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Sample records for animal groups theoretical

  1. Group theoretical approach to entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Korbicz, J K

    2006-01-01

    We examine a potential relevance of methods of harmonic analysis for the study of quantum entanglement. By changing the mathematical object representing quantum states, we reformulate the separability problem in group-theoretical terms. We also translate the positivity of partial transpose (PPT) criterion and one of the necessary-and-sufficient criteria for pure states to the group-theoretical language. The formal relation of our formalism to local hidden variable models is briefly examined. We also remark on the connection between entanglement and some certain non-commutativity.

  2. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.;

    2014-01-01

    Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...

  3. Group theoretical methods in Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.; Mateos Guilarte, J.M. (eds.) (Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias. Valladolid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The meeting had 102 papers. These was distributed in following areas: -Quantum groups,-Integrable systems,-Physical Applications of Group Theory,-Mathematical Results,-Geometry, Topology and Quantum Field Theory,-Super physics,-Super mathematics,-Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Nuclear and Particle Physics,-Symmetry and Foundations of classical and Quantum mechanics.

  4. Animal Rights Groups Target High School Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Two groups leading the charge against dissection are People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Student Action Corps for Animals (SACA). Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon. (MLF)

  5. Understanding how animal groups achieve coordinated movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert-Read, J E

    2016-10-01

    Moving animal groups display remarkable feats of coordination. This coordination is largely achieved when individuals adjust their movement in response to their neighbours' movements and positions. Recent advancements in automated tracking technologies, including computer vision and GPS, now allow researchers to gather large amounts of data on the movements and positions of individuals in groups. Furthermore, analytical techniques from fields such as statistical physics now allow us to identify the precise interaction rules used by animals on the move. These interaction rules differ not only between species, but also between individuals in the same group. These differences have wide-ranging implications, affecting how groups make collective decisions and driving the evolution of collective motion. Here, I describe how trajectory data can be used to infer how animals interact in moving groups. I give examples of the similarities and differences in the spatial and directional organisations of animal groups between species, and discuss the rules that animals use to achieve this organisation. I then explore how groups of the same species can exhibit different structures, and ask whether this results from individuals adapting their interaction rules. I then examine how the interaction rules between individuals in the same groups can also differ, and discuss how this can affect ecological and evolutionary processes. Finally, I suggest areas of future research.

  6. Family group conferencing: a theoretical underpinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metze, Rosalie N; Abma, Tineke A; Kwekkeboom, Rick H

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, Family Group Conferences (FGCs) have increasingly been used to help people and their networks deal with their problems. The FGC fits well with the call for equal rights and self-management coming from clients and client movements, as well as the economy-driven pressure towards more informal and less professional care coming from governments. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the underlying theory to explain how the FGC works. In this article, we aim to provide such a theoretical basis by examining how the concept of empowerment can be linked with the basic assumptions underlying the FGC. Can making a plan of their own indeed help to empower people and if so, how does the process of empowerment proceed? Empowerment is often mentioned as a goal of the FGC, but authors are not unanimous when it comes to the operationalisation of empowerment, especially on the relational level of the person in his or her social context. In the article, we use the concepts of relational autonomy and resilience to conceptualize empowerment on the relational and individual level.

  7. Deciphering interactions in moving animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gautrais

    Full Text Available Collective motion phenomena in large groups of social organisms have long fascinated the observer, especially in cases, such as bird flocks or fish schools, where large-scale highly coordinated actions emerge in the absence of obvious leaders. However, the mechanisms involved in this self-organized behavior are still poorly understood, because the individual-level interactions underlying them remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the power of a bottom-up methodology to build models for animal group motion from data gathered at the individual scale. Using video tracks of fish shoal in a tank, we show how a careful, incremental analysis at the local scale allows for the determination of the stimulus/response function governing an individual's moving decisions. We find in particular that both positional and orientational effects are present, act upon the fish turning speed, and depend on the swimming speed, yielding a novel schooling model whose parameters are all estimated from data. Our approach also leads to identify a density-dependent effect that results in a behavioral change for the largest groups considered. This suggests that, in confined environment, the behavioral state of fish and their reaction patterns change with group size. We debate the applicability, beyond the particular case studied here, of this novel framework for deciphering interactions in moving animal groups.

  8. A group theoretic approach to quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the first one addressing quantum information from the viewpoint of group symmetry. Quantum systems have a group symmetrical structure. This structure enables to handle systematically quantum information processing. However, there is no other textbook focusing on group symmetry for quantum information although there exist many textbooks for group representation. After the mathematical preparation of quantum information, this book discusses quantum entanglement and its quantification by using group symmetry. Group symmetry drastically simplifies the calculation of several entanglement measures although their calculations are usually very difficult to handle. This book treats optimal information processes including quantum state estimation, quantum state cloning, estimation of group action and quantum channel etc. Usually it is very difficult to derive the optimal quantum information processes without asymptotic setting of these topics. However, group symmetry allows to derive these optimal solu...

  9. Collective behavior states in animal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambui, Dorílson S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study some states of collective behavior observed in groups of animals. For this end we consider an agent-based model with biologically motivated behavioral rules where the speed is treated as an independent stochastic variable, and the motion direction is adjusted in accord with alignment and attractive interactions. Four types of collective behavior have been observed: disordered motion, collective rotation, coherent collective motion, and formation flight. We investigate the case when transitions between collective states depend on both the speed and the attraction between individuals. Our results show that, to any size of the attraction, small speeds are associated to the coherent collective motion, while collective rotation is more and more pronounced for high speed since the attraction radius is large enough.

  10. Collective learning and optimal consensus decisions in social animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Albert B; Miller, Noam; Torney, Colin; Hartnett, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D

    2014-08-01

    Learning has been studied extensively in the context of isolated individuals. However, many organisms are social and consequently make decisions both individually and as part of a collective. Reaching consensus necessarily means that a single option is chosen by the group, even when there are dissenting opinions. This decision-making process decouples the otherwise direct relationship between animals' preferences and their experiences (the outcomes of decisions). Instead, because an individual's learned preferences influence what others experience, and therefore learn about, collective decisions couple the learning processes between social organisms. This introduces a new, and previously unexplored, dynamical relationship between preference, action, experience and learning. Here we model collective learning within animal groups that make consensus decisions. We reveal how learning as part of a collective results in behavior that is fundamentally different from that learned in isolation, allowing grouping organisms to spontaneously (and indirectly) detect correlations between group members' observations of environmental cues, adjust strategy as a function of changing group size (even if that group size is not known to the individual), and achieve a decision accuracy that is very close to that which is provably optimal, regardless of environmental contingencies. Because these properties make minimal cognitive demands on individuals, collective learning, and the capabilities it affords, may be widespread among group-living organisms. Our work emphasizes the importance and need for theoretical and experimental work that considers the mechanism and consequences of learning in a social context.

  11. Special functions group theoretical aspects and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schempp, Walter; Askey, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    Approach your problems from It isn't that they can't see the right end and begin with the solution. the answers. Then one day, It is that they can't see the perhaps you will find the problem. final question. G.K. Chesterton. The Scandal 'The Hermit Clad in Crane of Father Brown 'The Point of Feathers' in R. van Gulik's a Pin'. The Chinese Maze Murders. Growing specialization and diversification have brought a host of monographs and textbooks on increasingly specialized topics. However, the "tree" of knowledge of mathematics and related fields does not grow only by putting forth new branches. It also happens, quite often in fact, that branches which were thought to be completely disparate are suddenly seen to be related. Further, the kind and level of sophistication of mathematics applied in various sciences has changed drastically in recent years: measure theory is used (non-trivially) in regional and theoretical economics; algebraic geometry interacts with physics; the Minkowsky lemma, coding theory and the ...

  12. Piezoelectricity in quasicrystals: A group-theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Rama Rao; P Hemagiri Rao; B S K Chaitanya

    2007-03-01

    Group-theoretical methods have been accepted as exact and reliable tools in studying the physical properties of crystals and quasicrystalline materials. By group representation theory, the maximum number of non-vanishing and independent second- order piezoelectric coefficients required by the seven pentagonal and two icosahedral point groups - that describe the quasicrystal symmetry groups in two and three dimensions - is determined. The schemes of non-vanishing and independent second-order piezoelectric tensor components needed by the nine point groups with five-fold rotations are identified and tabulated employing a compact notation. The results of this group-theoretical study are briefly discussed.

  13. The Role of Renormalization Group in Fundamental Theoretical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shirkov, Dmitri V.

    1997-01-01

    General aspects of fundamental physics are considered. We comment the Wigner's logical scheme and modify it to adjust to modern theoretical physics. Then, we discuss the role and indicate the place of renormalization group in the logic of fundamental physics.

  14. Group-Theoretical Revision of the Unruh Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Perez-Romero, E; Aldaya, V, E-mail: Manuel.Calixto@upct.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)

    2011-03-01

    We revise the Unruh effect (vacuum radiation in uniformly relativistic accelerated frames) in a group-theoretical setting by constructing a conformal SO(4,2)-invariant quantum field theory and its spontaneous breakdown when selecting Poincare invariant degenerated vacua (namely, coherent states of conformal zero modes). Special conformal transformations (accelerations) destabilize the Poincare vacuum and make it to radiate.

  15. Jet propulsion in animals: theoretical innovation and biological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Jet propulsion is arguably the oldest and simplest form of animal locomotion, and simple hydrodynamic theory highlights the many possible ways in which animals might maximize speed and minimize metabolic cost while using jet propulsion to travel from one point to another. However, environmental and physiological reality constrains the potential for hydrodynamic innovation. We explore two heuristic examples: Antarctic scallops, in which ecological release from predation apparently constrains the evolution of improved locomotory capacity, and squids, in which the fundamental limitations of muscular contraction constrain the hydrodynamic efficiency of locomotion for all but a small range of sizes. Even simple forms of locomotion can be complex in a biological context.

  16. Metabolic scaling in animals: methods, empirical results, and theoretical explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Craig R; Kearney, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Life on earth spans a size range of around 21 orders of magnitude across species and can span a range of more than 6 orders of magnitude within species of animal. The effect of size on physiology is, therefore, enormous and is typically expressed by how physiological phenomena scale with mass(b). When b ≠ 1 a trait does not vary in direct proportion to mass and is said to scale allometrically. The study of allometric scaling goes back to at least the time of Galileo Galilei, and published scaling relationships are now available for hundreds of traits. Here, the methods of scaling analysis are reviewed, using examples for a range of traits with an emphasis on those related to metabolism in animals. Where necessary, new relationships have been generated from published data using modern phylogenetically informed techniques. During recent decades one of the most controversial scaling relationships has been that between metabolic rate and body mass and a number of explanations have been proposed for the scaling of this trait. Examples of these mechanistic explanations for metabolic scaling are reviewed, and suggestions made for comparing between them. Finally, the conceptual links between metabolic scaling and ecological patterns are examined, emphasizing the distinction between (1) the hypothesis that size- and temperature-dependent variation among species and individuals in metabolic rate influences ecological processes at levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere and (2) mechanistic explanations for metabolic rate that may explain the size- and temperature-dependence of this trait.

  17. Improving interactions between animal rights groups and conservation biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dan; Perry, Gad

    2008-02-01

    Invasive species are often considered to be a major threat to biodiversity, leading conservation biologists to often recommend their complete eradication. Animal rights groups typically categorically oppose killing animals, and their opposition has brought eradication attempts of gray squirrels in northern Italy (Europe) and mute swans in Vermont to a halt. As a result native red squirrels may disappear from Europe and ecosystem-wide impacts are expected to be caused by the swan. In contrast, cooperation between managers and animal rights groups has resulted in a successful control program for feral pigs in Fort Worth, Texas (U.S.A.). The philosophical differences between animal rights and conservation biologists' views make cooperation seem unlikely, yet documented cases of cooperation have been beneficial for both groups. We recommend that managers dealing with invasive species should consult with social scientists and ethicists to gain a better understanding of the implications of some of their policy decisions. In addition, we recommend that animal rights groups do more to support alternatives to lethal control, which are often excluded by economic limitations. Prevention of arrival of invasive species via application of the precautionary principle may be an especially productive avenue for such collaboration because it fits the goals and values of both groups.

  18. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on nonhuman animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allo...

  19. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of herit......This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...

  20. Group-theoretical method for physical property tensors of quasicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Ping; Hu Cheng-Zheng; Zhou Xiang; Wang Ai-Jun; Miao Ling

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the phonon variable there is the phason variable in hydrodynamics for quasicrystals. These two kinds of hydrodynamic variables have different transformation properties. The phonon variable transforms under the vector representation, whereas the phason variable transforms under another related representation. Thus, a basis (or a set of basis functions) in the representation space should include such two kinds of variables. This makes it more difficult to determine the physical property tensors of quasicrystals. In this paper the group-theoretical method is given to determine the physical property tensors of quasicrystals. As an illustration of this method we calculate the third-order elasticity tensors of quasicrystals with five-fold symmetry by means of basis functions. It follows that the linear phonon elasticity is isotropic, but the nonlinear phonon elasticity is anisotropic for pentagonal quasicrystals. Meanwhile, the basis functions are constructed for all noncrystallographic point groups of quasicrystals.

  1. Bayesian inference for identifying interaction rules in moving animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    Full Text Available The emergence of similar collective patterns from different self-propelled particle models of animal groups points to a restricted set of "universal" classes for these patterns. While universality is interesting, it is often the fine details of animal interactions that are of biological importance. Universality thus presents a challenge to inferring such interactions from macroscopic group dynamics since these can be consistent with many underlying interaction models. We present a Bayesian framework for learning animal interaction rules from fine scale recordings of animal movements in swarms. We apply these techniques to the inverse problem of inferring interaction rules from simulation models, showing that parameters can often be inferred from a small number of observations. Our methodology allows us to quantify our confidence in parameter fitting. For example, we show that attraction and alignment terms can be reliably estimated when animals are milling in a torus shape, while interaction radius cannot be reliably measured in such a situation. We assess the importance of rate of data collection and show how to test different models, such as topological and metric neighbourhood models. Taken together our results both inform the design of experiments on animal interactions and suggest how these data should be best analysed.

  2. Bayesian inference for identifying interaction rules in moving animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of similar collective patterns from different self-propelled particle models of animal groups points to a restricted set of "universal" classes for these patterns. While universality is interesting, it is often the fine details of animal interactions that are of biological importance. Universality thus presents a challenge to inferring such interactions from macroscopic group dynamics since these can be consistent with many underlying interaction models. We present a Bayesian framework for learning animal interaction rules from fine scale recordings of animal movements in swarms. We apply these techniques to the inverse problem of inferring interaction rules from simulation models, showing that parameters can often be inferred from a small number of observations. Our methodology allows us to quantify our confidence in parameter fitting. For example, we show that attraction and alignment terms can be reliably estimated when animals are milling in a torus shape, while interaction radius cannot be reliably measured in such a situation. We assess the importance of rate of data collection and show how to test different models, such as topological and metric neighbourhood models. Taken together our results both inform the design of experiments on animal interactions and suggest how these data should be best analysed.

  3. Anion order in perovskites: a group-theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanov, M V; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, V M

    2016-03-01

    Anion ordering in the structure of cubic perovskite has been investigated by the group-theoretical method. The possibility of the existence of 261 ordered low-symmetry structures, each with a unique space-group symmetry, is established. These results include five binary and 14 ternary anion superstructures. The 261 idealized anion-ordered perovskite structures are considered as aristotypes, giving rise to different derivatives. The structures of these derivatives are formed by tilting of BO6 octahedra, distortions caused by the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect and other physical effects. Some derivatives of aristotypes exist as real substances, and some as virtual ones. A classification of aristotypes of anion superstructures in perovskite is proposed: the AX class (the simultaneous ordering of A cations and anions in cubic perovskite structure), the BX class (the simultaneous ordering of B cations and anions) and the X class (the ordering of anions only in cubic perovskite structure). In most perovskites anion ordering is accompanied by cation ordering. Therefore, the main classes of anion order in perovskites are the AX and BX classes. The calculated structures of some anion superstructures are reported. Comparison of predictions and experimentally investigated anion superstructures shows coherency of theoretical and experimental results.

  4. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  5. Animal signals and emotion in music: Coordinating affect across groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Bryant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on nonhuman animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Here I describe recent work that reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including 1 examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise in nonhuman animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and 2 an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to nonhuman animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary byproducts of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be due to the operation of an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases—many shared across species—and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  6. Modelling animal group fission using social network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Maire, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems.

  7. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Katsikopoulos

    Full Text Available An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  8. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V; King, Andrew J

    2010-11-24

    An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i) individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii) interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information) under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  9. Confidence sharing: an economic strategy for efficient information flows in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Amos; Greenwald, Efrat; Feinerman, Ofer

    2014-10-01

    Social animals may share information to obtain a more complete and accurate picture of their surroundings. However, physical constraints on communication limit the flow of information between interacting individuals in a way that can cause an accumulation of errors and deteriorated collective behaviors. Here, we theoretically study a general model of information sharing within animal groups. We take an algorithmic perspective to identify efficient communication schemes that are, nevertheless, economic in terms of communication, memory and individual internal computation. We present a simple and natural algorithm in which each agent compresses all information it has gathered into a single parameter that represents its confidence in its behavior. Confidence is communicated between agents by means of active signaling. We motivate this model by novel and existing empirical evidences for confidence sharing in animal groups. We rigorously show that this algorithm competes extremely well with the best possible algorithm that operates without any computational constraints. We also show that this algorithm is minimal, in the sense that further reduction in communication may significantly reduce performances. Our proofs rely on the Cramér-Rao bound and on our definition of a Fisher Channel Capacity. We use these concepts to quantify information flows within the group which are then used to obtain lower bounds on collective performance. The abstract nature of our model makes it rigorously solvable and its conclusions highly general. Indeed, our results suggest confidence sharing as a central notion in the context of animal communication.

  10. Confidence sharing: an economic strategy for efficient information flows in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Korman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Social animals may share information to obtain a more complete and accurate picture of their surroundings. However, physical constraints on communication limit the flow of information between interacting individuals in a way that can cause an accumulation of errors and deteriorated collective behaviors. Here, we theoretically study a general model of information sharing within animal groups. We take an algorithmic perspective to identify efficient communication schemes that are, nevertheless, economic in terms of communication, memory and individual internal computation. We present a simple and natural algorithm in which each agent compresses all information it has gathered into a single parameter that represents its confidence in its behavior. Confidence is communicated between agents by means of active signaling. We motivate this model by novel and existing empirical evidences for confidence sharing in animal groups. We rigorously show that this algorithm competes extremely well with the best possible algorithm that operates without any computational constraints. We also show that this algorithm is minimal, in the sense that further reduction in communication may significantly reduce performances. Our proofs rely on the Cramér-Rao bound and on our definition of a Fisher Channel Capacity. We use these concepts to quantify information flows within the group which are then used to obtain lower bounds on collective performance. The abstract nature of our model makes it rigorously solvable and its conclusions highly general. Indeed, our results suggest confidence sharing as a central notion in the context of animal communication.

  11. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P<0.001 and F (P=0.018 were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P<0.001 and E (P=0.002 were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P=0.003 and D (P=0.017 were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals.

  12. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  13. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngendakumana, Ancille, E-mail: nancille@yahoo.fr; Todjihoundé, Leonard, E-mail: leonardt@imsp.uac.org [Institut de Mathématiques et des Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim, E-mail: kimpaye@kie.ac.rw [Kigali Institute of Education (KIE), Kigali (Rwanda)

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  14. Comparative genomics of the Staphylococcus intermedius group of animal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri eBen Zakour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of 3 closely-related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI between the 3 species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI, highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least 9 predicted reverse transcriptase (RT Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely-related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation.

  15. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    The XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP), also known as the Group30 conference, took place in Ghent (Belgium) from Monday 14 to Friday 18 July 2014. The conference was organised by Ghent University (Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, and Department of Mathematical Analysis). The website http://www.group30.ugent.be is still available. The ICGTMP is one of the traditional conference series covering the most important topics of symmetry which are relevant to the interplay of present-day mathematics and physics. More than 40 years ago a group of enthusiasts, headed by H. Bacry of Marseille and A. Janner of Nijmegen, initiated a series of annual meetings with the aim to provide a common forum for scientists interested in group theoretical methods. At that time most of the participants belonged to two important communities: on the one hand solid state specialists, elementary particle theorists and phenomenologists, and on the other mathematicians eager to apply newly-discovered group and algebraic structures. The conference series has become a meeting point for scientists working at modelling physical phenomena through mathematical and numerical methods based on geometry and symmetry. It is considered as the oldest one among the conference series devoted to geometry and physics. It has been further broadened and diversified due to the successful applications of geometric and algebraic methods in life sciences and other areas. The first four meetings took place alternatively in Marseille and Nijmegen. Soon after, the conference acquired an international standing, especially following the 1975 colloquium in Nijmegen and the 1976 colloquium in Montreal. Since then it has been organized in many places around the world. It has become a bi-annual colloquium since 1990, the year it was organized in Moscow. This was the first time the colloquium took place in Belgium. There were 246 registered

  16. Group theoretic approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedenharn, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion are reviewed, compared and contrasted: the standard symmetry approach as typified by the Interacting Boson Model, the kinematic symmetry group approach of Gell-Mann and Tomonaga, and the recent direct construction by Buck. 50 references.

  17. Group-theoretical approach to relativistic eikonal physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, J.; Quiros, M. (Instituto de Enstructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Matematica, Universidad Complutense, Campus de Alcala (Spain)); Ramirez Mittelbrunn, J. (Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain))

    1977-09-01

    A contraction of the Poincare group is performed leading to the eikonal approximation. Invariants, one-particle states, spinning particles and some interaction problems are studied with the following results: momenta of ultrarelativistic particles behave as lightlike, the little group being E/sub 2/, spin behaves as that of zero-mass particles, helicity being conserved in the presence of interactions. The full eikonal results are rederived for Green's functions, wave functions, etc. The way for computing corrections due to transverse momenta and spin-dependent interactions is outlined. A parallel analysis is made for the infinite-momentum frame, the similarities and differences between this formalism and the eikonal approach being disclosed.

  18. Theoretical studies on energetic materials bearing pentaflurosulphyl (SF5) groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Xiao-Hong; Cui Hong-Ling; Ju Wei-Wei; Li Tong-Wei; Zhang Rui-Zhou; Yong Yong-Liang

    2014-07-01

    Heats of formation (HOF) for a series of energetic materials containing SF5 group were studied by density functional theory. Results show that HOFs increase with the augmention of field effects of substituted groups. Addition of furazan or furoxan ring increases HOF of the energetic materials. All the SF5-containing compounds have densities which are ∼0.19 g/cm3 higher than those containing -NH2 group. S-F bond is the trigger bond for the thermolysis process in the title compounds and bond dissociation energies of the weakest bonds range from 351.1 to 388.3 kJ/mol. Detonation velocities (D) and pressures (P) are evaluated by Kamlet-Jacobs equations with the calculated densities and HOFs. Results show that increasing the amount of furazan rings results in a larger D and P. Considering the detonation performance and thermal stability, eight compounds may be considered as potential candidates for high-energy density materials.

  19. Reading as a Group Process Phenomenon: A Theoretical Framework for Bibliotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a unifying theoretical framework for bibliotherapy, based on C. Shrodes' model of bibliotherapy and I. D. Yalom's research on therapeutic factors in group therapy. Draws research and practice implications for both individual and group therapy. (RS)

  20. Factors influencing interactions in zoos: animal-keeper relationship, animal-public interactions and solitary animals groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions that animals experience can have a significant influence on their health and welfare. These interactions can occur between animals themselves, but also between animals and keepers, and animals and the public. Human and non-human animals come into contact with each other in a variety of settings, and wherever there is contact there is the opportunity for interaction to take place. Interaction with companion animals are well known, but human–animal interaction (HAR (Hosey, 2008 also occurs in the context of farms (Hemsworth and Gonyou, 1997; Hemsworth, 2003, laboratories (Chang and Hart, 2002, zoos (Kreger and Mench, 1995 and even the wild (e.g. Cassini, 2001. This project proposes a permanent monitoring scheme to record animal-human interactions and animal-animal interactions in zoos. This will be accompanied by a survey of animal personality for welfare, husbandry, breeding programs and reintroduction purposes. The pilot project is currently based on direct monitoring of animal behaviour, use of time lapse cameras and animal personality questionnaires completed by experienced keepers. The goal of this project is to create a network between zoos to explore the aforementioned interactions to produce husbandry protocols and explore personality and behavioural traits in multiple species. We present provisional data regarding polar bear (Fasano Zoosafari, Italy, Sumatran tigers, Amur tigers and Asiatic lion (ZSL London and Whipsnade zoo interactions with humans and conspecifics. This data is collected across a broad range of environmental conditions and outlines the monitoring protocols developed to collect this data. The first year data show the great adaptability of these species to ex situ environments, low or absent negative impact of visitors’ presence and the relevance of individual personality in these interactions.

  1. Effect of Vision Angle on the Phase Transition in a Flocking Behavior of Animal Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P The; Ngo, V Thanh

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the phase transition in a system of self-propelling particles has been extensively studied during the last few decades. A theoretical model was proposed by T. Vicsek, et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995)] with a simple rule for updating the direction of motion of each particle. Based on the Vicsek's model (VM) [1], in this work, we consider a group of animals as particles moving freely on a two-dimensional space. Due to the fact that the viewable area of animals depends on the species, we consider the motion of each individual within an angle $\\varphi=\\Phi/2$ ($\\Phi$ is called angle of view) of a circle centered at its position, of radius $R$. We obtained a phase diagram in the space ($\\varphi$, $\\eta_c$) with $\\eta_c$ being the critical noise. We show that, the phase transition exists only in the case of a wide view's angle $\\varphi \\geq 0.5\\pi$. The flocking of animals is perhaps a behavior of the species of prey only, but not the one of the predator. Our simulation results are in good ag...

  2. Theoretical model of ruminant adipose tissue metabolism in relation to the whole animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R L; Yang, Y T; Crist, K; Grichting, G

    1976-09-01

    Based on theoretical considerations and experimental data, estimates of contributions of adipose tissue to energy expenditures in a lactating cow and a growing steer were developed. The estimates indicate that adipose energy expenditures range between 5 and 10% of total animal heat production dependent on productive function and diet. These energy expenditures can be partitioned among maintenance (3%), lipogenesis (1-5%) and lipolysis and triglyceride resynthesis (less thatn 1.0%). Specific sites at which acute and chronic effectors can act to produce changes in adipose function, and changes in adipose function produced by diet and during pregnancy, lactation and aging were discussed with emphasis being placed on the need for additional, definitive studies of specific interactions among pregnancy, diet, age, lactation and growth in producing ruminants.

  3. Smooth interpolation on homogeneous matrix groups for computer animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; HAO Peng-wei

    2006-01-01

    Homogeneous matrices are widely used to represent geometric transformations in computer graphics, with interpolation between those matrices being of high interest for computer animation. Many approaches have been proposed to address this problem, including computing matrix curves from curves in Euclidean space by registration, representing one-parameter curves on manifold by rational representations, changing subdivisional methods generating curves in Euclidean space to corresponding methods working for matrix curve generation, and variational methods. In this paper, we propose a scheme to generate rational one-parameter matrix curves based on exponential map for interpolation, and demonstrate how to obtain higher smoothness from existing curves. We also give an iterative technique for rapid computing of these curves. We take the computation as solving an ordinary differential equation on manifold numerically by a generalized Euler method. Furthermore, we give this algorithm's bound of the error and prove that the bound is proportional to the shift length when the shift length is sufficiently small. Compared to direct computation of the matrix functions, our Euler solution is faster.

  4. Effects of number of animals monitored on representations of cattle group movement characteristics and spatial occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Green, Angela R; Rodríguez, Luis F; Ramirez, Brett C; Shike, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    The number of animals required to represent the collective characteristics of a group remains a concern in animal movement monitoring with GPS. Monitoring a subset of animals from a group instead of all animals can reduce costs and labor; however, incomplete data may cause information losses and inaccuracy in subsequent data analyses. In cattle studies, little work has been conducted to determine the number of cattle within a group needed to be instrumented considering subsequent analyses. Two different groups of cattle (a mixed group of 24 beef cows and heifers, and another group of 8 beef cows) were monitored with GPS collars at 4 min intervals on intensively managed pastures and corn residue fields in 2011. The effects of subset group size on cattle movement characterization and spatial occupancy analysis were evaluated by comparing the results between subset groups and the entire group for a variety of summarization parameters. As expected, more animals yield better results for all parameters. Results show the average group travel speed and daily travel distances are overestimated as subset group size decreases, while the average group radius is underestimated. Accuracy of group centroid locations and group radii are improved linearly as subset group size increases. A kernel density estimation was performed to quantify the spatial occupancy by cattle via GPS location data. Results show animals among the group had high similarity of spatial occupancy. Decisions regarding choosing an appropriate subset group size for monitoring depend on the specific use of data for subsequent analysis: a small subset group may be adequate for identifying areas visited by cattle; larger subset group size (e.g. subset group containing more than 75% of animals) is recommended to achieve better accuracy of group movement characteristics and spatial occupancy for the use of correlating cattle locations with other environmental factors.

  5. Perspective on Models in Theoretical and Practical Traditions of Knowledge: The Example of Otto Engine Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen informants (n = 19) were asked to study and comment two computer animations of the Otto combustion engine. One animation was non-interactive and realistic in the sense of depicting a physical engine. The other animation was more idealised, interactive and synchronised with a dynamic PV-graph. The informants represented practical and…

  6. Review of The Theoretical and Empirical Study on the Interest Conflict Between City Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo; Zeguang; Qian; Fang

    2016-01-01

    The Theoretical and Empirical Study on the Interest Conflict Between City Groups Author:Miao Jianjun Year:2014Publisher:Economy&Management Publishing House ISBN:9787509629482(240 pages,in Chinese)Since the application of the strategy"Rising of Central China,"provinces in China’s central region consecutively released their development

  7. Theoretical considerations on maximum running speeds for large and small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mauricio A

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical equations for fast running speeds are presented and analyzed. One of the equations and its associated model predict that animals tend to experience larger mechanical stresses in their limbs (muscles, tendons and bones) as a result of larger stride lengths, suggesting a structural restriction entailing the existence of an absolute maximum possible stride length. The consequence for big animals is that an increasingly larger body mass implies decreasing maximal speeds, given that the stride frequency generally decreases for increasingly larger animals. Another restriction, acting on small animals, is discussed only in preliminary terms, but it seems safe to assume from previous studies that for a given range of body masses of small animals, those which are bigger are faster. The difference between speed scaling trends for large and small animals implies the existence of a range of intermediate body masses corresponding to the fastest animals.

  8. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  9. The impact of group size on damaging behaviours, aggression, fear and stress in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the impact of group size on damaging behaviours, aggression, fear and stress in farm animals and to identify housing- and management options that can help to reduce problems caused by suboptimal group sizes. Increasing group size was found to increase the risk of

  10. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  11. Social Information on Fear and Food Drives Animal Grouping and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Michael A; Emberts, Zachary; Jones, Harrison; St Mary, Colette M

    2017-03-01

    Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness. We characterized optimal behavior from a set of strategies that included grouping with different numbers of conspecifics or heterospecifics and the option to forage or be vigilant over the course of a day. We show that the use of social information alone increases grouping behavior but constrains group size to limit competition, ultimately increasing individual fitness substantially across various ecological contexts. We also found that across various contexts, foraging in mixed-species groups is generally better than foraging in conspecific groups, supporting recent theory on competition-information quality trade-offs. Our findings suggest that multiple forms of social information shape animal grouping and fitness, which are sensitive to resource availability and predation pressure that determine information usefulness.

  12. Toward a unifying model of identification with groups: integrating theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Sagiv, Lilach; Schwartz, Shalom; Halevy, Nir; Eidelson, Roy

    2008-08-01

    Building on the contributions of diverse theoretical approaches, the authors present a multidimensional model of group identification. Integrating conceptions from the social identity perspective with those from research on individualism-collectivism, nationalism- patriotism, and identification with organizations, we propose four conceptually distinct modes of identification: importance (how much I view the group as part of who I am), commitment (how much I want to benefit the group), superiority (how much I view my group as superior to other groups), and deference (how much I honor, revere, and submit to the group's norms, symbols, and leaders). We present an instrument for assessing the four modes of identification and review initial empirical findings that validate the proposed model and show its utility in understanding antecedents and consequences of identification.

  13. Group theoretical analysis of the H3+ +H2 ↔ H5+ reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    The H3+ +H2 →H2 + H3+ proton transfer reaction is complicated due to the proton scrambling from the large amplitude motions in the H5+ intermediate. In order to understand this reaction, high-resolution spectroscopic studies are necessary for the reactants/products and the intermediate, and the group theoretical analysis is an essential aspect in the prediction and interpretation of these spectra. With five indistinguishable protons, H5+ is characterized using the G240 complete nuclear permutation-inversion (CNPI) group. For most of the configurations sampled by the reaction path, the feasible permutations depend on the distance between the H3+ and H2 fragments. Subgroups of G240 can be used to describe these feasible permutations. Specifically, we consider two limits of the molecular configurations. The equilibrium structure of H5+ , i.e., [H2 -H -H2 ]+, can be described using the G16 molecular symmetry group, while the dissociation products, i.e., H3+ ⋯H2 , require the G24 molecular symmetry group. In the present study, a group theoretical analysis is performed for both limits, providing the symmetries for the nuclear spins and rovibrational wave functions. Also, spectroscopic properties for [H2 -H -H2 ]+, particularly rovibrational couplings and electric dipole selection rules, as well as correlations of energy levels between [H2 -H -H2 ]+ and H3+ ⋯H2 , are obtained.

  14. Motion reconstruction of animal groups: From schooling fish to swarming mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butail, Sachit

    The long-term goal of this research is to provide kinematic data for the design and validation of spatial models of collective behavior in animal groups. The specific research objective of this dissertation is to apply methods from nonlinear estimation and computer vision to construct multi-target tracking systems that process multi-view calibrated video to reconstruct the three-dimensional movement of animals in a group. We adapt the tracking systems for the study of two animal species: Danio aequipinnatus, a common species of schooling fish, and Anopheles gambiae, the most important vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Together these tracking systems span variability in target size on image, density, and movement. For tracking fish, we automatically initialize, predict, and reconstruct shape trajectories of multiple fish through occlusions. For mosquitoes, which appear as faded streaks on in-field footage, we provide methods to extract velocity information from the streaks, adaptively seek missing measurements, and resolve occlusions within a multi-hypothesis framework. In each case the research has yielded an unprecedented volume of trajectory data for subsequent analysis. We present kinematic data of fast-start response in fish schools and first-ever trajectories of wild mosquito swarming and mating events. The broader impact of this work is to advance the understanding of animal groups for the design of bio-inspired robotic systems, where, similar to the animal groups we study, the collective is able to perform tasks far beyond the capabilities of a single inexpensive robot.

  15. Group-theoretic insights on the vibration of symmetric structures in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingoni, Alphose

    2014-02-13

    Group theory has been used to study various problems in physics and chemistry for many years. Relatively recently, applications have emerged in engineering, where problems of the vibration, bifurcation and stability of systems exhibiting symmetry have been studied. From an engineering perspective, the main attraction of group-theoretic methods has been their potential to reduce computational effort in the analysis of large-scale problems. In this paper, we focus on vibration problems in structural mechanics and reveal some of the insights and qualitative benefits that group theory affords. These include an appreciation of all the possible symmetries of modes of vibration, the prediction of the number of modes of a given symmetry type, the identification of modes associated with the same frequencies, the prediction of nodal lines and stationary points of a vibrating system, and the untangling of clustered frequencies.

  16. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-12-15

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data.

  17. Group theoretical interpretation of the modified gravity in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A frame work has been presented for theoretical interpretation of various modified gravitational models which is based on the group theoretical approach and unitary irreducible representations (UIR's) of de Sitter (dS) group. In order to illustrate the application of the proposed method, a model of modified gravity has been investigated. The background field method has been utilized and the linearized modified gravitational field equation has been obtained in the 4-dimensional dS space-time as the background. The field equation has been written as the eigne-value equation of the Casimir operators of dS space using the flat 5-dimensional ambient space notations. The Minkowskian correspondence of the theory has been obtained by taking the zero curvature limit. It has been shown that under some simple conditions, the linearized modified field equation transforms according to two of the UIR's of dS group labeled by $\\Pi^\\pm_{2,1}$ and $\\Pi^\\pm_{2,2}$ in the discrete series. It means that the proposed modified gra...

  18. Theoretical study on modulating group velocity of light in photonic crystal coupled cavity optical waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying; HUANG Xiao-hui; FU Xiang-yong; CHU Dan-ping; Jian-quan

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel mechanism,which is formed by periodically changing the radii of dielectric rods in the middle row of a photonic crystal,to control and stop light.Using the Bloch theory and coupled-mode theory,the dispersion characteristic of such a photonic crystal coupled cavity optical waveguide is obtained.We also theoretically demonstrate that the group velocity of a light pulse in this system can be modulated by dynamically changing the refractive index or radii of the selected dielectric rods,and the light stopping can be achieved.

  19. Communication and Collective Consensus Making in Animal Groups via Mechanical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várkonyi, Péter L.

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical constraints have a strong influence on the dynamics and structure of granular aggregations. The contact forces within dense suspensions of active particles may give rise to intriguing phenomena, including anomalous density fluctuations, long-range orientational ordering, and spontaneous pattern formation. Various authors have proposed that these physical phenomena contribute to the ability of animal groups to move coherently. Our systematic numerical simulations confirm that spontaneous interactions of elongated individuals can trigger oriented motion in small groups. They are, however, insufficient in larger ones, despite their significant imprint on the group's internal structure. It is also demonstrated that preferred directions of motion of a minority of group members can be communicated to others solely by mechanical interactions. These findings strengthen the link between pattern formation in active nematics and the collective decision making of social animals.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  1. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-03-26

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals.

  2. A cladistic analysis of Aristotle's animal groups in the Historia animalium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lieven, Alexander Fürst; Humar, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The Historia animalium (HA) of Aristotle contains an extraordinarily rich compilation of descriptions of animal anatomy, development, and behaviour. It is believed that Aristotle's aim in HA was to describe the correlations of characters rather than to classify or define animal groups. In order to assess if Aristotle, while organising his character correlations, referred to a pre-existing classification that underlies the descriptions in HA, we carried out a cladistic analysis according to the following procedure: by disentangeling 147 species and 40 higher taxa-designations from 157 predicates in the texts, we transcribed Aristotle's descriptions on anatomy and development of animals in books I-V of HA into a character matrix for a cladistic analysis. By analysing the distribution of characters as described in his books, we obtained a non-phylogenetic dendrogram displaying 58 monophyletic groups, 29 of which have equivalents among Aristotle's group designations. Eleven Aristotelian groupings turned out to be non-monophyletic, and six of them are inconsistent with the monophyletic groups. Twelve of 29 taxa without equivalents in Aristotle's works have equivalents in modern classifications. With this analysis we demonstate there exists a fairly consistent underlying classification in the zoological works of Aristotle. The peculiarities of Aristotle's character basis are discussed and the dendrogram is compared with a current phylogenetic tree.

  3. Electrophysiology for biomedical engineering students: a practical and theoretical course in animal electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Ana L; Farfán, Fernando D; Coletti, Marcos A; Teruya, Pablo Y; Felice, Carmelo J

    2016-09-01

    The major challenge in laboratory teaching is the application of abstract concepts in simple and direct practical lessons. However, students rarely have the opportunity to participate in a laboratory that combines practical learning with a realistic research experience. In the Biomedical Engineering career, we offer short and optional courses to complement studies for students as they initiate their Graduation Project. The objective of these theoretical and practical courses is to introduce students to the topics of their projects. The present work describes an experience in electrophysiology to teach undergraduate students how to extract cortical information using electrocorticographic techniques. Students actively participate in some parts of the experience and then process and analyze the data obtained with different signal processing tools. In postlaboratory evaluations, students described the course as an exceptional opportunity for students interested in following a postgraduate science program and fully appreciated their contents.

  4. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  5. To eat and not be eaten: modelling resources and safety in multi-species animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey-prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time.

  6. Quantum Electrodynamical Density-matrix Functional Theory and Group-theoretical Consideration of its Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsaku, T; Yamaki, D; Yamaguchi, K

    2002-01-01

    For studying the group theoretical classification of the solutions of the density functional theory in relativistic framework, we propose quantum electrodynamical density-matrix functional theory (QED-DMFT). QED-DMFT gives the energy as a functional of a local one-body $4\\times4$ matrix $Q(x)\\equiv -$, where $\\psi$ and $\\bar{\\psi}$ are 4-component Dirac field and its Dirac conjugate, respectively. We examine some characters of QED-DMFT. After these preparations, by using Q(x), we classify the solutions of QED-DMFT under O(3) rotation, time reversal and spatial inversion. The behavior of Q(x) under nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits are also presented. Finally, we give plans for several extensions and applications of QED-DMFT.

  7. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  8. Thermochemical properties and contribution groups for ketene dimers and related structures from theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Giovanni; Martínez, Ramiro

    2009-07-30

    This research's main goals were to analyze ketene dimers' relative stability and expand group additivity value (GAV) methodology for estimating the thermochemical properties of high-weight ketene polymers (up to tetramers). The CBS-Q multilevel procedure and statistical thermodynamics were used for calculating the thermochemical properties of 20 cyclic structures, such as diketenes, cyclobutane-1,3-diones, cyclobut-2-enones and pyran-4-ones, as well as 57 acyclic base compounds organized into five groups. According to theoretical heat of formation predictions, diketene was found to be thermodynamically favored over cyclobutane-1,3-dione and its enol-tautomeric form (3-hydroxycyclobut-2-enone). This result did not agree with old combustion experiments. 3-Hydroxycyclobut-2-enone was found to be the least stable dimer and its reported experimental detection in solution may have been due to solvent effects. Substituted diketenes had lower stability than substituted cyclobutane-1,3-diones with an increased number of methyl substituents, suggesting that cyclobutane-1,3-dione type dimers are the major products because of thermodynamic control of alkylketene dimerization. Missing GAVs for the ketene dimers and related structures were calculated through linear regression on the 57 acyclic base compounds. Corrections for non next neighbor interactions (such as gauche, eclipses, and internal hydrogen bond) were needed for obtaining a highly accurate and precise regression model. To the best of our knowledge, the hydrogen bond correction for GAV methodology is the first reported in the literature; this correction was correlated to MP2/6-31Gdagger and HF/6-31Gdagger derived geometries to facilitate its application. GAVs assessed by the linear regression model were able to reproduce acyclic compounds' theoretical thermochemical properties and experimental heat of formation for acetylacetone. Ring formation and substituent position corrections were calculated by consecutively

  9. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  10. New strings for old Veneziano amplitudes. II. Group-theoretic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodenko, A. L.

    2006-09-01

    In this part of our four parts work we use theory of polynomial invariants of finite pseudo-reflection groups in order to reconstruct both the Veneziano and Veneziano-like (tachyon-free) amplitudes and the generating function reproducing these amplitudes. We demonstrate that such generating function and amplitudes associated with it can be recovered with help of finite dimensional exactly solvableN=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model known earlier from works of Witten, Stone and others. Using the Lefschetz isomorphism theorem we replace traditional supersymmetric calculations by the group-theoretic thus solving the Veneziano model exactly using standard methods of representation theory. Mathematical correctness of our arguments relies on important theorems by Shepard and Todd, Serre and Solomon proven respectively in the early 50s and 60s and documented in the monograph by Bourbaki. Based on these theorems, we explain why the developed formalism leaves all known results of conformal field theories unchanged. We also explain why these theorems impose stringent requirements connecting analytical properties of scattering amplitudes with symmetries of space-time in which such amplitudes act.

  11. Friends with benefits: the role of huddling in mixed groups of torpid and normothermic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-02-01

    Huddling and torpor are widely used for minimizing heat loss by mammals. Despite the questionable energetic benefits from social heterothermy of mixed groups of warm normothermic and cold torpid individuals, the heterothermic Australian sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) rests in such groups during the cold season. To unravel why they might do so, we examined torpor expression of two sugar glider groups of four individuals each in outside enclosures during winter. We observed 79 torpor bouts during 50 days of observation and found that torpor bouts were longer and deeper when all individuals of a group entered torpor together, and therefore infer that they would have saved more energy in comparison to short and shallow solitary torpor bouts. However, all gliders of either group only expressed torpor uniformly in response to food restriction, whereas on most occasions at least one individual per group remained normothermic. Nevertheless, the presence of warm gliders in mixed groups also appears to be of energetic advantage for torpid individuals, because nest box temperature was negatively correlated with the number of torpid gliders, and normothermic individuals kept the nest temperature at a value closer to the threshold for thermoregulatory heat production during torpor. Our study suggests that mixed groups of torpid and normothermic individuals are observed when environmental conditions are adverse but food is available, leading to intermediate energy savings from torpor. However, under especially challenging conditions and when animals are starving, energy savings are maximized by uniform and pronounced expression of torpor.

  12. ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN CASE OF POLYTRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Pidruchna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background.  Associated injury is a worldwide social and economic problem. Age related aspects of endogenous intoxication are not studied comprehensively. Annually, from 44 000 to 65 000 citizens die because of traumatic injuries. As a result, this number increased by 32.6% for the last 10 years.     The detoxification system, as a component of the functional systems of the organism, experiences significant changes in case of polytrauma. Objective. The study was aimed to discover pathogenetic peculiarities of the multiple trauma in age aspect in different disease periods and to explore the level of endogenous intoxication in this condition. Methods. The experiments were performed on 72 white male rats aged 3, 6 and 12 months, which underwent simulation of severe skeletal trauma and examination of the contents of middle mass molecules and endogenous intoxication index (markers of endogenous intoxication in 1, 4 and 24 hours after the associated injury. Results. The most significant increase of the middle mass molecules was fixed in 24 hours after modeling of severe skeletal injuries in all groups of animals, especially it was the most pronounced in 12-month-old animals. The erythrocyte intoxication index reached the highest level in 4 hours after the injury, its increase was most significant in sexually mature adult animals. Conclusion. A significant increasing of endogenous intoxication markers in 12-month-old rats, if compared to 3- and 6-month-old animals, can be caused by the decrease in compensatory protection mechanisms.

  13. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  14. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  15. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  16. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H

    2010-12-23

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  17. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  18. Engagement in elderly persons with dementia attending animal-assisted group activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-09-02

    The need for meaningful activities that enhance engagement is very important among persons with dementia (PWDs), both for PWDs still living at home, as well as for PWDs admitted to a nursing home (NH). In this study, we systematically registered behaviours related to engagement in a group animal-assisted activity (AAA) intervention for 21 PWDs in NHs and among 28 home-dwelling PWDs attending a day care centre. The participants interacted with a dog and its handler for 30 minutes, twice a week for 12 weeks. Video-recordings were carried out early (week 2) and late (week 10) during the intervention period and behaviours were categorized by the use of an ethogram. AAA seems to create engagement in PWDs, and might be a suitable and health promoting intervention for both NH residents and participants of a day care centre. Degree of dementia should be considered when planning individual or group based AAA.

  19. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Richard P; Perna, Andrea; Strömbom, Daniel; Garnett, Roman; Herbert-Read, James E; Sumpter, David J T; Ward, Ashley J W

    2012-01-01

    Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis). We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  20. Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using Bayesian model selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inference of interaction rules of animals moving in groups usually relies on an analysis of large scale system behaviour. Models are tuned through repeated simulation until they match the observed behaviour. More recent work has used the fine scale motions of animals to validate and fit the rules of interaction of animals in groups. Here, we use a Bayesian methodology to compare a variety of models to the collective motion of glass prawns (Paratya australiensis. We show that these exhibit a stereotypical 'phase transition', whereby an increase in density leads to the onset of collective motion in one direction. We fit models to this data, which range from: a mean-field model where all prawns interact globally; to a spatial Markovian model where prawns are self-propelled particles influenced only by the current positions and directions of their neighbours; up to non-Markovian models where prawns have 'memory' of previous interactions, integrating their experiences over time when deciding to change behaviour. We show that the mean-field model fits the large scale behaviour of the system, but does not capture fine scale rules of interaction, which are primarily mediated by physical contact. Conversely, the Markovian self-propelled particle model captures the fine scale rules of interaction but fails to reproduce global dynamics. The most sophisticated model, the non-Markovian model, provides a good match to the data at both the fine scale and in terms of reproducing global dynamics. We conclude that prawns' movements are influenced by not just the current direction of nearby conspecifics, but also those encountered in the recent past. Given the simplicity of prawns as a study system our research suggests that self-propelled particle models of collective motion should, if they are to be realistic at multiple biological scales, include memory of previous interactions and other non-Markovian effects.

  1. Overcoming the loss of blue sensitivity through opsin duplication in the largest animal group, beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Camilla R; Fujimoto, M Stanley; Lord, Nathan P; Shin, Seunggwan; McKenna, Duane D; Suvorov, Anton; Martin, Gavin J; Bybee, Seth M

    2017-12-01

    Opsin proteins are fundamental components of animal vision whose structure largely determines the sensitivity of visual pigments to different wavelengths of light. Surprisingly little is known about opsin evolution in beetles, even though they are the most species rich animal group on Earth and exhibit considerable variation in visual system sensitivities. We reveal the patterns of opsin evolution across 62 beetle species and relatives. Our results show that the major insect opsin class (SW) that typically confers sensitivity to "blue" wavelengths was lost ~300 million years ago, before the origin of modern beetles. We propose that UV and LW opsin gene duplications have restored the potential for trichromacy (three separate channels for colour vision) in beetles up to 12 times and more specifically, duplications within the UV opsin class have likely led to the restoration of "blue" sensitivity up to 10 times. This finding reveals unexpected plasticity within the insect visual system and highlights its remarkable ability to evolve and adapt to the available light and visual cues present in the environment.

  2. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William; Nemec, Alexandr

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171(T) and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171(T) ( = CIP 110486(T) = CCUG 26390(T) = CCM 8555(T)).

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriniere, Romain; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Guyot, Karine; Li, Luen-Luen; Monchy, Sébastien; Noël, Christophe; Poirier, Philippe; Nourrisson, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Bosc, Stéphanie; Chabé, Magali; Petit, Thierry; Certad, Gabriela; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs) have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human populations. PMID

  4. Revealing the hidden networks of interaction in mobile animal groups allows prediction of complex behavioral contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sara Brin; Twomey, Colin R; Hartnett, Andrew T; Wu, Hai Shan; Couzin, Iain D

    2015-04-14

    Coordination among social animals requires rapid and efficient transfer of information among individuals, which may depend crucially on the underlying structure of the communication network. Establishing the decision-making circuits and networks that give rise to individual behavior has been a central goal of neuroscience. However, the analogous problem of determining the structure of the communication network among organisms that gives rise to coordinated collective behavior, such as is exhibited by schooling fish and flocking birds, has remained almost entirely neglected. Here, we study collective evasion maneuvers, manifested through rapid waves, or cascades, of behavioral change (a ubiquitous behavior among taxa) in schooling fish (Notemigonus crysoleucas). We automatically track the positions and body postures, calculate visual fields of all individuals in schools of ∼150 fish, and determine the functional mapping between socially generated sensory input and motor response during collective evasion. We find that individuals use simple, robust measures to assess behavioral changes in neighbors, and that the resulting networks by which behavior propagates throughout groups are complex, being weighted, directed, and heterogeneous. By studying these interaction networks, we reveal the (complex, fractional) nature of social contagion and establish that individuals with relatively few, but strongly connected, neighbors are both most socially influential and most susceptible to social influence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can predict complex cascades of behavioral change at their moment of initiation, before they actually occur. Consequently, despite the intrinsic stochasticity of individual behavior, establishing the hidden communication networks in large self-organized groups facilitates a quantitative understanding of behavioral contagion.

  5. Insertion of Group 12-16 Hydrides into NHCs: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Kalon J; Dutton, Jason L; Wilson, David

    2017-03-06

    The endocyclic ring expansion of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) rings by transition metal (Group 12) and main group (Group 13-16) element hydrides has been investigated in a computational study. In addition to previously reported insertion reactivity with Si, B, Be and Zn, similar reactivity is predicted to be feasible for heavier group 13 elements (Al, Ga, In, Tl), with the reaction barriers for Al-Tl calculated to be lower than for boron. Insertion is not expected with group 15-16 element hydrides, as the initial adduct formation is thermodynamically unfavourable. The reaction pathway with group 12 hydrides is calculated to be more favourable with two NHCs rather than a single NHC (analogous to Be), however hydride ring insertion with metal dihydrides is not feasible, but rather a reduced NHC is thermodynamically favoured. For group 14, ring-insertion reactivity is predicted to be feasible with the heavier dihydrides. Trends in reactivity of element hydrides may be related to the protic or hydridic character of the element hydrides.

  6. Theoretical insights on the interaction of uranium with amidoxime and carboxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wu, Qun-Yan; Luo, Qiong; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xiang-Ke; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-09-15

    Recovery of uranium from seawater is extremely challenging but important for the persistent development of nuclear energy, and thus exploring the coordination structures and bonding nature of uranyl complexes becomes essential for designing highly efficient uranium adsorbents. In this work, the interactions of uranium and a series of adsorbents with various well-known functional groups including amidoximate (AO(-)), carboxyl (Ac(-)), glutarimidedioximate (HA(-)), and bifunctional AO(-)/Ac(-), HA(-)/Ac(-) on different alkyl chains (R'═CH3, R″═C13H26) were systematically studied by quantum chemical calculations. For all the uranyl complexes, the monodentate and η(2) coordination are the main binding modes for the AO(-) groups, while Ac(-) groups act as monodentate and bidentate ligands. Amidoximes can also form cyclic imide dioximes (H2A), which coordinate to UO2(2+) as tridentate ligands. Kinetic analysis of the model displacement reaction confirms the rate-determining step in the extraction process, that is, the complexing of uranyl by amidoxime group coupled with the dissociation of the carbonate group from the uranyl tricarbonate complex [UO2(CO3)3](4-). Complexing species with AO(-) groups show higher binding energies than the analogues with Ac(-) groups. However, the obtained uranyl complexes with Ac(-) seem to be more favorable according to reactions with [UO2(CO3)3](4-) as reactant, which may be due to the higher stability of HAO compared to HAc. This is also the reason that species with mixed functional group AO(-)/Ac(-) are more stable than those with monoligand. Thus, as reported in the literature, the adsorbability of uranium can be improved by the synergistic effects of amidoxime and carboxyl groups.

  7. A Group Theoretic Approach to Metaheuristic Local Search for Partitioning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Processes. Applied Mathematical Letters 18: 287-292. Fraleigh , John B. 1976. A First Course in Abstract Algebra. Addison-Wesley, Reading MA. Garfinkel, R... Fraleigh (1976) or Herstein (1975). Colletti (1999) provides a robust treatment of group theory from the perspective of metaheuristics. Section 2.2...operation ( Fraleigh 1976, Herstein 1975). 4 2.1.2 Subgroups Let G be a group with H c G. If H is also a group under the operation G of G, H is a subgroup of

  8. Dimetallaheteroborane clusters containing group 16 elements: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Kumarvarma Chakrahari; Rongala Ramalakshmi; Dudekula Sharmila; Sundargopal Ghosh

    2014-09-01

    Recently we described the synthesis and structural characterization of various dimetallaherteroborane clusters, namely nido-[(Cp∗Mo)2B4EClH6−], 1-3; (1: E = S, x = 0; 2: E = Se, x = 0; 3: E = Te, x = 1). A combined theoretical and experimental study was also performed, which demonstrated that the clusters 1-3 with their open face are excellent precursors for cluster growth reaction. In this investigation process on the reactivity of dimetallaheteroboranes with metal carbonyls, in addition to [(Cp∗Mo)2B4H6EFe(CO)3] (4: E = S, 6: E = Te) reported earlier, reaction of 2 with [Fe2(CO)9] yielded mixed-metallaselenaborane [(Cp∗Mo)2B4H6SeFe(CO)3], 5 in good yield. The quantum chemical calculation using DFT method has been carried out to probe the bonding, NMR chemical shifts and electronic properties of dimolybdaheteroborane clusters 4-6.

  9. Reference group theory with implications for information studies: a theoretical essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Murell Dawson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role and implications of reference group theory in relation to the field of library and information science. Reference group theory is based upon the principle that people take the standards of significant others as a basis for making self-appraisals, comparisons, and choices regarding need and use of information. Research that applies concepts of reference group theory to various sectors of library and information studies can provide data useful in enhancing areas such as information-seeking research, special populations, and uses of information. Implications are promising that knowledge gained from like research can be beneficial in helping information professionals better understand the role theory plays in examining ways in which people manage their information and social worlds.

  10. Phylogenetic groups and cephalosporin resistance genes of Escherichia coli from diseased food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa Manao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 318 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from different food-producing animals affected with colibacillosis between 2001 and 2006 were subjected to phylogenetic analysis: 72 bovine isolates, 89 poultry isolates and 157 porcine isolates. Overall, the phylogenetic group A was predominant in isolates from cattle (36/72, 50% and pigs (101/157, 64.3% whereas groups A (44/89, 49.4% and D (40/89, 44.9% were predominant in isolates from poultry. In addition, group B2 was not found among diseased food-producing animals except for a poultry isolate. Thus, the phylogenetic group distribution of E. coli from diseased animals was different by animal species. Among the 318 isolates, cefazolin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations: ≥32 μg/ml was found in six bovine isolates, 29 poultry isolates and three porcine isolates. Of them, 11 isolates (nine from poultry and two from cattle produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. The two bovine isolates produced blaCTX-M-2, while the nine poultry isolates produced blaCTX-M-25 (4, blaSHV-2 (3, blaCTX-M-15 (1 and blaCTX-M-2 (1. Thus, our results showed that several types of ESBL were identified and three types of β-lactamase (SHV-2, CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-15 were observed for the first time in E. coli from diseased animals in Japan.

  11. Phylogenetic groups and cephalosporin resistance genes of Escherichia coli from diseased food-producing animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tetsuo; Masani, Kaori; Sato, Chizuru; Hiki, Mototaka; Usui, Masaru; Baba, Kotaro; Ozawa, Manao; Harada, Kazuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Sawada, Takuo

    2011-10-12

    A total of 318 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from different food-producing animals affected with colibacillosis between 2001 and 2006 were subjected to phylogenetic analysis: 72 bovine isolates, 89 poultry isolates and 157 porcine isolates. Overall, the phylogenetic group A was predominant in isolates from cattle (36/72, 50%) and pigs (101/157, 64.3%) whereas groups A (44/89, 49.4%) and D (40/89, 44.9%) were predominant in isolates from poultry. In addition, group B2 was not found among diseased food-producing animals except for a poultry isolate. Thus, the phylogenetic group distribution of E. coli from diseased animals was different by animal species. Among the 318 isolates, cefazolin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations: ≥32 μg/ml) was found in six bovine isolates, 29 poultry isolates and three porcine isolates. Of them, 11 isolates (nine from poultry and two from cattle) produced extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). The two bovine isolates produced bla(CTX-M-2), while the nine poultry isolates produced bla(CTX-M-25) (4), bla(SHV-2) (3), bla(CTX-M-15) (1) and bla(CTX-M-2) (1). Thus, our results showed that several types of ESBL were identified and three types of β-lactamase (SHV-2, CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-15) were observed for the first time in E. coli from diseased animals in Japan.

  12. σ-Aromaticity in hexa-group 16 atom-substituted benzene dications: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Miho; Saito, Masaichi; Fujita, Masahiro; Morokuma, Keiji

    2014-03-21

    C6I6(2+) has been reported to have a σ-aromatic character since removal of two σ anti-bonding electrons localized on iodines results in fulfilling Hückel (4n+2) rules for I6(2+) as well as C6 parts. To search for molecules possessing similar character, hexa-group 16 atom-substituted benzene dications C6(ChH)6(2+) (Ch = S, Se, Te) and their derivatives are examined for aromatic character by using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS). For these dications, in which iodines in C6I6(2+) are replaced by group 16 atoms, negative NICS values larger in magnitude than for benzene are found when a σ anti-bonding orbital localized on group 16 atoms is unoccupied. To clarify the origin of large negative NICS values, they are decomposed into individual molecular orbitals. It has been shown that both π bonding orbitals on C6 and σ bonding orbitals on Se6 or Te6 contribute to the negative NICS values, indicating that the aromaticity of these dications have a substantial σ character as well as π characters. Aromaticity of group 14 and 15 atom-substituted benzene dications is also discussed.

  13. A group-theoretical notation for disease states: an example using the psychiatric rating scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawamura Jitsuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While many branches of natural science have embraced group theory reaping enormous advantages for their respective fields, clinical medicine lacks to date such applications. Here we intend to explain a prototypal model based on the postulates of groups that could have potential in categorizing clinical states. Method As an example, we begin by modifying the original ‘Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale’ (BPRS, the most frequently used standards for evaluating the psychopathology of patients with schizophrenia. We consider a presumptively idealized (virtually standardized BPRS (denoted BPRS-I with assessments ranging from ‘0’ to ‘6’ to simplify our discussion. Next, we introduce the modulo group Z7 containing elements {0,1,2,…,6} defined by composition rule, ‘modulo 7 addition’, denoted by *. Each element corresponds to a score resulting from grading a symptom under the BPRS-I assessment. By grading all symptoms associated with the illness, a Cartesian product, denoted Aj, constitutes a summary of a patient assessment. By considering operations denoted A(j→k that change state Aj into state Ak, a group M (that itself contains Aj and Ak as elements is also considered. Furthermore, composition of these operations obey modulo 7 arithmetic (i.e., addition, multiplication, and division. We demonstrate the application with a simple example in the form of a series of states (A4 = A1*A(1→2*A(2→3*A(3→4 to illustrate this result. Results The psychiatric disease states are defined as 18-fold Cartesian products of Z7, i.e., Z7×18 = Z7×…×Z7 (18 times. We can construct set G ≡ {a(mi| m = 1,2,3,…(the patient’s history of the i-th symptom} and M ≡ {Am | Am ∈ Z7×18 (the set of all possible assessments of a patient} simplistically, at least, in terms of modulo 7 addition that satisfies the group postulates. Conclusions Despite the large limitations of our methodology, there are grounds not

  14. The Empirical Measurement of a Theoretical Concept: Tracing Social Exclusion among Racial Minority and Migrant Groups in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luann Good Gingrich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an in-depth description and case application of a conceptual model of social exclusion: aiming to advance existing knowledge on how to conceive of and identify this complex idea, evaluate the methodologies used to measure it, and reconsider what is understood about its social realities toward a meaningful and measurable conception of social inclusion. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s conceptual tools of social fields and systems of capital, our research posits and applies a theoretical framework that permits the measurement of social exclusion as dynamic, social, relational, and material. We begin with a brief review of existing social exclusion research literature, and specifically examine the difficulties and benefits inherent in quantitatively operationalizing a necessarily multifarious theoretical concept. We then introduce our conceptual model of social exclusion and inclusion, which is built on measurable constructs. Using our ongoing program of research as a case study, we briefly present our approach to the quantitative operationalization of social exclusion using secondary data analysis in the Canadian context. Through the development of an Economic Exclusion Index, we demonstrate how our statistical and theoretical analyses evidence intersecting processes of social exclusion which produce consequential gaps and uneven trajectories for migrant individuals and groups compared with Canadian-born, and racial minority groups versus white individuals. To conclude, we consider some methodological implications to advance the empirical measurement of social inclusion.

  15. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with

  16. Group theoretic structures in the estimation of an unknown unitary transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiribella, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a series of general results about the optimal estimation of physical transformations in a given symmetry group. In particular, it is shown how the different symmetries of the problem determine different properties of the optimal estimation strategy. The paper also contains a discussion about the role of entanglement between the representation and multiplicity spaces and about the optimality of square-root measurements.

  17. Swarm intelligence in fish? The difficulty in demonstrating distributed and self-organised collective intelligence in (some) animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos C

    2016-10-11

    Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent collective intelligence has gained in popularity and been directly applied to groups of other animals, including fish. Despite being a likely mechanism at least partially explaining group performance in vertebrates, I argue here that other possible explanations are rarely ruled out in empirical studies. Hence, evidence for self-organised collective (or 'swarm') intelligence in fish is not as strong as it would first appear. These other explanations, the 'pool-of-competence' and the greater cognitive ability of individuals when in larger groups, are also reviewed. Also discussed is why improved group performance in general may be less often observed in animals such as shoaling fish compared to social insects. This review intends to highlight the difficulties in exploring collective intelligence in animal groups, ideally leading to further empirical work to illuminate these issues.

  18. New strings for old Veneziano amplitudes II Group-theoretic treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Kholodenko, A L

    2004-01-01

    In this part of our four parts work (e.g see Part I, hep-th/04102242) we use the theory of polynomial invariants of finite pseudo-reflection groups in order to reconstruct both the Veneziano and Veneziano-like (tachyon-free) amplitudes and the generating function producing these amplitudes. We demonstrate that such generating function can be produced with help of the finite dimensional quantum mechanical supersymmetric model (to be further discussed in Part III). Mathematical correctness of our arguments relies on important theorems by Shepard and Todd, Serre and Solomon documented in one of the monographs by Bourbaki. Based on these theorems, we explain why the developed new formalism leaves all earlier known results of conformal field theories unchanged. We also explain why these theorems impose very stringent requirements connecting the analytical form of the scattering amplitudes with the local symmetries of space-time in which such amplitudes act.

  19. Lead-chromium carbonyl complexes incorporated with group 8 metals: synthesis, reactivity, and theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Minghuey; Chu, Yen-Yi; Hsu, Miao-Hsing; Ke, Wei-Ming; Lin, Chien-Nan

    2011-01-17

    The trichromium-lead complex [Pb{Cr(CO)5}3](2-) (1) was isolated from the reaction of PbCl2 and Cr(CO)6 in a KOH/MeOH solution, and the new mixed chromium-iron-lead complex [Pb{Cr(CO)5}{Fe(CO)4}2](2-) (3) was synthesized from the reaction of PbCl2 and Cr(CO)6 in a KOH/MeOH solution followed by the addition of Fe(CO)5. X-ray crystallography showed that 3 consisted of a central Pb atom bound in a trigonal-planar environment to two Fe(CO)4 and one Cr(CO)5 fragments. When complex 1 reacted with 1.5 equiv of Mn(CO)5Br, the Cr(CO)4-bridged dimeric lead-chromium carbonyl complex [Pb2Br2Cr4(CO)18](2-) (4) was produced. However, a similar reaction of 3 or the isostructural triiron-lead complex [Pb{Fe(CO)4}3](2-) (2) with Mn(CO)5Br in MeCN led to the formation of the Fe3Pb2-based trigonal-bipyramidal complexes [Fe3(CO)9{PbCr(CO)5}2](2-) (6) and [Fe3(CO)9{PbFe(CO)4}2](2-) (5), respectively. On the other hand, the Ru3Pb2-based trigonal-bipyramidal complex [Ru3(CO)9{PbCr(CO)5}2](2-) (7) was obtained directly from the reaction of PbCl2, Cr(CO)6, and Ru3(CO)12 in a KOH/MeOH solution. X-ray crystallography showed that 5 and 6 each had an Fe3Pb2 trigonal-bipyramidal core geometry, with three Fe(CO)3 groups occupying the equatorial positions and two PbFe(CO)4 or PbCr(CO)5 units in the axial positions, while 7 displayed a Ru3Pb2 trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with three equatorial Ru(CO)3 groups and two axial PbCr(CO)5 units. The complexes 3-7 were characterized spectroscopically, and their nature, formation, and electrochemistry were further examined by molecular orbital calculations at the B3LYP level of density functional theory.

  20. Analytic, group-theoretic wave functions for confined, correlated N-body systems with general two-body interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M.; Watson, D. K.; Loeser, J. G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an analytic N-body wave function for identical particles under quantum confinement with a general two-body interaction. A systematic approach to correlation is developed by combining three theoretical methods: dimensional perturbation theory, the FG method of Wilson et. al., and the group theory of the symmetric group. Analytic results are achieved for a completely general interaction potential. Unlike conventional perturbation methods which are applicable only for weakly interacting systems, this analytic approach is applicable to both weakly and strongly interacting systems. This method directly accounts for each two-body interaction, rather than an average interaction so even lowest-order results include beyond-mean-field effects. One major advantage is that N appears as a parameter in the analytical expressions for the energy so results for different N are easy to obtain.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of a Self-Replicator With Reduced Template Inhibition Based on an Informational Leaving Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigan, Erwan; Mattelaer, Henri-Philippe; Herdewijn, Piet

    2016-03-01

    The first non-enzymatic self-replicating systems, as proposed by von Kiedrowski (Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 25(10):932-935, 1986) and Orgel (Nature 327(6120):346-347, 1987), gave rise to the analytical background still used today to describe artificial replicators. What separates a self-replicating from an autocatalytic system is the ability to pass on structural information (Orgel, Nature 358(6383):203-209, 1992). Utilising molecular information, nucleic acids were the first choice as prototypical examples. But early self-replicators showed parabolic over exponential growth due to the strongly bound template duplex after template-directed ligation of substrates. We propose a self-replicating scheme with a weakly bound template duplex, using an informational leaving group. Such a scheme is inspired by the role of tRNA as leaving group and information carrier during protein synthesis, and is based on our previous experience with nucleotide chemistry. We analyse theoretically this scheme and compare it to the classical minimal replicator model. We show that for an example hexanucleotide template mirroring that is used by von Kiedrowski (Bioorganic chemistry frontiers, 1993) for the analysis of the classical minimal replicator, the proposed scheme is expected to result in higher template self-replication rate. The proposed self-replicating scheme based on an informational leaving group is expected to outperform the classical minimal replicator because of a weaker template duplex bonding, resulting in reduced template inhibition.

  2. Group Theoretical Analysis of Vibrational Modes, Rovibronic Levels and Nuclear Spin Statistics of extended aromatic C48N12 Azafullerene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, K

    2004-03-17

    We have presented a group theoretical analysis of the vibrational modes and rovibronic levels of a novel extended aromatic C{sub 48}N{sub 12} azafullerene. The nuclear spin multiplets and statistical weights of {sup 14}N spin-1 bosons, vibrational and rotational analysis and computed vibrational spectra are provided. We have also predicted the properties of the {sup 3}A{sub u}, {sup 3}E{sub g}, and {sup 3}E{sub u} excited states of C{sub 48}N{sub 12} that lie 1.9 eV above the {sup 1}A{sub g} ground state, and that the {sup 3}E{sub g} and {sup 3}E{sub u} states would undergo Jahn-Teller distortion into chiral structures with no symmetry and an achiral structure with C{sub i} symmetry.

  3. Theoretical study of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane and β-hexachlorocyclohexane isomers interaction with surface groups of activated carbon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Durimel, Axelle; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises

    2014-06-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is employed in drinking water purification without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanism of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) onto it. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is an organochlorinated contaminant present in water and soils of banana crops production zones of the Caribbean. The most relevant isomers of HCH are γ-HCH and β-HCH, both with great environmental persistence. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on HCH adsorption is done in order to help to understand the process and may lead to improve the AC selection process. A simplified AC model consisting of naphthalene with a functional group was used to assess the influence of SGs over the adsorption process. The Multiple Minima Hypersurface (MMH) methodology was employed to study γ-HCH and β-HCH interactions with different AC SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) under different hydration and pH conditions. The results obtained showed that association of HCH with SGs preferentially occurs between the axial protons of HCH and SG's oxygen atom, and the most favorable interactions occurring with charged SGs. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance HCH adsorption onto AC under neutral pH conditions. Finally, this work presents an inexpensive computer aided methodology for preselecting activated carbon SGs content for the removal of a given compound.

  4. Sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based surveys of group-housed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotolo, Marisa L; Sun, Yaxuan; Wang, Chong; Giménez-Lirola, Luis; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip C; Harmon, Karen M; Hoogland, Marlin; Main, Rodger; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

    2017-02-17

    Formulas and software for calculating sample size for surveys based on individual animal samples are readily available. However, sample size formulas are not available for oral fluids and other aggregate samples that are increasingly used in production settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop sampling guidelines for oral fluid-based porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveys in commercial swine farms. Oral fluid samples were collected in 9 weekly samplings from all pens in 3 barns on one production site beginning shortly after placement of weaned pigs. Samples (n=972) were tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-rtPCR) and the binary results analyzed using a piecewise exponential survival model for interval-censored, time-to-event data with misclassification. Thereafter, simulation studies were used to study the barn-level probability of PRRSV detection as a function of sample size, sample allocation (simple random sampling vs fixed spatial sampling), assay diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and pen-level prevalence. These studies provided estimates of the probability of detection by sample size and within-barn prevalence. Detection using fixed spatial sampling was as good as, or better than, simple random sampling. Sampling multiple barns on a site increased the probability of detection with the number of barns sampled. These results are relevant to PRRSV control or elimination projects at the herd, regional, or national levels, but the results are also broadly applicable to contagious pathogens of swine for which oral fluid tests of equivalent performance are available.

  5. Theoretical study of chlordecone and surface groups interaction in an activated carbon model under acidic and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Enriquez-Victorero, Carlos; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) are widely used in the purification of drinking water without almost any knowledge about the adsorption mechanisms of the persistent organic pollutants. Chlordecone (CLD, Kepone) is an organochlorinated synthetic compound that has been used mainly as agricultural insecticide. CLD has been identified and listed as a persistent organic pollutant by the Stockholm Convention. The selection of the best suited AC for this type of contaminants is mainly an empirical and costly process. A theoretical study of the influence of AC surface groups (SGs) on CLD adsorption is done in order to help understanding the process. This may provide a first selection criteria for the preparation of AC with suitable surface properties. A model of AC consisting of a seven membered ring graphene sheet (coronene) with a functional group on the edge was used to evaluate the influence of the SGs over the adsorption. Multiple Minima Hypersurface methodology (MMH) coupled with PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian was employed in order to study the interactions of the chlordecone with SGs (hydroxyl and carboxyl) at acidic and neutral pH and different hydration conditions. Selected structures were re-optimized using CAM-B3LYP to achieve a well-defined electron density to characterize the interactions by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules approach. The deprotonated form of surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of AC models show the strongest interactions, suggesting a chemical adsorption. An increase in carboxylic SGs content is proposed to enhance CLD adsorption onto AC at neutral pH conditions.

  6. On the venom system of centipedes (Chilopoda), a neglected group of venomous animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Eivind A B; King, Glenn F

    2011-03-15

    Centipedes are among the oldest extant terrestrial arthropods and are an ecologically important group of soil and leaf litter predators. Despite their abundance and frequent, often painful, encounters with humans, little is known about the venom and venom apparatus of centipedes, although it is apparent that these are both quite different from other venomous lineages. The venom gland can be regarded as an invaginated cuticle and epidermis, consisting of numerous epithelial secretory units each with its own unique valve-like excretory system. The venom contains several different enzymes, but is strikingly different to most other arthropods in that metalloproteases appear to be important. Myotoxic, cardiotoxic, and neurotoxic activities have been described, most of which have been attributed to high molecular weight proteins. Neurotoxic activities are also unusual in that G-protein coupled receptors often seem to be involved, either directly as targets of neurotoxins or indirectly by activating endogenous agonists. These relatively slow responses may be complemented by the rapid effects caused by histamines present in the venom and from endogenous release of histamines induced by venom cytotoxins. The differences probably reflect the ancient and independent evolutionary history of the centipede venom system, although they may also be somewhat exaggerated by the paucity of information available on this largely neglected group.

  7. Towards the identification of methanogenic archaeal groups as targets of methane mitigation in livestock animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eSt-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In herbivores, enteric methane is a by-product from the digestion of plant biomass by mutualistic gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbial communities. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas that is not assimilated by the host and is released into the environment where it contributes to climate change. Since enteric methane is exclusively produced by methanogenic archaea, the investigation of mutualistic methanogen communities in the GIT of herbivores has been the subject of ongoing research by a number of research groups. In an effort to uncover trends that would facilitate the development of efficient methane mitigation strategies for livestock species, we have in this review summarized and compared currently available results from published studies on this subject. We also offer our perspectives on the importance of pursuing current research efforts on the sequencing of gut methanogen genomes, as well as investigating their cellular physiology and interactions with other GIT microorganisms.

  8. Escherichia coli phylogenetic group determination and its application in the identification of the major animal source of fecal contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Luiz A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli strains are commonly found in the gut microflora of warm-blooded animals. These strains can be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups, A, B1, B2 and D, which can be divided into seven subgroups (A0, A1, B1, B22, B23, D1 and D2, according to the combination of the three genetic markers chuA, yjaA and DNA fragment TspE4.C2. Distinct studies have demonstrated that these phylo-groups differ in the presence of virulence factors, ecological niches and life-history. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of these E. coli phylo-groups in 94 human strains, 13 chicken strains, 50 cow strains, 16 goat strains, 39 pig strains and 29 sheep strains and to verify the potential of this analysis to investigate the source of fecal contamination. Results The results indicated that the distribution of phylogenetic groups, subgroups and genetic markers is non-random in the hosts analyzed. Strains from group B1 were present in all hosts analyzed but were more prevalent in cow, goat and sheep samples. Subgroup B23 was only found in human samples. The diversity and the similarity indexes have indicated a similarity between the E. coli population structure of human and pig samples and among cow, goat and sheep samples. Correspondence analysis using contingence tables of subgroups, groups and genetic markers frequencies allowed the visualization of the differences among animal samples and the identification of the animal source of an external validation set. The classifier tools Binary logistic regression and Partial least square -- discriminant analysis, using the genetic markers profile of the strains, differentiated the herbivorous from the omnivorous strains, with an average error rate of 17%. Conclusions This is the first work, as far as we are aware, that identifies the major source of fecal contamination of a pool of strains instead of a unique strain. We concluded that the analysis of the

  9. A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of Group Exercise and Animal-Assisted Therapy in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Brandon; Artese, Ashley; Schmitt, Karla; Cormier, Eileen; Panton, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility of incorporating animal-assisted therapy teams (ATT) into a 6-week group exercise program for older adults (77 ± 6 years). Fifteen participants were randomly assigned to an exercise with ATT (E+ATT; n = 8) or exercise only (E; n = 7) group. Groups exercised 3x/week for 45 min. Feasibility was assessed by three objectives: (1) ATT will not need extensive preparation beyond their original therapy training; (2) the study will require minimal cost; and (3) ATT must not impair the effectiveness of the exercise program. By the study conclusion, all objectives were met. Time and cost were minimal for ATT, and adherence was 93% and 90% for E+ATT and E, respectively. There were significant improvements in both groups (p ≤ .05) for arm curls, get-up and go, and 6-min walk. The results of this pilot study suggest that it is feasible to incorporate ATT into group exercise programming for older adults.

  10. Phenotyping animal models of diabetic neuropathy: a consensus statement of the diabetic neuropathy study group of the EASD (Neurodiab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biessels, G J; Bril, V; Calcutt, N A; Cameron, N E; Cotter, M A; Dobrowsky, R; Feldman, E L; Fernyhough, P; Jakobsen, J; Malik, R A; Mizisin, A P; Oates, P J; Obrosova, I G; Pop-Busui, R; Russell, J W; Sima, A A; Stevens, M J; Schmidt, R E; Tesfaye, S; Veves, A; Vinik, A I; Wright, D E; Yagihashi, S; Yorek, M A; Ziegler, D; Zochodne, D W

    2014-06-01

    NIDDK, JDRF, and the Diabetic Neuropathy Study Group of EASD sponsored a meeting to explore the current status of animal models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The goal of the workshop was to develop a set of consensus criteria for the phenotyping of rodent models of diabetic neuropathy. The discussion was divided into five areas: (1) status of commonly used rodent models of diabetes, (2) nerve structure, (3) electrophysiological assessments of nerve function, (4) behavioral assessments of nerve function, and (5) the role of biomarkers in disease phenotyping. Participants discussed the current understanding of each area, gold standards (if applicable) for assessments of function, improvements of existing techniques, and utility of known and exploratory biomarkers. The research opportunities in each area were outlined, providing a possible roadmap for future studies. The meeting concluded with a discussion on the merits and limitations of a unified approach to phenotyping rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and a consensus formed on the definition of the minimum criteria required for establishing the presence of the disease. A neuropathy phenotype in rodents was defined as the presence of statistically different values between diabetic and control animals in 2 of 3 assessments (nocifensive behavior, nerve conduction velocities, or nerve structure). The participants propose that this framework would allow different research groups to compare and share data, with an emphasis on data targeted toward the therapeutic efficacy of drug interventions.

  11. Meta-Heuristics Algorithms based on the Grouping of Animals by Social Behavior for the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show a survey of meta-heuristics algorithms based on grouping of animals by social behavior for the Traveling Salesman Problem, and propose a new classification of meta-heuristics algorithms (not based on swarm intelligence theory based on grouping of animals: swarm algorithms, schools algorithms, flocks algorithms and herds algorithms: a The swarm algorithms (inspired by the insect swarms and zooplankton swarms: Ant Colony Optimization algorithm – ACO (inspired by the research on the behavior of ant colonies, Firefly Algorithm (based on fireflies, Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization Algorithm - MBO algorithm (inspired by the Honey Bee, Wasp Swarm Algorithm (inspired on the Parasitic wasps, Termite Algorithm (inspired by the termites, Mosquito swarms Algorithm – MSA (inspired by mosquito swarms, zooplankton swarms Algorithm - ZSA (inspired by the Zooplankton and Bumblebees Swarms Algorithm – BSA (inspired by Bumblebees. b The school algorithms (inspired by the fish schools: The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm – PSO (inspired by social behavior and movement dynamics of fish or schooling. c The flock algorithms (inspired by the bird flocks: the flocking algorithm, and the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (inspired on the dynamics of the birds, d The herd and pack Algorithms (inspired by the mammal herds and packs: bat algorithm (inspired by bat, wolf pack search algorithm - WPS (inspired by wolfs, Rats herds algorithm - RATHA (inspired by Rats, Dolphins Herds Algorithm - DHA (inspired by Dolphins and the feral-dogs herd algorithm - FDHA (inspired by feral-dogs herd.

  12. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted. PMID:27879941

  13. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  14. ICLAS Working Group on Harmonization: international guidance concerning the production care and use of genetically-altered animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M; Everitt, J; Hedrich, H; Schofield, J; Dennis, M; Scott, E; Griffin, G

    2013-07-01

    Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, the ‘Three Rs’ of Russell & Burch, are accepted worldwide as fundamental to the ethics of animal experimentation. The production, care and use of genetically-altered animals can pose particular challenges to the implementation of the Three Rs,1 necessitating additional considerations by those responsible for overseeing the ethical use and appropriate care of animals involved in science. The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science brings representatives of the international laboratory animal science community together to recommend acceptance of guidance documents.The harmonization of guidance concerning genetically-altered animals was seen as a priority because of the increasing globalization of research involving these animals.

  15. Theoretical Calculations of Thermal Broadenings and Transition Probabilities of R, R' and B Line-Groups for Ruby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Dong-Ping; LIU Yan-Yun; CHEN Ju-Rong

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the unified calculation of the thermal shifts of R1 line, R2 line and ground-state-splitting transition probabilities of direct and Raman processes have theoretically been calculated. The thermal broadenings of R,The theoretically predicted transition probabilities are in good agreement with the experimental ones.PACS numbers: 71.70.Ch, 78.20.Nv, 63.20.Mt, 63.20.Kr

  16. Is Counseling Going to the Dogs? An Exploratory Study Related to the Inclusion of an Animal in Group Counseling with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Amber M.; Cox, Jane A.; Bernert, Donna J.; Jenkins, Christie D.

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that the use of animals in counseling provides beneficial effects to clients. This article presents literature on Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT), and details an exploratory study that applied AAT in an adolescent anger management group. Consistent with other research, beneficial effects noted in this study included a…

  17. Pharmaceutical composition to protect an animal against a disorder arising from an infection with a bacterium that belongs to the group of nocardioform actinomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldus, Christiaan Jacobs; van der Geize, Robert; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2011-01-01

    The invention pertains to a pharmaceutical composition to protect an animal against a disorder arising from an infection with a bacterium that belongs to the group of nocardioform actinomycetes having the ability to survive within macrophages of the animal, comprising live bacteria of a nocardioform

  18. Effect of probiotic yoghurt on animal-based diet-induced change in gut microbiota: an open, randomised, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odamaki, T; Kato, K; Sugahara, H; Xiao, J Z; Abe, F; Benno, Y

    2016-09-01

    Diet has a significant influence on the intestinal environment. In this study, we assessed changes in the faecal microbiota induced by an animal-based diet and the effect of the ingestion of yoghurt supplemented with a probiotic strain on these changes. In total, 33 subjects were enrolled in an open, randomised, parallel-group study. After a seven-day pre-observation period, the subjects were allocated into three groups (11 subjects in each group). All of the subjects were provided with an animal-based diet for five days, followed by a balanced diet for 14 days. Subjects in the first group ingested dairy in the form of 200 g of yoghurt supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum during both the animal-based and balanced diet periods (YAB group). Subjects in the second group ingested yoghurt only during the balanced diet period (YB group). Subjects who did not ingest yoghurt throughout the intervention were used as the control (CTR) group. Faecal samples were collected before and after the animal-based diet was provided and after the balanced diet was provided, followed by analysis by high-throughput sequencing of amplicons derived from the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. In the YB and CTR groups, the animal-based diet caused a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bilophila, Odoribacter, Dorea and Ruminococcus (belonging to Lachnospiraceae) and a significant decrease in the level of Bifidobacterium after five days of intake. With the exception of Ruminococcus, these changes were not observed in the YAB group. No significant effect was induced by yoghurt supplementation following an animal-based diet (YB group vs CTR group). These results suggest that the intake of yoghurt supplemented with bifidobacteria played a role in maintaining a normal microbiota composition during the ingestion of a meat-based diet. This study protocol was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network: UMIN000014164.

  19. THE MODERN THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN THE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS: FROM INTEREST GROUPS TO CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Votchenko, E.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article touches a vital topic of contemporary relations between business and government - public-private partnerships (PPP in the system of public discourse. The article discusses the various modern theoretical approaches to the study of the social aspects of interaction between business and government in modern political science. The author considers the concept and models of foreign public-private partnerships, social investments and corporate citizenship. In the end, the author makes an interesting conclusion that in the modern scientific community is formed and becomes stable a new institutional paradigm of PPP – practice of corporate citizenship. Corporate social responsibility in the narrow sense of the definition goes beyond charity and philanthropy, and today it is expressed in a broad sense - as corporate citizenship, which implies mutual responsibility of business and government to the public.

  20. Developing a Theoretical Framework Using a Nursing Perspective to Investigate Perceived Health in the "Sandwich Generation" Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulevey Bachmann, Annie; Danuser, Brigitta; Morin, Diane

    2015-10-01

    Coexisting workloads from professional, household and family, and caregiving activities for frail parents expose middle-aged individuals, the so-called "Sandwich Generation", to potential health risks. Current trends suggest that this situation will continue or increase. Thus SG health promotion has become a nursing concern. Most existing research considers coexisting workloads a priori pathogenic. Most studies have examined the association of one, versus two, of these three activities with health. Few studies have used a nursing perspective. This article presents the development of a framework based on a nursing model. We integrated Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance middle-range theory into "Neuman Systems Model". The latter was chosen for its salutogenic orientation, its attention to preventive nursing interventions and the opportunity it provides to simultaneously consider positive and negative perceptions of SG health and SG coexisting workloads. Finally, it facilitated a theoretical identification of health protective factors.

  1. A theoretical study of the relaxation of a phenyl group chemisorbed to an RDX freestanding thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Andrey; Sewell, Thomas D.

    2016-08-01

    Energy relaxation from an excited phenyl group chemisorbed to the surface of a crystalline thin film of α-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (α-RDX) at 298 K and 1 atm is simulated using molecular dynamics. Two schemes are used to excite the phenyl group. In the first scheme, the excitation energy is added instantaneously as kinetic energy by rescaling momenta of the 11 atoms in the phenyl group. In the second scheme, the phenyl group is equilibrated at a higher temperature in the presence of static RDX geometries representative of the 298 K thin film. An analytical model based on ballistic phonon transport that requires only the harmonic part of the total Hamiltonian and includes no adjustable parameters is shown to predict, essentially quantitatively, the short-time dynamics of the kinetic energy relaxation (˜200 fs). The dynamics of the phenyl group for times longer than about 6 ps follows exponential decay and agrees qualitatively with the dynamics described by a master equation. Long-time heat propagation within the bulk of the crystal film is consistent with the heat equation.

  2. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  3. Theoretical Investigation on the Electron and Energy Transfer between Peripheral Carrier Transport Groups and Central Chromophores in Electroluminescent Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉钰; 刘丹丹; 许海; 刘晓冬; 孙冠楠; 杨兵; 马於光

    2012-01-01

    The molecular materials with structures of luminescent core and peripheral carrier groups (e.g. carbazoles), have exhibited high-performance in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Present work is to understand the basic process of electronic and energy exchange between the peripheral functional groups and the central core through quantum chemical analysis. As an example, 4,7-bis(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)hexyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)benzo[c]- [1,2,5]thiadiazole (TCBzC) is investigated in regards to optoelectronic properties using density functional theory (DFT). The results suggest that the forbidden transition from peripheral carbazole to the central chromophore core makes for separated electrical and optical properties, and high performance electroluminescence (EL) is mainly at- tributed to the energy-transfer from carbazoles to the fluorene derivative core.

  4. Joined X-ray, spectroscopic and theoretical study of potential antibacterial cyano group containing fluoroquinolone drugs precursors with the focus on the conformational behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorotíková, Sandra; Kucková, Lenka; Malček, Michal; Plevová, Kristína; Kožíšek, Jozef; Milata, Viktor; Dvoranová, Dana; Bučinský, Lukáš

    2016-12-01

    Conformational behavior of 3-fluorophenylaminoethylene precursors of potential antibacterial fluoroquinolone drugs are investigated by the comparison of obtained experimental X-ray structures, IR vibrational frequencies and UV-vis transitions with B3LYP/6-311++G** theoretical calculations. Theoretical investigations of the conformational behavior are extended for the rotational energy barriers between ZZa-EZa and ZZa-ZEa conformers which are investigated along with the change of bond critical points characteristics and delocalization indices of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (including atomic and formal functional group charges). Subsequently, molecular dynamics simulations are presenting a critical assessment of the dynamics of distinguished dihedral angles which are related to the conformational behavior.

  5. 高校动画专业课程群建设与改革探讨%Building and reform of animation course group in colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成

    2015-01-01

    T he animation course group construction is an important part of animation professional course construction and reform ,which has a positive role in training practice of innovative talents .Based on the realistic demand of the domestic animation culture industry for talents ,the current situation talent cultivation in colleges and universities and animation course group construction connotation , importance and reform development ideas are discussed thoroughly to provide reference for the animation education course system and teaching reform now .%动画课程群建设是动画专业课程建设与改革的重要组成部分,在培养实践创新型人才方面有着积极的作用。基于中国动漫产业对人才的现实需求,对当前高校动画专业人才培养的现状,以及动画课程群建设内涵、重要性、改革发展的思路等方面进行了深入探讨,以期为现有高校动画专业课程体系和教学改革提供参考。

  6. Crystal structure characterization as well as theoretical study of spectroscopic properties of novel Schiff bases containing pyrazole group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Ren, Tiegang; Zhang, Jinglai; Li, Guihui; Li, Weijie; Yang, Lirong

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel Schiff bases containing pyrazole group were synthesized using 1-aryl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone and phenylenediamine as the starting materials. All as-synthesized Schiff bases were characterized by means of NMR, FT-IR, and MS; and the molecular geometries of two Schiff bases as typical examples were determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the meantime, the ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectra and fluorescent spectra of various as-synthesized products were also measured. Moreover, the B3LYP/6-1G(d,p) method was used for the optimization of the ground state geometry of the Schiff bases; and the spectroscopic properties of the products were computed and compared with corresponding experimental data based on cc-pVTZ basis set of TD-B3LYP method. It has been found that all as-synthesized Schiff bases show a remarkable absorption peak in a wavelength range of 270-370 nm; and their maximum emission peaks are around 344 nm and 332 nm, respectively.

  7. Biosafety considerations for in vivo work with risk group 3 pathogens in large animals and wildlife in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C

    2013-06-01

    Regulations in the United States require animal biosafety level 3 (ABSL-3) or biosafety level 3 agriculture (BSL-3-Ag) containment for many endemic zoonotic pathogens and etiologic agents of foreign animal diseases. In an effort to protect public health, billions of dollars were invested in regulatory programs over many years to reduce the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens such as Brucella and Mycobacterium bovis in domestic livestock. In addition to research needs in domestic livestock hosts, the establishment of brucellosis and tuberculosis in wildlife in the United States has created a need for research studies addressing these zoonotic diseases. As guidelines in the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL, 2009) for BSL-3 and BSL-3-Ag facilities are primarily directed toward laboratory or vivarium facilities, additional issues should be considered in designing large animal containment facilities for domestic livestock and/or wildlife. Flight distance, herd orientation, social needs, aggressiveness, and predictability are all factors we considered on a species by species basis for designing our containment facilities and for work practices with large ruminants. Although safety risk cannot be completely eliminated when working with large animals, studies in natural hosts are critical for advancing vaccine and diagnostic development, and providing basic knowledge of disease pathogenesis in natural hosts. Data gathered in these types of studies are vital for state and national regulatory personnel in their efforts to design strategies to control or eradicate diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis in their natural hosts, whether it is domestic livestock or wildlife. It is likely that failure to address the prevalence of disease in wildlife reservoirs will lead to re-emergence in domestic livestock. The overall benefit of these studies is to protect public health, provide economic benefits to producers, and protect the economic investment

  8. Theoretical study on magneto-structural correlation of trinuclear copper (II) complex with the hydroxo bridge and bidentate syn-syn carboxylate group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhongnan; WU Jian; LIU Chengbu; WANG Ruoxi; SUN Youmin

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical study on magneto- structural correlation in linear trinuclear Cu (II) complex bridged by hydroxo group and bidentate formato group has been performed using the broken symmetry approach with the framework of density functional theory (DFT-BS). The magnetic coupling constant for the model complex is 70.97 cm-1, comparable with the experimentally measured J value (77 cm-1). The calculated results show that the magnetic coupling interaction firstly slightly increases with the changes of the coordination environment around the terminal Cu atoms from a distorted square pyramid to a trigonal bi-pyramid, and decreases subsequently. In the course of changes, the sign of J value shifts from positive to negative. The magnetic coupling interaction is sensitive to coordination environment of the terminal Cu. The calculated results also reveal that the ferromagnetic coupling arises from the countercomplementarity of the hydroxo and formato bridges. Molecular orbital analysis validates the conclusion.

  9. Determination of staphylococcal exotoxins, SCCmec types, and genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Ahn, Kuk Ju; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored th...

  10. Governing farm animal welfare, governing stockmanship: a sociological analysis of the formulation and on-farm implementation of the EU group sow housing legislation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    EU pig welfare legislation required European pig farmers to shift from individual to group housing of pregnant sows by 1 January 2013. This requirement was principally designed to meet the sows’ needs for locomotion and interaction with conspecifics. This paper explored how the legislation affected everyday sow-farmer interaction, which influences farm animal welfare to an important degree. We started by analysing conceptualisations of sow welfare and sow-farmer relations as implicated in the...

  11. Swarm intelligence in fish? The difficulty in demonstrating distributed and self-organised collective intelligence in (some) animal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Christos C Ioannou

    2016-01-01

    Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent colle...

  12. Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 as therapeutic option in autoimmune disease : lessons from animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Fleur; Heeringa, Peter; Bijl, Marc; Westra, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a molecule that has gained much attention in the last couple of years as an important player in innate immune responses and modulating factor in several (auto) immune diseases. Furthermore, advancements have been made in identifying the diverse

  13. Field theoretical Lie symmetry analysis: The Möbius group, exact solutions of conformal autonomous systems, and predictive model-building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, Kyriakos

    2014-07-01

    We study single and coupled first-order differential equations (ODEs) that admit symmetries with tangent vector fields, which satisfy the N-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann equations. In the two-dimensional case, classes of first-order ODEs which are invariant under Möbius transformations are explored. In the N dimensional case we outline a symmetry analysis method for constructing exact solutions for conformal autonomous systems. A very important aspect of this work is that we propose to extend the traditional technical usage of Lie groups to one that could provide testable predictions and guidelines for model-building and model-validation. The Lie symmetries in this paper are constrained and classified by field theoretical considerations and their phenomenological implications. Our results indicate that conformal transformations are appropriate for elucidating a variety of linear and nonlinear systems which could be used for, or inspire, future applications. The presentation is pragmatic and it is addressed to a wide audience.

  14. Twelve-year proximity relationships in a captive group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Onishi, Kenji; Silldorf, April; Sexton, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Proximity data were collected in a captive breeding group of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the San Diego Wild Animal Park (currently called the San Diego Zoo Safari Park) twice a year (spring and fall periods) for over 12 years, by using a convenient method in which individuals less than 5 m from each animal in the group were recorded by scan sampling, approximately once per hour. Immature females from infancy to young adulthood maintained relatively frequent proximity to both their mothers and the silverback male and spent little time alone (no animals within 10 m), with relatively large individual differences. On the other hand, immature males decreased the time spent near their mothers and the silverback male and increased the time spent alone with increasing age. Therefore, sex differences in proximity to mothers and the silverback male became apparent after late juvenility. Some adult females maintained increased frequency of proximity to the silverback male than that by other females over the 12-year period, indicating the presence of long-term, stable proximity relationships between the silverback male and the adult females. Such long-term, stable proximity relationships were also observed among adult females. Some association patterns reported in wild gorillas, such as frequent proximity between adult females with dependent offspring and the silverback male and close relationships between related females, were not observed in the present study. The idiosyncratic or individual factors influencing some association patterns were easily reflected in captive situations.

  15. Comments on the sub-group reports of the EU Technical Expert Working Group on the revision of Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert; Balls, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A critical analysis is presented of the reports produced by four Technical Expert Working Group Sub-groups (SGs) on Ethical Review, Cost-Benefit, Authorisation and Scope, which were published on the EC website (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/ia_info_en.htm), as part of the European Commission (EC)s review of EU Directive 86/609 EEC. This is in addition to our official response to the internet consultation questionnaire, submitted to the Commission on behalf of FRAME. Whilst the respective SG reports were extensive and detailed, we have identified several shortcomings, and in particular, a frequent lack of consensus among the SG members, resulting in a lack of clear guidance for the EC on what the revised Directive should contain, with reference to a number of crucial issues. Such indecisiveness could lead to wide discrepancies in the approaches of the EC, the European Parliament and the EU Member States concerning many issues of importance to animal welfare and the implementation of alternatives to animal experiments. These concerns range from logistical issues, such as requirements for named officers in authorised establishments, and the recording and publishing of statistics on animal use, to ethical and scientific problems, including the use of non-human primates, local ethical review, and education and training on the essential link between the Three Rs concept and best scientific practice. In each case, the basis for our concerns is explained, and suggestions for improvements to be incorporated into the revised Directive are made, in the hope that the harmonisation of approaches to laboratory animal experimentation and the use of alternative methods in the Member States can be maximised.

  16. The effects of group and single housing and automated animal monitoring on urinary corticosterone levels in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Remi; Kovalainen, Miia; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Mäkelä, Kari A

    2016-02-01

    Mice are used extensively in physiological research. Automated home-cage systems have been developed to study single-housed animals. Increased stress by different housing conditions might affect greatly the results when investigating metabolic responses. Urinary corticosteroid concentration is considered as a stress marker. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different housing conditions and an automated home-cage system with indirect calorimetry located in an environmental chamber on corticosterone levels in mice. Male mice were housed in different conditions and in automated home-cage system to evaluate the effects of housing and measuring conditions on urine corticosterone levels. Corticosterone levels in single-housed mice in the laboratory animal center were consistently lower compared with the group-housed mice. Single-housed mice in a separate, small animal unit showed a rise in their corticosterone levels a day after they were separated to their individual cages, which decreased during the following 2 days. The corticosterone levels of group-housed mice in the same unit were increased during the first 7 days and then decreased. On day 7, the corticosterone concentrations of group-housed mice were significantly higher compared with that of single-housed mice, including the metabolic measurement protocol. In conclusion, single housing caused less stress when compared with group-housed mice. In addition, the urine corticosterone levels were decreased in single-housed mice before the metabolic measurement started. Thus, stress does not affect the results when utilizing the automated system for measuring metabolic parameters like food and water intake and calorimetry.

  17. Final report to the DOE for the period 8/1/96 to 5/31/00 by the SCRI Theoretical High Energy Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Urs

    2000-11-29

    This is the final report on grant DE-FG05-96ER40979 from the US Department of Energy supporting the research of the Theoretical High Energy Physics group at the Supercomputer Computations Research Institute (SCRI) at Florida State University. The research primarily involved lattice field theory simulations such as Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Although QCD is generally accepted as the theory which describes the strong interactions responsible for nuclear binding, convincing computations of the properties of the elementary particles from first principles are still elusive. The problem lies in the fact that for data at the low energies involved ({approx} 1 GeV), the coupling constant in QCD is large, preventing application of the physicist's usual tool, perturbation theory. Non-perturbative computations are necessary and they appear possible only via large scale numerical simulations. Especially simulations of full QCD, including the effect of light dynamical quarks, are extremely CPU time consuming. The scientists in SCRI's lattice gauge theory group have been in the forefront of such numerical simulations since the inception of SCRI in 1985. A major research topic was the study of improved lattice actions, designed to diminish finite lattice spacing effects and thus accelerate the approach to the continuum limit. Most of this work was carried out in the quenched approximation. Very encouraging results were obtained. In the second half of the funding period, a major focus of the group has been the use of a new lattice fermion representation, Overlap fermions, that has achieved the much desired goal of preserving the chiral symmetry properties of the continuum theory at finite lattice spacing. After developing an algorithm for the numerical simulations of overlap fermions, the SCRI group has completed the first studies of the relation between chiral symmetry breaking and topology using this new formalism.

  18. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H.; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF) is usually caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and routinely treated with systemic antimicrobial agents. Infection is a consequence of reduced immunity associated with alterations of the skin barrier and underlying diseases that may be di...... will improve antimicrobial use and reduce selection of MRSP and other multidrug-resistant bacteria affecting animal and human health....... of an internationally available resource guiding practitioners in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SBF. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES: The guidelines were developed by the Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases, with consultation and advice...... on infection control. Guidance is given for topical and systemic modalities, including approaches suitable for MRSP. Systemic drugs are classified in three tiers. Tier one drugs are used when diagnosis is clear cut and risk factors for antimicrobial drug resistance are not present. Otherwise, tier two drugs...

  19. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  20. A short historical investigation into cross-cultural Australian ideas about the marine animal group Teredinidae, their socioecological consequences and some options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gardner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How are contemporary multicultural coastal Australians, Aboriginals and settlers alike, to develop wiser ideas and practices towards marine animals as well as each other? To illustrate the importance and complexity of this question, I offer a short historical investigation of some contrasting ideas and practices held by Australian Aboriginal and settler cultures about marine animals of the group Teredinidae. I present two “screenshots”: one from the period 1798-1826 and another from 1970-2012. The first period examines a negative but influential interpretation by Thomas Malthus of a cross cultural encounter featuring Australian Aboriginal consumption of local Teredinidae known as “cobra”. While this cultural tone remains largely unchanged in the second period, the biological understanding of the marine animals has developed greatly. So has awareness of the socioecology of Teredinidae: their estuarine habitats and cultural significance. Their potential role as subjects of community based monitoring is undeveloped but could serve overlapping concerns of environmental justice as well as the restoration and “future proofing” of habitats. Such a new composite of ideas and practices will rely on better integration of biology with community based social innovations. A symbolic beginning would be a change in Australian English colloquialisms for Teredinidae, from the erroneous “shipworm” or “mangrove worm” to the more accurate “burrowing clam”.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of hydroxyquinolines: hydroxyl group position dependent dipole moment and charge-separation in the photoexcited state leading to fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Mehata, Mohan; Singh, Ajay K.; Sinha, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Optical absorption and fluorescence (FL) spectra of 2-, 6-, 7-, 8-hydroxyquinolines (2-,6-,7- and 8-HQs) have been measured at room temperature in the wide range of solvents of different polarities, dielectric constant and refractive index. The ground state dipole moment (µ g) and excited state dipole moment (µ e) of 2-, 6-, 7- and 8-HQs were obtained using solvatochromic shift (SS) methods and microscopic solvent polarity parameters (MSPP). Change in the dipole moment (Δµ) between the ground and photo-excited states was estimated from SS and MSPP methods. DFT and TDDFT based theoretical calculations were performed for the ground and excited states dipole moments, and for vertical transitions. A significant enhancement in the excited state dipole moment was observed following photo-excitation. The large value of Δµ clearly indicates to the charge-separation in the photo-excited states, which in turn depends on the position of the hydroxyl group in the ring.

  2. Shape of the self-concept clarity change during group psychotherapy predicts the outcome: An empirical validation of the theoretical model of the self-concept change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał eStyła

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-concept clarity describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of self-concept clarity change (especially stable increase and V shape observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable self-concept clarity increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while self-concept clarity change characterized by a V shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M=5.8 was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale, Symptoms’ Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The Self-Concept Clarity Scale was also administered every two weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable self-concept clarity increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and V shape of self-concept clarity change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of self-concept clarity is a sign of a good treatment prognosis.

  3. Determination of staphylococcal exotoxins, SCCmec types, and genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Ahn, Kuk Ju; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-09-01

    The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored the canine enterotoxin SEC gene. However, the S. intermedius exfoliative toxin gene was found in 166 SIG isolates although the S. aureus-derived exfoliative toxin genes, such as eta, etb and etd, were not detected. SCCmec typing resulted in classifying one isolate as SCCmec type IV, 41 isolates as type V (including three S. intermedius isolates), and 10 isolates as non-classifiable. Genetic relatedness of all S. pseudintermedius isolates recovered from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strains having the same band patterns were detected in S. pseudintermedius isolates collected at 13 and 18 months, suggesting possible colonization and/or expansion of a specific S. pseudintermedius strain in a veterinary hospital.

  4. Analysis of Individual Mouse Activity in Group Housed Animals of Different Inbred Strains using a Novel Automated Home Cage Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Rasneer S; Cater, Heather L; Sillito, Rowland R; Chartsias, Agisilaos; Sneddon, Duncan; Concas, Danilo; Keskivali-Bond, Piia; Lukins, Timothy C; Wells, Sara; Acevedo Arozena, Abraham; Nolan, Patrick M; Armstrong, J Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system disorders such as autism as well as the range of neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease are commonly investigated using genetically altered mouse models. The current system for characterizing these mice usually involves removing the animals from their home-cage environment and placing them into novel environments where they undergo a battery of tests measuring a range of behavioral and physical phenotypes. These tests are often only conducted for short periods of times in social isolation. However, human manifestations of such disorders are often characterized by multiple phenotypes, presented over long periods of time and leading to significant social impacts. Here, we have developed a system which will allow the automated monitoring of individual mice housed socially in the cage they are reared and housed in, within established social groups and over long periods of time. We demonstrate that the system accurately reports individual locomotor behavior within the group and that the measurements taken can provide unique insights into the effects of genetic background on individual and group behavior not previously recognized.

  5. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussières André E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences; beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity; the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences; conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients

  6. Expression of blood group I and i active carbohydrate sequences on cultured human and animal cell lines assessed by radioimmunoassays with monoclonal cold agglutinins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, R.A.; Kapadia, A.; Feizi, T. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK))

    1980-05-01

    Human monoclonal anti-I und anti-i antibodies, reactive with known carbohydrate sequences, have been used as reagents to quantitate (by radioimmunoassay) and visualize (by immunofluorscence) the expression of the various blood group I and i antigenic determinants in a variety of cultured cell lines commonly used in laboratory investigations. It has been shown that the antigens they recognize are widely distributed on the surface of human and animal cell lines, expressed in varying amounts in different cell lines and on individual cells within a given cell line. In two cell lines, a transformation-associated increase in the expression of I antigen was observed. Because of their precise specificity for defined carbohydrate chain domains, these autoantibodies have become valuable reagents in biological chemistry.

  7. Expression of blood group I and I active carbohydrate sequences on cultured human and animal cell lines assessed by radioimmunoassays with monoclonal cold agglutinins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, R.A.; Kapadia, A.; Feizi, T.

    1980-05-01

    Human monoclonal anti-I and anti-i, reactive with known carbohydrate sequences, have been used as reagents to quantitate (by radioimmunoassay) and visualize (by immunofluorescence) the expression of the various blood group I and i antigenic determinants in a variety of cultured cell lines commonly used in laboratory investigations. It has been shown that the antigens they recognize are widely distributed on the surface of human and animal cell lines, expressed in varying amounts in different cell lines and on individual cells within a given cell line. In two cell lines, a transformation-associated increase in the expression of I antigen was observed. Because of their precise specificity for defined carbohydrate chain domains, these autoantibodies have become valuable reagents in biological chemistry.

  8. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  9. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group (CG 34 comprises amino acids, of which 20 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of D,L-valine because of the lack of data on its purity. The Panel cannot conclude on the use of these compounds in water for drinking. In the absence of any information on the microbial strains or substrates used for the production of the additives, and with little information on the manufacturing process, the Panel cannot ascertain whether the manufacturing process introduces any safety concerns. The conclusions on target animals and consumer safety apply only to the compounds per se, and can be extrapolated only to feed additives containing these compounds when obtained by chemical synthesis or protein hydrolysis and to those produced by fermentation which have already undergone a strain-specific safety assessment by EFSA. The 19 compounds under assessment in CG 34 are safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg feed for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel considers the use of glycine at 20 g/kg in food for cats and dogs as safe. The safety of the proposed use of beta-alanine in pet food at 20 g/kg was not substantiated. Use of these compounds does not give rise to concern for consumer safety. The Panel considers it prudent to treat all 19 compounds as irritant to skin and eyes, skin sensitisers and hazardous by inhalation. They do not give rise to any concern for the safety of the environment. No further demonstration of their efficacy is necessary when used at concentrations up to 25 mg/kg complete feed. There is some evidence that high concentrations (20 g/kg in cat and dog food of glycine may influence the food preference of cats and dogs. Comparable evidence for beta-alanine is not available.

  11. Professional perspectives on animal hoarding.

    OpenAIRE

    Burniston, Francesca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although theoretical conceptualisations of animal hoarding have been published, few empirical studies have been conducted. The current study investigated animal hoarding from the perspectives of professionals who come into contact with people who hoard animals through their employment in various capacities, primarily in animal welfare. Design A qualitative research design was employed using inductive thematic analysis. Methods Twelve professionals who had experienc...

  12. Right ventricular failure due to chronic pressure load: What have we learned in animal models since the NIH working group statement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, Marinus A J; Dickinson, Michael G; Berger, Rolf M F; Bartelds, Beatrijs

    2015-07-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure determines outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension, congenital heart diseases and in left ventricular failure. In 2006, the Working Group on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Right Heart Failure of the NIH advocated the development of preclinical models to study the pathophysiology and pathobiology of RV failure. In this review, we summarize the progress of research into the pathobiology of RV failure and potential therapeutic interventions. The picture emerging from this research is that RV adaptation to increased afterload is characterized by increased contractility, dilatation and hypertrophy. Clinical RV failure is associated with progressive diastolic deterioration and disturbed ventricular-arterial coupling in the presence of increased contractility. The pathobiology of the failing RV shows similarities with that of the LV and is marked by lack of adequate increase in capillary density leading to a hypoxic environment and oxidative stress and a metabolic switch from fatty acids to glucose utilization. However, RV failure also has characteristic features. So far, therapies aiming to specifically improve RV function have had limited success. The use of beta blockers and sildenafil may hold promise, but new therapies have to be developed. The use of recently developed animal models will aid in further understanding of the pathobiology of RV failure and development of new therapeutic strategies.

  13. Contents and features of forming students' culture of health of special medical group in the process of theoretical preparation on physical education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribok N.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forming valued attitude is considered toward own health for students with the presence of diseases. New vision of maintenance of theoretical preparation is found on physical education of students at which rejections are marked in a state of health. An experimental on-line tutorial is offered, on the basis of analysis of the existent program, on physical education for the students of task medical force. It is set that the offered on-line tutorial is directed not only on liquidation of diseases but also on forming, strengthening and maintenance of own health in spiritual, psychical and physical aspects.

  14. Guidelines for the veterinary care of laboratory animals: report of the FELASA/ECLAM/ESLAV Joint Working Group on Veterinary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Baneux, P; Gomez de Segura, I A; Hau, J; Wolfensohn, S

    2008-01-01

    Veterinary professionals working in partnership with other competent persons are essential for a successful animal care and use programme. A veterinarian's primary responsibilities are defined by their own professional regulatory bodies, but in this area of work there are further opportunities for contribution, which will assist in safeguarding the health and welfare of animals used in research. These guidelines are aimed not only at veterinarians to explain their duties, and outline the opportunities to improve the health and welfare of animals under their care, but also at employers and regulators to help them meet their responsibilities. They describe the desirability for postgraduate education towards specialization in laboratory animal medicine and detail the many competencies necessary to fulfil the role of the laboratory animal veterinarian. They detail the need for veterinary expertise to promote good health and good welfare of animals used in biomedical research during husbandry as well as when under experimental procedures. Regulatory and ethical aspects are covered as are the involvement of the veterinarian in education and training of others working in the animal care and use programme. Managerial aspects, including occupational health and safety, are also areas where the veterinarian's input can assist in the successful implementation of the programme.

  15. Report from the working group on combustion of domestic animal manure fractions; Rapport fra arbejdsgruppen om afbraending af fraktioner af husdyrgoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    During the past few years there has been a considerable development of new technology for treatment of domestic animal manure. The development implies that environmental problems connected with storage and use of domestic animal manure for fertilization are reduced. Through several years experiences with utilization of domestic animal manure's energy potential in biogas plants have been compiled, and the technological basis for connecting slurry separation and biogas production is present. In order to promote this development, the agricultural sector has a growing desire to be able to dispose of parts from the separated slurry through combustion, hereby using the energy content to the energy production. However, there are a number of barriers that make combustion of domestic animal manure impossible. In order to uncover existing barriers for combustion of domestic animal manure fractions the Danish Minister of food appointed an inter ministerial committee on 30 March 2005. The committee should: 1. Describe the regulations within the ministerial areas that affect combustion of domestic animal manure, and also describe the regulations that act as barriers, 2. Describe binding international agreements, directives and regulations that affect combustion of domestic animal manure and which of these that act as barriers, 3. Evaluate the potential for regulation adjustments and other actions, that might further the development of sustainable energy production in which domestic animal manure is a part, 4. Evaluate socio-economic pros and cons in the light of environmental and climatic impacts, and 5. Describe estimated governmental financial consequences of potential adjustments of regulations and other actions. (BA)

  16. The African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Graaff

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA was constituted in the beginning of the 1970s by a number of persons interested in theoretical and practical aspects of wildlife {sensu lato, wildlife diseases, and the handling of game and wild animals {^ensit stricto}.

  17. The Application of PSO Algorithm in the Behavior Control of Group Animation%微粒群优化算法在群体动画行为控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪娜

    2014-01-01

    为了提高群体动画行为规划的协调性和智能性,采用微粒群优化算法来实现群体动画的行为控制。首先对群体动画体系结构和群体控制行为策略做了简要说明,接着对微粒群算法进行详细阐述,最后进行实例仿真,实验证明,采用微粒群算法很好地实现了群体动画行为控制,且能避开障碍物,具有较强的智能性。%In order to improve the coordination and intelligence of group animation behavior planning, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted to achieve the group animation behavior control. This paper firstly makes a brief introduc-tion of the system structure of group animation and group control strategy, then elaborates the particle swarm algorithm, and finally carries out the simulation experiments. Experiments show that the particle swarm algorithm achieves good behavior control of group animation, avoiding the obstacles with strong intelligence.

  18. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  19. Role of the metal cation types around VO4 groups on the nonlinear optical behavior of materials: experimental and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin; Yang, Zhihua; Han, Guopeng; Wang, Ying; Wen, Ming; Pan, Shilie

    2016-09-28

    In order to explore new NLO crystals with superior performances, it is greatly desirable to understand the intrinsic relationship between the macroscopic optical properties and microscopic structural features in crystals. A novel mechanism for nonlinear optical (NLO) effects of vanadate crystals, Li3VO4, KCd4(VO4)3 and Ca3(VO4)2 with distorted (VO4)(3-) groups, has been investigated. Experiments related to the synthesis and structures were determined. In addition, infrared and UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, as well as electronic band structure calculations, were performed on the reported materials. A comprehensive analysis for the structure-property relationship is given by combining the experimental measurements, the electronic structure calculations and the SHG-weighted electron density to the linear and NLO properties. It was found that the contribution of the (VO4)(3-) anionic group to the second harmonic generation (SHG) response was the dominant anionic group, which plays a vital role to the SHG effects in Li3VO4, KCd4(VO4)3 and Ca3(VO4)2. It was also concluded that the metal cation types and coordination around VO4 groups, the distorted and parallel oriented VO4 tetrahedron decided the SHG coefficient values.

  20. Theoretical Design of High-spin Organic Molecules with-·N-N-as a Spin-containing Fragment and Heterocycles as an End Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU De-Qing; WANG Li-Min; ZHANG Jing-Ping; WANG Rong-Shun

    2006-01-01

    Novel stable high spin molecules possessing three different arranged fashions are designed with -·N-N< as a spin-containing (SC) fragment, various aromatic, such as benzene (1), pyridine (2), pyridazine (3), pyrimidine (4),pyrazine (5), triazine (6) as end groups (EG) and phenyl as a ferromagnetic coupling (FC) unit. The effects of a different end groups on the spin multiplicities of the ground states and their stabilities were investigated by means of AM1-CI approach. It has been found that the spin densities on the two atoms of the SC fragment are different from delocalization resulting in the specific stability of -·N-N<. In these molecules, the stabilities of the triplet states decrease when the distance between the atoms of central SC (-N-) increases. The orders of the stability of triplet states for 1an, 1bn, 1cn [They are isomers in which SC is connected with FC in different way (1an, NiNNN1; 1bn,N1N NiN; 1cn, NN1N1N) and six heterocycles are EG] show that the tability of triplet states with heterocycles as end groups is higher than that with phenyl as end groups, and in the order: triazine (EG)>pyrimidine, pyrazine>pyridine, pyridazine.

  1. GAT: a graph-theoretical analysis toolbox for analyzing between-group differences in large-scale structural and functional brain networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Hadi Hosseini

    Full Text Available In recent years, graph theoretical analyses of neuroimaging data have increased our understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, tools for pipeline application of graph theory for analyzing topology of brain networks is still lacking. In this report, we describe the development of a graph-analysis toolbox (GAT that facilitates analysis and comparison of structural and functional network brain networks. GAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI that facilitates construction and analysis of brain networks, comparison of regional and global topological properties between networks, analysis of network hub and modules, and analysis of resilience of the networks to random failure and targeted attacks. Area under a curve (AUC and functional data analyses (FDA, in conjunction with permutation testing, is employed for testing the differences in network topologies; analyses that are less sensitive to the thresholding process. We demonstrated the capabilities of GAT by investigating the differences in the organization of regional gray-matter correlation networks in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and healthy matched Controls (CON. The results revealed an alteration in small-world characteristics of the brain networks in the ALL survivors; an observation that confirm our hypothesis suggesting widespread neurobiological injury in ALL survivors. Along with demonstration of the capabilities of the GAT, this is the first report of altered large-scale structural brain networks in ALL survivors.

  2. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  3. Group Theoretical Analysis of non-Newtonian Fluid Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer over a Stretching Surface in the Presence of Thermal Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the flow, heat and mass transfer of a non-Newtonian fluid known as Casson fluid over a stretching surface in the presence of thermal radiations effects. Lie Group analysis is used to reduce the governing partial differential equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations. These equations are then solved by an analytical technique known as Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. A comprehensive study of the problem is being made for various parameters involving in the equations through tables and graphs.

  4. Theoretical Design of High-spin Organic Molecules with-. N-S-as a Spin-containing Fragment and Heterocycle as End Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Novel stable high-spin molecules possessing three different arranging fashions were designed with -(.) N-S-as a spin-containing (SC) fragment, an aromatic group, such as benzene (1), pyridine (2), pyridazine (3), pyrimidine (4), pyrazine (5) or triazine (6) as end groups (EG), and phenyl as a ferromagnetic coupling (FC) unit.The effects of different EG on the spin multiplicities of the ground states and their stabilities were investigated by means of the AM1-CI approach. All the investigated molecules corresponded to the FC and possessed high-spin ground states. The spin on the two atoms of the SC fragment was not in agreement with the delocalization results in the specific stability of -(.) N-S-. In those molecules, the stabilities of the triplet states decreased when the distance between the atoms of central SC fragments (-N-) increased. The stabilities of the triplet states of compounds 1a-n, 1b-n and 1c-n, with heterocycles as EG were higher than those of the triplet states of those compounds with phenyl as EG. Furthermore, the stabilities of the triplet states of the compounds with pyrimidine and triazine as EG were higher than those with pyridine, pyridazine or pyrazine as EG.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated (chemical group 30, miscellaneous substances when used as a flavouring for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid is extracted from the dried and ground rhizome and root portions of the perennial leguminous plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L., native to southern Europe and Central Asia, or other species of the genus Glycyrrhiza. It is currently listed in the register of flavouring substances, allowing its use in food without restriction. Glycyrrhyzic acid ammoniated is safe at the concentration of 1 mg/kg complete feed for all species, except chickens for fattening and laying hens. For these two categories, a safe concentration of 0.3 mg/kg complete feed applies. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP cannot conclude on the safety of the additive used in water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal nutrition would not measurably increase consumer exposure. In the absence of data on user safety, the FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated as an irritant to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as a skin sensitiser. The use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal feeds would not pose a risk to the environment. As glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated is used in food as a flavouring, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  6. Structure, bonding and energetics of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) stabilized low oxidation state group 2 (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) metal complexes: A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashim Baishya; V Rao Mundlapati; Sharanappa Nembenna; Himansu S Biswal

    2014-11-01

    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene stabilized low oxidation state group 2 metal halide and hydrides with metal-metal bonds ([L(X) M-M(X) L]; L = NHC ((CHNH)2C:), M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba, and X = Cl or H) has been studied by computational methods. The main objective of this study is to predict whether it is possible to stabilize neutral ligated low oxidation state alkaline-earth metal complexes with metal-metal bonds. The homolytic metal-metal Bond Dissociation Energy (BDE) calculation, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Energy Decomposition Analyses (EDA) on density functional theory (DFT) optimized [L(X)M-M(X)L] complexes revealed that they are as stable as their -diketiminate, guanidinate and -diimine counterparts. The optimized structures of the complexes are in trans-linear geometries. The bond order analyses such as Wiberg Bond Indices (WBI) and Fuzzi Bond Order (FBO) confirm the existence of single bond between two metal atoms, and it is covalent in nature.

  7. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  8. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  9. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  10. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a in Human and Animal Staphylococcus intermedius Group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, A R; Burnham, C-A D; Ford, B A; Lawhon, S D; McAllister, S K; Lonsway, D; Albrecht, V; Jerris, R C; Rasheed, J K; Limbago, B; Burd, E M; Westblade, L F

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a rapid penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) detection assay, the Alere PBP2a culture colony test, was evaluated for identification of PBP2a-mediated beta-lactam resistance in human and animal clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. The assay was sensitive and specific, with all PBP2a-negative and PBP2a-positive strains testing negative and positive, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a in Human and Animal Staphylococcus intermedius Group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, A. R.; Burnham, C.-A. D.; Ford, B. A.; Lawhon, S. D.; McAllister, S K; Lonsway, D.; Albrecht, V; Jerris, R C; Rasheed, J K; Limbago, B.; Burd, E M; Westblade, L. F.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a rapid penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) detection assay, the Alere PBP2a culture colony test, was evaluated for identification of PBP2a-mediated beta-lactam resistance in human and animal clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. The assay was sensitive and specific, with all PBP2a-negative and PBP2a-positive strains testing negative and positive, respectively.

  12. Theoretical geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  13. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  14. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...... pathology, to biomarkers in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, to drug testing and targeted medicine....

  15. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  16. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  17. 个案理论模式在大学生弱势群体支持中的运用%Study on Application of Casework Theoretical Model in the Support for the Inferior Group of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田萍

    2012-01-01

    大学生弱势群体是在经济、心理、能力等方面处于弱势地位的群体。近年来,随着高等教育的快速发展,他们越来越引起人们的关注,其问题是教育发展进程中必须面对的问题。个案工作的不同理论模式对大学生弱势群体的支持起着不同的作用,理性情绪治疗模式可以纠正他们的非理性信念、人本治疗模式可以帮助他们自我成长、行为修正模式可以帮助他们建立正确的行为方式。不同个案工作理论模式的整合,可以有效地增强大学生弱势群体的社会功能,解决其问题。%The inferior group of College students refers to those students who are disadvantaged in the economic, psychological, capable and other aspects. With the rapid development of higher education in recent years, they arouse attention more and more. Their problems must be faced in the process of educational development. Dif- ferent casework theoretical models play different roles for inferior group of college students. Rational Emotive Therapy model can correct their irrational beliefs. Client - Centered Therapy can help them to self - growth. Be- havior Modification model can help them to establish a correct behavior. Integration of different theoretical models can enhance the social function for the inferior group of College students to solve their problems effectively.

  18. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  19. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  20. Group-Theoretical Aspects of Instantons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, C.; Roo, M. de; Sorba, P.

    1979-01-01

    We discuss the problem of embeddings in non-Abelian gauge theories. The (ir)redueibility of a gauge field configuration is characterized. For the specific case of instanton solutions we derive a practical criterion for SUn. In the general construction of self-dual solutions the reducibility of the g

  1. Right ventricular failure due to chronic pressure load : What have we learned in animal models since the NIH working group statement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Marinus A J; Dickinson, Michael G; Berger, Rolf M F; Bartelds, Beatrijs

    2015-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure determines outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension, congenital heart diseases and in left ventricular failure. In 2006, the Working Group on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Right Heart Failure of the NIH advocated the development of preclinical models to s

  2. “中国动漫梦”理论研究与实践探索%Theoretical Research of“Chinese Comic and Animation Dream”and Its Practical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏三强

    2014-01-01

    “中国动漫梦”作为一种新口号、新提法,它是以“中国梦”理论为指导,是动漫产业的“中国梦”,是中国为了实现从世界动漫大国向世界动漫强国跨越的“中国梦”。通过对“中国动漫梦”的内涵和特征、分类和嬗变等理论进行梳理和归纳,推动动漫学界深化对“中国动漫梦”内涵和实质的认识。为了让梦想照进现实,将“中国动漫梦”理论与实践相结合,在行动第一、实干第一的基础之上,提出“中国动漫梦”的实现路径:坚持国产动漫精品的发展之路,坚持“走出去、引进来”的发展之路,坚持中国动漫教育的发展之路,建立适应时代的品牌战略理念,建立创新型动漫企业商业模式。%“Chinese comic and animation dream”as a new slogan, a new formulation, it is based on“Chinese dream”theory, it is the“Chinese dream”of China’s animation industry, it is China in order to achieve the“Chinese dream” from the world’s superpower anime to anime world powers. Based on the connotation and characteristics, classification and evolvement of“Chinese comic and animation dream”theory are summarized and comb, to promote the animation community deepen the connotation and essence of the“Chinese comic and animation dream”.In order to let the dream into reality, this article will combine theory and practice of the“Chinese comic and animation dream”, on the basis of action first and doing first, put forward the realization path of the“Chinese comic and animation dream”: adhere to the road of development of domestic animation boutique, adhere to the road of development of“going out and bringing in”, adhere to the road of development of Chinese animation education, to establish a timely brand strategy idea, to establish innovative animation enterprise business model.

  3. Right ventricular failure due to chronic pressure load: What have we learned in animal models since the NIH working group statement?

    OpenAIRE

    Marinus A. J. Borgdorff; Dickinson, Michael G.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Bartelds, Beatrijs

    2015-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure determines outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension, congenital heart diseases and in left ventricular failure. In 2006, the Working Group on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Right Heart Failure of the NIH advocated the development of preclinical models to study the pathophysiology and pathobiology of RV failure. In this review, we summarize the progress of research into the pathobiology of RV failure and potential therapeutic interventions. The pictu...

  4. 群组模糊判断矩阵集结方法的理论分析%Theoretic Analysis of the Aggregated Approach to Group Decision Making with Multiple Fuzzy Judgement Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳萍; 樊治平

    2001-01-01

    An aggregated approach is proposed to analize the group decision making problem with multiple fuzzy judgement matrices. Under condition that multiple fuzzy judgement matrices are consistent for the same decision making problem, the theoretic basis of the aggregated approach is presented. Several important properties such as the relationships between the group fuzzy judgement matrix and fuzzy judgement matrix provided by every decision maker are given. The research results lay a solid foundation for studying rankings of alternatives based on the group fuzzy judgement matrix.%对群组模糊判断矩阵的集结方法进行了研究,在对同一决策问题的m个模糊判断矩阵是一致性的情况下,给出了加权集结方法的理论依据,并且进一步分析了关于群的判断矩阵与各决策者给出的判断矩阵之间关系的一些重要性质,从而为基于群的判断矩阵的方案排序问题打下了坚实的基础.

  5. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  6. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  7. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  8. Theoretical Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sorting has brought the analyst to the point of pent-up pressure to write: to see the months of work actualized in a “piece.” But this is only a personal pressure. The goal of grounded theory methodology, above all is to offer the results to the public, usually through one or more publications. We will focus on writing for publication, which is the most frequent way that the analyst can tell how people are “buying” what really matters in sociology, or in other fields.Both feedback on and use of publications will be the best evaluation of the analyst’s grounded theory. It will be his main source or criticism, constructive critique, and frequently of career rewards. In any case, he has to write to expand his audience beyond the limited number of close colleagues and students. Unless there is a publication, his work will be relegated to limited discussion, classroom presentation, or even private fantasy. The rigor and value of grounded theory work deserves publication. And many analysts have a stake in effecting wider publics, which makes their substantive grounded theory count.

  9. Theoretical geodesy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of research activities concerning theoretical geodesy performed in Poland in the period of 2011-2014. It contains the results of research on new methods of the parameter estimation, a study on robustness properties of the M-estimation, control network and deformation analysis, and geodetic time series analysis. The main achievements in the geodetic parameter estimation involve a new model of the M-estimation with probabilistic models of geodetic observations, a new Shift-Msplit estimation, which allows to estimate a vector of parameter differences and the Shift-Msplit(+ that is a generalisation of Shift-Msplit estimation if the design matrix A of a functional model has not a full column rank. The new algorithms of the coordinates conversion between the Cartesian and geodetic coordinates, both on the rotational and triaxial ellipsoid can be mentioned as a highlights of the research of the last four years. New parameter estimation models developed have been adopted and successfully applied to the control network and deformation analysis.

  10. Theoretical geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Kosek, Wiesław

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a summary of research activities concerning theoretical geodesy performed in Poland in the period of 2011-2014. It contains the results of research on new methods of the parameter estimation, a study on robustness properties of the M-estimation, control network and deformation analysis, and geodetic time series analysis. The main achievements in the geodetic parameter estimation involve a new model of the M-estimation with probabilistic models of geodetic observations, a new Shift-Msplit estimation, which allows to estimate a vector of parameter differences and the Shift-Msplit(+) that is a generalisation of Shift-Msplit estimation if the design matrix A of a functional model has not a full column rank. The new algorithms of the coordinates conversion between the Cartesian and geodetic coordinates, both on the rotational and triaxial ellipsoid can be mentioned as a highlights of the research of the last four years. New parameter estimation models developed have been adopted and successfully applied to the control network and deformation analysis. New algorithms based on the wavelet, Fourier and Hilbert transforms were applied to find time-frequency characteristics of geodetic and geophysical time series as well as time-frequency relations between them. Statistical properties of these time series are also presented using different statistical tests as well as 2nd, 3rd and 4th moments about the mean. The new forecasts methods are presented which enable prediction of the considered time series in different frequency bands.

  11. Advances in Animal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer

    2016-11-30

    This editorial endorses a diverse approach to the study of animal cognition and emphasizes the theoretical and applied gains that can be made by embracing this approach. This diversity emerges from cross-talk among scientists trained in a variety of backgrounds and theoretical approaches, who study a variety of topics with a range of species. By shifting from an anthropocentric focus on humans and our closest living relatives, and the historic reliance on the lab rat or pigeon, modern students of animal cognition have uncovered many fascinating facets of cognition in species ranging from insects to carnivores. Diversity in both topic and species of study will allow researchers to better understand the complex evolutionary forces giving rise to widely shared and unique cognitive processes. Furthermore, this increased understanding will translate into more effective strategies for managing wild and captive populations of nonhuman species.

  12. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  13. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  14. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  15. Theoretical Studies of Proton Radioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ldia S Ferreira; Enrico Maglione

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, we will discuss the most recent theoretical approaches developed by our group, to understand the mechanisms of decay by one proton emission, and the structure and shape of exotic nuclei at the limits of stability.

  16. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Nelemans, Gijs; Bours, Madelon

    2012-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of the different research groups and conclude that although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this cannot explain all the differences.

  17. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  18. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  19. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  20. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research.

  1. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  2. Theoretical Astrophysics at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Theoretical Astrophysics Group works on a broad range of topics ranging from string theory to data analysis in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The group is motivated by the belief that a deep understanding of fundamental physics is necessary to explain a wide variety of phenomena in the universe. During the three years 2001-2003 of our previous NASA grant, over 120 papers were written; ten of our postdocs went on to faculty positions; and we hosted or organized many workshops and conferences. Kolb and collaborators focused on the early universe, in particular and models and ramifications of the theory of inflation. They also studied models with extra dimensions, new types of dark matter, and the second order effects of super-horizon perturbations. S tebbins, Frieman, Hui, and Dodelson worked on phenomenological cosmology, extracting cosmological constraints from surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also worked on theoretical topics such as weak lensing, reionization, and dark energy. This work has proved important to a number of experimental groups [including those at Fermilab] planning future observations. In general, the work of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group has served as a catalyst for experimental projects at Fennilab. An example of this is the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Fennilab is now a member of SNAP, and much of the work done here is by people formerly working on the accelerator. We have created an environment where many of these people made transition from physics to astronomy. We also worked on many other topics related to NASA s focus: cosmic rays, dark matter, the Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect, the galaxy distribution in the universe, and the Lyman alpha forest. The group organized and hosted a number of conferences and workshop over the years covered by the grant. Among them were:

  3. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  4. Studies on functional groups of macro-soil animals in Daqing meadow steppe based on the new classification%大庆草甸草原区大型土壤动物功能类群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 邬天媛; 李景科; 张雪萍

    2013-01-01

    The study of soil fauna functional groups is important to the research of soil animal ecology. Many species have similar feeding habits and functions in a wide range of soil fauna, as well as in ecosystems. Species composition of soil fauna varies in different regions, however, there is a certain rule for them to respond to the environmental change. So soil fauna is regarded as a stable indicator to reflect changes in the environment. Researching functional groups of macrofauna is meaningful to reduce the complexity of soil fauna biodiversity, and increase the reliability of system analysis. However, very little work has been done with respect to functional categories of soil fauna in Chinese grassland ecosystems. In this paper, dynamic investigation of soil fauna was systematically done in six sites in Daqing meadow zone, which revealed compositions, characteristics and distribution law of macrofauna, response to environmental change and role of functional group. In this paper, based on the study of three function groups of soil animals in China, systematic investigation was done on soil fauna. Omnivore was divided into the original three groups, and the classification was supplemented and perfected. Thus, relatively complete function groups were formed, and soil fauna could be divided into saprophyte, herbivore, omnivore and predatory animals. The classification system of four functional groups was more scientific, accurate and operational than three previous functional group systems. In this survey, a total of 1432 soil animals were collected, which belonged to 39 categories, 4 classes and 3 phyla. There was a large number and low biomass in herbivore, which indicated that the size of this group was small. The horizontal distribution of soil fauna showed that saprophyte, herbivore and predatory animals were the dominant groups in stable environment, such as in the forest and in the slightly degraded pasture. The omnivore was the dominant groups in unstable

  5. Application of high-frequency ventilation to treatment of chemical-warfare casualties: Animal and theoretical studies (application of high-frequency transtracheal jet ventilation to treatment of chemical-warfare casualties). Final report, March 1983-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrecht, P.H.; Bryant, H.J.; Kyle, R.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of transtracheal jet ventilation in organophosphate-challenged animals. Preliminary studies were done in normal canines to define the effects of ventilator operating parameters on respiratory gas exchange. Nine normal dogs, anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, were ventilated through an eight gauge cricothyrotomy cannula using a controller that allowed separate setting of drive pressure, duty cycle, and frequency. Arterial (partial pressure of oxygen) and (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) were measured after achieving steady state gas exchange at 15-22 different combinations of drive pressure, duty cycle, and frequency in each dog. There were slight increases in PaCO2 and larger decreases in arterial oxygen partial pressure as frequency was increased from 10 to 200 cycles/min. Increases in drive pressure and duty cycle resulted in reductions in PaCO2 and increases in PaO2.

  6. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  7. Comparison of electron microscopy, ELISA, real time RT-PCR and insulated isothermal RT-PCR for the detection of Rotavirus group A (RVA) in feces of different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    There is no gold standard for detection of Rotavirus Group A (RVA), one of the main causes of diarrhea in neonatal animals. Sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays are available for RVA but require submission of the clinical samples to diagnostic laboratories. Patient-side immunoassays for RVA protein detection have shown variable results, particularly with samples from unintended species. A sensitive and specific test for detection of RVA on the farm would facilitate rapid management decisions. The insulated isothermal RT-PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay works in a portable machine to allow sensitive and specific on-site testing. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a commercially available RT-iiPCR assay for RVA detection in feces from different animal species. This assay was compared to an in-house rtRT-PCR assay and a commercially available rtRT-PCR kit, as well as an ELISA and EM for RVA detection. All three PCR assays targeted the well-conserved NSP5 gene. Clinical fecal samples from 108 diarrheic animals (mainly cattle and horses) were tested. The percentage of positive samples by ELISA, EM, in-house rtRT-PCR, commercial rtRT-PCR, and RT-iiPCR was 29.4%, 31%, 36.7%, 51.4%, 56.9%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was high (81.3-100%) in samples containing high viral loads. The sensitivity of the RT-iiPCR assay appeared to be higher than the commercially available rtRT-PCR assay, with a limit of detection (95% confidence index) of 3-4 copies of in vitro transcribed dsRNA. In conclusion, the user-friendly, field-deployable RT-iiPCR system holds substantial promise for on-site detection of RVA.

  8. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  9. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  10. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  11. Escala de bienestar de Ryff: análisis comparativo de los modelos teóricos en distintos grupos de edad Ryff scale of well-being: factorial structure of theoretical models in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vera-Villarroel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La escala de bienestar psicológico surge a partir del modelo multidimensional propuesto por Ryff (1989. Pese a su amplia utilización, su estructura teórica inicial no ha sido confirmada completamente, debido a que se han encontrado otro tipo de soluciones factoriales distintas a las 6 dimensiones propuestas por la autora. Estas divergencias podrían estar relacionadas al tipo de muestras y poblaciones utilizadas. Ante esto, la siguiente investigación compara el ajuste factorial de los modelos tradicionalmente aplicados de corrección en distintos grupos en edad adulta. Se describen las propiedades psicométricas de la adaptación al español realizada por Díaz et al. (2006, analizando los niveles de confiabilidad (consistencia interna y estabilidad temporal y estructura factorial confirmatoria, en datos de 1646 personas entre 18 y 90 años de edad. Se encuentran diferencias en los indicadores de confiabilidad para la escala total y las dimensiones, así como en los indicadores de bondad de ajuste dependiendo del grupo de edad. El modelo que presenta mejores indicadores de ajuste en la mayoría de los rangos etarios evaluados fue el de seis factores de primer orden.The scale of psychological well-being arises from the multidimensional model proposed by Ryff (1989. Despite its wide use, its initial theoretical structure has not been completely confirmed because other factorial solutions which are different from those 6 dimensions proposed by the author have been found. These differences may be related to the type of sample and population used. Given this fact, the current study compares the adjustment factor of correction models traditionally used in different groups of adults. We describe the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation done by Díaz et al. (2006 and analyze the levels of reliability (internal consistency and temporal stability and confirmatory factorial structure with data from 1,646 people aged from 18 to 90 years old

  12. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  13. Evolutionary exploitation of design options by the first animals with hard skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R D; Shearman, R M; Stewart, G W

    2000-05-19

    The set of viable design elements available for animals to use in building skeletons has been fully exploited. Analysis of animal skeletons in relation to the multivariate, theoretical "Skeleton Space" has shown that a large proportion of these options are used in each phylum. Here, we show that structural elements deployed in the skeletons of Burgess Shale animals (Middle Cambrian) incorporate 146 of 182 character pairs defined in this morphospace. Within 15 million years of the appearance of crown groups of phyla with substantial hard parts, at least 80 percent of skeletal design elements recognized among living and extinct marine metazoans were exploited.

  14. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  15. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  16. Collective animal behavior from Bayesian estimation and probability matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pérez-Escudero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups make movement decisions that depend, among other factors, on social interactions with other group members. Our present understanding of social rules in animal collectives is mainly based on empirical fits to observations, with less emphasis in obtaining first-principles approaches that allow their derivation. Here we show that patterns of collective decisions can be derived from the basic ability of animals to make probabilistic estimations in the presence of uncertainty. We build a decision-making model with two stages: Bayesian estimation and probabilistic matching. In the first stage, each animal makes a Bayesian estimation of which behavior is best to perform taking into account personal information about the environment and social information collected by observing the behaviors of other animals. In the probability matching stage, each animal chooses a behavior with a probability equal to the Bayesian-estimated probability that this behavior is the most appropriate one. This model derives very simple rules of interaction in animal collectives that depend only on two types of reliability parameters, one that each animal assigns to the other animals and another given by the quality of the non-social information. We test our model by obtaining theoretically a rich set of observed collective patterns of decisions in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a shoaling fish species. The quantitative link shown between probabilistic estimation and collective rules of behavior allows a better contact with other fields such as foraging, mate selection, neurobiology and psychology, and gives predictions for experiments directly testing the relationship between estimation and collective behavior.

  17. A Study of Teaching Practice and Innovation Based on Interest Groups of Animation Major%基于兴趣小组的动漫专业教改实践与创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏三强; 陈秋

    2012-01-01

    通过推行与生产劳动和社会实践相结合的“边学边做、边做边学”学习模式,把校企合作、工学结合作为高等职业教育动漫人才培养模式改革的重要切人点,充分发挥动漫兴趣小组在教改实践中的“以点带面”作用,改革教学方法和手段,融“教、学、做”为一体,强化学生动漫设计与制作能力的培养,开展灵活多样的“边学边做”、“边做边学”教改实践活动,推进动漫专业的建设与发展,培养符合社会需求的高端技能型动漫人才。%Through the implementation of the learning mode of "learning through doing and doing while learning", we should start with reform of personnel training which stresses the cooperation between college and enterprises and combination between work and learning, fully develop the interest groups~ role of fanning out from a point to an area in the teaching re- form, innovate our teaching methods and means and combine teaching, learning and doing into one, enhance the training of students' ability of animation design and production, and organize diversified activities around learning through doing and doing while learning in an attempt to drive the construction and development of animation major and train personnel with high tech- niques in accordance with social demand.

  18. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    We love movies because we like to jump from our “reality” to live a dream, a parallel universe that inspires us. We long for adventure, excitement and answers to quests… That’s the magic of cinema; it makes you believe what you see and over all, FEEL it. As Antonio Damasio said-“ we´re feeling...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...

  20. Produção animal e vegetal em pastagem de Cynodon manejada sob diferentes ofertas de forragem por ovinos de dois grupos genéticos Animal and vegetal production of a Cynodon pasture managed under different forage allowance by wethers of two breeding groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Souza Soriano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o potencial produtivo de uma pastagem de Cynodon dactylon var.dactylon manejada em um sistema de pastoreio com lotação contínua com ovinos. Testou-se o efeito de três níveis de oferta (3, 6 ou 9kg de matéria seca (MS 100kg-1 de peso corporal (PC de lâminas foliares verdes (OFLV sobre os atributos da pastagem e sobre o desempenho de borregos de dois grupos genéticos (Texel × Ile de France e Lacaune × Texel × Ile de France. O período experimental foi de 53 dias sendo utilizados 18 borregos de cada grupo genético distribuídos ao acaso em nove piquetes experimentais (três por tratamento. A OFLV real foi próxima à pretendida em cada tratamento (i.e. 3,2, 6,7 e 9,5% do PC. A massa de forragem (média de 3474kg de MS ha-1 teores de MS, fibra em detergente neutro e proteína bruta das amostras coletadas por simulação de pastejo (médias de 49,4, 76,1 e 12,9, respectivamente não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. A taxa de acúmulo de lâminas foliares verdes aumentou (PThe productive potential of a Cynodon dactylon var.dactylon pasture managed under continuous stocking with wethers was evaluated. The effect of three (3, 6 or 9kg of dry matter (DM 100kg-1 of body weight (BW green leaf allowances (GLAL on pasture attributes and animal performance of two genetic groups (Texel × Ile de France and Lacaune × Texel × Ile de France was tested. Experiment was carried out through a 53 days period with 18 wethers of each genetic group randomly distributed in nine pasture plots (three pasture plots per treatment. Actual GLAL were near to those planned for each treatment (i.e. 3.2, 6.7 e 9.5% of BW. Forage mass (mean of 3474kg of DM ha-1 and the content of DM, neutral detergent fibre and crude protein of samples taken through grazing simulation (mean of 49.4, 76.1 and 12.9%, respectively were not affected by treatments. The green leaf growth rate increased (P<0.05 from 12.1 to 20.5kg of DM ha-1day-1 and stocking rate decreased (P<0

  1. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  2. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sonya P; Broom, Donald M

    2009-11-01

    The assessment of animal welfare relates to investigations of how animals try to cope with their environment, and how easy or how difficult it is for them to do so. The use of rigorous scientific methods to assess this has grown over the past few decades, and so our understanding of the needs of animals has improved during this time. Much of the work in the field of animal welfare has been conducted on farm animals, but it is important to consider how the methods and approaches used in assessing farm animal welfare have been, and can be, adapted and applied to the measurement of welfare in animals in other domains, such as in zoos. This is beneficial to our understanding of both the theoretical knowledge, and the practicability of methods. In this article, some of the commonly-used methods for measuring animal welfare will be discussed, as well as some practical considerations in assessing the welfare of zoo animals.

  3. Super-heavy pyrite (δ34Spyr > δ34SCAS) in the terminal Proterozoic Nama Group, Southern Namibia: Implications for atmospheric oxygen and seawater sulfate at the dawn of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. B.; Fike, D. A.; Pratt, L.; Lyons, T. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur isotope analysis (δ34S) of well-preserved carbonates spanning a ca. 10 Myr interval of the terminal Proterozoic Nama Group in Namibia, southwestern Africa, reveals that pyrite is consistently enriched in 34S relative to coeval seawater sulfate as preserved in carbonate associated sulfate (CAS). This observation is not consistent with the current paradigm for interpreting the geologic record of sulfur isotopes, which assumes that pyrite δ34S (δ34Spyr) will be equal to or less than co-occurring CAS δ34S (δ34SCAS) due to the kinetic isotope effect of bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) that favors the lighter isotope of sulfur (32S) during sulfur-oxygen bond-breakage. Although the precise mechanism of pyrite enrichment is debatable, our combined observations of extremely enriched pyrite, low concentrations of CAS and pyrite, and high frequency fluctuations in δ34SCAS and δ34Spyr throughout the Nama Group carbonates point to very low concentrations of sulfate in portions of the terminal Proterozoic ocean. The additional occurrence of 34S-enriched pyrite in contemporaneous terminal Proterozoic sections from Poland and Canada reveal that low seawater sulfate may have been widespread in the oceans at this time. However, the absence of such extremely 34S-enriched pyrites from well-preserved, coeval carbonate sections in Oman suggests that such conditions were not globally uniform. Low, geographically varied concentrations of marine sulfate in terminal Proterozoic time are consistent with elevated and geographically varied concentrations of reactive, non-pyritized iron in marine shales recently reported for this interval, suggesting that high dissolved Fe(II)/low O2 conditions persisted in a range of marine facies as late as 543 Ma - tens of millions of years after the origin of animals yet prior to their major diversification in Early Cambrian time.

  4. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  5. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Proposal for Performance Research, in response to the call Turning Animal: As a part of a 2015 group exhibition exploring the history and local myths of a woman living in a Danish heath landscape 150 years ago, artist Charlotte Grum connected herself to a live sheep for 4 hours a day, 5 days a we...... support the written account – together with graphic figurations of the many human and non-human actors playing a part of the mattering of “Becoming Sheep”, with an equal intention of performing multiple positions within and through the text......., for 5 weeks, turning the two into a hybrid relational assemblage, intra-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site......-specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement...

  6. Neuroethics and animals: methods and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija; Häyry, Matti

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the six other contributions in the Neuroethics and Animals special section. In addition, it discusses the methodological and theoretical problems of interdisciplinary fields. The article suggests that interdisciplinary approaches without established methodological and theoretical bases are difficult to assess scientifically. This might cause these fields to expand without actually advancing.

  7. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  8. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  9. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  10. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  11. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  12. Social Information Transmission in Animals: Lessons from Studies of Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; MacIntosh, Andrew; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to use information provided by others to guide behavior is a widespread phenomenon in animal societies. A standard paradigm to test if and/or how animals use and transfer social information is through social diffusion experiments, by which researchers observe how information spreads within a group, sometimes by seeding new behavior in the population. In this article, we review the context, methodology and products of such social diffusion experiments. Our major focus is the transmission of information from an individual (or group thereof) to another, and the factors that can enhance or, more interestingly, inhibit it. We therefore also discuss reasons why social transmission sometimes does not occur despite being expected to. We span a full range of mechanisms and processes, from the nature of social information itself and the cognitive abilities of various species, to the idea of social competency and the constraints imposed by the social networks in which animals are embedded. We ultimately aim at a broad reflection on practical and theoretical issues arising when studying how social information spreads within animal groups. PMID:27540368

  13. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values...... and experiences. Meat producers are interested in the stress animals endure because it affects meat quality. Pigs that arrive at slaughterhouses are more sensitive than usual for several reasons. In some cases, pigs are transported for long distances. Not all animals are used to transportation. Upon their arrival......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones (chemical group 9 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 9 consists of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones, of which 30 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxovaleric acid, ethyl lactate, butyl lactate, butyl-O-butyryllactate, hex-3-enyl lactate, hexyl lactate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl 4-oxovalerate, diethylsuccinate and diethyl malonate are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use levels proposed when used as feed flavourings; octano-1,4-lactone, nonano-1,4-lactone, decano-1,4-lactone and undecano-1,4-lactone are safe at 20 mg/kg complete feed; butyro-1,4-lactone, pentano-1,4-lactone, hexano-1,4-lactone, heptano-1,4-lactone, octano-1,5-lactone, nonano-1,5-lactone, decano-1,5-lactone and undecano-1,5-lactone at 5 mg/kg complete feed; dodecano-1,4-lactone, dodecano-1,5-lactone, tetradecano-1,5-lactone, and pentadecano-1,15-lactone at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and of 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 9 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitizers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  15. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatible grouping. 3.7 Section 3.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  16. Animation Curriculum Group Construction in Secondary Vocational School Based on “Skill Integration”%基于“技能集成”的中职动漫专业课程群建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵惠敏

    2016-01-01

    “技能集成”是指为了完善和实现某一专业技能的系统培养,而将本专业或跨专业课程群中技能知识联系紧密、内在逻辑性强、同属于一个专业培养范畴内的系列技能根据专业培养目标进行重新整合。中职动漫专业的学生需要既有美术方面的技能,又要具备足够的计算机软件应用技能,因此人才培养中需要进行技能集成,课程群建设应以“技能集成”为核心,按照导向性、兼容性、完整性和独立性四原则,并由能力模块来设置课程和分配学时,只有这样才能使中职动漫专业培养出符合市场导向的有用人才。%“Skill integration”is an indispensable process in vocational schools with the target of improving and achieving a systematic develop-ment of a certain professional skill.According to the professional training goal,it re-integrates the closely-linked series of skills with clear inner logic which belong to the same professional training category in or across the curriculum group.Vocational students majoring in anima-tion need both art skills and sufficient computer software application skills.Therefore integrate skills is necessary in personnel training.In curriculum group construction,we should take “skill integration”as the core and follow the four principles of guidance,compatibility,integ-rity and independence.The setting of the curriculum and distribution of school hours should be formulated separately by the students'ability. Only in this way can we cultivate useful personnel to meet the needs of the market.

  17. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki

    2008-05-01

    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865. At this point, the public was already asking that the pain and distress of experimental animals be reduced. For this, scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch in 1959 proposed the principles of alternatives to animal experimentation, the "3Rs". Since that time, animal welfare advocates have promoted the 3Rs concept in biomedical research communities. However, cruel animal experiments have continued and there are reports of radical extremists showing their opposition by invasion, arson, theft and even bombing of institutions involved, resulting in killing of the animals. SHAC, one extremist group believed to be animal welfare activitists was recognized as a terrorist group after the 9.11 tragedy in USA and the government viewed their activities very seriously. In 2001, British animal extremists invaded Japanese universities and stole laboratory resources; one individual was arrested and sentenced to prison for three years; Japanese who assisted in the incident were arrested and one was sentenced for one year. In 2006, SHAC USA members were prosecuted and sentenced for up to 6 years for their terrorism activities including arson. We need to consider the background of these activities which are financially supported by animal welfare advocates. The way we, as scientists who conduct such experiments can respond is by promoting alternatives to this experimentation. In Japan, the animal welfare law was revised in 2005 stressing the importance of 3Rs in scientific activities with animals. The promotion of 3Rs should be strengthened in the pharmaceutical community.

  18. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  20. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  1. Animal-assisted intervention and social skills strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis describe animal-assisted interventions, more precisely, the significance of animal-assisted interventions for strengthening of social skills. Theoretical part includes a detailed presentation of the benefits of therapeutic dog in work with vulnerable populations. I focused on delimitation of the term animal-assisted interventions which includes animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activity and the differences and similarities between them. I continued with therapeuti...

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols and esters with esters containing tertiary alcohols ethers (chemical group 6 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 6 consists of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols and esters with esters containing tertiary alcohols ethers, of which 13 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The high use level proposed by the applicant for linalool (25 mg/kg complete feed is safe for salmonids, veal calves, cattle for fattening and pets (excluding cats without a margin of safety with the exception of dogs (SF = 1.4. The safe use level for pigs and dairy cows is 20, for piglets 12 and for poultry 10 mg/kg complete feed. The high use level of 5 mg/kg complete feed for linalyl acetate, linalyl butyrate, linalyl formate, linalyl propionate, linalyl isobutyrate, terpineol, α-terpineol and terpineol acetate and 4-terpinenol is safe for all species with a margin of safety of 1.2 to 12. For nerolidol, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4-methylphenylpropan-2-ol, the maximum safe concentration is 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species. The absence of a margin of safety would not allow the simultaneous administration in feed and water for drinking of the following compounds: linalool, nerolidol, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4methylphenylpropan-2-ol. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 6 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitisers. All compounds of CG 6 are predicted to be safe to the soil compartment when used at levels safe to the target species. Using predictions based on chemical structure, 2-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-ol and 2-(4-methylphenylpropan-2-ol were estimated to be safe to aquatic compartments. In the absence of experimental data, safety to aquatic compartments could not be established for linalyl butyrate, linalyl isobutyrate, terpineol acetate, 4

  3. C-Cl activation by group IV metal oxides in solid argon matrixes: matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and theoretical investigations of the reactions of MOx (M = Ti, Zr; x = 1, 2) with CH3Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanying

    2013-07-11

    Reactions of the ground-state titanium and zirconium monoxide and dioxide molecules with monochloromethane in excess argon matrixes have been investigated in solid argon by infrared absorption spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations. The results show that the ground-state MOx (M = Ti, Zr; x = 1, 2) molecules react with CH3Cl to first form the weakly bound MO(CH3Cl) and MO2(CH3Cl) complexes. The MO(CH3Cl) complexes can rearrange to the CH3M(O)Cl isomers with the Cl atom of CH3Cl coordination to the metal center of MO upon UV light irradiation (λ MOx mechanism was interpreted by the calculated potential energy profiles.

  4. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  5. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  6. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  7. A basin redox transect at the dawn of animal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Erik A.; Halverson, Galen P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Johnston, David T.

    2013-06-01

    Multiple eukaryotic clades make their first appearance in the fossil record between ~810 and 715 Ma. Molecular clock studies suggest that the origin of animal multicellularity may have been part of this broader eukaryotic radiation. Animals require oxygen to fuel their metabolism, and low oxygen levels have been hypothesized to account for the temporal lag between metazoan origins and the Cambrian radiation of large, ecologically diverse animals. Here, paleoredox conditions were investigated in the Fifteenmile Group, Ogilvie Mountains, Yukon, Canada, which hosts an 811 Ma ash horizon and spans the temporal window that captures the inferred origin and early evolution of animals. Iron-based redox proxies, redox-sensitive trace elements, organic carbon percentages and pyrite sulfur isotopes were analyzed in seven stratigraphic sections along two parallel basin transects. These data suggest that for this basin, oxygenated shelf waters overlay generally anoxic deeper waters. The anoxic water column was dominantly ferruginous, but brief periods of euxinia likely occurred. These oscillations coincide with changes in total organic carbon, suggesting euxinia was primarily driven by increased organic carbon loading. Overall, these data are consistent with proposed quantitative constraints on Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen being greater than 1% of modern levels, but less than present levels. Comparing these oxygen levels against the likely oxygen requirements of the earliest animals, both theoretical considerations and the ecology of modern oxygen-deficient settings suggest that the inferred oxygen levels in the mixed layer would not have been prohibitive to the presence of sponges, eumetazoans or bilaterians. Thus the evolution of the earliest animals was probably not limited by the low absolute oxygen levels that may have characterized Neoproterozoic oceans, although these inferred levels would constrain animals to very small sizes and low metabolic rates.

  8. Pain in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Lynne U

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments in the study of pain in animals have demonstrated the potential for pain perception in a variety of wholly aquatic species such as molluscs, crustaceans and fish. This allows us to gain insight into how the ecological pressures and differential life history of living in a watery medium can yield novel data that inform the comparative physiology and evolution of pain. Nociception is the simple detection of potentially painful stimuli usually accompanied by a reflex withdrawal response, and nociceptors have been found in aquatic invertebrates such as the sea slug Aplysia. It would seem adaptive to have a warning system that allows animals to avoid life-threatening injury, yet debate does still continue over the capacity for non-mammalian species to experience the discomfort or suffering that is a key component of pain rather than a nociceptive reflex. Contemporary studies over the last 10 years have demonstrated that bony fish possess nociceptors that are similar to those in mammals; that they demonstrate pain-related changes in physiology and behaviour that are reduced by painkillers; that they exhibit higher brain activity when painfully stimulated; and that pain is more important than showing fear or anti-predator behaviour in bony fish. The neurophysiological basis of nociception or pain in fish is demonstrably similar to that in mammals. Pain perception in invertebrates is more controversial as they lack the vertebrate brain, yet recent research evidence confirms that there are behavioural changes in response to potentially painful events. This review will assess the field of pain perception in aquatic species, focusing on fish and selected invertebrate groups to interpret how research findings can inform our understanding of the physiology and evolution of pain. Further, if we accept these animals may be capable of experiencing the negative experience of pain, then the wider implications of human use of these animals should be considered.

  9. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  10. 湖南动漫破解“集而不群”组建产业集团的对策分析%Analysis on Countermeasures of Breaking Situation of “Concentration but not Grouping”in Hunan's Animation and Building Industry Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征

    2015-01-01

    There is obvious phenomenon of “concentration but not grouping”in Hunan’s Animation by the limit of economy, policy,culture and other factors.During the deep adjustment period of the national animation industry,Hunan's animation needs to be flexibly guided by industry chain integration model such as horizontal integration,vertical integration,industry chain amalgamation,merge and acquisition,separation and alliance etc.to adapt animation industry.Setting up animation in-dustry group is the way to adapt the developing tendency of the animation industry.%受经济、政策与文化等因素的限制,湖南动漫存在较为明显的“集而不群”现象,在全国动漫产业发展进入深度调整期,湖南动漫产业需要灵活参照横向一体化、纵向一体化、产业链融合与并购式、拆分式、联盟式等产业链整合模式,通过组建动漫产业集团,适应动漫产业发展趋势。

  11. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  12. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  13. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: The World of Animals, Animal Life, Four Legged and Otherwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This instructional package contains three animal life units developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program. "The World of Animals" is a survey course of the animal kingdom (excluding man) and involves the students in many laboratory investigations and group activities. Typical animals of South Florida and unusual animals of the…

  14. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  16. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  17. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  18. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    2010-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  20. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    (Pcritical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (PResearchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical......A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal...... stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members...

  1. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  2. Order-theoretical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Richmond

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Order-theoretically connected posets are introduced and applied to create the notion of T-connectivity in ordered topological spaces. As special cases T-connectivity contains classical connectivity, order-connectivity, and link-connectivity.

  3. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes; Cornou, Cécile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  4. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  5. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  6. Theoretical physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, VL

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present, on the one hand various topics in theoretical physics in depth - especially topics related to electrodynamics - and on the other hand to show how these topics find applications in various aspects of astrophysics. The first text on theoretical physics and astrophysical applications, it covers many recent advances including those in X-ray, &ggr;-ray and radio-astronomy, with comprehensive coverage of the literature

  7. Theoretical and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Computer-based and theoretical approaches to chemical problems can provide atomistic understanding of complex processes at the molecular level. Examples ranging from rates of ligand-binding reactions in proteins to structural and energetic investigations of diastereomers relevant to organo-catalysis are discussed in the following. They highlight the range of application of theoretical and computational methods to current questions in chemical research.

  8. The European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godby, Rex

    2007-03-01

    The ETSF (www.etsf.eu) is being created as a permanent output of the EU-funded Nanoquanta Network of Excellence (www.nanoquanta.eu, 2004-8), which joins 10 groups and over 100 researchers in research on the theory and simulation of spectroscopy of electrons in matter, and related excited-state electronic properties including quantum transport. The ETSF is intended to contribute significantly to nanoscience and nanotechnology through the development and application of theoretical spectroscopy, involving close collaboration between theorists (the existing Nanoquanta groups together with further theoretical groups) and a new community of experimental and industrial researchers who wish to apply modern theories of spectroscopy. In this talk I shall review some of the scientific output of the project so far, including the development of new ideas and techniques in many-body perturbation theory and time-dependent density-functional theory, and their application to a variety of prototype and actual systems including quantum transport in nanostructures, optical absorption in biological molecules and advanced materials, optical properties of nanoclusters and nanotubes, non-linear optical response, and spectroscopies of complex surfaces. I shall also briefly describe the network's integration activities, including code interoperability and modularity, training of internal and external researchers, and the legal, financial and organizational preparations for the ETSF.

  9. A Theoretical Study of the Relationships between Electronic Structure and CB1 and CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Binding Affinity in a Group of 1-Aryl-5-(1-H-pyrrol-1-yl-1-H-pyrazole-3-carboxamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salgado-Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a search for model-based relationships between hCB1 and hCB2 receptor binding affinity and molecular structure for a group of 1-aryl-5-(1-H-pyrrol-1-yl-1-H-pyrazole-3-carboxamides. The wave functions and local atomic reactivity indices were obtained at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p levels of theory with full geometry optimization. Interaction pharmacophores were generated for both receptors. The main conclusions of this work are as follows. (1 We obtained statistically significant equations relating the variation of hCB1 and hCB2 receptor binding affinities with the variation of definite sets of local atomic reactivity indices. (2 The interaction of the molecules with the hCB1 and hCB2 receptors seems to be highly complex and mainly orbital controlled. (3 The interaction mechanisms seem to be different for each type of receptor. This study, contrarily to the statistically backed ones, is able to provide a microscopic insight of the mechanisms involved in the binding process.

  10. Inductive effect of methyl group in a series of methylated indoles: A graph theoretical analysis in the light of density functional theory and correlation with experimental charge transfer transition energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit S Tiwary; Asok K Mukherjee

    2013-07-01

    The inductive effect of methyl group has been quantified by expressing highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and HOMO-1 energies of indole and a series of methylated indoles using a combination of graph theory (GT) and the Coulson-Longuett-Higgins perturbation method. By correlating these expressions with the corresponding Kohn-Sham orbital energies of the indoles obtained by density functional theory (DFT) calculation at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-31++G(d,p) levels of theory, the inductive effect parameter ℎ has been estimated; the Coulomb integral of -conjugated carbon atom also comes out from the analysis. A correlation of the GT results with the HOMO and HOMO-1 energies obtained by the HF/STO-3G method yield almost the same values of ℎ and . Finally, when these estimated ℎ and are used to calculate the vertical ionization potentials of the methylated indoles in the series, an excellent correlation with experimental charge transfer transition energies of their molecular complexes with tetracyanoethylene is obtained which complies with Mulliken’s theory of charge transfer.

  11. A focus on small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Jeremy

    2016-07-16

    After qualifying 25 years ago, Jeremy Stewart worked at the RSPCA's Harmsworth Hospital during the years it featured in the BBC television programme Animal Hospital. Having moved to a large group practice, his involvement in the charity sector is now as a trustee of the Blue Cross.

  12. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  13. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  14. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  15. Definably amenable NIP groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chernikov, Artem; Simon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We study definably amenable NIP groups. We develop a theory of generics, showing that various definitions considered previously coincide, and study invariant measures. Applications include: characterization of regular ergodic measures, a proof of the conjecture of Petrykowski connecting existence of bounded orbits with definable amenability in the NIP case, and the Ellis group conjecture of Newelski and Pillay connecting the model-theoretic connected component of an NIP group with the ideal s...

  16. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  17. Animal Encounters in Environmental Education Research: Responding to the "Question of the Animal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Jan; Watson, Gavan P. L.; Russell, Constance L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Fawcett, Leesa; Kuhl, Gail; Russell, Joshua; van der Waal, Marlon; Warkentin, Traci

    2010-01-01

    The "question of the animal" represents an area of emergent interest in the environmental education field, as researchers critically consider human-animal relations and animal advocacy in their work. Following a group discussion at the 10th Seminar in Health and Environmental Education Research, the authors of this paper share experiences,…

  18. The Basic Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Abraham

    Cosmology is by now a mature experimental science. We are privileged to live at a time when the story of genesis (how the Universe started and developed) can be critically explored by direct observations. Looking deep into the Universe through powerful telescopes, we can see images of the Universe when it was younger because of the finite time it takes light to travel to us from distant sources. Existing data sets include an image of the Universe when it was 0.4 million years old (in the form of the cosmic microwave background), as well as images of individual galaxies when the Universe was older than a billion years. But there is a serious challenge: in between these two epochs was a period when the Universe was dark, stars had not yet formed, and the cosmic microwave background no longer traced the distribution of matter. And this is precisely the most interesting period, when the primordial soup evolved into the rich zoo of objects we now see. The observers are moving ahead along several fronts. The first involves the construction of large infrared telescopes on the ground and in space, that will provide us with new photos of the first galaxies. Current plans include ground-based telescopes which are 24-42 m in diameter, and NASA's successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, called the James Webb Space Telescope. In addition, several observational groups around the globe are constructing radio arrays that will be capable of mapping the three-dimensional distribution of cosmic hydrogen in the infant Universe. These arrays are aiming to detect the long-wavelength (redshifted 21-cm) radio emission from hydrogen atoms. The images from these antenna arrays will reveal how the non-uniform distribution of neutral hydrogen evolved with cosmic time and eventually was extinguished by the ultra-violet radiation from the first galaxies. Theoretical research has focused in recent years on predicting the expected signals for the above instruments and motivating these ambitious

  19. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  20. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  1. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  2. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  3. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  4. Reflections on theoretical pragmatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a critical survey of theoretical pragmatics in contemporary linguistics. Among the topics that are addressed in the essay include the Anglo-American, and European Continental schools of thought;neo-Gricean pragmatic, and Relevance theories, the pragmatics-semantics interface; and the pragmatics-syntax interface.

  5. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  6. The Research of Japanese Animation Industry Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海光

    2013-01-01

    China owns the largest animation audience group in the world, while our native animation market had been long occupied by Japanese and American animation products. After researching some assuming solutions of that embarrassing situation on Chinese animation industry, this one continues to state the proved successful mode of Japanese animation industry. After many decades of improvement, a mature and healthy industry chain had been built up. Nowadays, there is no doubt that Japanese animation industry is the most successful mode in the world. So we are looking forward to find some valuable successful experiences and make better change accordingly. And dur-ing the following research, writer of this thesis would show some visiting on Japanese local animation companies, and more details on their business mode.

  7. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  10. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Katz, Emmanuel [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Rebbi, Claudio [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Glashow, Sheldon [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Pi, So-Young [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  11. Animal density and track counts: understanding the nature of observations based on animal movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Keeping

    Full Text Available Counting animals to estimate their population sizes is often essential for their management and conservation. Since practitioners frequently rely on indirect observations of animals, it is important to better understand the relationship between such indirect indices and animal abundance. The Formozov-Malyshev-Pereleshin (FMP formula provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the relationship between animal track counts and the true density of species. Although this analytical method potentially has universal applicability wherever animals are readily detectable by their tracks, it has long been unique to Russia and remains widely underappreciated. In this paper, we provide a test of the FMP formula by isolating the influence of animal travel path tortuosity (i.e., convolutedness on track counts. We employed simulations using virtual and empirical data, in addition to a field test comparing FMP estimates with independent estimates from line transect distance sampling. We verify that track counts (total intersections between animals and transects are determined entirely by density and daily movement distances. Hence, the FMP estimator is theoretically robust against potential biases from specific shapes or patterns of animal movement paths if transects are randomly situated with respect to those movements (i.e., the transects do not influence animals' movements. However, detectability (the detection probability of individual animals is not determined simply by daily travel distance but also by tortuosity, so ensuring that all intersections with transects are counted regardless of the number of individual animals that made them becomes critical for an accurate density estimate. Additionally, although tortuosity has no bearing on mean track encounter rates, it does affect encounter rate variance and therefore estimate precision. We discuss how these fundamental principles made explicit by the FMP formula have widespread implications for

  12. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  13. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  15. The Function of HumAnimAllegory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Meighoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical reading of the function of the animal-human allegory or the “humanimallegory” in both the animated films Animal Farm and Chicken Run. Based on George Orwell’s novel of the same name, Animal Farm provides an allegorical representation of the Russian Revolution and the rise of Stalinism in the Soviet Union by relaying Orwell’s story of a revolution led by a group of farm animals and its aftermath. Animal Farm ultimately reduces its fictional animal characters to simple metaphors for real human subjects, thus serving the most common function of the animal-human allegory in literature as well as film. In contrast, improvising on the many prisoner-of-war films that were produced during the first few decades following World War II, Chicken Run tells the story of a group of chickens who attempt to escape from an egg farm. Chicken Run complicates the function of the animal-human allegory, though, by resisting the allegorical reduction of its fictional animal characters to simple metaphors for real human subjects. By presenting a critical reading of these two different films, this article suggests that the literary concept of allegory itself remains circumscribed within the philosophical tradition of humanism.

  16. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    evolution equation with Hamiltonians which may possess discrete , continuous, and mixed spectrum. For such a quantum system, the Hamiltonian operator...study of classical linear and nonlinear systems, which proves to be very useful in understanding the design problems such as disturbance decoupling...developed by Kunita can then be implemented to establish controllability conditions for the original time-dependent Schrodinger control problem. The end

  17. A group theoretic approach to shear-free radiating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, G. Z.; Maharaj, S. D.; Govinder, K. S.

    2015-10-01

    A systematic analysis of the junction condition, relating the radial pressure with the heat flow in a shear-free relativistic radiating star, is undertaken. This is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation in general. We obtain the Lie point symmetries that leave the boundary condition invariant. Using a linear combination of the symmetries, we transform the junction condition into ordinary differential equations. We present several new exact solutions to the junction condition. In each case we can identify the exact solution with a Lie point generator. Some of the solutions obtained satisfy the linear barotropic equation of state. As a special case we regain the conformally flat models which were found previously. Our analysis highlights the interplay between Lie algebras, nonlinear differential equations and application to relativistic astrophysics.

  18. A group theoretic approach to shear-free radiating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Abebe, G; Govinder, K S

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the junction condition, relating the radial pressure with the heat flow in a shear-free relativistic radiating star, is undertaken. This is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation in general. We obtain the Lie point symmetries that leave the boundary condition invariant. Using a linear combination of the symmetries, we transform the junction condition into ordinary differential equations. We present several new exact solutions to the junction condition. In each case we can identify the exact solution with a Lie point generator. Some of the solutions obtained satisfy the linear barotropic equation of state. As a special case we regain conformally flat models which were found previously. Our analysis highlights the interplay between Lie algebras, nonlinear differential equations and application to relativistic astrophysics.

  19. Phase space picture of quantum mechanics group theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the theory and applications of the Wigner phase space distribution function and its symmetry properties. The book explains why the phase space picture of quantum mechanics is needed, in addition to the conventional Schrödinger or Heisenberg picture. It is shown that the uncertainty relation can be represented more accurately in this picture. In addition, the phase space picture is shown to be the natural representation of quantum mechanics for modern optics and relativistic quantum mechanics of extended objects.

  20. II International Congress on small animals and JDC-VEPA I National Meeting of Research in Animal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Autores Varios

    2013-01-01

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE - INICIENFACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES II International Congress on small animals and JDC-VEPA I National Meeting of Animal science research RESEARCH GROUPS INPANTA-CEAS-GREBIAL-IRABI II International Congress on small animals and JDC-VEPA I National Meeting of Research in Animal Science

  1. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  2. Compendium of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics comprise the canonical undergraduate curriculum of theoretical physics. In Compendium of Theoretical Physics, Armin Wachter and Henning Hoeber offer a concise, rigorous and structured overview that will be invaluable for students preparing for their qualifying examinations, readers needing a supplement to standard textbooks, and research or industrial physicists seeking a bridge between extensive textbooks and formula books. The authors take an axiomatic-deductive approach to each topic, starting the discussion of each theory with its fundamental equations. By subsequently deriving the various physical relationships and laws in logical rather than chronological order, and by using a consistent presentation and notation throughout, they emphasize the connections between the individual theories. The reader’s understanding is then reinforced with exercises, solutions and topic summaries. Unique Features: Every topic is ...

  3. Group theory in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cornwell, J F

    1989-01-01

    Recent devopments, particularly in high-energy physics, have projected group theory and symmetry consideration into a central position in theoretical physics. These developments have taken physicists increasingly deeper into the fascinating world of pure mathematics. This work presents important mathematical developments of the last fifteen years in a form that is easy to comprehend and appreciate.

  4. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  5. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.

    2016-04-14

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  6. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  7. Electrochemical kinetics theoretical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Vetter, Klaus J

    1967-01-01

    Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical Aspects focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations in electrochemical kinetics. The book first offers information on electrochemical thermodynamics and the theory of overvoltage. Topics include equilibrium potentials, concepts and definitions, electrical double layer and electrocapillarity, and charge-transfer, diffusion, and reaction overvoltage. Crystallization overvoltage, total overvoltage, and resistance polarization are also discussed. The text then examines the methods of determining electrochemical reaction mechanisms

  8. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  9. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  10. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-01-15

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  11. From the ossuary: animation and the danse macabre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carels, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    abstractThe skeleton has been a key figure throughout the evolution of the animated image. Thisessay investigates how the danse macabre lies at the roots of animation, and has hence kepton reappearing as a motif throughout the evolution of the genre. The theoretical frameworkcombines film history wi

  12. Emancipation in postmodernity : political thought in Japanese science fiction animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, M.

    2017-01-01

    Animation has long been overlooked as source for political thought. The aim of this thesis is to rectify this, and it will do so in two ways. First, it makes a theoretical and empirical case for animation as an intellectual source of political thought that should be used along with philosophical can

  13. Animation, embodiment, and digital media human experience of technological liveliness

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, K

    2013-01-01

    Animation, Embodiment and Digital Media articulates the human experience of technology-mediated animated phenomena in terms of sensory perception, bodily action and imaginative interpretation, suggesting a new theoretical framework with analyses of exemplary user interfaces, video games and interactive artworks.

  14. Animal reproduction and physiology: from basis to application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI JianFang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Animal reproduction and physiology is one of the traditional subjects in biology, and also one of the most rapidly developing fields because it is related to human food requirements.Along with advances in the life sciences and biotechnology, animal reproduction and physiology has achieved new theoretical developments and potential applications.

  15. Amygdalar activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors produces anti- and pro-conflict effects depending upon animal sex in a sexually dimorphic conditioned conflict-based anxiety model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Burgos, María I; González-García, Stephanie; Cruz-Santa, Yanira; Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L

    2016-04-01

    Women are more susceptible than men to develop anxiety disorders, however, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), a target for anxiety disorders, and whether estradiol may modulate conflict-based anxiety in female rats by using the Vogel Conflict Test (VCT). We used ovariectomized female rats with high (OVX+EB) and low (OVX) estradiol levels and intact male rats to evaluate sex differences. Infusion of (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a group I mGluR agonist, into the basolateral amygdala, a region involved in anxiety-responses, statistically increased the number of shocks in OVX, but not OVX+EB female rats at 0.1, nor at 1.0 μM. In contrast, DHPG statistically decreased the number of shocks in male rats at 1.0 μM only. DHPG (0.1 μM) increased the number of recoveries in OVX, but not OVX+EB or male rats. Sex differences were detected for the number of shocks, recoveries and punished licks, where female rats displayed more conflict than male rats. Western blot analyses showed that protein expression of mGluR1, but not mGluR5 was higher in OVX+EB>OVX>male rats in the amygdala, whereas no significant differences were detected in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and/or the periaqueductal gray. Therefore, DHPG produced paradoxical effects that are sex dependent; producing anxiolytic-like effects in female rats, while anxiogenic-like effects in male rats according to the VCT. These results highlight the importance of including female experimental models to underpin the neural circuitry of anxiety according to sex and for the screening of novel anxiolytic compounds.

  16. Are There Really Animals Like That? No Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwelder, R. E.; Garoian, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    Provides examples of animals in which growth occurs without cell division. Indicates that this phenomenon (called cell constancy or eutely) is an oddity of development that has arisen independently in several animal groups. (JN)

  17. Internal communication in corporate groups

    OpenAIRE

    Grzesik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is dedicated to internal communication in corporate groups. It discusses internal communication systems operating in the explored corporate groups and their significance for effective human resources management in those organisations. The chapter presents both the theoretical analysis based on the results of literature studies, and empirical research carried out in the explored groups. Narodowe Centrum Nauki Katarzyna Grzesik

  18. The Group Treatment of Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Harvey M.; Richman, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Bulimia has become an increasing problem in the college population. This article describes a group psychotherapeutic treatment approach to the problem. A theoretical formulation of the psychodynamics that may underlie the development of bulimia is offered. (Author/DF)

  19. Asymmetry within social groups: division of labour and intergroup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K

    2016-03-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism.

  20. A Metatheory of Organizational Group Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Howard H.; Kaplan, Ira T.

    This paper focuses on the organizational group, noting the lack of an integrated theoretical base, describing the nature of group behavior theories, and suggesting the employment of a metatheory framework to improve both the theoretical integration and the practical application of group behavior research. The paper first considers four general…

  1. Institute for Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.

  2. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  3. Theoretical Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researche

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  5. Theoretical astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it

  6. Information theoretic preattentive saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Employing an information theoretic operational definition of bottom-up attention from the field of computational visual perception a very general expression for saliency is provided. As opposed to many of the current approaches to determining a saliency map there is no need for an explicit data....... Another choice of features is, rather loosely, inspired by the success of histogram of oriented gradient descriptors and proves to provide state-of-the-art results on a collaborative benchmark for region of interest detection. © 2011 IEEE....

  7. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  8. Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Magnus; Nilsson, Kenneth; Påhlson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one from roe dear and one from European elk, were determined to Trypanosoma theileri by partial DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal gene. In the seven boars, no Trypanosoma were detected, but four out of seven strongly positive serological samples came from this group. This is the first study in Scandinavia on the presence of Trypanosoma in game animals. The results indicate that trypanosomiasis is frequently occurring among Swedish game animals.

  9. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  10. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  11. Algorithm Animation with Galant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F

    2017-01-01

    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  12. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  13. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  14. Theoretical studies of chemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, G.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This collaborative program with the Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne involves theoretical studies of gas phase chemical reactions and related energy transfer and photodissociation processes. Many of the reactions studied are of direct relevance to combustion; others are selected they provide important examples of special dynamical processes, or are of relevance to experimental measurements. Both classical trajectory and quantum reactive scattering methods are used for these studies, and the types of information determined range from thermal rate constants to state to state differential cross sections.

  15. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  16. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  17. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types of...

  18. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  19. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  20. Hazardous marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  1. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  2. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  3. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  4. Animal Care Use Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the structure, activities, responsibilities, and practices of animal care and use committees established to review classroom activities and student research using animals. Provides six hypothetical situations with suggested solutions to test a committee's decision-making ability. Includes a proposed activity form for teachers. (MDH)

  5. Small Animal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  6. Theoretical physics 3 electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to electrodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series. The first part of the book describes the interaction of electric charges and magnetic moments by introducing electro- and magnetostatics. The second part of the book establishes deeper understanding of electrodynamics with the Maxwell equations, quasistationary fields and electromagnetic fields. All sections are accompanied by a detailed introduction to the math needed. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical and analytical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful Germa...

  7. Social Security: Theoretical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kashnik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the phenomena of security and social security from the philosophical, sociological and psychological perspective. The undertaken analysis of domestic and foreign scientific materials demonstrates the need for interdisciplinary studies, including pedagogy and education, aimed at developing the guidelines for protecting the social system from destruction. The paper defines the indicators, security level indices and their assessment methods singled out from the analytical reports and security studies by the leading Russian sociological centers and international expert organizations, including the United Nations.The research is aimed at finding out the adequate models of personal and social security control systems at various social levels. The theoretical concepts can be applied by the teachers of the Bases of Life Safety course, the managers and researches developing the assessment criteria and security indices of educational environment evaluation, as well as the methods of diagnostics and expertise of educational establishments from the security standpoint. 

  8. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  9. Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...

  10. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  11. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  12. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    , the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching.......This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead...

  13. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  14. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  15. Towards an animated JPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theytaz, Joël.; Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    Recently, short animated image sequences have become very popular in social networks. Most animated images are represented in GIF format. In this paper we propose an animated JPEG format, called aJPEG, which allows the standard JPEG format to be extended in a backward compatible way in order to cope with animated images. After presenting the proposed format, we illustrate it using two prototype applications: the first in form of a GIF-to-aJPEG converter on a personal computer and the second in form of an aJPEG viewer on a smart phone. The paper also reports the performance evaluation of aJPEG when compared to GIF. Experimental results show that aJPEG outperforms animated GIF in both file size overhead and image quality.

  16. Research in Theoretical Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Hume A; Marfatia, Danny

    2014-09-24

    This document is the final report on activity supported under DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-13ER42024. The report covers the period July 15, 2013 – March 31, 2014. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (1.0 FTE) and Hume Feldman (1% FTE). The grant partly supported University of Hawaii students, David Yaylali and Keita Fukushima, who are supervised by Jason Kumar. Both students are expected to graduate with Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Yaylali will be joining the University of Arizona theory group in Fall 2014 with a 3-year postdoctoral appointment under Keith Dienes. The group’s research covered topics subsumed under the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Many theoretical results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The report contains brief project descriptions in Section 1. Sections 2 and 3 lists published and submitted work, respectively. Sections 4 and 5 summarize group activity including conferences, workshops and professional presentations.

  17. A common control group - optimising the experiment design to maximise sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bate

    Full Text Available Methods for choosing an appropriate sample size in animal experiments have received much attention in the statistical and biological literature. Due to ethical constraints the number of animals used is always reduced where possible. However, as the number of animals decreases so the risk of obtaining inconclusive results increases. By using a more efficient experimental design we can, for a given number of animals, reduce this risk. In this paper two popular cases are considered, where planned comparisons are made to compare treatments back to control and when researchers plan to make all pairwise comparisons. By using theoretical and empirical techniques we show that for studies where all pairwise comparisons are made the traditional balanced design, as suggested in the literature, maximises sensitivity. For studies that involve planned comparisons of the treatment groups back to the control group, which are inherently more sensitive due to the reduced multiple testing burden, the sensitivity is maximised by increasing the number of animals in the control group while decreasing the number in the treated groups.

  18. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  19. Formal models in animal-metacognition research: the problem of interpreting animals' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Ongoing research explores whether animals have precursors to metacognition-that is, the capacity to monitor mental states or cognitive processes. Comparative psychologists have tested apes, monkeys, rats, pigeons, and a dolphin using perceptual, memory, foraging, and information-seeking paradigms. The consensus is that some species have a functional analog to human metacognition. Recently, though, associative modelers have used formal-mathematical models hoping to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in associative-behaviorist ways. We evaluate these attempts to reify formal models as proof of particular explanations of animal cognition. These attempts misunderstand the content and proper application of models. They embody mistakes of scientific reasoning. They blur fundamental distinctions in understanding animal cognition. They impede theoretical development. In contrast, an energetic empirical enterprise is achieving strong success in describing the psychology underlying animals' metacognitive performances. We argue that this careful empirical work is the clear path to useful theoretical development. The issues raised here about formal modeling-in the domain of animal metacognition-potentially extend to biobehavioral research more broadly.

  20. The application of the Internet of Things to animal ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Songtao; Qiang, Min; Luan, Xiaorui; Xu, Pengfei; He, Gang; Yin, Xiaoyan; Xi, Luo; Jin, Xuelin; Shao, Jianbin; Chen, Xiaojiang; Fang, Dingyi; Li, Baoguo

    2015-11-01

    For ecologists, understanding the reaction of animals to environmental changes is critical. Using networked sensor technology to measure wildlife and environmental parameters can provide accurate, real-time and comprehensive data for monitoring, research and conservation of wildlife. This paper reviews: (i) conventional detection technology; (ii) concepts and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) in animal ecology; and (iii) the advantages and disadvantages of IoT. The current theoretical limits of IoT in animal ecology are also discussed. Although IoT offers a new direction in animal ecological research, it still needs to be further explored and developed as a theoretical system and applied to the appropriate scientific frameworks for understanding animal ecology.

  1. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  2. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  3. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  4. Animals eponyms in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF, and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD.

  5. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  6. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  7. The uncertainty response in animal-metacognition researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Smith, J David

    2014-05-01

    Kornell (2014, pp. 143-149) considers whether, and in what sense, animals may be considered metacognitive. He questions whether tests that rely on animals assessing their internal memory strength can provide useful data. He offers his own strategies for determining what internal cues animals use in making metacognitive judgments. We endorse his call for an increased focus on animals' metacognitive errors as true reflections of metacognitive states shorn of associative bases. We endorse a sharper focus on information-processing analyses of the executive or attentional level that metacognitive responses may occupy in animals' cognitive systems. Some of these analyses are being implemented in contemporary research, with positive results. Finally, we endorse the possibility that metacognition may not be an all-or-none thing, so that animals may share some facets--but not all facets--of metacognitive experience with humans. Kornell's interesting contribution makes clear that, in this area, the animal-metacognition literature needs further theoretical sharpening.

  8. Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.

  9. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  10. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  11. Dairy farmer attitudes and empathy toward animals are associated with animal welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielland, C; Skjerve, E; Osterås, O; Zanella, A J

    2010-07-01

    Attitudes and empathy of farmers influence human-animal interaction, thereby affecting their behavior toward animals. The goal was to investigate how measures of attitude and empathy toward animals were associated with animal welfare indicators such as milk yield, mastitis incidence, fertility index, and the prevalence of skin lesions on cows. To assess empathy toward animals, a photo-based pain assessment instrument was developed depicting various conditions that could be associated with some degree of pain in cattle and included questions aimed at assessing attitudes toward animals. Photos of painful conditions are useful in eliciting measurable empathic responses to pain in humans. A total of 221 farmers were sampled via e-mail and 154 responses were obtained. In the first analysis, farmers were categorized into 2 groups according to their agreement or disagreement with the attitude statement "animals experience physical pain as humans do." In the second analysis, farmers were assigned a median pain assessment score obtained from their estimates on the visual analog scale of 21 conditions assumed painful for cattle. In the third analysis, farmers were clustered in 3 groups according to their visual analog scale responses. Three conditions were ranked as the most painful: fracture of tuber coxae, dystocia, and serious mastitis. Farmers with positive attitudes toward animals scored 2 points higher on their empathy score compared with farmers with negative attitudes. Personal experience with each additional condition resulted in a 0.09 higher score. Cluster analysis revealed 3 groups. Farmers in group 3 had the highest median pain assessment score (6.7+/-0.2), indicating a high level of empathy and a positive attitude toward animals. They had the lowest prevalence of skin lesions over the carpus (24+/-6%) and the lowest milk production (6,705+/-202 kg). The complex associations between indicators of empathy and attitudes with relevant welfare outcomes suggest that

  12. A population genetics view of animal domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Burger, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The fundamental shift associated with the domestication of plants and animals allowed for a dramatic increase in human population sizes and the emergence of modern society. Despite its importance and the decades of research devoted to studying it, questions regarding the origins and processes of domestication remain. Here, we review recent theoretical advances and present a perspective that underscores the crucial role that population admixture has played in influencing the genomes of domestic animals over the past 10000 years. We then discuss novel approaches to generating and analysing genetic data, emphasising the importance of an explicit hypothesis-testing approach for the inference of the origins and subsequent evolution and demography of domestic animals. By applying next-generation sequencing technology alongside appropriate biostatistical methodologies, a substantially deeper understanding of domestication is on the horizon.

  13. Coagulation-Fragmentation Model for Animal Group-Size Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-Guo; Pego, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    We study coagulation-fragmentation equations inspired by a simple model proposed in fisheries science to explain data for the size distribution of schools of pelagic fish. Although the equations lack detailed balance and admit no H-theorem, we are able to develop a rather complete description of equilibrium profiles and large-time behavior, based on recent developments in complex function theory for Bernstein and Pick functions. In the large-population continuum limit, a scaling-invariant regime is reached in which all equilibria are determined by a single scaling profile. This universal profile exhibits power-law behavior crossing over from exponent -2/3 for small size to -3/2 for large size, with an exponential cutoff.

  14. Coagulation-Fragmentation Model for Animal Group-Size Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-Guo; Pego, Robert L.

    2016-10-01

    We study coagulation-fragmentation equations inspired by a simple model proposed in fisheries science to explain data for the size distribution of schools of pelagic fish. Although the equations lack detailed balance and admit no H-theorem, we are able to develop a rather complete description of equilibrium profiles and large-time behavior, based on recent developments in complex function theory for Bernstein and Pick functions. In the large-population continuum limit, a scaling-invariant regime is reached in which all equilibria are determined by a single scaling profile. This universal profile exhibits power-law behavior crossing over from exponent -2/3 for small size to -3/2 for large size, with an exponential cutoff.

  15. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  16. A northern animal kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RainerThomm

    2005-01-01

    I began photographing wild animals at Baiquan in 2002,what is really propelling me to go back time and time again,though,is the unforgettable experience of tracking down and getting shots of red foxes and shika.

  17. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  18. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity.

  19. Animal models of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  20. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  1. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  2. ANIMAL MODELS: A REVIEW FROM THREE TESTS USED IN ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eduardo Góngora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a review of commonly used animal models tostudy anxiety, looking to make a presentation of three instruments used in thelaboratory. It describes the importance of using animal models for understandinghuman behavior; there are two groups of animal models and the most representativetests for each of these.

  3. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.; Ipema, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal speci

  4. Computer animation of clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  5. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  6. On Animal Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡凡

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays it is common to talk about metaphor. In fact, metaphor is a kind of comparison. Because of comparison and association,familiar objects become strange and glamorous. Animal metaphors can involve either nominal form or verb forms. A person's crying may be called barking. A woman may be called a cat, or a goose, etc. Animal metaphor is connected tightly with our life and helps language development. We can utilize them to make our life and languages more colorful.

  7. Snow White Trench (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation shows the evolution of the trench called 'Snow White' that NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began digging on the 22nd Martian day of the mission after the May 25, 2008, landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Cytogenetics in animal production

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy), lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities) or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities). Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biolo...

  9. Group theory and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, David M

    1993-01-01

    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  10. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-04-03

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  11. Animal interactions and the emergence of territoriality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giuggioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes.

  12. Neutrino Mixing: Theoretical Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We present a concise review of the recent important experimental developments on neutrino mixing (hints for sterile neutrinos, large $\\theta_{13}$, possible non maximal $\\theta_{23}$, approaching sensitivity on $\\delta_{CP}$) and their implications on models of neutrino mixing. The new data disfavour many models but the surviving ones still span a wide range going from Anarchy (no structure, no symmetry in the lepton sector) to a maximum of symmetry, as for the models based on discrete non-abelian flavour groups that can be improved following the indications from the data.

  13. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  14. Theoretically Optimal Distributed Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel general framework for distributed anomaly detection with theoretical performance guarantees is proposed. Our algorithmic approach combines existing anomaly...

  15. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  16. Animal models for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  17. An animated model of reticulorumen motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gookin, Jody L; Foster, Derek M; Harvey, Alice M; McWhorter, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Understanding reticulorumen motility is important to the assessment of ruminant health and optimal production, and in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. Accordingly, the teaching of reticulorumen motility is a staple of all veterinary curricula. This teaching has historically been based on written descriptions, line drawings, or pressure tracings obtained during contraction sequences. We developed an animated model of reticulorumen motility and hypothesized that veterinary students would prefer use of the model over traditional instructional methods. First-year veterinary students were randomly allocated to one of two online learning exercises: with the animated model (Group A) or with text and line drawings (Group B) depicting reticulorumen motility. Learning was assessed with a multiple-choice quiz and feedback on the learning alternatives was obtained by survey. Seventy-four students participated in the study, including 38/42 in Group A and 36/36 in Group B. Sixty-four out of 72 students (89%) responded that they would prefer use of the animated model if only one of the two learning methods was available. A majority of students agreed or strongly agreed that the animated model was easy to understand and improved their knowledge and appreciation of the importance of reticulorumen motility, and would recommend the model to other veterinary students. Interestingly, students in Group B achieved higher scores on examination than students in Group A. This could be speculatively attributed to the inclusion of an itemized list of contraction sequences in the text provided to Group B and failure of Group A students to read the text associated with the animations.

  18. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  19. Theoretical Division annual report, FY 1975. [LASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P.A.

    1976-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the activities in the Theoretical Division and a summary of research highlights during FY 1975. It is intended to inform a wide audience about the theoretical work of the LASL and, therefore, contains introductory material which places recent advances in a broader context. The report is organized into two special interest reports: reactor safety research and the Advanced Research Committee, and 11 reports from the T-Division group leaders on the work of their respective groups. Main interests and responsibilities are outlined including the relationship of the group's work to the work of other T-Division groups and other divisions at the Laboratory. The description of research highlights for FY 1975 explains in a fairly simple, straightforward manner the major recent advances and their significance. Each group report is followed by a publication list for FY 1975 (330 references) and a list of talks given outside the Laboratory (140 references). 29 figures. (auth)

  20. Phoenix Lidar Operation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of the Canadian-built meteorological station's lidar, which was successfully activated on Sol 2. The animation shows how the lidar is activated by first opening its dust cover, then emitting rapid pulses of light (resembling a brilliant green laser) into the Martian atmosphere. Some of the light then bounces off particles in the atmosphere, and is reflected back down to the lidar's telescope. This allows the lidar to detect dust, clouds and fog. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  2. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  3. Consumo e desempenho de animais alimentados individualmente ou em grupo e características de carcaça de animais Nelore de três classes sexuais Performance of animals fed individually or in groups and carcass traits of Nellore cattle from three sexual classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2008-12-01

    , concentrated and forage for animals feed in group. Evaluate also, dry matter intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio by animals from one of three genders (bulls, steers or heifers fed individually or in groups, with two levels of concentrate offer (1.00 or 1.25% of BW, and carcass traits of confined Nellore cattle. Forty five Nellore cattle - 15 bulls, 15 steers and 15 heifers were used. Nine animals (three from each gender were slaughtered at beginning of the trial performing reference group. The remaining 36 animals were fed either 1.0 or 1.25% of concentrate under two feeding schemes (individually or in groups, in a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. In order to estimate the individual DMI of animals fed in group, LIPE® was used to estimate the fecal dry matter production, Cr2O3 and TiO2 were used to estimate the individual concentrate intake and NDFi and ADFi were used to estimate the individual forage intake. At the end of the experiment all animals individually fed were slaughtered to evaluate carcass traits and yield of commercial cuts. The feed scheme had no influence upon DMI and DWG of Nellore cattle from different gender. There were no effect of 1.00 or 1.25% of concentrate on carcass traits and carcass yield. Bulls grow 24% more than steers and steers grow 22% more than females and bulls tend to be more efficient in meat deposition and had higher yield in some commercial cuts.

  4. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Collaborative Learning: Theoretical Foundations and Applicable Strategies to University Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor D. Roselli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative learning is a construct that identifies a current strong field, both in face-to-face and virtual education. Firstly, three converging theoretical sources are analyzed: socio-cognitive conflict theory, intersubjectivity theory and distributed cognition theory. Secondly, a model of strategies that can be implemented by teachers to develop socio-cognitive collaboration is presented. This model integrates and systematizes several academic group animation techniques developed within the collaborative learning field. These integrated techniques, within a coherent and unified didactic intention, allow talking more about strategies than independent and dissociated techniques. Each strategy is specifically described, which refers to six areas: encouragement of dialogue, listening to others and reciprocal assessment; collaboration for negotiation and consensus building; activity organization; study and appropriation of bibliographic information; conceptual development; collective writing. These strategies proposed (designed to stimulate the collaboration between 2, 4 and exceptionally, 6 or 8 students are not the only possible strategies, they can be combined with the ones the teacher might suggest. The strict pattern of each strategy is a characteristic of the proposal. The teacher is also encouraged to benchmark the results obtained using each strategy and those obtained using individual or non-collaborative strategies. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the implementation of these strategies are discussed.

  6. Theoretical elementary particle research at the University of Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This is the annual progress report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present the group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), two Associate Professors (Qiu, Woodard), and one Assistant Professor (Kennedy). In addition, the group has four postdoctoral research associates and three graduate students. The research of the group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years and an outline of the current research program.

  7. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animals include cats, rodents, rabbits, ferrets, farm animals, monkeys and reptiles. The major concern of all animal ... the tabs at the top (Video, Articles/WEB, Images, JHS, Products/Vendors), or the filters on the ...

  8. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  9. Animal Care in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses housing facilities for living animals in the classroom or laboratory. The construction of animal cages from materials obtained locally is described. Space recommendations for laboratory animals and cages are also included. (HM)

  10. Theoretical and experimental study on lipophilicity and wound healing activity of ginger compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Afroz Bakht; Mohammed F Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Aftab Alam; Prawez Alam; Tariq Mohammed Aljarba

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To correlate the chromatographic and computational method to calculate lipophilicity of selected ginger compounds and to observe the effects of log P on wound healing. Methods:Mixtures of acetonitrile and water with acetonitrile content between 95% and 50% v/v in 5% increments were kept separately in 10 different chromatographic chambers, saturated with solvent for 2 h. Spots were observed under UV light at λ=254 nm p-anisaldehyde used as a spraying reagent. Theoretical calculation was done using the Alogps 2.1 online program at www. vcclab.org/lab/alogps. For percentage wound contraction, five groups of animal (mice) (25-30 g) of either sex were selected. Wound were created on dorsal surface of animals using toothed forceps, scalpel and pointed scissors. The wound areas were calculated using vernier caliper. After making wound mice were orally administered 35 mg/kg 6-shogoal, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol respectively. Group E as the control group received tap water. Results:The lipophilicity values determined in thin layer chromatography were correlated with the theoretically calculated various log P by linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between log P values calculated by software program and the experimental reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography data. Order of wound healing property of ginger compounds is directly dependent on lipophilicity i.e. more lipophilic compound has highest activity. Conclusions:Experimentally determined lipophilicity (RMO) values were correlated with log Pdetermined by software's and found satisfactory. Lipophilicity (RMO) is a useful parameter for the determination and prediction of biological activity of ginger compounds.

  11. Public attitude formation regarding animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A number of attitudinal studies have examined support for the use of animals in research. However, on the whole they have come to rather different conclusions. In our reasearch, which is based on focus group discussions held in Denmark, we attempted to explain this variation by examining the way ......, especially for the Reserved who experience ambivalence. Future quantitative analyses should take into consideration that attitutes in the field of animal experimentation can be viewed (and measured) both at an underlying value-based level and at a context-specific level.......A number of attitudinal studies have examined support for the use of animals in research. However, on the whole they have come to rather different conclusions. In our reasearch, which is based on focus group discussions held in Denmark, we attempted to explain this variation by examining the way...... the relevant attitudes are formed. Although our participants had only limited knowledge of, and interest in, animal use in research, they were perfecly capable of developing reasoned attitudes to it by drawing on evaluative considerations concerning animal use in general. Furthermore, the evaluation of animal...

  12. Simple Animations with Excels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickensderfer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the use of animated drawings for teaching physics. The benefits to the students are obvious. Rather than looking at still pictures in a textbook, they can observe a physical event and see how it plays out over time.

  13. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of recombinant DNA technology has enabled scientists to isolate single genes, analyze and modify their nucleotide structure(s), make copies of these isolated genes, and insert copies of these genes into the genome of plants and animals. The transgenic technology of adding genes to li...

  14. Animals that Live Longest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶扬志

    2000-01-01

    Reptiles(爬行类) are animals that live longest. The turtle's(海龟)long life is legendary(传奇的), no one has ever been able to calculate the exact age of the turtle, and for good reason, tortoises live a lot longer than humans do.

  15. In and Out (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation links two images taken by the front hazard avoidance camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. The rover is stowing and unstowing its robotic arm, or instrument deployment device. The device is designed to hold and maneuver the various instruments on board that will help scientists get up-close and personal with martian rocks and soil.

  16. Do Animals Have Memes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imitation has been put forward as a defining feature of memetic transmission. Since there is currently poor evidence for imitation in non-human animals, such definitions have been interpreted as restricting meme theory to the study of human behaviour patterns and birdsong. We believe this is a mista

  17. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  18. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  19. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  20. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  1. Cytogenetics in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Iannuzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics applied to domestic animals is a useful biotechnology to be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock. Indeed, it can be used to select reproducers free chromosome abnormalities which are responsible for abnormal body conformation (aneuploidy, lower fertility (balanced chromosome abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome abnormalities. Cytogenetics may also be applied to assess environmental pollution by studying animals living in hazardous areas and using them as biological indicators (sentinels. Chromosomes also represent optimal biological structures to study the evolution among related (bovids and unrelated (bovidshumans species, especially using comparative FISH-mapping which is one of the most powerful tools to establish the correct order of loci along chromosomes. These comparisons allow us to transfer useful information from richer genomes (human to those of domestic animals. Moreover, the use of specific molecular markers and the FISH-technique on both mitotic and extended (fiber-FISH chromosomes, has heralded a new era of cytogenetics, allowing swift extension of genetic physical maps, better anchoring of both linkage and RH-maps to specific chromosome regions, and use in a variety of applications (clinical cases, embryo and sperm analyses, evolution. In this study a brief review of these fields of the animal cytogenetics is presented.

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ...

  3. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  4. Pathological anxiety in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Arndt, S.S.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2008-01-01

    selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a co

  5. Can Animals Think?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    For centuries, philosophers argued that thinking and language sepa-rate humans from other species. The lesser creatures, Rene Descartes con-tended in I637, are little more than automatons, sleepwalking through lifewithout a mote of self-awareness. Later, scientists had reason to be skep-tical of claims concerning animal intelligence. At the turn of the century,

  6. Reatividade animal Confinement reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsiara Estanislau Maffei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A reatividade é definida como a reação do animal quando contido num ambiente de contenção móvel. Ela é quantificada por meio do teste de reatividade animal em ambiente de contenção móvel - REATEST®. Este teste consiste num dispositivo eletrônico acoplado à balança e num software específico. O dispositivo capta a movimentação que o animal provoca na balança, durante 20 segundos e a envia para o software que a processa determinando a reatividade do animal numa escala contínua de pontos. Pontuações maiores são de animais mais reativos (mais agressivo. A reatividade foi criada com os objetivos de solucionar os problemas até então existentes na seleção para temperamento e de permitir estimação de parâmetros genéticos mais confiáveis. Ela é uma característica objetiva que tem grande variabilidade fenotípica e é de quantificação rápida, fácil e segura, além de poder ser quantificada em qualquer tipo de balança, o que permite maior aplicabilidade. Ela não interfere nas práticas de manejo das fazendas porque é quantificada no momento da pesagem dos animais. Sua herdabilidade na raça Nelore é de 0,39 ao ano e 0,23 ao sobreano e suas correlações genéticas com ganho de peso diário são de -0,28 do nascimento até desmama e de -0,49 do desmame até ano. Já suas correlações genéticas com desenvolvimento do perímetro escrotal do ano ao sobreano variam de -0,25 e -0,41.The confinement reactivity (CR has been used as a measure of temperament in Brazil and it is defined as the animal reaction when contained in the scale. It is quantified through the animal reactivity test - REATEST®. This test consists of an electronic device coupled to the scale and of specific software. The device captures the movement that the animal provokes in the scale, during 20 seconds and sends it for the software that processes this movement and determines the animal CR in a continuous scale of points. Higher punctuations belong to

  7. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  8. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  9. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  10. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  11. Group theory analysis of braided geometry structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wei; MA Wensuo

    2005-01-01

    The braided geometry structures are analyzed with point groups and space groups for which the continuous yarn of the braided preforms is segmented and expressed in some special symbols. All structures of braided material are described and classified with group theory, and new braiding methods are found. The group theory analysis lays the theoretical foundation for optimizing material performance.

  12. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  13. Theoretical Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, George M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    with the electric field only being about three times higher than in the ideal case. Moreover, the quasi-optical grill was significantly fewer structural elements that the multijunction grill. Nevertheless there has not been much interest from experimental fusion groups to implementing these structures. Hence we have returned to optimizing the multijunction grill so that the large number of coupling matrix elements can be efficiently evaluated using symmetry arguments. In overdense plasmas, the standard electromagnetic waves cannot propagate into the plasma center, but are reflected at the plasma edge. By optimizing mode conversion processes (in particular, the O-X-B wave propagation of Ordinary Mode converting to an Extraordinary mode which then converts into an electrostatic Bernstein wave) one can excite within the plasma an electrostatic Bernstein wave that does not suffer density cutoffs and is absorbed on the electron cyclotron harmonics. Finally we have started looking at other mesoscopic lattice algorithms that involve unitary collision and streaming steps. Because these algorithms are unitary they can be run on quantum computers when they become available – unlike their computational cousin of lattice Boltzmann which is a purely classical code. These quantum lattice gas algorithms have been tested successfully on exact analytic soliton collision solution. These calculations are hoped to be able to study Bose Einstein condensed atomic gases and their ground states in an optical lattice.

  14. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 5 covers articles concerning all aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the mean spherical approximation for simple electrolyte solutions; the representation of lattice sums as Mellin-transformed products of theta functions; and the evaluation of two-dimensional lattice sums by number theoretic means. The text also describes an application of contour integration; a lattice model of quantum fluid; as well as the computational aspects of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Chemists and physicists will find the book usef

  15. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  16. Animal ethics profiling of vegetarians, vegans and meat-eaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; McKeegan, Dorothy E. F.; Cribbin, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the animal ethical profile of vegetarians, vegans, and meat-eaters. Using questionnaire data collected in 2013 (n = 356), we measured propensity to subscribe to five different po- sitions within animal ethics based on a novel measure of animal ethical stance......), but predominantly the utilitarian position. Propensity to hold animal rights and re- lational views increased with the number of meat products not consumed by meat-eaters. Vegans and vegetarians revealed more consistent animal ethics viewpoints, especially the vegan group which had a very high propen- sity to hold...... an animal rights position. Vegetarians were also inclined to hold the animal rights position, but additionally had a tendency to draw on utilitarian reasoning. Subscription to animal rights views was a defining char- acteristic of vegans regardless of the number of years they had followed the diet, while...

  17. Animal Farm--A Lesson Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Offers several suggestions for teaching George Orwell's "Animal Farm" to high school students. Included are strategies for (1) teaching themes of the story, (2) interpreting the story on several levels, (3) seeing the connections between language and politics, (4) using group activities, and (5) using visual aids. (JC)

  18. Illustrating Language through Computer Generated Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Margaret

    1979-01-01

    Originally part of a symposium on educational media for the deaf, the paper discusses the use of animated sequences which illustrate linguistic principles. The work of the Computer Graphics Research Group at Ohio State University is highlighted. It has been discovered that computer-assisted instructional systems enhance learning through greater…

  19. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...... of homogeneous varieties, \\item representation categories and their connections to orbits and flag varieties. \\end{itemize} The first three days started with survey talks that will help to make the subject accessible to the next generation. The talks on the last day introduced to several recent advances...

  20. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  1. Analysis of Animal Metaphorical Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晴川

    2016-01-01

    Animal metaphor, as a kind of metaphor, refers to a cognitive process in which some aspects of human beings are understood or experienced through the aspects of animals. The meanings of animal metaphor are based on people's experience, cultural background, custom and the ways of thinking. Animal metaphorical expression is an important part of human's language expressions and communication.

  2. Animals:Country symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明

    2005-01-01

    A nim als have always been used to represent cer-tain hum an characteristics.Countries also use anim alsas sym bols.From eagles to lions,m any countries usean anim al to show its national spirit and character.1.U S:T he bald eagleThe im age of an eagle is on the U SPresident’s flag,and on the one-dollarbill.The bald eagle is a large,pow erful,brow n bird with a white head and tail.The term“bald”does not m ean that thisbird lacks feathers.Instead,it com es fromthe old word piebald,that m eans,“m arked w ith ...

  3. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  4. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. N-ary Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'mak, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The book "N-ary Groups" (in Russian) consists of two Parts. It is intended on the one hand as an initial introduction to the theory of n-ary groups, and on the other hand it contains the published results by the author on this subject. At present, the theory of n-ary groups developing but slowly from group theory. Nonetheless, ternary and n-ary structures have recently been applied to modern models of elementary particle physics. One of the author's goals in this book is to draw the attention of mathematicians and theoretical physicists to the theory of n-ary groups, to some of its distinguishing features, and to details relevant to its further development and application. Part I: Theorems of Post and Gluskin-Hosszu. 1.1. Classical definitions of n-ary groups. Examples. 1.2. Analogies of identity and inverse elements. 1.3. Equivalent sequences. 1.4. Post's coset theorem. 1.5. Theorem of Gluskin-Hosszu. 1.6. Connection between the Post's coset theorem and theorem of Gluskin-Hosszu. Addition and comments. Part ...

  7. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  8. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  9. Instant Silverlight 5 animation

    CERN Document Server

    Polyak, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in simple, easy to understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations. If you are a developer looking forward to create great user experience for your Silverlight applications with cool animations or create Silverlight banner ads, then this is the guide for you. It is assumed that the readers have some previous exposure to Silverlight or WPF.

  10. Animating the Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical processes reg- ulating carbon cycling is central to mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. The role of living organisms has been accounted for, but the focus has traditionally been on contributions of plants and microbes. We develop the case that fully ‘‘animating’’ the carbon cycle requires broader consideration of the functional role of animals in mediating biogeochemical processes and quanti- fication of their effects on carbon storage and exchange among ter...

  11. Animal Models of Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lichao; Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as its two major symptoms. Although this disease was first described about one century ago, an animal model was not available until the 1970s. With the establishment of the Stanford canine narcolepsy colony, researchers were able to conduct multiple neurochemical studies to explore the pathophysiology of this disease. It was concluded that there was an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic sy...

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Teaching Reform and Thinking of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science Course%《水产动物营养与饲料学》课程理论与实验教学的改革与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛

    2013-01-01

    In order to stimulate students′interest in learning Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed Science course and improve the teaching effect, the teaching content, teaching methods and assessment methods were reformed in teaching practice. Recent progress and new technologies were introduced in teaching content to stimulate the students′initiative. Multimedia and internet technology was comprehensively applied to enhance teaching intuitiveness. Opening experimental content was set to improve creative ability of students. Assessment methods were reformed to stimulate learning motivation.%为了激发学生对《水产动物营养与饲料学》课程的学习兴趣,提高教学效果,对该课程的教学内容、教学方法和考核方式进行了探索和教学实践。在教学内容上,引入该学科的研究进展和新技术,调动学生的主动性;应用多媒体网络技术,增强教学的直观性;开设开放性实验内容,提高学生的创新能力;改变考核方式,激发学生学习动力。

  13. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  14. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical and contemporary theoretical underpinnings of learning communities and argues that there is a need for more complex models in conceptualizing and assessing their effectiveness.

  15. Euclid's Number-Theoretical Work

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua

    2009-01-01

    The object of this paper is to affirm the number-theoretical role of Euclid and the historical significance of Euclid's algorithm. We give a brief introduction about Euclid's number-theoretical work. Our study is the first to show that Euclid's algorithm is essentially equivalent with Division algorithm which is the basis of Theory of Divisibility. Note also that Euclid's algorithm implies Euclid's first theorem and Euclid's second theorem. Thus, in the nature of things, Euclid's algorithm is the most important number-theoretical work of Euclid. For this reason, we further summarize briefly the influence of Euclid's algorithm. It leads to the conclusion that Euclid's algorithm is the greatest number-theoretical achievement of the age.

  16. Fsusy and Field Theoretical Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Sedra, M B

    2009-01-01

    Following our previous work on fractional spin symmetries (FSS) \\cite{6, 7}, we consider here the construction of field theoretical models that are invariant under the $D=2(1/3,1/3)$ supersymmetric algebra.

  17. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is an important Brazilian economic activity participating of income generation. European breeds cattle aren’t adapted to parasites found in the tropics, like the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Parasites can acquire resistance to allopathic products, but not to homeopathic products. We evaluate the efficacy of an antiparasiticide biotherapic against the R. microplus tick. The biotherapic was prepared according to the homeopathic pharmacopoeia recommendations from vegetable (Abrotanum and animal products (Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma cajenennense, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica, Dermatobia hominis, all diluted and vigorous shaken (dynamized in water or alcohol at a ratio of 1:99, in the 12th Centesimal Hahnemann (CH12, with limestone as the carrier. This homeophatic product found in veterinary pharmacies of Ituiutaba’s region, Minas Gerais State, is registered at Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Natural tick infestation was accessed in thirty Girolando (Gir x Holstein cows with 7 to 13 year-old, by monthly counting of tick female bigger than 6 mm, from October/2009 to July/2011. Cows were divided in three groups of 10 similar animals. The treated group (T1 received roughage, concentrate and biotherapic. The placebo group (T2 received roughage, concentrate and limestone and the control group (T3 received only roughage and concentrate. T1 and T2 groups were managed together and remained in the same paddock. T3 group was separed from T1 and T2 by a wire fence. From October 2009 to September 2010 blood cell counts and serum biochemical tests were performed monthly only in T1 and T2, but visual clinical observations were made in all animals. Any group was treated with acaricide when the count’s average reached 50 or more ticks. It was necessary 7 baths with acaricide in T1 and T2, while in T3 group (control group it was necessary 19 acaricide baths to control the cattle tick. We verified

  18. Suitability of laboratory animals for screening anti-hyperlipidemic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwade N

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the lipid profiles of various laboratory animals to that of human beings. The human subjects and animals included in the study were from three age groups based on key physiological states. A record of the usual dietary constituents and their daily consumption was maintained. The results indicated that the lipid profile of pigs and dogs bears similarity to that of human beings. Results also revealed that lipid profile was labile in the second group of these animals indicating that this age is suitable to bring about the required changes to produce a hyperlipidemic animal.

  19. Writing clear animal activity proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Although IACUC-related topics are frequently discussed in the literature, there is little published information about how to write animal activity proposals. In this article, the author discusses key considerations in the writing and review of animal activity proposals. The author then describes a framework for developing and writing clear animal activity proposals that highlight animal welfare concerns. Though these recommendations are aimed at individuals writing and reviewing research proposals, the framework can be modified for other types of animal activity proposals.

  20. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  1. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, A. Mosca, E-mail: adriano.mosca.conte@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Violante, C., E-mail: claudia.violante@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Missori, M., E-mail: mauro.missori@isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Bechstedt, F., E-mail: bech@ifto.physik.uni-jena.de [Institut fur Festkorpertheorie und -optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Teodonio, L. [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Istituto centrale per il restauro e la conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario (IC-RCPAL), Italian Minister for Cultural Heritage, Via Milano 76, 00184 Rome (Italy); Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P. [German Research School for Simulation Sciences, Julich (Germany); Guidoni, L., E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Università degli Studi di L’Aquila, Dipartimento di Chimica e Materiali, Via Campo di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Pulci, O., E-mail: olivia.pulci@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth.

  2. Daily animal exposure and children's biological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals.

  3. Legal and regulatory aspects of genetically engineered animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D D

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of genetically engineered food animals will pose a number of legal and regulatory questions. These may be grouped into questions of process and questions of products. The process of animal genetic engineering with artificially constructed vectors will probably be regulated in much the same manner as other veterinary procedures. There may be some discussion, however, as to whether animal drug or animal biologic regulations are more applicable. The products of animal genetic engineering, i.e., transgenic food animals and food products made from them, also raise important questions about product safety and identity. These include whether and how genetically engineered food animals will be subject to federal inspection for wholesomeness, whether artificial vectors, foreign genes, or gene products will adulterate recipient animal tissues, and how food products made from such animals will be labeled. Prior federal experience with the inspection of interspecific hybrids of cattle and buffalo provides a useful basis for further policy developments in the inspection and labeling of genetically engineered food animals. In particular, the inspection of cattle/buffalo hybrids has established a phenotypic (based on appearance) criterion for deciding how novel food animals should be inspected. As the genetic engineering of food animals on a production basis draws nearer, it may be necessary to supplement the phenotypic criterion with genetic (based on pedigree) criteria to assure that the essential characteristics of animals slaughtered under current food statutes are maintained.

  4. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  5. Progress in theoretical quantum computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Computing is perhaps one of the most distinguished features that differentiate humans from animals.Aside from counting numbers using fingers and toes,abacus was the first great computing machine of human civilization.

  6. The “animalized humans” – the reformulated body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2017-01-01

    The paper will discuss the phenomenon of Japanese Catgirls who practice cat behavior as a counterpart to Disney's cartoon in which animals have a human character. Furthermore, the role of this Japanese phenomenon in a Danish pedagogical context is addressed. The discussion's theoretical approache...

  7. Consumer perceptions of food products from cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears...

  8. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    the same method, but using the nuclei of somatic cells from an adult mammal, to create Dolly the sheep. It has become theoretically possible to produce an unlimited number of genetic replicates from an adult animal or a post-implantation foetus. Since 1997 a number of different species including pigs......, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research...... include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a tool within farm animal breeding. We do not intend to give an exhaustive review of the all the literature available...

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  10. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  11. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  12. Dialogic feedforward in group coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrø, Helle; Dahl, Poul Nørgård

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of the article is to describe a joint learning process where both practicable and theoretically anchored knowledge are in the foreground. The empirical data derives from an EU project. In focus is a group of course leaders and their experiences of carrying out a training progr...

  13. Advances in theoretical models of network science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin-qing; BI Qiao; LI Yong

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we will summarize the main advances in network science investigated by the CIAE Group of Complex Network in this field. Several theoretical models of network science were proposed and their topological and dynamical properties are reviewed and compared with the other models. Our models mainly include a harmonious unifying hybrid preferential model, a large unifying hybrid network model, a quantum interference network, a hexagonal nanowire network, and a small-world network with the same degree. The models above reveal some new phenomena and findings, which are useful for deeply understanding and investigating complex networks and their applications.

  14. Review on Nanofluid Theoretical Viscosity Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Mukesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Much interest is shown on nanofluid as nanofluid is suitable for cooling applications. The two important thermo physical properties of nanofluid such as thermal conductivity and viscosity play key role in practical heat transfer situations. The nanofluid viscosity is investigated by many investigators next to the thermal conductivity of nanofluid as the viscosity determines the pumping power. This review summarizes the nanofluids theoretical viscosity models proposed by different research groups. Though many viscosity models formulated of nanofluids, there is no universally accepted model and reliable mechanism for viscosity over the particles volume fraction. Therefore this review leads to further investigation on the hotly debated topic of viscosity of nanofluids.

  15. Almost Free Modules Set-Theoretic Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Eklof, PC

    1990-01-01

    This is an extended treatment of the set-theoretic techniques which have transformed the study of abelian group and module theory over the last 15 years. Part of the book is new work which does not appear elsewhere in any form. In addition, a large body of material which has appeared previously (in scattered and sometimes inaccessible journal articles) has been extensively reworked and in many cases given new and improved proofs. The set theory required is carefully developed with algebraists in mind, and the independence results are derived from explicitly stated axioms. The book contains exe

  16. Riemannian means on special euclidean group and unipotent matrices group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei; Peng, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results.

  17. EFFECTS OF SEGMENTATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL ANIMATION IN FACILITATING LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad Ali

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of segmented-animation, playpause- animation and continuous-animation in facilitating learning of low prior knowledge learners. A courseware prototype entitled Transmission Media was developed for the research purpose. The courseware contains nine animations on various topics in Transmission Media. Pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed on three different groups respectively. The data collected were analyzed statistically by using one-way between-groups ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons. Apparently, the result suggests that segmented-animation was significantly more effective than play-pause-animation and continuous-animation in enhancing students’ learning performance. The result indicates that segmented-animation was beneficial for students in conducting adequate cognitive processes of the information depicted in the animation. Furthermore, the result shows that allowing students to decide the segmentation in play-pause-animation condition does not necessarily promotes better learning. This was due to low prior knowledge students’ inability in deciding the appropriate stop points in animation and/or play-pause-replay button design that might causes split attention effect resulting extraneous cognitive load throughout the learning process.

  18. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour--their diversity, structure and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-05-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, for example in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants. 2. Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and to guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date, but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units. 3. Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterize their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterization and for scrutinizing model predictions. 4. Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used and the focal species, and also explore their contribution to advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes. 5. This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches.

  19. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  20. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This thesis is based on the results of a three-year long PhD-study at the Department of Communication and Psychology at Aalborg University. The thesis consist of five original papers, a book manuscript, as well as a linking text with the thesis’ research questions, research design, and summary...... experiments has been carried out, applying animation-based sketching in various contexts and at varying points in the design process. In the studies, I evaluate the viability of the approach, the practical integration into the design process, and map how consensus between stakeholders in design can...

  1. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...... the concept of transduction with a focus on film storyboards: how students transform ideas when working with different modes (audio, visual) of representation. Data includes discourse analysis of semiotic processes and texts, referring to Social Semiotics and the methodology of Mediated Discourse Analysis...

  2. Telltale Animation (Sol 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 1:10 PM local Mars time on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Telltale Animation (Sol 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animation of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's telltale was made from five images taken by Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) just after 4:37 PM local Mars time on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008). The images were taken with a blue filter (450 nanometer, R6) that focuses at items on the deck rather than the workspace or horizon. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  5. Theoretical research progress in complexity of complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jinqing

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the main progress in dynamical complexity of theoretical models for nonlinear complex networks proposed by our Joint Complex Network Research Group (JCNRG). The topological and dynamical properties of these theoretical models are numerically and analytically studied. Several findings are useful for understanding and deeply studying complex networks from macroscopic to microscopic levels and have a potential of applications in real-world networks.

  6. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  7. [Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Goyffon, M

    2006-06-01

    Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. In addition to a brief reviewing geographic risks and circumstances in which bites, stings or ingestion occur, some information is provided about antivenim therapy, the only etiological treatment.

  8. Ethical Inspection about laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nai-bin; Pan, Xiao-jun; Cheng, Jing-jing; Lin, Jia-qiang; Zhu, Jia-yin

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals.

  9. [Dermatophytes from animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, A

    2000-01-01

    Dermatophytes from animal dermatophytoses were investigated, especially for their teleomorphs and molecular characteristics. Microsporum canis, M. equinum, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes complex, T. rubrum and T. verrucosum were isolated as the etiological agents of animal ringworm in Japan. They were morphologically and biochemically identified and their perfect states were examined. The teleomorph of M. canis was first obtained and reported as Nanizzia otae in 1975. The isolates of M. canis of which the teleomorph was confirmed were all "-" excepted two Japanese isolates. Mating experiments indicated that the isolates of M. gypseum were "+" or "-" of A. gypseum and A. incurvatum, respectively. Most of the isolates of T. mentagrophytes complex of which a perfect state was detected were A. vanbreuseghemii. One isolate from a monkey was A. simii and one from a rabbit was A. benhamiae. However, the teleomorph remained unknown in many isolates. Molecular characteristics in random amplification of polymorphic DNA and Southern hybridization analyses were found to be effective to differentiate the species of Microsporum. Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes were also analyzed for their phylogenetic relatedness. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: the first cluster consisted of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. violaceum; the second of A. fulvum, A. gypseum and A. incurvatum; the third of A. grubyi and A. otae; and the fourth of Epidermaphyton floccosum, providing useful information for the classification and understanding of their evolution.

  10. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  11. Animal metacognition: a tale of two comparative psychologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Couchman, Justin J; Beran, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    A growing literature considers whether animals have capacities that are akin to human metacognition (i.e., humans' capacity to monitor their states of uncertainty and knowing). Comparative psychologists have approached this question by testing a dolphin, pigeons, rats, monkeys, and apes using perception, memory, and food-concealment paradigms. As part of this consideration, some associative modelers have attempted to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in low-level, associative terms-an important goal if achievable. The authors summarize the empirical and theoretical situation regarding these associative descriptions. The associative descriptions in the animal-metacognition literature fail to encompass important phenomena. The sharp focus on abstract, mathematical associative models creates serious interpretative problems. The authors compare these failed associative descriptions with an alternative theoretical approach within contemporary comparative psychology. The alternative approach has the potential to strengthen comparative psychology as an empirical science and integrate it more fully within the mainstream of experimental psychology and cognitive science.

  12. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohani Usha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  13. Theoretical behaviorism meets embodied cognition : Two theoretical analyses of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a theore

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  15. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  16. Social Impact, a Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Onyx

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a theoretical model of social impact as it applies to civil society organisations. It does so by drawing on the recent literature on the topic as well as recently completed empirical studies. First, the relationship between impact and evaluation is examined. This is followed by an exploration of the capitals, notably social, human, and cultural capital and their interrelationships, as a theoretical base for the explication of social impact. A formal model of social impact is then identified together with a set of basic principles that may be said to define social impact. Finally the implications of the model are discussed for social policy and organisational management.

  17. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  18. Mechanics lectures on theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1952-01-01

    Mechanics: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume I covers a general course on theoretical physics. The book discusses the mechanics of a particle; the mechanics of systems; the principle of virtual work; and d'alembert's principle. The text also describes oscillation problems; the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of a rigid body; the theory of relative motion; and the integral variational principles of mechanics. Lagrange's equations for generalized coordinates and the theory of Hamilton are also considered. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking Physics courses will find the book

  19. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 2 covers all aspects of theoretical chemistry.This book reviews the techniques that have been proven successful in the study of interatomic potentials in order to describe the interactions between complex molecules. The ground state properties of the interacting electron gas when a magnetic field is present are also elaborated, followed by a discussion on the Gellman-Brueckner-Macke theory of the correlation energy that has applications in atomic and molecular systems.This volume considers the instability of the Hartree-Fock ground state

  20. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...