptual advances in understanding basic mechanisms of epilepsies have been largely validated in humans, attesting to...

  12. Principles for developing animal models of military PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaos P. Daskalakis; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which animal studies can be relevant to military posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continues to be a matter of discussion. Some features of the clinical syndrome are more easily modeled than others. In the animal literature, a great deal of attention is focused on modeling the characteristics of military exposures and their impact on measurable behaviors and biological parameters. There are many issues to consider regarding the ecological validity of predator, social defeat o...

  13. Animal models of post-traumatic stress disorder: face validity

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Pare

    2013-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic) are used to...

  14. Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right

    CERN Document Server

    Osipa, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

  15. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that...... of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat as an...... animal model of Alzheimer's disease....

  16. Animal models for information processing during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, A M L; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2002-12-01

    Information provided by external stimuli does reach the brain during sleep, although the amount of information is reduced during sleep compared to wakefulness. The process controlling this reduction is called 'sensory' gating and evidence exists that the underlying neurophysiological processes take place in the thalamus. Furthermore, it is clear that stimuli given during sleep can alter the functional state of the brain. Two factors have been shown to play a crucial role in causing changes in the sleeping brain: the intensity and the relevance of the stimulus. Intensive stimuli arouse the brain, as well as stimuli having a high informational impact on the sleeping person. The arousal threshold for important stimuli is quite low compared to neutral stimuli. A central question in sleep research is whether associative learning, or in other words the formation of new associations between stimuli, can take place in a sleeping brain. It has been shown that simple forms of learning are still possible during sleep. In sleeping rats, it is proven that habituation, an active, simple form of learning not to respond to irrelevant stimuli, can occur. Moreover, there is evidence for the view that more complex associations can be modulated and newly formed during sleep. This is shown by two experimental approaches: an extinction paradigm and a latent inhibition (pre-exposure) paradigm. The presentation of non-reinforced stimuli during sleep causes slower extinction compared to the same presentation of these stimuli during wakefulness. Consistently, the suppressive capacity of a stimulus in the latent inhibition paradigm is less when previously pre-exposed during sleep, as compared to pre-exposure during wakefulness. Thus, while associative learning is not completely blocked during sleep, aspects of association formation are clearly altered. However, animal studies also clearly indicate that complex forms of learning are not possible during sleep. It is hypothesised that this

  17. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  18. Animal Models of Interferon Signature Positive Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haoyang; Szeto, Christopher; Han, Shuhong; Yang, Lijun; Reeves, Westley H

    2015-01-01

    Human lupus is strongly associated with a gene expression signature characterized by over-expression of Type I interferon-regulated genes. A strong interferon signature generally is not seen in the standard mouse models of lupus, despite considerable evidence for the involvement of toll-like receptor-driven interferon production. In contrast, pristane-induced lupus exhibits a prominent TLR7-dependent interferon signature. Importantly, genetic disorders with dysregulated interferon production in both human beings and mice cause severe autoinflammatory diseases but not the typical manifestations of lupus, suggesting that interferon over-production is insufficient to cause systemic lupus erythematosus itself. Single-gene models in mice suggest that lupus-like disease may result from abnormalities in B-cell activation and the clearance of dead cells. Pristane may mimic human systemic lupus erythematosus by causing synergistic abnormalities in interferon production along with defective clearance of apoptotic cells and over-active B-cell signaling. PMID:26097482

  19. Modeling HIV Vaccine Strategy in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Regoes, Roland R.; Longini, Ira M.; Feinberg, Mark B.; Staprans, Silvija I.

    2005-01-01

    Background Trials in macaque models play an essential role in the evaluation of biomedical interventions that aim to prevent HIV infection, such as vaccines, microbicides, and systemic chemoprophylaxis. These trials are usually conducted with very high virus challenge doses that result in infection with certainty. However, these high challenge doses do not realistically reflect the low probability of HIV transmission in humans, and thus may rule out preventive interventions that could protect...

  20. Emerging and Evolving Ovarian Cancer Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bobbs, Alexander S; Jennifer M. Cole; Cowden Dahl, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death from a gynecological malignancy in the United States. By the time a woman is diagnosed with OC, the tumor has usually metastasized. Mouse models that are used to recapitulate different aspects of human OC have been evolving for nearly 40 years. Xenograft studies in immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice have enhanced our knowledge of metastasis and immune cell involvement in cancer. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) can accurately reflect ...

  1. Small animal model for HIV-1 Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshio; Koyanagi

    2005-01-01

    Development of a viral infection model of the humanimmune systemusingsmall animalsis animportant goal in biomedi-cal research,especiallyinstudiesof HIV-1infection.Thisis particularlyimportant since susceptibilityto HIV-1islimit-edto humans.The C.B-17-scid/scid-mouselacks mature Tand Bcells dueto a defective rearrangement of the Tcell re-ceptor andimmunoglobulin genes.Twotypes of humanlymphoid chimeras have been establishedin scid-mice.The firstsuccess withthe human mouse chimera was achieved.Human fetal liv...

  2. [Use of animal models of clinical pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, G

    1990-11-01

    For a better understanding of clinical pain, several groups involved in the study of basic pain mechanisms have proposed the use of various experimental models close to clinical situations. They are based either on neurogenic or inflammatory processes. Data obtained with three of these models will be developed in the paper: rats rendered arthritic by Freund's adjuvant injection into the tail, rats with an intraplantar injection of carrageenin in one hind-paw, rats with a moderate ligature of one common sciatic nerve. The various pharmacological approaches revealed dramatic changes of the analgesic effects of morphine and other opioid substances, and a spectacular modification of the endogenous opioid reactivity. A further enhancement of the initial hyperalgesia was observed with high doses (1-3 mg/kg iv) of naloxone (known as an antagonist of morphine), contrasting with the paradoxical analgesia induced with the low dose (peaking up for 3 micrograms/kg iv). Electrophysiological studies emphasized dramatic changes of neuronal responsiveness in structures involved in the transmission of the nociceptive messages. In each of these models, electrophysiological data provide new insights on the physiopathological mechanisms of the related clinical pain. PMID:2092200

  3. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  4. Animal Models of Cystic Fibrosis Pathology: Phenotypic Parallels and Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvaney, Noel G.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The resultant characteristic ion transport defect results in decreased mucociliary clearance, bacterial colonisation, and chronic neutrophil-dominated inflammation. Much knowledge surrounding the pathophysiology of the disease has been gained through the generation of animal models, despite inherent limitations in each. The failure of certain mouse models to recapitulate the phenotypic manifestations of human disease has initiated the generation of larger animals in which to study CF, including the pig and the ferret. This review will summarise the basic phenotypes of three animal models and describe the contributions of such animal studies to our current understanding of CF. PMID:27340661

  5. Animal Models of Cystic Fibrosis Pathology: Phenotypic Parallels and Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian M. Lavelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene. The resultant characteristic ion transport defect results in decreased mucociliary clearance, bacterial colonisation, and chronic neutrophil-dominated inflammation. Much knowledge surrounding the pathophysiology of the disease has been gained through the generation of animal models, despite inherent limitations in each. The failure of certain mouse models to recapitulate the phenotypic manifestations of human disease has initiated the generation of larger animals in which to study CF, including the pig and the ferret. This review will summarise the basic phenotypes of three animal models and describe the contributions of such animal studies to our current understanding of CF.

  6. Development of animal models for hepatobiliary nuclear imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hee; Park, Yun Hee; Ryu, Yeon Mi; Shin, Eun Kyung; Kim, Meyoung Kon [Korea University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Animal models for hepatobiliary disorders were classified into 2 different types: parenchymal hepatotoxicity and biliary-tract cholestasis. The purpose of this study was to develop animal models for hepatobiliary scintigraphy in evaluating a novel agents, such as {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetyl triglycine(MAG3)-biocytin. Animal models were prepared by use of female Balb/c mice. Those were treated with 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 ml/kg of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intraperitoneally for hepatotoxicity and with 30, 150, and 750 mg/kg of {alpha}-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) to induce cholestasis. Dose of optimum was 0.5 ml/kg and 150 mg/kg for each model but lower (0.1 ml/kg and 30 mg/kg) and higher (2.5ml/kg and 750 mg/kg)were not be compatible for hepatobiliary models. Using these hepatobiliary models, {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-biocytin scintigraphy was successfully carried out by using 4 parameters, e.g., peak liver/heat ratio (Rmax), peak ratio time (Tmax), half clearance time (HCT), and hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) for hepatotoxicity and cholestasis. Additionally, biochemical and histological analysis also resulted in confirming these animal models. Thus, we concluded that these animal models were highly likely to be efficient in evaluating hepatobiliary scintigraphic agent such as {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-biocytin.

  7. Development of animal models for hepatobiliary nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal models for hepatobiliary disorders were classified into 2 different types: parenchymal hepatotoxicity and biliary-tract cholestasis. The purpose of this study was to develop animal models for hepatobiliary scintigraphy in evaluating a novel agents, such as 99mTc-mercaptoacetyl triglycine(MAG3)-biocytin. Animal models were prepared by use of female Balb/c mice. Those were treated with 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 ml/kg of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intraperitoneally for hepatotoxicity and with 30, 150, and 750 mg/kg of α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) to induce cholestasis. Dose of optimum was 0.5 ml/kg and 150 mg/kg for each model but lower (0.1 ml/kg and 30 mg/kg) and higher (2.5ml/kg and 750 mg/kg)were not be compatible for hepatobiliary models. Using these hepatobiliary models, 99mTc-MAG3-biocytin scintigraphy was successfully carried out by using 4 parameters, e.g., peak liver/heat ratio (Rmax), peak ratio time (Tmax), half clearance time (HCT), and hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) for hepatotoxicity and cholestasis. Additionally, biochemical and histological analysis also resulted in confirming these animal models. Thus, we concluded that these animal models were highly likely to be efficient in evaluating hepatobiliary scintigraphic agent such as 99mTc-MAG3-biocytin

  8. Tree diversity and species identity effects on soil fungi, protists and animals are context dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Põlme, Sergei; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Anslan, Sten; Harend, Helery; Buegger, Franz; Pritsch, Karin; Koricheva, Julia; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2016-02-01

    Plant species richness and the presence of certain influential species (sampling effect) drive the stability and functionality of ecosystems as well as primary production and biomass of consumers. However, little is known about these floristic effects on richness and community composition of soil biota in forest habitats owing to methodological constraints. We developed a DNA metabarcoding approach to identify the major eukaryote groups directly from soil with roughly species-level resolution. Using this method, we examined the effects of tree diversity and individual tree species on soil microbial biomass and taxonomic richness of soil biota in two experimental study systems in Finland and Estonia and accounted for edaphic variables and spatial autocorrelation. Our analyses revealed that the effects of tree diversity and individual species on soil biota are largely context dependent. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling suggested that biomass, soil pH, nutrients and tree species directly affect richness of different taxonomic groups. The community composition of most soil organisms was strongly correlated due to similar response to environmental predictors rather than causal relationships. On a local scale, soil resources and tree species have stronger effect on diversity of soil biota than tree species richness per se. PMID:26172210

  9. Toward a cross-species neuroscientific understanding of the affective mind: do animals have emotional feelings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-06-01

    to human feelings, as with neurochemical predictions from preclinical animal models to self-reports of corresponding human experiences. In short, brain research has now repeatedly verified the existence of affective experience-various reward and punishment functions-during artificial arousal of emotional networks in our fellow animals. The implications for new conceptual schema for understanding human/primate affective feelings and how such knowledge can impact scientific advances in biological psychiatry are also addressed. PMID:21319205

  10. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  11. Animal models of Tourette syndrome – from proliferation to standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin eYael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome (TS is a childhood onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics and associated with multiple comorbid symptoms. Over the last decade, the accumulation of findings from TS patients and the emergence of new technologies have led to the development of novel animal models with high construct validity. In addition, animal models which were previously associated with other disorders were recently attributed to TS. The proliferation of TS animal models has accelerated TS research and provided a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the disorder. This newfound success generates novel challenges, since the conclusions that can be drawn from TS animal model studies are constrained by the considerable variation across models. Typically, each animal model examines a specific subset of deficits and centers on one field of research (physiology/genetics/pharmacology/etc.. Moreover, different studies do not use a standard lexicon to characterize different properties of the model. These factors hinder the evaluation of individual model validity as well as the comparison across models, leading to a formation of a fuzzy, segregated landscape of TS pathophysiology. Here, we call for a standardization process in the study of TS animal models as the next logical step. We believe that a generation of standard examination criteria will improve the utility of these models and enable their consolidation into a general framework. This should lead to a better understanding of these models and their relationship to TS, thereby improving the research of the mechanism underlying this disorder and aiding the development of new treatments.

  12. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  13. Towards an Evolutionary Model of Animal-Associated Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. White

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Second-generation sequencing technologies have granted us greater access to the diversity and genetics of microbial communities that naturally reside endo- and ecto-symbiotically with animal hosts. Substantial research has emerged describing the diversity and broader trends that exist within and between host species and their associated microbial ecosystems, yet the application of these data to our evolutionary understanding of microbiomes appears fragmented. For the most part biological perspectives are based on limited observations of oversimplified communities, while mathematical and/or computational modeling of these concepts often lack biological precedence. In recognition of this disconnect, both fields have attempted to incorporate ecological theories, although their applicability is currently a subject of debate because most ecological theories were developed based on observations of macro-organisms and their ecosystems. For the purposes of this review, we attempt to transcend the biological, ecological and computational realms, drawing on extensive literature, to forge a useful framework that can, at a minimum be built upon, but ideally will shape the hypotheses of each field as they move forward. In evaluating the top-down selection pressures that are exerted on a microbiome we find cause to warrant reconsideration of the much-maligned theory of multi-level selection and reason that complexity must be underscored by modularity.

  14. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  15. Animal model integration to AutDB, a genetic database for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollu Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the post-genomic era, multi-faceted research on complex disorders such as autism has generated diverse types of molecular information related to its pathogenesis. The rapid accumulation of putative candidate genes/loci for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and ASD-related animal models poses a major challenge for systematic analysis of their content. We previously created the Autism Database (AutDB to provide a publicly available web portal for ongoing collection, manual annotation, and visualization of genes linked to ASD. Here, we describe the design, development, and integration of a new module within AutDB for ongoing collection and comprehensive cataloguing of ASD-related animal models. Description As with the original AutDB, all data is extracted from published, peer-reviewed scientific literature. Animal models are annotated with a new standardized vocabulary of phenotypic terms developed by our researchers which is designed to reflect the diverse clinical manifestations of ASD. The new Animal Model module is seamlessly integrated to AutDB for dissemination of diverse information related to ASD. Animal model entries within the new module are linked to corresponding candidate genes in the original "Human Gene" module of the resource, thereby allowing for cross-modal navigation between gene models and human gene studies. Although the current release of the Animal Model module is restricted to mouse models, it was designed with an expandable framework which can easily incorporate additional species and non-genetic etiological models of autism in the future. Conclusions Importantly, this modular ASD database provides a platform from which data mining, bioinformatics, and/or computational biology strategies may be adopted to develop predictive disease models that may offer further insights into the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. It also serves as a general model for disease-driven databases curating phenotypic

  16. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa Takahashi; Yurie Soejima; Toshio Fukusato

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse.Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),a severe form of NAFLD,can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity,type 2 diabetes,and hyperlipemia.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information,not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents.An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic,dietary,and combination models.In this paper,we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Species Distribution Modeling in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Candela, Leonardo; Castelli, Donatella; Coro, Gianpaolo; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR); Sinibaldi, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is a process aiming at computationally predicting the distribution of species in geographic areas on the basis of environmental parameters including climate data. Such a quantitative approach has a lot of potentialities in many areas that include setting up conservation priorities, testing biogeographic hypotheses, assessing the impact of accelerated land use. In order to further promote the diffusion of such an approach it is fundamental to develop a flexible, c...

  18. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  19. Hypoxic preconditioning in an autohypoxic animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Shao; Guo-Wei Lu

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning refers to the exposure of organisms,systems,organs,tissues or cells to moderate hypoxia/ischemia that [Results]in increased resistance to a subsequent episode of severe hypoxia/ischemia.In this article,we review recent research based on a mouse model of repeated exposure to autohypoxia.Pre-exposure markedly increases the tolerance to or protection against hypoxic insult,and preserves the cellular structure of the brain.Furthermore,the hippocampal activity amplitude and frequency of electroencephalogram,latency of cortical somatosensory-evoked potential and spinal somatosensory-evoked potential progressively decrease,while spatial learning and memory improve.In the brain,detrimental neurochemicals such as free radicals are down-regulated,while beneficial ones such as adenosine are upregulated.Also,antihypoxia factor(s) and gene(s) are activated.We propose that the tolerance and protective effects depend on energy conservation and plasticity triggered by exposure to hypoxia via oxygen-sensing transduction pathways and hypoxia-inducible factor-initiated cascades.A potential path for further research is the development of devices and pharmaceuticals acting on antihypoxia factor(s) and gene(s) for the prevention and treatment of hypoxia and related syndromes.

  20. Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Ozogány, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...

  1. Tissue engineering in animal models for urinary diversion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloff, Marije; de Vries, Rob; Geutjes, Paul; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Feitz, Wout

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large) controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science). From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total) showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with the reduction in

  2. Tissue engineering in animal models for urinary diversion: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Sloff

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM approaches may provide alternatives for gastrointestinal tissue in urinary diversion. To continue to clinically translatable studies, TERM alternatives need to be evaluated in (large controlled and standardized animal studies. Here, we investigated all evidence for the efficacy of tissue engineered constructs in animal models for urinary diversion. Studies investigating this subject were identified through a systematic search of three different databases (PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. From each study, animal characteristics, study characteristics and experimental outcomes for meta-analyses were tabulated. Furthermore, the reporting of items vital for study replication was assessed. The retrieved studies (8 in total showed extreme heterogeneity in study design, including animal models, biomaterials and type of urinary diversion. All studies were feasibility studies, indicating the novelty of this field. None of the studies included appropriate control groups, i.e. a comparison with the classical treatment using GI tissue. The meta-analysis showed a trend towards successful experimentation in larger animals although no specific animal species could be identified as the most suitable model. Larger animals appear to allow a better translation to the human situation, with respect to anatomy and surgical approaches. It was unclear whether the use of cells benefits the formation of a neo urinary conduit. The reporting of the methodology and data according to standardized guidelines was insufficient and should be improved to increase the value of such publications. In conclusion, animal models in the field of TERM for urinary diversion have probably been chosen for reasons other than their predictive value. Controlled and comparative long term animal studies, with adequate methodological reporting are needed to proceed to clinical translatable studies. This will aid in good quality research with

  3. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region. PMID:27540374

  4. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  5. Differences in brain 5-HT transporter dissociation rates among animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erreboe, I.; Plenge, P.; Mellerup, E.T. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Pharmacology, Lab. of Neuropsychiatry, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    The potential of using receptor-ligand dissociation rates as a model for investigating molecular changes in receptors was tested using the dissociation of [{sup 3}H]citalopram, [{sup 3}H]paroxetine and [{sup 3}H]imipramine from the brain 5-HT transporter of four different species (mouse, rat, pig and man). Since the dissociation rates of each of the three ligands differed in most of the species investigated, receptor-ligand dissociation rate constants would seem to be a sensitive measure of receptor conformation. The model could be useful in the search of structural variation in receptors whether attributable to genetic factors or to posttranslational modification. (au) (12 refs.).

  6. Mechanistic models of bone cancer induction by radium and plutonium in animals compared to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-mutation carcinogenesis models of mice and rats injected with 239Pu and 226Ra have been derived extending previous modellings of beagle dogs injected with 239Pu and 226Ra and radium dial painters. In all cases statistically significant parameters could be derived fitting data from several research groups jointly. This also lead to similarly parametrized models for 239Pu and 226Ra for all species. For each data set not more than five free model parameters were needed to fit the data adequately. From the toxicity ratios of the animal models for 239Pu and 226Ra, together with the human model for 226Ra, an approximate model for the exposure of humans to 239Pu has been derived. Relative risk calculations with this approximate model are in good agreement with epidemiological findings for the plutonium-exposed Mayak workers. This promising result may indicate new possibilities for estimating risks for humans from animal experiments. (authors)

  7. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  8. Modeling Collective Decision-Making in Animal Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Granovskiy, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Many animal groups benefit from making decisions collectively. For example, colonies of many ant species are able to select the best possible nest to move into without every ant needing to visit each available nest site. Similarly, honey bee colonies can focus their foraging resources on the best possible food sources in their environment by sharing information with each other. In the same way, groups of human individuals are often able to make better decisions together than each individual g...

  9. Criteria of validity for animal models of psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety disorders and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Belzung Catherine; Lemoine Maël

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several authors. We thus propose a set of five major criteria (with sub-categories for some of them); homological validity (including species validity...

  10. Technical Note: How to use Winbugs to infer animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm

    . Second, we show how this approach can be used to draw inferences from a wide range of animal models using the computer package Winbugs. Finally, we illustrate the approach in a simulation study, in which the data are generated and analyzed using Winbugs according to a linear model with i.i.d errors......This paper deals with Bayesian inferences of animal models using Gibbs sampling. First, we suggest a general and efficient method for updating additive genetic effects, in which the computational cost is independent of the pedigree depth and increases linearly only with the size of the pedigree...

  11. Rheology-based facial animation realistic face model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Dan; PEI Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a rheology-based approach to animate realistic face model. The dynamic and biorheological characteristics of the force member (muscles) and stressed member (face) are considered. The stressed face can be modeled as viscoelastic bodies with the Hooke bodies and Newton bodies connected in a composite series-parallel manner. Then, the stress-strain relationship is derived, and the constitutive equations established. Using these constitutive equations, the face model can be animated with the force generated by muscles. Experimental results show that this method can realistically simulate the mechanical properties and motion characteristics of human face, and performance of this method is satisfactory.

  12. ANIMAL MODELS OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FACE VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONAL eGOSWAMI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating condition that develops in a proportion of individuals following a traumatic event. Despite recent advances, ethical limitations associated with human research impede progress in understanding PTSD. Fortunately, much effort has focused on developing animal models to help study the pathophysiology of PTSD. Here, we provide an overview of animal PTSD models where a variety of stressors (physical, psychosocial, or psychogenic are used to examine the long-term effects of severe trauma. We emphasize models involving predator threat because they reproduce human individual differences in susceptibility to, and in the long-term consequences of, psychological trauma.

  13. An improved animal model of orthotopic liver transplantation in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shu-guo; DONG Jia-hong; LENG Jian-jun; FENG Xiao-bin; MA Zheng-wei; YAN Yi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a swine model of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) which has high standardization, superior reproducibility and stability. Methods: The rate of success, reproducibility and stability were investigated on the modification of OLTs in closed miniature swine with series of improvements. Results: 20 OLTs were performed on the basis of improvements in experimental animals,surgical procedures and operative monitorings. The mean operation time and anhepatic phase was (181±25.8) and (28.43.2) min respectively, which were significantly shorter than those of the previous re ports. Liver function of the animals recovered shortly after operation. One-week survival rate was 90%,and 15 animals survived more than 1 month. The incidence of vascular and biliary complications was lower in animals with long-term survival. Conclusion: The improved animal model of OLTs in swine is easy to operate with high standardization and rate of success, superior reproducibility and stability. It is an ideal model for series studies related to liver transplantation in big animals.

  14. Animal personality in a foundation species drives community divergence and collapse in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Modlmeier, Andreas P

    2015-11-01

    Despite thousands of papers on the topic, precious few of the studies on animal personality have considered the role of personality in shaping community-level processes. Here, we test the effect of individual variation on the long-term trajectories of biological communities, from initiation to their demise. The spider Anelosimus studiosus builds webs that serve as habitat for >50 species of spider, which together construct a species-rich silken reef. This species also exhibits a temporally consistent behavioural polymorphism where females exhibit either an aggressive or docile phenotype (personality). In this study, we established incipient colonies of either two docile or two aggressive females and then tracked community succession and persistence over 7 years in the field. In particular, we noted the community compositions associated with colony extinction/collapse events, which are common in this species. The community composition of webs founded by different phenotypes diverged rapidly in their early successional stages. However, this period of divergence was ephemeral and all communities eventually converged on a similar composition; communities founded by aggressive females merely took longer to reach it. This secondary stage of community convergence was itself short-lived and independent of founders' personality; all communities collapsed within a year of achieving it. Experimentally imposing this fatal climax composition on colonies caused 80% of communities to collapse within a year, suggesting that this climax composition actually causes the collapse of the community. Community collapse was characterized by a complete die-off of the foundation species and the dispersal of all other spiders. Thus, the behavioural traits of the founding, foundational individuals of these communities dictate their path of succession and longevity in the wild. PMID:26061961

  15. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson CA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Lawson,1,2 Douglas R Martin2,3 1Department of Pathobiology, 2Scott-Ritchey Research Center, 3Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL, USA Abstract: GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay–Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described. Keywords: GM2 gangliosidosis, Tay–Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, lysosomal storage disorder, sphingolipidosis, brain disease

  16. Animal models of GM2 gangliosidosis: utility and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Cheryl A; Martin, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis, a subset of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by a deficiency of the glycohydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and includes the closely related Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents the normal, stepwise degradation of ganglioside, which accumulates unchecked within the cellular lysosome, particularly in neurons. As a result, individuals with GM2 gangliosidosis experience progressive neurological diseases including motor deficits, progressive weakness and hypotonia, decreased responsiveness, vision deterioration, and seizures. Mice and cats are well-established animal models for Sandhoff disease, whereas Jacob sheep are the only known laboratory animal model of Tay-Sachs disease to exhibit clinical symptoms. Since the human diseases are relatively rare, animal models are indispensable tools for further study of pathogenesis and for development of potential treatments. Though no effective treatments for gangliosidoses currently exist, animal models have been used to test promising experimental therapies. Herein, the utility and limitations of gangliosidosis animal models and how they have contributed to the development of potential new treatments are described. PMID:27499644

  17. Food allergy: What do we learn from animal models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Wijk, F. van; Penninks, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes selected articles on animal models of food allergy published in 2003. The research areas that are covered include mechanistic studies, the search for new therapies, as well as screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens. Recent findings

  18. Alveolar Overdistension as a Cause of Lung Injury: Differences among Three Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses characteristics of lung injuries produced by alveolar overdistension in three animal species. Mechanical ventilation at normal tidal volume (10 mL/Kg and high tidal volume (50 mL/Kg was applied for 30 min in each species. Data were gathered on wet/dry weight ratio, histological score, and area of alveolar collapse. Five out of six rabbits with high tidal volume developed tension pneumothorax, and the rabbit results were therefore not included in the histological analysis. Lungs from the pigs and rats showed minimal histological lesions. Pigs ventilated with high tidal volume had significantly greater oedema, higher neutrophil infiltration, and higher percentage area of alveolar collapse than rats ventilated with high tidal volume. We conclude that rabbits are not an appropriate species for in vivo studies of alveolar overdistension due to their fragility. Although some histological lesions are observed in pigs and rats, the lesions do not appear to be relevant.

  19. Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor, while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans. To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus. The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus. The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates.

  20. Monotonicity-constrained species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofner, Benjamin; Müller, Jörg; Hothorn, Torsten

    2011-10-01

    Flexible modeling frameworks for species distribution models based on generalized additive models that allow for smooth, nonlinear effects and interactions are of increasing importance in ecology. Commonly, the flexibility of such smooth function estimates is controlled by means of penalized estimation procedures. However, the actual shape remains unspecified. In many applications, this is not desirable as researchers have a priori assumptions on the shape of the estimated effects, with monotonicity being the most important. Here we demonstrate how monotonicity constraints can be incorporated in a recently proposed flexible framework for species distribution models. Our proposal allows monotonicity constraints to be imposed on smooth effects and on ordinal, categorical variables using an additional asymmetric L2 penalty. Model estimation and variable selection for Red Kite (Milvus milvus) breeding was conducted using the flexible boosting framework implemented in R package mboost. PMID:22073780

  1. Discrete Model of Commensalism Between Two Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hari Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an investigation on discrete model of host commensal pair. The model comprises of a commensal (S1, a host (S2 that benefit S1, without getting effected either positively or adversely. The model is characterized by a couple of first order non-linear ordinary differential equations. In all, four equilibrium points of the model would exist and their stability criteria is discussed. The model would be stable if each of the eigen values is numerically less than one. Further the growth rates of the species are numerically estimated using Runge-Kutta fourth order scheme.

  2. Computer simulation models are implementable as replacements for animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyal, Dinesh K; Modgill, Vikas; Kaur, Jasleen

    2009-04-01

    It has become increasingly difficult to perform animal experiments, because of issues related to the procurement of animals, and strict regulations and ethical issues related to their use. As a result, it is felt that the teaching of pharmacology should be more clinically oriented and that unnecessary animal experimentation should be avoided. Although a number of computer simulation models (CSMs) are available, they are not being widely used. Interactive demonstrations were conducted to encourage the departmental faculty to use CSMs. Four different animal experiments were selected, that dealt with actions of autonomic drugs. The students observed demonstrations of animal experiments involving conventional methods and the use of CSMs. This was followed by hands-on experience of the same experiment, but using CSMs in small groups, instead of hands-on experience with the animal procedures. Test scores and feedback showed that there was better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the drugs, gained in a shorter time. The majority of the students found the teaching programme used to be good to excellent. CSMs can be used repeatedly and independently by students, and this avoids unnecessary experimentation and also causing pain and trauma to animals. The CSM programme can be implemented in existing teaching schedules for pharmacology undergraduate teaching with basic infrastructure support, and is readily adaptable for use by other institutes. PMID:19453215

  3. Social coordination in animal vocal interactions. Is there any evidence of turn-taking? The starling as an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Laurence; Craig, Adrian J. F. K.; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Turn-taking in conversation appears to be a common feature in various human cultures and this universality raises questions about its biological basis and evolutionary trajectory. Functional convergence is a widespread phenomenon in evolution, revealing sometimes striking functional similarities between very distant species even though the mechanisms involved may be different. Studies on mammals (including non-human primates) and bird species with different levels of social coordination reveal that temporal and structural regularities in vocal interactions may depend on the species' social structure. Here we test the hypothesis that turn-taking and associated rules of conversations may be an adaptive response to the requirements of social life, by testing the applicability of turn-taking rules to an animal model, the European starling. Birdsong has for many decades been considered as one of the best models of human language and starling songs have been well described in terms of vocal production and perception. Starlings do have vocal interactions where alternating patterns predominate. Observational and experimental data on vocal interactions reveal that (1) there are indeed clear temporal and structural regularities, (2) the temporal and structural patterning is influenced by the immediate social context, the general social situation, the individual history, and the internal state of the emitter. Comparison of phylogenetically close species of Sturnids reveals that the alternating pattern of vocal interactions varies greatly according to the species' social structure, suggesting that interactional regularities may have evolved together with social systems. These findings lead to solid bases of discussion on the evolution of communication rules in relation to social evolution. They will be discussed also in terms of processes, at the light of recent neurobiological findings. PMID:26441787

  4. Models for Correlating the Composition of the Gut Microbiota with Inflammatory Disease Parameters Using Animal Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krych, Lukasz

    animal models. In order to evaluate the usefulness of a murine model for accomplishing this venture, a meta-analysis comparing GM consortia between humans and laboratory mice strains was conducted. More than 1.5 million high quality tag-encoded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences determined with pyro...... experimental model. An additional task of this thesis was to develop a fast screening method and to investigate the distribution of two bacterial species namely: Akkermansia muciniphila and Candidatus Savagella in detail. These two members of the gut microbial community were previously reported, including our...... changes in relative distribution of bacterial taxa in both groups, with the dominance of A. muciniphila to up to 90%. However, only neonatally treated mice had a significantly lower cumulative diabetes incidence.We also tested how a gluten-free diet, known to protect against T1D, modulated the bacterial...

  5. Detection and species identification of Campylobacter in stool samples of children and animals from Vellore, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajendran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis frequently isolated from animal, poultry and environmental samples. In this study, we investigated the zoonotic potential of Campylobacter spp. by comparing prevalence rates and species in 394 children with diarrhoea and 652 animals in Vellore using PCR-based tools. Eighteen children (4.5% had campylobacteriosis, a majority of whom had co-pathogens (15/18 and most were infected with Campylobacter jejuni (16/18. A few C. coli and mixed infections with both species were also seen. Among the animal samples, 16/25 chicken samples (64% were positive and all were found to be C. jejuni.

  6. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Mapara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. Though experimentation on rabbits seems to be easy there are many pitfalls. Our endeavor in this article is to integrate all the data about maintaining rabbits as a model and to critically analyze it on the basis of our experimentation.

  7. Cognitive improvement by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from animal models to human pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Timmerman, Daniel B;

    2010-01-01

    -enhancing effects seen in animal models are not mimicked in healthy humans and schizophrenic patients, where attentional improvement predominates. This discrepancy may result from inherent differences in testing methods or from species differences in the level of expression of alpha(7) nAChRs in limbic brain...... alpha(7) nAChR agonists improves learning, memory, and attentional function in variety of animal models, and pro-cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists have recently been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. The alpha(7) nAChR desensitizes rapidly in vitro, and this...... has been a major concern in the development of alpha(7) nAChR agonists as putative drugs. Our review of the existing literature shows that development of tolerance to the behavioral effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists does not occur in animal models or humans. However, the long-term memory...

  8. Cognitive improvement by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from animal models to human pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Timmerman, Daniel B;

    2010-01-01

    has been a major concern in the development of alpha(7) nAChR agonists as putative drugs. Our review of the existing literature shows that development of tolerance to the behavioral effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists does not occur in animal models or humans. However, the long-term memory...... alpha(7) nAChR agonists improves learning, memory, and attentional function in variety of animal models, and pro-cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists have recently been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. The alpha(7) nAChR desensitizes rapidly in vitro, and this......-enhancing effects seen in animal models are not mimicked in healthy humans and schizophrenic patients, where attentional improvement predominates. This discrepancy may result from inherent differences in testing methods or from species differences in the level of expression of alpha(7) nAChRs in limbic brain...

  9. Evaluating the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants in animal models: Current experimental methods and perspectives (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuska, Vaclav; Moztarzadeh, Omid; Kubikova, Tereza; Moztarzadeh, Amin; Hrusak, Daniel; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the experimental methods currently being used to evaluate the osseointegration of nanostructured titanium implants using animal models. The material modifications are linked to the biocompatibility of various types of oral implants, such as laser-treated, acid-etched, plasma-coated, and sand-blasted surface modifications. The types of implants are reviewed according to their implantation site (endoosseous, subperiosteal, and transosseous implants). The animal species and target bones used in experimental implantology are carefully compared in terms of the ratio of compact to spongy bone. The surgical technique in animal experiments is briefly described, and all phases of the histological evaluation of osseointegration are described in detail, including harvesting tissue samples, processing undemineralized ground sections, and qualitative and quantitative histological assessment of the bone-implant interface. The results of histological staining methods used in implantology are illustrated and compared. A standardized and reproducible technique for stereological quantification of bone-implant contact is proposed and demonstrated. In conclusion, histological evaluation of the experimental osseointegration of dental implants requires careful selection of the experimental animals, bones, and implantation sites. It is also advisable to use larger animal models and older animals with a slower growth rate rather than small or growing experimental animals. Bones with a similar ratio of compact to spongy bone, such as the human maxilla and mandible, are preferred. A number of practical recommendations for the experimental procedures, harvesting of samples, tissue processing, and quantitative histological evaluations are provided. PMID:27421518

  10. Minireview: Epigenetic programming of diabetes and obesity: animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yoshinori; Williams, Lyda; Vuguin, Patricia M; Charron, Maureen J

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the intrauterine (IU) environment has a significant and lasting effect on the long-term health of the growing fetus and the development of metabolic disease in later life as put forth in the fetal origins of disease hypothesis. Metabolic diseases have been associated with alterations in the epigenome that occur without changes in the DNA sequence, such as cytosine methylation of DNA, histone posttranslational modifications, and micro-RNA. Animal models of epigenetic modifications secondary to an altered IU milieu are an invaluable tool to study the mechanisms that determine the development of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Rodent and nonlitter bearing animals are good models for the study of disease, because they have similar embryology, anatomy, and physiology to humans. Thus, it is feasible to monitor and modify the IU environment of animal models in order to gain insight into the molecular basis of human metabolic disease pathogenesis. In this review, the database of PubMed was searched for articles published between 1999 and 2011. Key words included epigenetic modifications, IU growth retardation, small for gestational age, animal models, metabolic disease, and obesity. The inclusion criteria used to select studies included animal models of epigenetic modifications during fetal and neonatal development associated with adult metabolic syndrome. Experimental manipulations included: changes in the nutritional status of the pregnant female (calorie-restricted, high-fat, or low-protein diets during pregnancy), as well as the father; interference with placenta function, or uterine blood flow, environmental toxin exposure during pregnancy, as well as dietary modifications during the neonatal (lactation) as well as pubertal period. This review article is focused solely on studies in animal models that demonstrate epigenetic changes that are correlated with manifestation of metabolic disease, including diabetes

  11. Animal models of obsessive–compulsive disorder: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pino Alonso,1–4 Clara López-Solà,1–3 Eva Real,1–3 Cinto Segalàs,1–3 José Manuel Menchón1–41OCD Clinical and Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de Bellvitge, 2Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-IDIBELL, 3Centro de Investigación en Red de Salud Mental, Carlos III Health Institute, 4Department of Clinical Sciences, Bellvitge Campus, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a disabling and common neuropsychiatric condition of poorly known etiology. Many attempts have been made in the last few years to develop animal models of OCD with the aim of clarifying the genetic, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical basis of the disorder, as well as of developing novel pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments that may help to improve the prognosis of the illness. The latter goal is particularly important given that around 40% of patients with OCD do not respond to currently available therapies. This article summarizes strengths and limitations of the leading animal models of OCD including genetic, pharmacologically induced, behavioral manipulation-based, and neurodevelopmental models according to their face, construct, and predictive validity. On the basis of this evaluation, we discuss that currently labeled “animal models of OCD” should be regarded not as models of OCD but, rather, as animal models of different psychopathological processes, such as compulsivity, stereotypy, or perseverance, that are present not only in OCD but also in other psychiatric or neurological disorders. Animal models might constitute a challenging approach to study the neural and genetic mechanism of these phenomena from a trans-diagnostic perspective. Animal models are also of particular interest as tools for developing new therapeutic options for OCD, with the greatest convergence focusing on the glutamatergic system, the role of ovarian and related hormones, and the exploration of new

  12. HCV Animal Models: A Journey of More than 30 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Meuleman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s and 1980s it became increasingly clear that blood transfusions could induce a form of chronic hepatitis that could not be ascribed to any of the viruses known to cause liver inflammation. In 1989, the hepatitis C virus (HCV was discovered and found to be the major causative agent of these infections. Because of its narrow ropism, the in vivo study of this virus was, especially in the early days, limited to the chimpanzee. In the past decade, several alternative animal models have been created. In this review we review these novel animal models and their contribution to our current understanding of the biology of HCV.

  13. HCV animal models: a journey of more than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Philip; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2009-09-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s it became increasingly clear that blood transfusions could induce a form of chronic hepatitis that could not be ascribed to any of the viruses known to cause liver inflammation. In 1989, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered and found to be the major causative agent of these infections. Because of its narrow tropism, the in vivo study of this virus was, especially in the early days, limited to the chimpanzee. In the past decade, several alternative animal models have been created. In this review we review these novel animal models and their contribution to our current understanding of the biology of HCV. PMID:21994547

  14. Comparative identification of Candida species isolated from animals using phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadăş George Cosmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify 58 Candida sp. strains isolated from animals using the Chromatic Candida test, the API 20 C AUX system, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The Chromatic Candida test was able to identify only C. albicans and C. krusei. The API 20 C AUX system and PCR-RFLP had similar specificity for the identification of Candida strains. In case of both methods, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species - 22 (37.93% strains, followed by Candida krusei - 17 (29.31% strains, Candida famata - 10 (17.24% strains, Candida parapsilosis - five (8.62% strains, and Candida kefyr - four (6.89% strains. PCR-RFLP represents a reliable, quick and relatively inexpensive genotyping method, recommended for rapid identification of Candida spp.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF METAL NANOPARTICLES ON EMBRYOS OF DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TEUŞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today nanotechnology represents a domain that is rapidly developing because nanoparticles are being used in a very large range of products with biomedical applications. Every year, new products, containing nanoparticles (NP appear on the market. Most of the products containing such nanomaterials come to be used by consumers without a previous and careful testing. Therefore, the effects they may have upon human health should be thoroughly investigated, the toxicological potential of NP upon the reproduction function (nanoreprotoxicity in particular, as any possible noxious effect will be reflected in the new generation. Most of the research papers that exist refer on the effects of silver, gold and titanium dioxide NP on embryo development. In this review paper we present the effects of less studied metal NP (platinum, aluminium, cerium oxide, tin oxide, nickel and indium on different species of animal embryos (Gallus domesticus – different hybrids, Danio rerio and Xenopus laevis

  16. A framework for the development of STR genotyping in domestic animal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pinheiro, Raquel; Pereira, Rui;

    2010-01-01

    other animal species. As an increasing number of reference genomes become available, convenient tools for individual identification and parentage testing based on STR loci selected from autosomes or sex chromosomes' sequences may be created following this strategy.......This study reports the methodology used to search, select and characterize STR loci on the canine X chromosome using publicly available genome resources and following the current guidelines for human and non-human forensic testing. After several rounds of selection, 12 X-STR markers were optimized...... based on the number of repeats. All loci conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The resulting panel showed high forensic efficiency, presenting high values of power of discrimination (in males and females) and mean exclusion chance, both in trios involving female offspring and in duos composed of dam...

  17. Computational physics : a modeler-simulator for animated physical objects

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie; Jimenez, Stéphane; Florens, Jean-Loup; Cadoz, Claude; Raoult, Olivier

    1991-01-01

    International audience Physical modeling for animation is now firmly established. The present aim is to design and build a structured and well-defined tool rather merely specific algorithms to simulate physical knowledge. We will first define the basic functions of a modeler-simulator for physical modeling which enables operator gestural control, and where the simulation processes are real time oriented. We will then introduce the Cordis-Anima system, its constructive language, its real ti...

  18. The Use of Animal Models for Stroke Research: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana B Casals; Pieri, Naira CG; Feitosa, Matheus LT; Ercolin, Anna CM; Roballo, Kelly CS; Barreto, Rodrigo SN; Bressan, Fabiana F; Daniele S. Martins; Maria A. Miglino; Carlos E. Ambrósio

    2011-01-01

    Stroke has been identified as the second leading cause of death worldwide. Stroke is a focal neurologic deficit caused by a change in cerebral circulation. The use of animal models in recent years has improved our understanding of the physiopathology of this disease. Rats and mice are the most commonly used stroke models, but the demand for larger models, such as rabbits and even nonhuman primates, is increasing so as to better understand the disease and its treatment. Although the basic mech...

  19. Large Animal Models of Neurological Disorders for Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardi, Christine; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of therapeutic interventions for genetic disorders and diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS) has proven challenging. There has been significant progress in the development of gene therapy strategies in murine models of human disease, but gene therapy outcomes in these models do not always translate to the human setting. Therefore, large animal models are crucial to the development of diagnostics, treatments, and eventual cures for debilitating neurological diso...

  20. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet Pierre J; Parent Marie-Thérèse; Rompré Pierre H; Lévesque Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain suscepti...

  1. Predictive validity of behavioural animal models for chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Odd-Geir

    2011-01-01

    Rodent models of chronic pain may elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms and identify potential drug targets, but whether they predict clinical efficacy of novel compounds is controversial. Several potential analgesics have failed in clinical trials, in spite of strong animal modelling support for efficacy, but there are also examples of successful modelling. Significant differences in how methods are implemented and results are reported means that a literature-based comparison between precl...

  2. Animal models and brain circuits in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Peter W; Peters, Jamie; Knackstedt, Lori

    2006-12-01

    Animal models in the field of addiction are considered to be among the best available models of neuropsychiatric disease. These models have undergone a number of refinements that allow deeper understanding of the circuitry involved in initiating drug seeking and relapse. Notably, the demonstrable involvement of classic corticostriatal habit circuitry and the engagement of prefrontal cortical circuits in extinction training may have relevance to the therapeutic modulation of habit circuitry and drug addiction in humans. PMID:17200461

  3. Contemporary Animal Models For Human Gene Therapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Chitra; Nathar, Trupti Job; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hickstein, Dennis Durand; Remington Nelson, Everette Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, gene therapy has been making considerable progress as an alternative strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Since 2009, several studies have been reported in humans on the successful treatment of various diseases. Animal models mimicking human disease conditions are very essential at the preclinical stage before embarking on a clinical trial. In gene therapy, for instance, they are useful in the assessment of variables related to the use of viral vectors such as safety, efficacy, dosage and localization of transgene expression. However, choosing a suitable disease-specific model is of paramount importance for successful clinical translation. This review focuses on the animal models that are most commonly used in gene therapy studies, such as murine, canine, non-human primates, rabbits, porcine, and a more recently developed humanized mice. Though small and large animals both have their own pros and cons as disease-specific models, the choice is made largely based on the type and length of study performed. While small animals with a shorter life span could be well-suited for degenerative/aging studies, large animals with longer life span could suit longitudinal studies and also help with dosage adjustments to maximize therapeutic benefit. Recently, humanized mice or mouse-human chimaeras have gained interest in the study of human tissues or cells, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of therapeutic interventions. Thus, animal models are of great importance with regard to testing new vector technologies in vivo for assessing safety and efficacy prior to a gene therapy clinical trial. PMID:26415576

  4. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  5. PLANT SPECIES, USING AGAINST VIROUS INFECTIONS OF MAN AND ANIMALS: REGULARITIES OF THE DISTRIBUTION IN THE PHYLOGENETIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Popov P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The list of 674 species of flowering plants, using against 21 virous infections of man and animals is presented. Systematic units of high levels (classes, subclasses) are defined by frequency of such species. Frequency (distinction of percentage parts of species with certain use between the systematic unit and the rest of flora of flowering plants) was estimated by Fisher's statistical criterion. Subclasses Lamiidae and Asteridae, latter in the evolution range, are most rich by uses against v...

  6. The etiology of oxidative stress in the various species of animals, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Kuczyńska, Beata

    2015-08-30

    Oxidative stress is the consequence of an imbalance of pro-oxidants and antioxidants leading to cell damage and tissue injury. The exhaustion of antioxidant systems is one of the reasons for the occurrence of oxidative stress, which results in avalanche production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals. High oxidative stress is common in organs and tissues with high metabolic and energy demands, including skeletal and heart muscle, liver and blood cells. Stress arises in animals in response to unavoidable or adverse environmental conditions. In the external environment, which affects the body of the cow, there are four main groups of stressors: physical, chemical, biological and psychological. Physical stressors include fluctuations in ambient temperature as well as mechanical injuries. High ambient temperature is one of the factors affecting the productivity of cows. Biological stressors are conditioned by errors and irregularities in habits. Both of these phenomena have an adverse impact on both the resistance of animals and fertility and are the etiological agent of oxidative stress. Various mechanisms may be responsible for metal-induced oxidative stress: direct or indirect generation of ROS, depletion of glutathione and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes are well known for all redox-active and redox-inactive metals. PMID:25418967

  7. The Model Laboratory Animal and the‘Trojan Horse' in Biosecurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Driver

    2003-01-01

    @@ Today's sophisticated biomedical research sometimes requires the use of laboratory animals raised in stable micronen vironments free from the microorganisms that may compromise the success of an experiment. Laboratory rodents can be obtained in one of several categories defined by the degree to which they harbour microflora, whether commensal, potentially pathogenic or pathogenic. It is now possible to specify the different species of organism that are tolerated and those that are not tolerated, In such model laboratory animals it is essential to raise and maintain them in circumstances under which microorganisms that would not be tolerated cannot enter the production system.

  8. Combining Spatial and Telemetric Features for Learning Animal Movement Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kapicioglu, Berk; Wikelski, Martin; Broderick, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new graphical model for tracking radio-tagged animals and learning their movement patterns. The model provides a principled way to combine radio telemetry data with an arbitrary set of userdefined, spatial features. We describe an efficient stochastic gradient algorithm for fitting model parameters to data and demonstrate its effectiveness via asymptotic analysis and synthetic experiments. We also apply our model to real datasets, and show that it outperforms the most popular radio telemetry software package used in ecology. We conclude that integration of different data sources under a single statistical framework, coupled with appropriate parameter and state estimation procedures, produces both accurate location estimates and an interpretable statistical model of animal movement.

  9. Large animal models for the study of ovarian follicular dynamics in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G P; Singh, J; Baerwald, A R

    2012-11-01

    Initial studies of the ovaries were based on postmortem anatomic descriptions, followed by histologic and endocrine approaches. The introduction of high-resolution ultrasonography provided a long-awaited tool to image the reproductive tissues in situ in both animals and humans. Critical studies of the characteristics and control of ovarian follicular and luteal dynamics in nonhuman primates, rodents, and domestic farm animals have involved frequent (i.e., daily or multiple times a day) blood sampling and ultrasonography. Studies of this nature in women are difficult, and often unethical to conduct. Differences in antral folliculogenesis between humans and animals appear to be more in detail rather than in essence, and may reflect differences in intrinsic physiology or merely differences in our ability to detect changes in a given species. In women, the presence of endometrial shedding and symmetric luteal and follicular phases are different from that observed during the estrous cycles of domestic farm animals but despite these differences, general similarities in antral follicular dynamics exist. A continuous pattern of antral follicle development was originally proposed in domestic livestock species; however, the use of frequent serial ultrasonography and simultaneous endocrine profiling in these animal species has resulted in a broad understanding of follicular wave dynamics. Follicular waves have now been described in every species in which this approach has been used, including humans. The relatively large diameters of antral follicles in cows and mares, compared with monkeys, sheep, and rodents provide greater feasibility for characterizing antral follicular dynamics ultrasonographically. While the use of large animal models has increased our understanding of ovarian function and provides the hypothetical basis for studies in women, differences in vocabulary, culture, and research methodologies has hampered knowledge translation. These differences represent a

  10. Principles for developing animal models of military PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos P. Daskalakis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which animal studies can be relevant to military posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD continues to be a matter of discussion. Some features of the clinical syndrome are more easily modeled than others. In the animal literature, a great deal of attention is focused on modeling the characteristics of military exposures and their impact on measurable behaviors and biological parameters. There are many issues to consider regarding the ecological validity of predator, social defeat or immobilization stress to combat-related experience. In contrast, less attention has been paid to individual variation following these exposures. Such variation is critical to understand how individual differences in the response to military trauma exposure may result to PTSD or resilience. It is important to consider potential differences in biological findings when comparing extremely exposed to non-exposed animals, versus those that result from examining individual differences. Animal models of military PTSD are also critical in advancing efforts in clinical treatment. In an ideal translational approach to study deployment related outcomes, information from humans and animals, blood and brain, should be carefully considered in tandem, possibly even computed simultaneously, to identify molecules, pathways and networks that are likely to be the key drivers of military PTSD symptoms. With the use novel biological methodologies (e.g., optogenetics in the animal models, critical genes and pathways can be tuned up or down (rather than over-expressed or ablated completely in discrete brain regions. Such techniques together with pre-and post-deployment human imaging will accelerate the identification of novel pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention strategies.

  11. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  12. True blue: S-opsin is widely expressed in different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, B; Hirmer, S; Hauck, S M; Kremmer, E; Ueffing, M; Deeg, C A

    2014-02-01

    Colour vision in animals is an interesting, fascinating subject. In this study, we examined a wide variety of species for expression of S-opsin (blue sensitive) and M-/L-opsin (green-red sensitive) in retinal cones using two novel monoclonal antibodies specific for peptides from human opsins. Mouse, rat and hare did not express one of the investigated epitopes, but we could clearly prove existence of cones through peanut agglutinin labelling. Retinas of guinea pig, dog, wolf, marten, cat, roe deer, pig and horse were positive for S-opsin, but not for M-/L-opsin. Nevertheless all these species are clearly at least dichromats, because we could detect further S-opsin negative cones by labelling with cone arrestin specific antibody. In contrast, pheasant and char had M-/L-opsin positive cones, but no S-opsin expressing cones. Sheep, cattle, monkey, men, pigeon, duck and chicken were positive for both opsins. Visual acuity analyzed through density of retinal ganglion cells revealed least visual discrimination by horses and highest resolution in pheasant and pigeon. Most mammals studied are dichromats with visual perception similar to red-green blind people. PMID:23173557

  13. Evaluation of some plant and animal species for monitoring atmospheric manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used as an additive in gasoline in Canada since 1976. Its combustion products are emitted from automobiles as particulates containing Mn. As a complement to measuring Mn contamination using air particulates collected on filters, various plant and animal species were studied as potential biomonitors. Six species of trees were studied as historical indicators, using the Mn concentrations in the annual rings of wood. Trees sampled near a Mn refinery showed increased Mn levels but no increase was observed at the contamination level produced by automobiles. Oats, beans and dandelions were also studied as indicators of Mn from automobiles. They were grown at sites with traffic densities of -3) for up to 13 weeks. Other pigeons were captured from rural and urban environments with different traffic densities and different estimated atmospheric Mn levels. The highly exposed laboratory pigeons had significantly higher Mn concentrations in their lungs relative to the control group (0.9 mg kg-1 vs. 0.2 mg kg-1), but not in blood nor other organs. With the possible exception of oat plants, none of the potential biomonitors studied here had sufficient sensitivity to detect atmospheric Mn at the levels arising from the combustion of MMT in automobiles. (author)

  14. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W

    2016-07-01

    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. PMID:27066769

  15. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Bem; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for n

  16. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  17. Lattice animals and the Percolation model under rotational constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Indrani

    1997-01-01

    The effect of rotational constraint on the properties of lattice models like the self-avoiding walk, lattice animals and percolation is discussed. The results obtained so far, using a variety of exact and approximate techniques, are described. Examples of the rotational constraint in real systems are also given.

  18. An Aerosolized Brucella spp. Challenge Model for Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    To characterize the optimal aerosol dosage of Brucella abortus strain 2308 (S2308) and B. melitensis (S16M) in a laboratory animal model of brucellosis, dosages of 10**3 to 10**10 CFU were nebulized to mice. Although tissue weights were minimally influenced, total colony-forming units (CFU) per tis...

  19. Animal models of cerebral ischemia for evaluation of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y K; Briyal, Seema

    2004-10-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The resulting burden on the society continues to grow, with increase in the incidence of stroke. Brain attack is a term introduced to describe the acute presentation of stroke, which emphasizes the need for urgent action to remedy the situation. Though a large number of therapeutic agents like thrombolytics, NMDA receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and antioxidants, have been used or being evaluated, there remains a large gap between the benefits by these agents and properties an ideal drug for stroke should offer. In recent years much attention is being paid towards the exploration of herbal preparation, antioxidant agents and combination therapies including COX-2 inhibitors in experimental model of stroke. For better evaluation of the drugs and enhancement of their predictability from animal experimentation to clinical settings, it has been realized that the selection of animal models, the parameters to be evaluated should be critically assessed. Focal and global cerebral ischemia represents diseases that are common in the human population. Understanding the mechanisms of injury and neuroprotection in these diseases is important to learn new target sites to treat ischemia. There are many animal models available to investigate injury mechanisms and neuroprotective strategies. In this article we attempted to summarize commonly explored animal models of focal and global cerebral ischemia and evaluate their advantages and limitations. PMID:15907047

  20. Airway Strain during Mechanical Ventilation in an Intact Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Scott E.; Molthen, Robert C.; Haworth, Steve T.; Dawson, Christopher A.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Mechanical ventilation with large tidal volumes causes ventilator-induced lung injury in animal models. Little direct evidence exists regarding the deformation of airways in vivo during mechanical ventilation, or in the presence of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).

  1. Animation Model to Conceptualize ATP Generation: A Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecular unit of intracellular energy and it is the product of oxidative phosphorylation of cellular respiration uses in cellular processes. The study explores the growth of the misconception levels amongst the learners and evaluates the effectiveness of animation model over traditional methods. The data…

  2. On the choice of statistical models for estimating occurrence and extinction from animal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert M

    2007-11-01

    In surveys of natural animal populations the number of animals that are present and available to be detected at a sample location is often low, resulting in few or no detections. Low detection frequencies are especially common in surveys of imperiled species; however, the choice of sampling method and protocol also may influence the size of the population that is vulnerable to detection. In these circumstances, probabilities of animal occurrence and extinction will generally be estimated more accurately if the models used in data analysis account for differences in abundance among sample locations and for the dependence between site-specific abundance and detection. Simulation experiments are used to illustrate conditions wherein these types of models can be expected to outperform alternative estimators of population site occupancy and extinction. PMID:18051646

  3. On the choice of statistical models for estimating occurrence and extinction from animal surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    In surveys of natural animal populations the number of animals that are present and available to be detected at a sample location is often low, resulting in few or no detections. Low detection frequencies are especially common in surveys of imperiled species; however, the choice of sampling method and protocol also may influence the size of the population that is vulnerable to detection. In these circumstances, probabilities of animal occurrence and extinction will generally be estimated more accurately if the models used in data analysis account for differences in abundance among sample locations and for the dependence between site-specific abundance and detection. Simulation experiments are used to illustrate conditions wherein these types of models can be expected to outperform alternative estimators of population site occupancy and extinction. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. The use of animal models in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libouban, H

    2015-06-01

    In myeloma, the understanding of the tissular, cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interactions between tumor plasma cells and bone cells have progressed from in vitro and in vivo studies. However none of the known animal models of myeloma reproduce exactly the human form of the disease. There are currently three types of animal models: (1) injection of pristane oil in BALB/c mice leads to intraperitoneal plasmacytomas but without bone marrow colonization and osteolysis; (2) injection of malignant plasma cell lines in immunodeficient mice SCID or NOD/SCID; the use of the SCID-hu or SCID-rab model allows the use of fresh plasma cells obtained from MM patients; (3) injection of allogeneic malignant plasma cells (5T2MM, 5T33) in the C57BL/KalwRij mouse induces bone marrow proliferation and osteolytic lesions. These cells did not grow in vitro and can be propagated by injection of plasma cells isolated from bone marrow of a mouse at end stage of the disease into young recipient mice. The 5TGM1 is a subclone of 5T33MM cells and can grow in vitro. Among the different models, the 5TMM models and SCID-hu/SCID-rab models were extensively used to test pathophysiological hypotheses and to assess anti-osteoclastic, anti-osteoblastic or anti-tumor therapies in myeloma. In the present review, we report the different types of animal models of MM and describe their interests and limitations. PMID:25898798

  5. Serotonergic pharmacology in animal models: from behavioral disorders to dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Gobert, Maude; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique

    2014-06-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction has been involved in both movement and behavioral disorders. Serotonin pharmacology improves dyskinetic movements as well as depressive, anxious, aggressive and anorexic symptoms. Animal models have been useful to investigate more precisely to what extent 5-HT is involved and whether drugs targeting the 5-HT system can counteract the symptoms exhibited. We review existing rodent and non-human primate (NHP) animal models in which selective 5-HT or dual 5-HT-norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitors, as well as specific 5-HT receptors agonists and antagonists, monoamine oxidase A inhibitors (IMAO-A) and MDMA (Ecstasy) have been used. We review overlaps between the various drug classes involved. We confront behavioral paradigms and treatment regimen. Some but not all animal models and associated pharmacological treatments have been extensively studied in the litterature. In particular, the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been extensively investigated using a variety of pharmacological or genetic rodent models of depression, anxiety, aggressiveness. But the validity of these rodent models is questioned. On the contrary, few studies did address the potential impact of targeting the 5-HT system on NHP models of behavioral disorders, despite the fact that those models may match more closely to human pathologies. Further investigations with carefull behavioral analysis will improve our understanding of neural bases underlying the pathophysiology of movement and behavioral disorders. PMID:24486710

  6. Animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus for Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Sakata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to current improvements in techniques for islet isolation and transplantation and protocols for immunosuppressants, islet transplantation has become an effective treatment for severe diabetes patients. Many diabetic animal models have contributed to such improvements. In this paper, we focus on 3 types of models with different mechanisms for inducing diabetes mellitus (DM: models induced by drugs including streptozotocin (STZ, pancreatomized models, and spontaneous models due to autoimmunity. STZ-induced diabetes is one of the most commonly used experimental diabetic models and is employed using many specimens including rodents, pigs or monkeys. The management of STZ models is well established for islet studies. Pancreatomized models reveal different aspects compared to STZ-induced models in terms of loss of function in the increase and decrease of blood glucose and therefore are useful for evaluating the condition in total pancreatomized patients. Spontaneous models are useful for preclinical studies including the assessment of immunosuppressants because such models involve the same mechanisms as type 1 DM in the clinical setting. In conclusion, islet researchers should select suitable diabetic animal models according to the aim of the study.

  7. An Experimental Animal Model for Abdominal Fascia Healing after Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, H-C; Klein, M;

    2013-01-01

    used to evaluate the actively healing fascia. Such an animal model may promote future research in the prevention of IH. Methods: 86 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a model involving six experiments (experiments A-F). Mechanical testing of the breaking strength of the healed fascia was......Background: Incisional hernia (IH) is a well-known complication after abdominal surgical procedures. The exact etiology of IH is still unknown even though many risk factors have been suggested. The aim of this study was to create an animal model of a weakly healed abdominal fascia that could be...... performed by testing tissue strips from the healed fascia versus the unincised control fascia 7 and 28 days postoperatively. Results: During the six experiments a healing model was created that produced significantly weaker coherent fascia when compared with the control tissue measured in terms of...

  8. Establishing of the Transplanted Animal Models for Human Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingli Zhang; Jinchang Wu

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide.Even with the applications of excision,radiotherapy,chemotherapy,and gene therapy,the 5 year survival rate is only 15% in the USA.Clinically relevant laboratory animal models of the disease could greatly facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis of lung cancer,its progression,invasion and metastasis.Transplanted lung cancer models are of special interest and are widely used today.Such models are essential tools in accelerating development of new therapies for lung cancer.In this communication we will present a brief overview of the hosts,sites and pathways used to establish transplanted animal lung tumor models.

  9. A systematic review of animal models for experimental neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Francesca; Giesen, Thomas; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral neuromas can result in an unbearable neuropathic pain and functional impairment. Their treatment is still challenging, and their optimal management is to be defined. Experimental research still plays a major role, but - although numerous neuroma models have been proposed on different animals - there is still no single model recognised as being the reference. Several models show advantages over the others in specific aspects of neuroma physiopathology, prevention or treatment, making it unlikely that a single model could be of reference. A reproducible and standardised model of peripheral neuroma would allow better comparison of results from different studies. We present a systematic review of the literature on experimental in vivo models, analysing advantages and disadvantages, specific features and indications, with the goal of providing suggestions to help their standardisation. Published models greatly differ in the animal and the nerve employed, the mechanisms of nerve injury and the evaluation methods. Specific experimental models exist for terminal neuromas and neuromas in continuity (NIC). The rat is the most widely employed animal, the rabbit being the second most popular model. NIC models are more actively researched, but it is more difficult to generate such studies in a reproducible manner. Nerve transection is considered the best method to cause terminal neuromas, whereas partial transection is the best method to cause NIC. Traditional histomorphology is the historical gold-standard evaluation method, but immunolabelling, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and proteomics are gaining increasing popularity. Computerised gait analysis is the gold standard for motor-recovery evaluation, whereas mechanical testing of allodynia and hyperalgesia reproducibly assesses sensory recovery. This review summarises current knowledge on experimental neuroma models, and it provides a useful tool for defining experimental protocols

  10. Freshwater Planarians as an Alternative Animal Model for Neurotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Zhang, Siqi; Khuu, Cindy; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2015-09-01

    Traditional toxicology testing has relied on low-throughput, expensive mammalian studies; however, timely testing of the large number of environmental toxicants requires new in vitro and in vivo platforms for inexpensive medium- to high-throughput screening. Herein, we describe the suitability of the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new animal model for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. As these asexual animals reproduce by binary fission, followed by regeneration of missing body structures within approximately 1 week, development and regeneration occur through similar processes allowing us to induce neurodevelopment "at will" through amputation. This short time scale and the comparable sizes of full and regenerating animals enable parallel experiments in adults and developing worms to determine development-specific aspects of toxicity. Because the planarian brain, despite its simplicity, is structurally and molecularly similar to the mammalian brain, we are able to ascertain neurodevelopmental toxicity that is relevant to humans. As a proof of concept, we developed a 5-step semiautomatic screening platform to characterize the toxicity of 9 known neurotoxicants (consisting of common solvents, pesticides, and detergents) and a neutral agent, glucose, and quantified effects on viability, stimulated and unstimulated behavior, regeneration, and brain structure. Comparisons of our findings with other alternative toxicology animal models, such as zebrafish larvae and nematodes, demonstrated that planarians are comparably sensitive to the tested chemicals. In addition, we found that certain compounds induced adverse effects specifically in developing animals. We thus conclude that planarians offer new complementary opportunities for developmental neurotoxicology animal models. PMID:26116028

  11. Cognitive endophenotypes, gene-environment interactions and experience-dependent plasticity in animal models of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder caused by a complex and heterogeneous combination of genetic and environmental factors. In order to develop effective new strategies to prevent and treat schizophrenia, valid animal models are required which accurately model the disorder, and ideally provide construct, face and predictive validity. The cognitive deficits in schizophrenia represent some of the most debilitating symptoms and are also currently the most poorly treated. Therefore it is crucial that animal models are able to capture the cognitive dysfunction that characterizes schizophrenia, as well as the negative and psychotic symptoms. The genomes of mice have, prior to the recent gene-editing revolution, proven the most easily manipulable of mammalian laboratory species, and hence most genetic targeting has been performed using mouse models. Importantly, when key environmental factors of relevance to schizophrenia are experimentally manipulated, dramatic changes in the phenotypes of these animal models are often observed. We will review recent studies in rodent models which provide insight into gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. We will focus specifically on environmental factors which modulate levels of experience-dependent plasticity, including environmental enrichment, cognitive stimulation, physical activity and stress. The insights provided by this research will not only help refine the establishment of optimally valid animal models which facilitate development of novel therapeutics, but will also provide insight into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, thus identifying molecular and cellular targets for future preclinical and clinical investigations. PMID:26687973

  12. A Knowledge Representation Model for Video—Based Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳志强; 潘云鹤

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,a brief survey on knowledge-based animation techniques is given.Then a VideoStream-based Knowledge Representation Model(VSKRM)for Joint Objects is presented which includes the knowledge representation of :Graphic Object,Action and VideoStream.Next a general description of the UI framework of a system is given based on the VSKRM model.Finally,a conclusion is reached.

  13. An Animal Model of Emotional Blunting in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Pietersen, Charmaine Y.; Fokko J Bosker; Janine Doorduin; Jongsma, Minke E.; Folkert Postema; Joseph V Haas; Johnson, Michael P; Tineke Koch; Tony Vladusich; den Boer, Johan A.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often associated with emotional blunting--the diminished ability to respond to emotionally salient stimuli--particularly those stimuli representative of negative emotional states, such as fear. This disturbance may stem from dysfunction of the amygdala, a brain region involved in fear processing. The present article describes a novel animal model of emotional blunting in schizophrenia. This model involves interfering with normal fear processing (classical conditioning) in rat...

  14. Mechanobiology of Embryonic Skeletal Development: Insights from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nowlan, Niamh C.; Sharpe, James; Karen A Roddy; Prendergast, Patrick J; Murphy, Paula

    2010-01-01

    A range of clinical conditions in which foetal movement is reduced or prevented can have a severe effect on skeletal development. Animal models have been instrumental to our understanding of the interplay between mechanical forces and skeletal development, in particular the mouse and the chick model systems. In the chick, the most commonly used means of altering the mechanical environment is by pharmaceutical agents which induce paralysis, while genetically modified mice with non-functional o...

  15. Large Animal Models for Batten Disease: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Krystal; Pearce, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively referred to as Batten disease, make up a group of inherited childhood disorders that result in blindness, motor and cognitive regression, brain atrophy, and seizures, ultimately leading to premature death. So far more than 10 genes have been implicated in different forms of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Most related research has involved mouse models, but several naturally occurring large animal models have recently been discovered. In th...

  16. Animal models of systemic sclerosis: their utility and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Artlett, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Carol M Artlett Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Without doubt, animal models have provided significant insights into our understanding of the rheumatological diseases; however, no model has accurately replicated all aspects of any autoimmune disease. Recent years have seen a plethora of knockouts and transgenics that have contributed to our knowledge of the initiating events of systemic sclerosis, an autoimmune...

  17. Continuum modeling of the equilibrium and stability of animal flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Ott, Edward; Antonsen Jr., Thomas M.; Guzdar, Parvez

    2012-01-01

    Groups of animals often tend to arrange themselves in flocks that have characteristic spatial attributes and temporal dynamics. Using a dynamic continuum model for a flock of individuals, we find equilibria of finite spatial extent where the density goes continuously to zero at a well-defined flock edge, and we discuss conditions on the model that allow for such solutions. We also demonstrate conditions under which, as the flock size increases, the interior density in our equilibria tends to ...

  18. Animal models of restricted repetitive behavior in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark H.; Tanimura, Yoko; Lee, Linda W.; Bodfish, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behavior, along with deficits in social reciprocity and communication, is diagnostic of autism. Animal models relevant to this domain generally fall into three classes: repetitive behavior associated with targeted insults to the CNS; repetitive behavior induced by pharmacological agents; and repetitive behavior associated with restricted environments and experience. The extant literature provides potential models of the repetitive behavioral phenotype in autism rather t...

  19. Tissue and Animal Models of Sudden Cardiac Death

    OpenAIRE

    Sallam, Karim; Li, Yingxin; Sager, Philip T.; Steven R. Houser; Wu, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is a common cause of death in patients with structural heart disease, genetic mutations or acquired disorders affecting cardiac ion channels. A wide range of platforms exist to model and study disorders associated with SCD. Human clinical studies are cumbersome and are thwarted by the extent of investigation that can be performed on human subjects. Animal models are limited by their degree of homology to human cardiac electrophysiology including ion channel expressi...

  20. Animal models as tools to study the pathophysiology of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Abelaira, Helena M.; Gislaine Z. Reus; Joao Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of depressive illness is high worldwide, and the inadequacy of currently available drug treatments contributes to the significant health burden associated with depression. A basic understanding of the underlying disease processes in depression is lacking; therefore, recreating the disease in animal models is not possible. Popular current models of depression creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral assays with the latest technological advances in molecular biology. Within...

  1. Functional GI disorders: from animal models to drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, E A; Bradesi, S; Chang, L; Spiegel, B. M. R.; Bueller, J A; Naliboff, B. D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts by academic researchers and by the pharmaceutical industry, the development of novel pharmacological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders has been slow and disappointing. The traditional approach to identifying and evaluating novel drugs for these symptom-based syndromes has relied on a fairly standard algorithm using animal models, experimental medicine models and clinical trials. In the current articl...

  2. Improved Animal Models for Testing Gene Therapy for Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liang; Zhang, Jingwan; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.; Flynn, Rowan; Dichek, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy delivered to the blood vessel wall could augment current therapies for atherosclerosis, including systemic drug therapy and stenting. However, identification of clinically useful vectors and effective therapeutic transgenes remains at the preclinical stage. Identification of effective vectors and transgenes would be accelerated by availability of animal models that allow practical and expeditious testing of vessel-wall-directed gene therapy. Such models would include humanlike le...

  3. Bayesian modeling of animal- and herd-level prevalences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, A J; Gardner, I A; Johnson, W O

    2004-12-15

    We reviewed Bayesian approaches for animal-level and herd-level prevalence estimation based on cross-sectional sampling designs and demonstrated fitting of these models using the WinBUGS software. We considered estimation of infection prevalence based on use of a single diagnostic test applied to a single herd with binomial and hypergeometric sampling. We then considered multiple herds under binomial sampling with the primary goal of estimating the prevalence distribution and the proportion of infected herds. A new model is presented that can be used to estimate the herd-level prevalence in a region, including the posterior probability that all herds are non-infected. Using this model, inferences for the distribution of prevalences, mean prevalence in the region, and predicted prevalence of herds in the region (including the predicted probability of zero prevalence) are also available. In the models presented, both animal- and herd-level prevalences are modeled as mixture distributions to allow for zero infection prevalences. (If mixture models for the prevalences were not used, prevalence estimates might be artificially inflated, especially in herds and regions with low or zero prevalence.) Finally, we considered estimation of animal-level prevalence based on pooled samples. PMID:15579338

  4. Peripheral Biomarkers in Animal Models of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Carboni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of preclinical biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD encompass the quantification of proteins, peptides, mRNAs, or small molecules in blood or urine of animal models. Most studies aim at characterising the animal model by including the assessment of analytes or hormones affected in depressive patients. The ultimate objective is to validate the model to better understand the neurobiological basis of MDD. Stress hormones or inflammation-related analytes associated with MDD are frequently measured. In contrast, other investigators evaluate peripheral analytes in preclinical models to translate the results in clinical settings afterwards. Large-scale, hypothesis-free studies are performed in MDD models to identify candidate biomarkers. Other studies wish to propose new targets for drug discovery. Animal models endowed with predictive validity are investigated, and the assessment of peripheral analytes, such as stress hormones or immune molecules, is comprised to increase the confidence in the target. Finally, since the mechanism of action of antidepressants is incompletely understood, studies investigating molecular alterations associated with antidepressant treatment may include peripheral analyte levels. In conclusion, preclinical biomarker studies aid the identification of new candidate analytes to be tested in clinical trials. They also increase our understanding of MDD pathophysiology and help to identify new pharmacological targets.

  5. Peripheral biomarkers in animal models of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of preclinical biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD) encompass the quantification of proteins, peptides, mRNAs, or small molecules in blood or urine of animal models. Most studies aim at characterising the animal model by including the assessment of analytes or hormones affected in depressive patients. The ultimate objective is to validate the model to better understand the neurobiological basis of MDD. Stress hormones or inflammation-related analytes associated with MDD are frequently measured. In contrast, other investigators evaluate peripheral analytes in preclinical models to translate the results in clinical settings afterwards. Large-scale, hypothesis-free studies are performed in MDD models to identify candidate biomarkers. Other studies wish to propose new targets for drug discovery. Animal models endowed with predictive validity are investigated, and the assessment of peripheral analytes, such as stress hormones or immune molecules, is comprised to increase the confidence in the target. Finally, since the mechanism of action of antidepressants is incompletely understood, studies investigating molecular alterations associated with antidepressant treatment may include peripheral analyte levels. In conclusion, preclinical biomarker studies aid the identification of new candidate analytes to be tested in clinical trials. They also increase our understanding of MDD pathophysiology and help to identify new pharmacological targets. PMID:24167347

  6. Zebrafish as animal model for aquaculture nutrition research

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Medrano, Juan F.; Feijoo, Carmen G.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaculture industry continues to promote the diversification of ingredients used in aquafeed in order to achieve a more sustainable aquaculture production system. The evaluation of large numbers of diets in aquaculture species is costly and requires time-consuming trials in some species. In contrast, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can solve these drawbacks as an experimental model, and represents an ideal organism to carry out preliminary evaluation of diets. In addition, zebrafish has a sequen...

  7. ANIMAL MODELS FOR THE STUDY OF LEISHMANIASIS IMMUNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Elsy Nalleli Loria-Cervera; Fernando Jose Andrade-Narvaez

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control. Many experimental models like rodents, dogs and monkeys have been developed, each with specific features, in order to characterize the immune response to Leishmania species, but none reproduces the pathology observed in human disease. Conflicting data may arise in part because different parasite strains or species are being examined, different tis...

  8. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water

  9. Applications of species distribution modeling to paleobiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, Jens-Christian; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Marske, Katharine Ann;

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM: statistical and/or mechanistic approaches to the assessment of range determinants and prediction of species occurrence) offers new possibilities for estimating and studying past organism distributions. SDM complements fossil and genetic evidence by providing (i...... to paleobiology include predictor variables (types and properties; special emphasis is given to paleoclimate), model validation (particularly important given the emphasis on cross-temporal predictions in paleobiological applications), and the integration of SDM and genetics approaches. Over the last few years...... – the equilibrium postulate, niche stability, changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations – as well as ways to address these (ensemble, functional SDM, and non-SDM ecoinformatics approaches). We conclude that the SDM approach offers important opportunities for advances in paleobiology by providing a quantitative...

  10. Making animals alcoholic: shifting laboratory models of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals as experimental organisms has been critical to the development of addiction research from the nineteenth century. They have been used as a means of generating reliable data regarding the processes of addiction that was not available from the study of human subjects. Their use, however, has been far from straightforward. Through focusing on the study of alcoholism, where the nonhuman animal proved a most reluctant collaborator, this paper will analyze the ways in which scientists attempted to deal with its determined sobriety and account for their consistent failure to replicate the volitional consumption of ethanol to the point of physical dependency. In doing so, we will see how the animal model not only served as a means of interrogating a complex pathology, but also came to embody competing definitions of alcoholism as a disease process, and alternative visions for the very structure and purpose of a research field. PMID:25740698

  11. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development. PMID:25048261

  12. Animal models for Ebola and Marburg virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri eNakayama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers (EHF and MHF are caused by the Filoviridae family, Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus (ebolavirus and marburgvirus, respectively. These severe diseases have high mortality rates in humans. Although EHF and MHF are endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. A novel filovirus, Lloviu virus, which is genetically distinct from ebolavirus and marburgvirus, was recently discovered in Spain where filoviral hemorrhagic fever had never been reported. The virulence of this virus has not been determined. Ebolavirus and marburgvirus are classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 pathogens and Category A agents, for which the US government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism. Therefore, preventive measures against these viral hemorrhagic fevers should be prepared, not only in disease-endemic regions, but also in disease-free countries. Diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics need to be developed, and therefore the establishment of animal models for EHF and MHF is invaluable. Several animal models have been developed for EHF and MHF using nonhuman primates (NHPs and rodents, which are crucial to understand pathophysiology and to develop diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are representative models of filovirus infection as they exhibit remarkably similar symptoms to those observed in humans. However, the NHP models have practical and ethical problems that limit their experimental use. Furthermore, there are no inbred and genetically manipulated strains of NHP. Rodent models such as mouse, guinea pig, and hamster, have also been developed. However, these rodent models require adaptation of the virus to produce lethal disease and do not mirror all symptoms of human filovirus infection. This review article provides an outline of the clinical features of EHF and MHF in animals, including humans, and discusses how the animal models have been developed to study pathophysiology, vaccines, and therapeutics.

  13. Stochastic model for the species abundance problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pigolotti, Simone; Flammini, Alessandro; Maritan, Amos

    2004-01-01

    We propose a model based on coupled multiplicative stochastic processes to understand the dynamics of competing species in an ecosystem. This process can be conveniently described by a Fokker-Planck equation. We provide an analytical expression for the marginalized stationary distribution. Our solution is found in excellent agreement with numerical simulations and compares rather well with observational data from tropical forests. Award-winning

  14. Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Fang; Yu, Chun-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and have significantly advanced our understanding of the biological features of the virus and the host-parasite interactions. Overall, each of these models has advantages and disadvantages, and these models are differentially suited for studies of EV71 pathogenesis and/or the pre-clinical testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this paper, we review the characteristics, applications and limitation of these EV71 animal models, including non-human primate and mouse models. PMID:24742252

  15. Reproduction of an animal model of landmine blast injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of landmine blast injuries for studying its mechanism and characteristics. Methods Fifteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits (body weight 1.9-2.4 kg were prepared as experimental animals. Punctiform burster was used to simulate the landmine, and it was electrically detonated far away to produce landmine blast injuries on unilateral hind limb of rabbits in upright state. The vital signs before and 5min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h after injuries were recorded. Autopsy of dead animals was performed immediately and the survivors were sacrificed for pathological examination 6h and 12h after the injury. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the injured limb and distant organs were observed. Fifteen random adult body weights were generated by random number table, and the explosive energy of M14 landmine (about 29g TNT explosive energy was simulated, to compare the ratio of explosive force equivalent to weight calculated between experimental animals and randomly selected adults. Results No significant change in blood pressure was observed at different time points before and after injuries. A broom-like change was found in the injured limb by the general observation. The subareas and pathological changes of injured limb coincided with the typical limb injuries produced by landmine explosion. Damage in different degrees was found in distant organs, and the wound characteristics and injury of major organs were in accordance with the reports of relevant literature. The ratio of explosive equivalent to weight of experimental animals (0.50±0.04g TNT/kg was similar to that of randomly selected adults (0.51±0.05g TNT/kg. Conclusion The present animal model could simulate the landmine explosive injuries, and may be used in research of landmine explosive injuries. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.14

  16. Neuronal and brain morphological changes in animal models of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Diaz, Alfonso

    2016-03-15

    Schizophrenia, a severe and debilitating disorder with a high social burden, affects 1% of the adult world population. Available therapies are unable to treat all the symptoms, and result in strong side effects. For this reason, numerous animal models have been generated to elucidate the pathophysiology of this disorder. All these models present neuronal remodeling and abnormalities in spine stability. It is well known that the complexity in dendritic arborization determines the number of receptive synaptic contacts. Also the loss of dendritic spines and arbor stability are strongly associated with schizophrenia. This review evaluates changes in spine density and dendritic arborization in animal models of schizophrenia. By understanding these changes, pharmacological treatments can be designed to target specific neural systems to attenuate neuronal remodeling and associated behavioral deficits. PMID:26738967

  17. A method of shadow puppet figure modeling and animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fang HUANG; Shou-qian SUN; Ke-jun ZHANG; Tian-ning XU; Jian-feng WU; Bin ZHU

    2015-01-01

    To promote the development of the intangible cultural heritage of the world, shadow play, many studies have focused on shadow puppet modeling and interaction. Most of the shadow puppet figures are still imaginary, spread by ancients, or carved and painted by shadow puppet artists, without consideration of real dimensions or the appearance of human bodies. This study proposes an algorithm to transform 3D human models to 2D puppet figures for shadow puppets, including automatic location of feature points, automatic segmentation of 3D models, automatic extraction of 2D contours, automatic clothes matching, and animation. Experiment proves that more realistic and attractive figures and animations of the shadow puppet can be generated in real time with this algorithm.

  18. Animal Models of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Eat, Delete, and Inflame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Samar H; Hirsova, Petra; Malhi, Harmeet; Gores, Gregory J

    2016-05-01

    With the obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a public health problem with increasing prevalence. The mechanism of disease progression remains obscure and effective therapy is lacking. Therefore, there is a need to understand the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for disease development and progression in order to develop innovative therapies. To accomplish this goal, experimental animal models that recapitulate the human disease are necessary, especially, since causative mechanistic studies of NAFLD are more difficult or unethical to perform in humans. A large number of studies regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been undertaken in mice to model human NAFLD and NASH. This review discusses the known dietary, genetic, and inflammation-based animal models of NASH described in recent years, with a focus on the major advances made in this field. PMID:26626909

  19. Hand Interface in Traditional Modeling and Animation Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙汉秋

    1996-01-01

    3-D task space in modeling and animation is usually reduced to the separate control dimensions supported by conventional interactive devices.This limitation maps only partial view of the problem to the device space at a time,and results in tedious and unnatural interface of control.This paper uses the DataGlove interface for modeling and animating scene behaviors.The modeling interface selects,scales,rotates,translates,copies and deletes the instances of the primitives.These basic modeling processes are directly performed in the task space,using hand shapes and motions.Hand shapes are recognized as discrete states that trigger the commands,and hand motion are mapped to the movement of a selected instance.The interactions through hand interface place the user as a participant in the process of behavior simulation.Both event triggering and role switching of hand are experimented in simulation.The event mode of hand triggers control signals or commands through a menu interface.The object mode of hand simulates itself as an object whose appearance or motion influences the motions of other objects in scene.The involvement of hand creates a diversity of dynamic situations for testing variable scene behaviors.Our experiments have shown the potential use of this interface directly in the 3-D modeling and animation task space.

  20. Translational value of animal models of asthma: Challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Seil; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Uller, Lena

    2015-07-15

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which various environmental stimuli as well as different genes, cell types, cytokines and mediators are implicated. This chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways is estimated to affect as many as 300 million people worldwide. Animal models of asthma, despite their limitations, have contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathology and the identification of key processes, cells and mediators in asthma. However, it is less likely to develop an animal model of asthma that takes into account all aspects of human disease. The focus in current asthma research is increasingly on severe asthma because this group of patients is not well treated today. Recent advances in studies of asthma exacerbation are thus considered. We therefore need to develop translational model systems for pharmacological evaluation and molecular target discovery of severe asthma and asthma exacerbations. In this review we attempted to discuss the different animal models of asthma, with special emphasis on ovalbumin and house dust mite models, their merits and their limitations. PMID:25823808

  1. Surgical animal models of neuropathic pain: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Siva Reddy

    2015-03-01

    One of the biggest challenges for discovering more efficacious drugs for the control of neuropathic pain has been the diversity of chronic pain states in humans. It is now acceptable that different mechanisms contribute to normal physiologic pain, pain arising from tissue damage and pain arising from injury to the nervous system. To study pain transmission, spot novel pain targets and characterize the potential analgesic profile of new chemical entities, numerous experimental animal pain models have been developed that attempt to simulate the many human pain conditions. Among the neuropathic pain models, surgical models have paramount importance in the induction of pain states. Many surgical animal models exist, like the chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve, partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), spared nerve injury (SNI), brachial plexus avulsion (BPA), sciatic nerve transaction (SNT) and sciatic nerve trisection. Most of these models induce responses similar to those found in causalgia, a syndrome of sustained burning pain often seen in the distal extremity after partial peripheral nerve injury in humans. Researchers most commonly use these surgical models in both rats and mice during drug discovery to screen new chemical entities for efficacy in the area of neuropathic pain. However, there is scant literature that provides a comparative discussion of all these surgical models. Each surgical model has its own benefits and limitations. It is very difficult for a researcher to choose a suitable surgical animal model to suit their experimental set-up. Therefore, particular attention has been given in this review to comparatively provide the pros and cons of each model of surgically induced neuropathic pain. PMID:24831263

  2. Occurrence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter isolates from farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Komba, Erick V. G.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Peter L. M. Msoffe; Denis E. Matowo; Makori J. Maro

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the carriage and antimicrobial resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in the gastrointestinal tracts of farm and laboratory animals in Morogoro, Tanzania Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were collected from farm (n=244) and laboratory (n=466) animals and were subjected to the Cape Town protocol for isolation of Campylobacter. Isolates were preliminarily identified based on potassium hydroxide string and hippurate hydrolysis tests. Polymerase chain reaction ...

  3. Challenges in animal modelling of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Ng, Spencer; Velu, Vijayakumar; Galipeau, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis is of translational interest. Safety of MSC therapy has been well demonstrated in early phase clinical trials but efficacy in randomized clinical trials needs to be demonstrated. Understanding MSC mechanisms of action to reduce gut injury and inflammation is necessary to improve current ongoing and future clinical trials. However, two major hurdles impede the direct translation of data derived from animal experiments to the clinical situation: (1) limitations of the currently available animal models of colitis that reflect human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The etiology and progression of human IBD are multifactorial and hence a challenge to mimic in animal models; and (2) Species specific differences in the functionality of MSCs derived from mice versus humans. MSCs derived from mice and humans are not identical in their mechanisms of action in suppressing inflammation. Thus, preclinical animal studies with murine derived MSCs cannot be considered as an exact replica of human MSC based clinical trials. In the present review, we discuss the therapeutic properties of MSCs in preclinical and clinical studies of IBD. We also discuss the challenges and approaches of using appropriate animal models of colitis, not only to study putative MSC therapeutic efficacy and their mechanisms of action, but also the suitability of translating findings derived from such studies to the clinic. PMID:25944991

  4. Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Koob, George F

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. We use the framework of addiction, in which animal models have excellent face and construct validity, to illustrate the importance of considering sex differences. There are four types of sex differences: qualitative, quantitative, population, and mechanistic. A better understanding of the ways males and females can differ will help scientists design experiments to characterize better the presence or absence of sex differences in new phenomena that they are investigating. We have outlined major quantitative, population, and mechanistic sex differences in the addiction domain using a heuristic framework of the three established stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Female rats, in general, acquire the self-administration of drugs and alcohol more rapidly, escalate their drug taking with extended access more rapidly, show more motivational withdrawal, and (where tested in animal models of "craving") show greater reinstatement. The one exception is that female rats show less motivational withdrawal to alcohol. The bases for these quantitative sex differences appear to be both organizational, in that estradiol-treated neonatal animals show the male phenotype, and activational, in that the female phenotype depends on the effects of gonadal hormones. In animals, differences within the estrous cycle can be observed but are relatively minor. Such hormonal effects seem to be most prevalent during the acquisition of drug taking and less influential once compulsive drug taking is established and are linked largely to progesterone and estradiol. This review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but emphasizes the paucity of data to date in our understanding of those differences. PMID:26772794

  5. How can model comparison help improving species distribution models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Stephan Gritti

    Full Text Available Today, more than ever, robust projections of potential species range shifts are needed to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Such projections are so far provided almost exclusively by correlative species distribution models (correlative SDMs. However, concerns regarding the reliability of their predictive power are growing and several authors call for the development of process-based SDMs. Still, each of these methods presents strengths and weakness which have to be estimated if they are to be reliably used by decision makers. In this study we compare projections of three different SDMs (STASH, LPJ and PHENOFIT that lie in the continuum between correlative models and process-based models for the current distribution of three major European tree species, Fagussylvatica L., Quercusrobur L. and Pinussylvestris L. We compare the consistency of the model simulations using an innovative comparison map profile method, integrating local and multi-scale comparisons. The three models simulate relatively accurately the current distribution of the three species. The process-based model performs almost as well as the correlative model, although parameters of the former are not fitted to the observed species distributions. According to our simulations, species range limits are triggered, at the European scale, by establishment and survival through processes primarily related to phenology and resistance to abiotic stress rather than to growth efficiency. The accuracy of projections of the hybrid and process-based model could however be improved by integrating a more realistic representation of the species resistance to water stress for instance, advocating for pursuing efforts to understand and formulate explicitly the impact of climatic conditions and variations on these processes.

  6. Microscopic transport model animation visualisation on KML base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatskiv, I.; Savrasovs, M.

    2012-10-01

    By reading classical literature devoted to the simulation theory it could be found that one of the greatest possibilities of simulation is the ability to present processes inside the system by animation. This gives to the simulation model additional value during presentation of simulation results for the public and authorities who are not familiar enough with simulation. That is why most of universal and specialised simulation tools have the ability to construct 2D and 3D representation of the model. Usually the development of such representation could take much time and there must be put a lot forces into creating an adequate 3D representation of the model. For long years such well-known microscopic traffic flow simulation software tools as VISSIM, AIMSUN and PARAMICS have had a possibility to produce 2D and 3D animation. But creation of realistic 3D model of the place where traffic flows are simulated, even in these professional software tools it is a hard and time consuming action. The goal of this paper is to describe the concepts of use the existing on-line geographical information systems for visualisation of animation produced by simulation software. For demonstration purposes the following technologies and tools have been used: PTV VISION VISSIM, KML and Google Earth.

  7. WHAT WE ARE LEARNING ON HTLV-1 PATHOGENESISFROM ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eDuc Dodon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolated and identified more than 30 years ago, Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL, an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease of activated CD4+ T cells, and other inflammatory disorders such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. A variety of animal models have contributed to the fundamental knowledge of HTLV-1 transmission, pathogenesis and to the design of novel therapies to treat HTLV-1 associated diseases. Small animal models (rabbits, rats, mice as well as large animal models (monkeys have been utilized to significantly advance characterization of the viral proteins and of virus-infected cells in the early steps of infection, as well as in the development of leukemogenic and immunopathogenic processes. Over the past two decades, the creation of new immuno-compromised mouse strains that are robustly reconstituted with a functional human immune system (HIS after being transplanted with human tissues or progenitor cells has revolutionized the in vivo investigation of viral infection and pathogenesis. Recent observations obtained in HTLV-1-infected humanized HIS mice that develop lymphomas provide the opportunity to study the evolution of the proviral clonality in human T cells present in different lymphoid organs. Current progress in the improvement of those humanized models will favor the testing of drugs and the development of targeted therapies against HTLV-1-associated diseases.

  8. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  9. Large Animal Models for Foamy Virus Vector Gene Therapy

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    Peter A. Horn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foamy virus (FV vectors have shown great promise for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy. Their ability to efficiently deliver transgenes to multi-lineage long-term repopulating cells in large animal models suggests they will be effective for several human hematopoietic diseases. Here, we review FV vector studies in large animal models, including the use of FV vectors with the mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, MGMTP140K to increase the number of genetically modified cells after transplantation. In these studies, FV vectors have mediated efficient gene transfer to polyclonal repopulating cells using short ex vivo transduction protocols designed to minimize the negative effects of ex vivo culture on stem cell engraftment. In this regard, FV vectors appear superior to gammaretroviral vectors, which require longer ex vivo culture to effect efficient transduction. FV vectors have also compared favorably with lentiviral vectors when directly compared in the dog model. FV vectors have corrected leukocyte adhesion deficiency and pyruvate kinase deficiency in the dog large animal model. FV vectors also appear safer than gammaretroviral vectors based on a reduced frequency of integrants near promoters and also near proto-oncogenes in canine repopulating cells. Together, these studies suggest that FV vectors should be highly effective for several human hematopoietic diseases, including those that will require relatively high percentages of gene-modified cells to achieve clinical benefit.

  10. Animal models of enterovirus 71 infection: applications and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ya-Fang; Yu, Chun-Keung

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing ...

  11. Conceptual shifts in animal systematics as reflected in the taxonomic history of a common aquatic snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea stagnalis (L., 1758 is among the most widespread and well-studied species of freshwater Mollusca of the northern hemisphere. It is also notoriously known for its huge conchological variability. The history of scientific exploration of this species may be traced back to the end of the 16th century (Ulisse Aldrovandi in Renaissance Italy and, thus, L. stagnalis has been chosen as a proper model taxon to demonstrate how changes in theoretical foundations and methodology of animal taxonomy have been reflected in the practice of classification of a particular taxon, especially on the intraspecific level. In this paper, I depict the long story of recognition of L. stagnalis by naturalists and biologists since the 16th century up to the present day. It is shown that different taxonomic philosophies (essentialism, population thinking, tree thinking led to different views on the species’ internal structure and its systematic position itself. The problem of how to deal with intraspecific variability in the taxonomic arrangement of L. stagnalis has been a central problem that made systematists change their opinion following conceptual shifts in taxonomic theory.

  12. Interspecies allometric meta-analysis of the comparative pharmacokinetics of 85 drugs across veterinary and laboratory animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Gehring, R; Tell, L A; Li, M; Riviere, J E

    2015-06-01

    Allometric scaling is widely used for the determination of first dosage regimen and the interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters across many animal species during drug development. In this article, 85 drugs used in veterinary medicine obtained from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank database were selected for allometric scaling analysis. Outlier species were identified by statistical methods. The results showed that 77% and 88% of drugs displayed significant correlations between total systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady status (Vss) vs. body weight (P pharmacokinetic profiles for predicting drug dosages in veterinary species, and to identify those species for which interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetics properties may be problematic. PMID:25333341

  13. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: Do they extend or shorten animal lifespan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Testing the predictions of the Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Ageing (MFRTA) has provided a deep understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in the aging process. However those data, which support MFRTA are in the majority correlative (e.g. increasing oxidative damage with age). In contrast the majority of direct experimental data contradict MFRTA (e.g. changes in ROS levels do not alter longevity as expected). Unfortunately, in the past, ROS measurements have mainly been performed using isolated mitochondria, a method which is prone to experimental artifacts and does not reflect the complexity of the in vivo process. New technology to study different ROS (e.g. superoxide or hydrogen peroxide) in vivo is now available; these new methods combined with state-of-the-art genetic engineering technology will allow a deeper interrogation of, where, when and how free radicals affect aging and pathological processes. In fact data that combine these new approaches, indicate that boosting mitochondrial ROS in lower animals is a way to extend both healthy and maximum lifespan. In this review, I discuss the latest literature focused on the role of mitochondrial ROS in aging, and how these new discoveries are helping to better understand the role of mitochondria in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26997500

  14. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  15. Investigation of nutriactive phytochemical - gamma-oryzanol in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, K A; Ostaszewski, P; Ciecierska, A; Sadkowski, T

    2016-08-01

    Gamma-oryzanol (GO) is an abundant dietary antioxidant that is considered to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Other potential properties of GO include inhibition of gastric acid secretion and decreased post-exercise muscle fatigue. GO is a unique mixture of triterpene alcohol and sterol ferulates present in rice bran oil, a byproduct of rice processing. GO has been studied by many researchers over the last three decades. In particular, the utility of GO supplementation has been documented in numerous animal models. A large variety of species was examined, and various experimental methodologies and targets were applied. The aim of this study was to summarize the body of research on GO supplementation in animals and to examine possible mechanisms of GO action. Furthermore, while the safety of GO supplementation in animals has been well documented, studies demonstrating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and efficiency are less clear. The observed differences in these findings are also discussed. PMID:26718022

  16. Meta-analysis of the turnover of intestinal epithelia in preclinical animal species and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwich, Adam S; Aslam, Umair; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2014-12-01

    Due to the rapid turnover of the small intestinal epithelia, the rate at which enterocyte renewal occurs plays an important role in determining the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the gut wall. Current physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models consider enzyme and enterocyte recovery as a lumped first-order rate. An assessment of enterocyte turnover would enable enzyme and enterocyte renewal to be modeled more mechanistically. A literature review together with statistical analysis was employed to establish enterocyte turnover in human and preclinical species. A total of 85 studies was identified reporting enterocyte turnover in 1602 subjects in six species. In mice, the geometric weighted combined mean (WX) enterocyte turnover was 2.81 ± 1.14 days (n = 169). In rats, the weighted arithmetic mean enterocyte turnover was determined to be 2.37 days (n = 501). Humans exhibited a geometric WX enterocyte turnover of 3.48 ± 1.55 days for the gastrointestinal epithelia (n = 265), displaying comparable turnover to that of cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro (0.96-4.33 days). Statistical analysis indicated humans to display longer enterocyte turnover as compared with preclinical species. Extracted data were too sparse to support regional differences in small intestinal enterocyte turnover in humans despite being indicated in mice. The utilization of enterocyte turnover data, together with in vitro enzyme turnover in PBPK modeling, may improve the predictions of metabolic drug-drug interactions dependent on enzyme turnover (e.g., mechanism-based inhibition and enzyme induction) as well as absorption of nanoparticle delivery systems and intestinal metabolism in special populations exhibiting altered enterocyte turnover. PMID:25233858

  17. ANIMAL MODELS TO EVALUATE THE CAUSE BEHIND GASTRIC ULCERS

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    Saini Amita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, characterised by imbalance between aggressive gastric luminal factor and defensive mucosal barrier. This disease is mainly associated with increase in gastric acid secretion. Numerous factors like diet, smoking, drugs like aspirin and infection are responsible for augmentation of ulcers. Still, no therapeutic intervention has been found successful. So, this review has been designed to explore various animal models to find out a suitable medication. Various synthetic Omeprazole, cemitidine and herbal drugs like tulsi, Areca catechu are employed in the management of the ulcers but still no curative treatment is available due to unknown mechanism behind ulceration. So this review has been designed to explore various animal models that depict the signalling pathway involved in ulcers and have open vista for the development of the new drugs.

  18. The search for animal models for Lassa fever vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prevalent arenavirus in West Africa and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of Lassa fever (LF) and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Currently there is no licensed LF vaccine and research and devlopment is hampered by the high cost of nonhuman primate animal models and by biocontainment requirements (BSL-4). In addition, a successful LF vaccine has to induce a strong cell-mediated cross-protective immunity against different LASV lineages. All of these challenges will be addressed in this review in the context of available and novel animal models recently described for evaluation of LF vaccine candidates. PMID:23256740

  19. The search for animal models for Lassa fever vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prevalent arenavirus in West Africa and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually. The sizeable disease burden, numerous imported cases of Lassa fever (LF) and the possibility that LASV can be used as an agent of biological warfare make a strong case for vaccine development. Currently there is no licensed LF vaccine and research and devlopment is hampered by the high cost of nonhuman primate animal models and by biocontainment requirements (BSL-4). In addition, a successful LF vaccine has to induce a strong cell-mediated cross-protective immunity against different LASV lineages. All of these challenges will be addressed in this review in the context of available and novel animal models recently described for evaluation of LF vaccine candidates. PMID:23256740

  20. Impaired auditory sensorimotor gating: An animal model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang; SHAO Feng

    2003-01-01

    Establishment of animal models of schizophrenia is critical for both understanding the mechanisms underlying this severe mental disease and developing new antipsychotics. This paper starts from the theoretical root of sensory gating, the "protection-of-processing" theory, then thoroughly describes the representative studies over the past decade on the mechanism underlying prepulse inhibition and on those underlying modulation of prepulse inhibition, which is the normal startle suppression caused by the weak stimulus preceding the intense startling stimulus. The main methods for inducing prepulse inhibition deficits in experimental animals include: i ) modulations of neuro- transmission that are closely associated with schizophrenia; ii )focal lesions or pharmacological manipulations of brain structures in the cortico-striato-pallido-pontine circuit; and iii) maternal deprivation or social isolation. Six essential topics for studies in modeling schizophrenia are suggested at the last part of this review.