WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal genetic resources

  1. In vivo conservation of animal genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boettcher, P.; Martin, J.F.; Gandini, G.; Joshi, B.K.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines present the basic concepts involved in the development and implementation of in vivo conservation plans for animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. The guidelines are intended for use by policy-makers in the management of animal genetic resources, managers of animal

  2. A new direction for farm animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kantanen, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In September 2007, the International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture was held in Interlaken, Switzerland. Two important documents aiming at preventing the genetic erosion of farm animal biodiversity and promoting the sustainable use of genetic resources were adopted: The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration of Animal Genetic Resources.

  3. Cryopreservation Strategies for Farm Animal Genetic Resources in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    European countries have developed national strategies and action plans implementing the Global Plan of Action for animal genetic resources. National action plans include development and implementation of cryopreservation strategies for animal genetic resources. Although some cross-border

  4. Draft guidelines on in vivo conservation of animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Boettcher, P.; Martin, J.F.; Gandini, G.; Joshi, B.K.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Sponenberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    These guidelines present the basic concepts involved in the establishment and implementation of in vivo conservation plans for animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. The guidelines are intended for use by policy makers in the management of animal genetic resources, managers of animal breeding organizations, persons responsible for training in animal genetic resource management and any stakeholders with a leading role in designing and implementing in vivo conservation of animal gen...

  5. Draft guidelines on in vivo conservation of animal genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boettcher, P.; Martin, J.F.; Gandini, G.; Joshi, B.K.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Sponenberg, P.

    2012-01-01

    These guidelines present the basic concepts involved in the establishment and implementation of in vivo conservation plans for animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. The guidelines are intended for use by policy makers in the management of animal genetic resources, managers of animal

  6. Reproductive biotechnologies and management of animal genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global awareness has increased efforts to conserve animal genetic resources (AnGR). Ex-situ conservation and management of AnGR is exclusively dependent upon an array of reproductive and genetic biotechnologies. These technologies range from well established protocols, e.g., cryopreservation of sper...

  7. Conservation of animal genetic resources – A new tact

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the past 20 years countries have initiated programs to sustainably conserve farm animal genetic resources. At the same time the growing need for increased animal productivity has emerged. Viewing gene banks and in vivo conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product dem...

  8. Conservation and sustainable use of animal genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the basis of agriculture. Adapting populations of domestic animals through breeding is impossible withot genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is part of the history of mankind and is essential for future improvements in agricultural production.

  9. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  10. Possible consequences of the Nagoya Protocol for animal breeding and the worldwide exchange of animal genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martyniuk, E.; Berger, B.; Bojkovski, D.; Bouchel, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Marguerat, C.; Matlova, V.; Sæther, N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses animal genetic resources in the context of the Nagoya Protocol, providing an overview of the distinctive features and practices in this sector of genetic resources. It presents how animal genetic resources are utilized, who are the users and providers, and what are the trends in

  11. Molecular and Population Genetics Tools for Animal Resources Conservation: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Terezia Socol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in animal genome data and in genetic analysis, next to the increasing use of artificial reproductive technology resulted in progress into the animal sciences area, transposing the applied technologies into the omics field. This paper provides a brief overview related to some aspects of the population genetics characterization, as well as on the animal population genetic improvement and on the main molecular tools available for farm animals, highlighting at the same time the perspectives and priorities in terms of the advanced genetic methods, that can be considered for farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR breeding, improvement and conservation programmes in Romania.

  12. Economic Evaluation and Biodiversity Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Fadlaoui, Aziz; Bertaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly declining biodiversity has made international and national policies focus on the question of how best to protect genetic resources. Loss of biodiversity does not only concern wildlife, but equally affects agriculturally used species. These species, of foremost importance for the subsistence of humankind, are subject to pressures sometimes similar and sometimes very distinct from those of their wild counterparts. And so are the losses implied by this decline in diversity. This handbook...

  13. Options and legal requirements for national and regional animal genetic resources collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contraction of animal genetic resources on a global scale has motivated countries to establish gene banks as a mechanism to conserve national resources. Gene banks should establish a set of policies that insure they are complying with national laws. The two primary areas of consideration are ho...

  14. Market organization and animal genetic resource management: a revealed preference analysis of sheep pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindano, K; Moula, N; Leroy, P; Traoré, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N

    2017-10-01

    Farm animal genetic resources are threatened worldwide. Participation in markets, while representing a crucial way out of poverty for many smallholders, affects genetic management choices with associated sustainability concerns. This paper proposes a contextualized study of the interactions between markets and animal genetic resources management, in the case of sheep markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It focusses on the organization of marketing chains and the valuation of genetic characteristics by value chain actors. Marketing chain characterization was tackled through semi-structured interviews with 25 exporters and 15 butchers, both specialized in sheep. Moreover, revealed preference methods were applied to analyse the impact of animals' attributes on market pricing. Data were collected from 338 transactions during three different periods: Eid al-Adha, Christmas and New Year period, and a neutral period. The neutral period is understood as a period not close to any event likely to influence the demand for sheep. The results show that physical characteristics such as live weight, height at withers and coat colour have a strong influence on the animals' prices. Live weight has also had an increasing marginal impact on price. The different markets (local butcher, feasts, export market, sacrifices) represent distinct demands for genetic characteristics, entailing interesting consequences for animal genetic resource management. Any breeding programme should therefore take this diversity into account to allow this sector to contribute better to a sustainable development of the country.

  15. Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

    2002-01-01

    Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200

  16. Gene banks a mechanism for harnessing animal genetic resources for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased productivity for livestock is needed to sustainably meet growing consumer demands. Climate change places another layer of complexity on the raising animal productivity. To meet these challenges a wide variety of genetic resources is needed. But maintaining this variety in-situ can be costl...

  17. Conservation and sustainable use of Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture : country report of the Netherlands for the 2nd State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture : executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Hoving, A.H.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    The updated Dutch national report on conservation and sustainable use of Animal Genetic Resources summarizes the state of national implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources. Seven strategic priority areas have been identified, dealing with remaining or future

  18. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects....... There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability...... on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources...

  19. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock agriculture is in a period of tumultuous change and upheaval. General economic development, and population growth and mobility, have increased demand for livestock products, but have also placed pressures on the sustainability of rural environments and animal production systems. Livestock ...

  20. The animal genetic resource information network (AnimalGRIN) database: A database design and implementation case

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript presents a case study that is based on an actual project for the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The NAGP collects, preserves, and documents germplasm from various breeds of livestock in the United States, in order to preserve and e...

  1. The Animal Genetic Resource Information Network (AnimalGRIN) Database: A Database Design & Implementation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Gretchen; Wessel, Lark; Blackman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This case describes a database redesign project for the United States Department of Agriculture's National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP). The case provides a valuable context for teaching and practicing database analysis, design, and implementation skills, and can be used as the basis for a semester-long team project. The case demonstrates the…

  2. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production's effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  3. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eKantanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  4. CRYOBANKING OF SOMATIC CELLS IN CONSERVATION OF ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES: PROSPECTS AND SUCCESSES (review)

    OpenAIRE

    G.N. SINGINA; N.A. VOLKOVA; V.A. BAGIROV; N.A. ZINOVIEVA

    2014-01-01

    Extinction of many species is irreversible and is a part of the natural evolution, but human activities have influenced this process, making it much faster comparing to speciation. According to FAO, approximately 20 % of the breeds of cattle, goats, pigs, horses and poultry in the world are currently at risk of disappearance, many have died in the past few years, as a result their genetic characteristics lost forever. The role of banks in the management of genetic resources and the conservati...

  5. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and

  6. First report on the state of the world's animal genetic resources. Views on biotechnology as expressed in country reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardellino, R.; Hoffmann, I.; Tempelman, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the country-driven strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources, FAO invited 188 counties to participate in the First Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, with 145 consenting. Their reports are an important source of information on the use of biotechnology, particularly biotechnical products and processes. This paper analyses information from country reports so far submitted, and is therefore preliminary. There is clearly a big gap in biotechnology applications between developed and developing countries, with artificial insemination the most common technology used in developing countries, although not everywhere. More complex techniques, such as embryo transfer (ET) and molecular tools, are even less frequent in developing countries. Most developing countries wish to expand ET and establish gene banks and cryoconservation techniques. There are very few examples in developing countries of livestock breeding programmes capable of incorporating molecular biotechnologies in livestock genetic improvement programmes. (author)

  7. Biobanking genetic material for agricultural animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobanking animal germplasm and tissues is a major component of conserving genetic resources. Effectively constructing such gene banks requires an understanding and evaluation of genetic resources, the ability to conserve various tissues through cryopreservation, and a robust information technology ...

  8. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  9. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, P J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M A; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Gandini, G; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2010-05-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The world has more than 7500 livestock breeds and conservation of all of them is not feasible. Therefore, prioritization is needed. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art in approaches for prioritization of breeds for conservation, particularly those approaches that consider molecular genetic information, and to identify any shortcomings that may restrict their application. The Weitzman method was among the first and most well-known approaches for utilization of molecular genetic information in conservation prioritization. This approach balances diversity and extinction probability to yield an objective measure of conservation potential. However, this approach was designed for decision making across species and measures diversity as distinctiveness. For livestock, prioritization will most commonly be performed among breeds within species, so alternatives that measure diversity as co-ancestry (i.e. also within-breed variability) have been proposed. Although these methods are technically sound, their application has generally been limited to research studies; most existing conservation programmes have effectively primarily based decisions on extinction risk. The development of user-friendly software incorporating these approaches may increase their rate of utilization.

  10. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  11. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  12. Genetic Resources of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit quality, watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus) share a narrow genetic base. Africa is the center of origin and diversity of watermelon and is considered to be the central continent for collecting and conserving useful ge...

  13. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.

  14. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/92/e85.pdf. Yu S., Zhang Y. X., Ren Y. L. and Sun Q.-X. 2013 Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for Phragmites australis. J. Genet. 92, e89–e92. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/92/e89.pdf. Sumangala R. C., Shaanker R. U., ...

  15. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    90, e1–e5. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/. OnlineResources/90/e1.pdf. Godavarthi S., Jayaraman A. and Gaur A. 2011 Cross-species amplification of human microsatellite markers in pig-tailed and stump- tailed macaques. J. Genet. 90, e6–e9. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/90/e6.pdf.

  16. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e130.pdf. Coutinho J. P., Carvalho A. and Lima-Brito J. 2014 Fingerprinting of Fagaceae individuals using intermicrosatellite markers. J. Genet. 93, e132–e140. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/93/e132.pdf]. Ma C., Jiang W., ...

  17. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics Online Resources. July – September 2015. Chaves C. L., Ruas C. F., Ruas P. M., Schneider A. A., Rocha K. R., Urtubey E. and Ruas E. A. 2015 Isolation and characteri- zation of twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci for Hypochaeris catharinensis (Asteraceae) and cross-amplification in related species.

  18. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    92/e68.pdf. Choi I.-S. and Choi B.-H. 2013 Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci from Korean Astragalus mongholicus (Fabaceae). J. Genet. 92, e73–e76. Online only: http//www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/92/e73.pdf.

  19. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandeep M., Sun F., Liu F., Li J., David P. B. and Yue G. H. 2012 Novel polymorphic microsatellites from Florida red tilapia and cross- species amplification in Mozambique and Nile tilapia. J. Genet. 91, e97–e99. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/. 91/e97.pdf. Xin C., Yu D., Peng J., Hu H., Xing Y. and ...

  20. Cryopreservation of eucalyptus genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, E; Alves, A; Rodrigues, L; Jenderek, M; Hernandez-Ellis, M; Ozudogru, A; Ellis, D

    2013-01-01

    The long-term preservation of forest genetic resources is a vital part of preserving our forest crops for future generations. Unfortunately, there are few genebanks dedicated to forest trees and very few methods for long-term preservation of forest genetic resources collections aside from field plantings of a limited number of seed-derived or elite clonal individuals. The use of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of elite germplasm is increasingly being used for the long-term preservation of clonal agronomic crops but for forest trees, such as Eucalyptus, the methodology for cryopreservation of diverse genetic resources collections has not been established. We report the successful cryopreservation of a germplasm collection of in vitro shoot cultures of thirteen Eucalyptus spp. lines consisting of two E. grandis x E. camaldulensis lines, seven E. urophylla x E. grandis lines, one E. grandis line, two E. grandis x E. urophylla lines, and one E. camaldulensis line. In a comparison of two cryopreservation methods, sucrose sensitivity limited the application of encapsulation-dehydration. However, with droplet-vitrification, all thirteen lines had good survival after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. A 30 min exposure to Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) yielded post-liquid nitrogen survival between 38% and 85% depending on the line. One hundred shoot tips from all thirteen lines are currently in long-term storage as a germplasm collection.

  1. Crop Genetic Resources: An Economic Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Heisey, Paul W.; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Sullivan, John; Frisvold, George B.

    2005-01-01

    Crop genetic resources are the basis of agricultural production, and significant economic benefits have resulted from their conservation and use. However, crop genetic resources are largely public goods, so private incentives for genetic resource conservation may fall short of achieving public objectives. Within the U.S. germplasm system, certain crop collections lack sufficient diversity to reduce vulnerability to pests and diseases. Many such genetic resources lie outside the United States....

  2. Genetic diversity in farm animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, L. F.; Lenstra, J. A.; Eding, H.; Toro, M. A.; Scherf, B.; Pilling, D.; Negrini, R.; Finlay, E. K.; Jianlin, H.; Groeneveld, E.; Weigend, S.

    2010-01-01

    Domestication of livestock species and a long history of migrations, selection and adaptation have created an enormous variety of breeds. Conservation of these genetic resources relies on demographic characterization, recording of production environments and effective data management. In addition,

  3. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  4. Reverse genetics with animal viruses. NSV reverse genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebatsion, T.

    2005-01-01

    New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)

  5. Conservation of Swine Genetics by the National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) after One Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the continued threats to genetic diversity, and that this is the 10th year NAGP has been operating, it is useful to assess the progress made to date in securing animal genetic resources in general and swine genetic resources specifically. In 1999 the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) es...

  6. Genomic management of animal genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor

    2017-01-01

    Recently developed genomic tools, like SNP-genotyping and whole genome sequencing, and their analysis, offer great opportunities for the conservation and utilisation of animal genetic diversity, both among and within breeds. These genomic tools can be used to detect potentially valuable rare alleles

  7. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic engineering has evolved through three stages in history: transgenesis, gene targeting, and gene editing. Since the birth of the first transgenic pig, genetic engineering in livestock has been advancing slowly due to inherent technical limitations. A major breakthrough has been the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer, which, for the first time, provided the technical ability to produce site-specific genome-modified domestic animals. However, the low efficiency of gene targeting events in somatic cells prohibits its wide use in agricultural and biomedical applications. Recently, rapid progress in tools and methods of genome engineering has been made, allowing genetic editing from mutation of a single base pair to the deletion of entire chromosomes. Here, we review the major advances of genetic engineering in domestic animals with emphasis placed on the introduction of latest designer nucleases.

  8. Intellectual property right in genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are necessary in food production and biodiversity conservation. These are the most important natural resources, in addition to air, water and soil. Unfortunately, during the evolution large number of plant genetic resources has been lost. The biggest negative impact on loss of plant genetic resources had been made by humans through the modernization of agriculture and the creation of varieties of high genetic uniformity. FAO and its operation through international mechanisms, such as the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first legal act which regulates all levels of biodiversity: ecosystems, species and genetic resources, biotechnology, including the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (regulates the transfer of genetic material across the border, contributed to the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. In addition to the Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO has been defined by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in more specific and detailed way, the preservation of genetic resources. The objectives of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use. There are four basic pillars which form the substance of the Contract, Sustainable use of plant genetic resources, Farmers' Rights, the Multilateral System and the Global Information System. Two organizations, the International Biodiversity and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants trying to solve the issues of protection of the population and old varieties as intellectual property.

  9. Recent advances in small animal genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannasch, Danika L; Hughes, Angela M

    2006-05-01

    The whole genome sequence of the dog is complete, and partial sequencing of the cat genome is underway. Sequences allow the molecular basis for inherited diseases to be more easily determined, leading to development of DNA tests to verify carrier and affected states as well as potential gene therapy for the treatment of those diseases. To help veterinarians provide genetic services to their clients, the molecular genetic tests currently available are listed in this article. In addition, cloning of small animals is now available to clients on a commercial basis. Information about the cloning process and possible health issues in clones are discussed.

  10. The importance and implication of genetic resources in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance and preservation of biodiversity is going through the processes of conservation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems and habitats, as well as the preservation and recovery of species. Genetic diversity means the variety and total number of genes contained in plant and animal species and microorganisms. Genetic diversity is the basic unit of diversity, which is responsible for differences between individuals, populations and species. Genetic diversity is very important for the preservation of biodiversity and can be saved in several ways. Part of the germplasm is maintained through breeding programs as they evaluate germplasm stored and used as a source of needed diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity is one of the most important international agreements to protect nature and conserve genetic resources. International treaties governing the use of genetic resources for food and agriculture are a way to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of plant resources for food and agriculture, and to regulate the rights of farmers.

  11. Plant Genetic Resources: Needs, Rights, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Carolina; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; Wenzl, Peter; Powell, Wayne

    2016-08-01

    Technological advances allow us to tap into genetic resources to address food and nutritional security in the face of population growth, urbanization, climate change, and environmental degradation. It is vital, particularly for developing countries, to ensure that the policy framework regulating access and use of genetic resources keeps pace with technological developments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  13. The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Part 4, The State of the Art: Box 4A4: A digital enumeration method for collecting phenotypic data for genome association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consistent data across animal populations are required to inform genomic science aimed at finding important adaptive genetic variations. The ADAPTMap Digital Phenotype Collection- Prototype Method will yield a new procedure to provide consistent phenotypic data by digital enumeration of categorical ...

  14. Redesigning the exploitation of wheat genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Reif, Jochen C

    2014-10-01

    More than half a million wheat genetic resources are resting in gene banks worldwide. Unlocking their hidden favorable genetic diversity for breeding is pivotal for enhancing grain yield potential, and averting future food shortages. Here, we propose exploiting recent advances in hybrid wheat technology to uncover the masked breeding values of wheat genetic resources. The gathered phenotypic information will enable a targeted choice of accessions with high value for pre-breeding among this plethora of genetic resources. We intend to provoke a paradigm shift in pre-breeding strategies for grain yield, moving away from allele mining toward genome-wide selection to bridge the yield gap between genetic resources and elite breeding pools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhang L., Lu S., Sun D. and Peng J. 2015 Genetic variation and geographical differentiation revealed using ISSR markers in tung tree, Vernicia fordii. J. Genet. 94, e5–e9. Online only: ... Patiyal R. S. and Singh A. K. 2015 Molecular characteriza- tion of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) stocks in India.

  16. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods in genetics teaching, or develop- ment/modification of software that could be useful in genetics research or teaching. Papers in this category will have less than. 2500 words text, less than 25 references and no abstract. There will be no ...

  17. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pdf. Bhandawat A., Sharma V., Sharma H., Sood A. and Sharma R. K. 2014 Development and crosstransferability of functionally relevant microsatellite markers in Dendrocalamus latiflorus and related bamboo species. J. Genet. 93, e48–e55.

  18. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /90/e25.pdf. Li H., Liang Y., Sui L., Gao X. and He C. 2011 Characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis by EST database mining and cross-species amplification. J. Genet.

  19. Precision genetics for complex objectives in animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, S C; Blake, A; Carlson, D F; Doran, T; Van Eenennaam, A; Faber, D; Galli, C; Gao, Q; Hackett, P B; Li, N; Maga, E A; Muir, W M; Murray, J D; Shi, D; Stotish, R; Sullivan, E; Taylor, J F; Walton, M; Wheeler, M; Whitelaw, B; Glenn, B P

    2010-07-01

    Indirect modification of animal genomes by interspecific hybridization, cross-breeding, and selection has produced an enormous spectrum of phenotypic diversity over more than 10,000 yr of animal domestication. Using these established technologies, the farming community has successfully increased the yield and efficiency of production in most agricultural species while utilizing land resources that are often unsuitable for other agricultural purposes. Moving forward, animal well-being and agricultural sustainability are moral and economic priorities of consumers and producers alike. Therefore, these considerations will be included in any strategy designed to meet the challenges produced by global climate change and an expanding world population. Improvements in the efficiency and precision of genetic technologies will enable a timely response to meet the multifaceted food requirements of a rapidly increasing world population.

  20. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    STATEMENT ABOUT OWNERSHIP AND OTHER PARTICULARS. ABOUT JOURNAL OF GENETICS. 1. Place of publication Bangalore. Bangalore. 2. Periodicity of publication. Three issues a year. 3. Printer's name. R. Ramaswamy. Indian Academy of Sciences. Bangalore 560 080. 4. and 5. Publisher and Editor.

  1. Forest genetic resources to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Orlović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A biobased economy implies sustainable and effective use of the biomass. This includes new products from forestry. The sustainable production, use, consumption and waste management of biomass all contribute to a bioeconomy (The European Bioeconomy in 2030. In the context of bioeconomy the conservation of forest genetic resources assumes a key significance in overcoming global challenges such as climate change. Forests are expected to play a key role in climate change mitigation, but they will only be able to fulfil that role if the trees themselves are able to survive and adapt to changing climate conditions. Genetic diversity provides the fundamental basis for the evolution of forest tree species and for their adaptation to change. The enormous range of goods and services provided by trees and forests is both a function of and testimony to the genetic variability contained within them.  Conserving forest  genetic  resources  is  therefore  vital, as  they  constitute  a  unique  and  irreplaceable resource for the future, including for sustainable economic growth and progress and environmental adaption (The State of the Worlds Forest Genetic Resources 2014.Previous research of population characteristics and the effects of natural and artificial selection on the genetic structure of populations contribute to the conservation and enhancement of the gene pool of the native tree species. The balance model of the population genetic structure reveals the new properties of the populations and requires further investigations, especially of the relations of subpopulations, half-sib families and organisms and the effect of variable factors of the environment, on the exchange of genetic material within natural and cultural populations.Being of national and international significance, these resources require intensive protection and enhancement in situ and ex situ. In this paper a general introduction is given to conservation of forest genetic

  2. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  3. Journal of Genetics Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/. OnlineResource/93/e86.pdf. Mohitha C., Joy L., Divya P. R., Gopalakrishnan A., Basheer V. S., Koya M. and Jena J. K. 2014 Characterization of microsatellite markers in silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Perciformes: Stromateidae) through cross-species amplification and population ...

  4. Genetics of ovulation rate in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.

  5. The Genetics of Deafness in Domestic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Although deafness can be acquired throughout an animal’s life from a variety of causes, hereditary deafness, especially congenital hereditary deafness, is a significant problem in several species. Extensive reviews exist of the genetics of deafness in humans and mice, but not for deafness in domestic animals. Hereditary deafness in many species and breeds is associated with loci for white pigmentation, where the cochlear pathology is cochleo-saccular. In other cases, there is no pigmentation association and the cochlear pathology is neuroepithelial. Late onset hereditary deafness has recently been identified in dogs and may be present but not yet recognized in other species. Few genes responsible for deafness have been identified in animals, but progress has been made for identifying genes responsible for the associated pigmentation phenotypes. Across species, the genes identified with deafness or white pigmentation patterns include MITF, PMEL, KIT, EDNRB, CDH23, TYR, and TRPM1 in dog, cat, horse, cow, pig, sheep, ferret, mink, camelid, and rabbit. Multiple causative genes are present in some species. Significant work remains in many cases to identify specific chromosomal deafness genes so that DNA testing can be used to identify carriers of the mutated genes and thereby reduce deafness prevalence. PMID:26664958

  6. Utilization and transfer of forest genetic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskela, Jarkko; Vinceti, Barbara; Dvorak, William

    2014-01-01

    to complement new research approaches. Currently, seed of boreal and temperate trees for reforestation purposes are largely obtained from improved sources. The situation is similar for fast growing tropical and subtropical trees grown in plantations, but in the case of tropical hardwoods and many agroforestry...... to genetic resources and benefit sharing (ABS) may significantly change current transfer practices in the forestry sector by increasing transaction costs and the time needed to lawfully obtain forest genetic resources for R&D purposes. Many countries are likely to struggle to establish a well-functioning ABS...

  7. Analogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Finch, MD

    2017-09-01

    The genetic skin diseases we will review are pigmentary mosaicism, piebaldism, albinism, Griscelli syndrome, ectodermal dysplasias, Waardenburg syndrome, and mucinosis in both humans and domesticated animals.

  8. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  9. Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukendt, FAO; Ukendt, DFSC; Ukendt, ICRAF

    FAO, IPGRI/SAFORGEN, DFSCand ICRAF have cooperated on the compilation of17 booklets on the state of Forest Genetic Resources for thecountries listed below. When ordering your book please remember to write the country required on the email. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d\\Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Gui...

  10. Aquatic animal resources in Prehistoric Aegean, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the early stages in the history of fishing in the Aegean Sea in Greece, and highlights its formative phases and its specific characteristics in different points in time. This is testified by various physical remains, such as fish bones, fishing tools, and representations in art, which are gathered in the course of archaeological research. The aquatic resources in the Aegean Sea have been exploited and managed for millennia by communities that lived near the water and often made a living from it. The earliest evidence for a systematic, intensive exploitation of marine resources in the Aegean Sea dates to the Mesolithic, eleven millennia ago. In the Neolithic period, the adoption of a sedentary, agro-pastoral way of life led to a reduction in the intensity of fishing and shellfish gathering. Its importance as an economic resource remained high only in certain regions of rich, eutrophic waters. In the Bronze Age, an era of social complexity and centralized economy, the exploitation of aquatic, mostly marine, resources became a complex, multi-faceted activity which involved subsistence, industry and ideology. The range of preferred fish and invertebrate species, the fishing technology, and the processing of fish and shellfish in order to produce elaborate foods or prestige items are all traceable aspects of the complex relationship between humans and the aquatic resources throughout the prehistory of fishing and shellfish gathering in the Aegean area. The broadening of collaboration between archaeology and physical sciences offers new means to explore these issues in a more thorough and nuanced manner.

  11. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-12

    Roundworms ( Toxocara canis ) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and A. braziliense) are endoparasites that commonly infect young pups. Roundworms are...spp., tri- chomonads, Cryptosporidium spp., Balantidium spp., and amebas. The hel- minths include ascarids (e.g., Toxocara canis and Toxascaris... Toxocara canis , is a common parasite of the small intestines of dogs, even in closed breeding colonies. ’A 1 60 DOGS: LABORATORY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

  12. Plant DNA banks for genetic resources conservation (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Literature review of DNA banks creation as the current strategy of plant genetic resources conservation. Results. The current state of plant genetic resources conservation was analyzed in the context of the threat of gene­tic erosion. The importance of DNA banks was shown which function is to store DNA samples and associated products and disseminate them for research purposes. The main DNA banks in the world were described, including the Republican DNA Bank of Human, Animals, Plants and Microorganisms at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Stages of DNA banking were considered: tissue sampling (usually from leaves, cell destruction, DNA extraction, DNA storage. Different methods of tissue sampling, extraction and DNA storage were compared. The need for Plant DNA Bank creation in Ukraine was highlighted. Conclusions. DNA collections is an important resource in the global effort to overcome the crisis in biodiversity, for managing world genetic resources and maximi­zing their potential.

  13. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  14. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of herit......This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...

  16. [Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches.

  17. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  18. Challenges in the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, Marco

    2012-06-23

    The meeting on 'Genetic Resources in the Face of New Environmental, Economic and Social Challenges' held in Montpellier (France) from 20-22 September 2011 brought together about 200 participants active in research and management of the genetic diversity of plant, animal, fungal and microbial species. Attendees had the rare opportunity to hear about agronomy, botany, microbiology, mycology, the social sciences and zoology in the same conference. The research teams presented the results of about 50 projects funded by the French Foundation for Research on Biodiversity to preserve genetic diversity carried out in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. These projects aimed to better understand and manage genetic resources in a rapidly changing world (e.g. structural changes in the agricultural industry, the need for climate change mitigation and adaptation, the challenge of achieving food security despite the growing world population and changing dietary habits, the opportunities provided by the many new molecular biology tools, the problems caused by widespread scientific budget cuts). The meeting also hosted some roundtables open to all participants which provided a forum to establish a much needed dialogue between policy-makers, managers and researchers.

  19. Animal models for human genetic diseases | Sharif | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to ...

  20. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  1. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  2. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  3. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

  4. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  5. Medulloblastoma: Molecular Genetics and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Raffel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a primary brain tumor found in the cerebellum of children. The tumor occurs in association with two inherited cancer syndromes: Turcot syndrome and Gorlin syndrome. Insights into the molecular biology of the tumor have come from looking at alterations in the genes altered in these syndromes, PTC and APC, respectively. Murine models of medulloblastoma have been constructed based on these alterations. Additional murine models that, while mimicking the appearance of the human tumor, seem unrelated to the human tumor's molecular alterations have been made. In this review, the clinical picture, origin, molecular biology, murine models of medulloblastoma are discussed. Although a great deal has been discovered about this tumor, the genetic alterations responsible for tumor development in a majority of patients have yet to be described.

  6. Principles of plant genetic resources conservation: Some aspects for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation of genetic resources and reinstatement of genetic diversity in the major food crops are imperative to feeding our ever-growing population. This paper reviews the spectrum of genetic resources, the usefulness of different segments, conservation targets, and strategies for conserving and using the irreplaceable ...

  7. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The

  8. Allium genetic resources with particular reference to onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, C.

    2008-01-01

    As in many other crop species, also in Allium crops genetic erosion is taking place. In this mini review the current global state of the art is presented on Allium ex situ genetic resources and more in particular on onion genetic resources. Furthermore future possible actions are indicated to

  9. Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hammer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant Genetic Resources (PGR continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion are discussed.4. Genetic Resources Conservation. Because of genetic erosion there is a need for conservation. PGR should be consigned to the appropriate method of conservation (ex situ, in situ, on-farm according to the scientific basis of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity and the evolutionary status of plants (cultivated plants, weeds, related wild plants (crop wild relatives.5. GMO. The impact of genetically engineered plants on genetic diversity is discussed.6. The Conclusions and Recommendations stress the importance of PGR. Their conservation and use are urgent necessities for the present development and future survival of mankind.

  10. Evaluation of wild animals browsing preferences in forage resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive presence of wild ungulates can produce negative effects on herbaceous crops or woody species, and to face this problem, habitat improvements are often performed to recreate suitable environments for a given animal species and to attract animals far from cultivated crops. A common example of these interventions is represented by grassland restoration and to evaluate the real animal preferences on restored forage resources a proper trial was established in a hilly area of Tuscany (central Italy, inside the historical Park of Pratolino, near Florence. The trial compared six different forage species or mixtures sown in plots: vegetal material was represented by two pure stands (Onobrychis viciifolia and Medicago sativa and four mixtures differing in number and kind of used species. Plots were utilised only by wild animals occurring in the area. Data collection consisted of botanical samples in each plot in different periods to obtain the percent presence of each species. At the same time, a visual estimation of animal intake on all occurring species was performed to obtain the browsing ratio of single species and overall defoliation rate for each species/mixture. Moreover, six camera traps were placed on the boundary of the experimental site to record videos of wild animals browsing in the area for identification of animals actually occurring on different plots and for comparison of these results with botanical data. Vegetation surveys permitted a proper evaluation of animals intake and of their feeding preferences. In general, sown species performed a major role in animal browsing, even if in some periods also a few native species (such as Plantago lanceolata or Cichorium intybus were utilised in a strong way, depending on vegetation context and existing biomass. Camera traps results permitted the identification of browsing animal species (mainly represented by roe deer and plots frequentation resulted to be highly related to animal

  11. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  12. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  13. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Banks

    Full Text Available Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing, as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

  14. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  15. Unraveling the genetics of chronic kidney disease using animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; DiPetrillo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Identifying genes underlying common forms of kidney disease in humans has proven difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for several complex traits are concordant among mice, rats, and humans, suggesting that genetic findings from these animal models are relevant to

  16. Genetic Evaluation and Ranking of Different Animal Models Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An animal model utilizes all relationships available in a given data set. Estimates for variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, maternal environmental and direct environmental effects, and their covariances between direct and maternal genetic effects for post weaning growth traits have been obtained with ...

  17. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

  18. Workshop summary: detection, impact, and control of specific pathogens in animal resource facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Keith G; Riley, Lela K; Kent, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances, infectious diseases remain a threat to animal facilities, continue to affect animal health, and serve as potential confounders of experimental research. A workshop entitled Detection, Impact, and Control of Specific Pathogens in Animal Resource Facilities was sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and National Institutes of Aging (NIA) and held April 23-24, 2009, at the Lister Hill Conference Center on the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Bethesda campus. The meeting brought together laboratory animal scientists and veterinarians with experience in fish, rodent, and nonhuman primate models to identify common issues and problems. Session speakers addressed (1) common practices and current knowledge of these species, (2) new technologies in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, (3) impact of environmental quality on infectious disease, (4) normal microbial flora in health and disease, (5) genetics and infectious disease, and (6) specific infectious agents and their impact on research. Attendees discussed current challenges and future needs, highlighting the importance of education and training, the funding of critical infrastructure and resource research, and the need for improved communication of disease risks and integration of these risks with strategic planning. NIH and NCRR have a strong record of supporting resource initiatives that have helped address many of these issues and recent efforts have focused on the building of consortium activities among such programs. This manuscript summarizes the presentations and conclusions of participants at the meeting; abstracts and a full conference report are available online (www.ncrr.nih.gov).

  19. Plant genetic resources: Advancing conservation and use through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources is essential to meet the demand for future food security. Advances in biotechnology have generated new opportunities for genetic resources conservation and utilization. Techniques like in vitro culture and cryopreservation have made it easy to collect and conserve ...

  20. Conservation of plant genetic resources | Olorode | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey, collection and conservation are important starting points in the genetic resources impact chain and in sustainable environmental protection strategies. Collection of plant genetic resources provides materials for herbaria, field gene banks, seed banks and in vitro conservation which are all important and crucial for ...

  1. EURISCO: The European search catalogue for plant genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weise, Stephan; Oppermann, Markus; Maggioni, Lorenzo; Hintum, van Theo; Knüpffer, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources, EURISCO, provides information about 1.8 million crop plant accessions preserved by almost 400 institutes in Europe and beyond. EURISCO is being maintained on behalf of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources. It is

  2. Seed Systems and Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.; Coent, le P.; Osborn, T.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the role of seed and seed systems in the conservation and the use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. It focuses on developments since the publication of the first report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

  3. Specific genetic modifications of domestic animals by gene targeting and animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jiangfeng

    2003-11-13

    The technology of gene targeting through homologous recombination has been extremely useful for elucidating gene functions in mice. The application of this technology was thought impossible in the large livestock species until the successful creation of the first mammalian clone "Dolly" the sheep. The combination of the technologies for gene targeting of somatic cells with those of animal cloning made it possible to introduce specific genetic mutations into domestic animals. In this review, the principles of gene targeting in somatic cells and the challenges of nuclear transfer using gene-targeted cells are discussed. The relevance of gene targeting in domestic animals for applications in bio-medicine and agriculture are also examined.

  4. Genome Resource Banking of Biomedically Important Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, Yuksel

    2014-01-01

    Genome resource banking (GRB) is the systematic collection, storage, and re-distribution of biomaterials in an organized, logistical, and secure manner. Genome cyrobanks usually contain biomaterials and associated genomic information essential for progression of biomedicine, human health, and research. In that regard, appropriate genome cryobanks could provide essential biomaterials for both current and future research projects in the form of various cell types and tissues, including sperm, oocytes, embryos, embryonic or adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and gonadal tissues. In addition to cryobanked germplasm, cryobanking of DNA, serum, blood products, and tissues from scientifically, economically and ecologically important species has become a common practice. For revitalization of the whole organism, cryopreserved germplasm in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), offer a powerful approach for research model management, as well as assisting in animal production for agriculture, conservation, and human reproductive medicine. Recently, many developed and developing countries have allocated substantial resources to establish genome resources banks which are responsible for safeguarding scientifically, economically and ecologically important wild type, mutant and transgenic plants, fish, and local livestock breeds, as well as wildlife species. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John K. Critser, who had made profound contributions to the science of cryobiology and establishment of genome research and resources centers for mice, rats and swine. Emphasis will be given to application of GRBs to species with substantial contributions to the advancement of biomedicine and human health. PMID:22981880

  5. Using Genetically Engineered Animal Models in the Postgenomic Era to Understand Gene Function in Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044

  6. EURISCO: The European search catalogue for plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Stephan; Oppermann, Markus; Maggioni, Lorenzo; van Hintum, Theo; Knüpffer, Helmut

    2017-01-04

    The European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources, EURISCO, provides information about 1.8 million crop plant accessions preserved by almost 400 institutes in Europe and beyond. EURISCO is being maintained on behalf of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources. It is based on a network of National Inventories of 43 member countries and represents an important effort for the preservation of world's agrobiological diversity by providing information about the large genetic diversity kept by the collaborating collections. Moreover, EURISCO also assists its member countries in fulfilling legal obligations and commitments, e.g. with respect to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, the Second Global Plan of Action for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture of the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, or the Convention on Biological Diversity. EURISCO is accessible at http://eurisco.ecpgr.org. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Genetic and genomic interactions of animals with different ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, J P; Bi, K

    2013-01-01

    Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex

  8. ONLINE RESOURCES Assessment of Genetic Diversity and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sony

    including null alleles, mutation, nature of the plant, selection process, small population size and heterozygote deficiency. The most important factor is sampling effect called genetic drift which causes a random change in genotypic frequencies. Evaluation of genetic variation and cluster analysis. The results obtained from ...

  9. Applied reproductive technologies and genetic resource banking for amphibian conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Andrew J; Vance, Carrie K

    2009-01-01

    As amphibian populations continue to decline, both government and non-government organisations are establishing captive assurance colonies to secure populations deemed at risk of extinction if left in the wild. For the most part, little is known about the nutritional ecology, reproductive biology or husbandry needs of the animals placed into captive breeding programs. Because of this lack of knowledge, conservation biologists are currently facing the difficult task of maintaining and reproducing these species. Academic and zoo scientists are beginning to examine different technologies for maintaining the genetic diversity of founder populations brought out of the wild before the animals become extinct from rapidly spreading epizootic diseases. One such technology is genetic resource banking and applied reproductive technologies for species that are difficult to reproduce reliably in captivity. Significant advances have been made in the last decade for amphibian assisted reproduction including the use of exogenous hormones for induction of spermiation and ovulation, in vitro fertilisation, short-term cold storage of gametes and long-term cryopreservation of spermatozoa. These scientific breakthroughs for a select few species will no doubt serve as models for future assisted breeding protocols and the increasing number of amphibians requiring conservation intervention. However, the development of specialised assisted breeding protocols that can be applied to many different families of amphibians will likely require species-specific modifications considering their wide range of reproductive modes. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current state of knowledge in the area of assisted reproduction technologies and gene banking for the conservation of amphibians.

  10. Genetic and ecological studies of animals in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Alfalfa domestication history, genetic diversity and genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Jenczewski, Eric; Muller, Marie-Helene; Fourtier, Stéphane; Sampoux, Jean-Paul; Ronfort, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    AGAP : GE²pop; The domestication history of alfalfa is poorly known. Here, we summarize recent results obtained from the investigation of the genetic diversity available in the Medicago sativa species complex, using different molecular markers and morphological characterization. We conclude that a large genetic diversity is still available in the wild form of the species, but original populations are restricted to a relatively small geographic area and in some instances submitted to gene flow...

  12. Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: Facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for conserving animal genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsatellites have been used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsa...

  13. Genetic Selection to Enhance Animal Welfare Using Meat Inspection Data from Slaughter Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Pramod K; Vogelzang, Roos; Mulder, Herman A; Knol, Egbert F

    2018-01-24

    Animal health and welfare are monitored during meat inspection in many slaughter plants around the world. Carcasses are examined by meat inspectors and remarks are made with respect to different diseases, injuries, and other abnormalities. This is a valuable data resource for disease prevention and enhancing animal welfare, but it is rarely used for this purpose. Records on carcass remarks on 140,375 finisher pigs were analyzed to investigate the possibility of genetic selection to reduce the risk of the most prevalent diseases and indicators of suboptimal animal welfare. As part of this, effects of some non-genetic factors such as differences between farms, sexes, and growth rates were also examined. The most frequent remarks were pneumonia (15.4%), joint disorders (9.8%), pleuritis (4.7%), pericarditis (2.3%), and liver lesions (2.2%). Joint disorders were more frequent in boars than in gilts. There were also significant differences between farms. Pedigree records were available for 142,324 pigs from 14 farms and were used for genetic analysis. Heritability estimates for pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, liver lesions, and joint disorders were 0.10, 0.09, 0.14, 0.24, and 0.17 on the liability scale, respectively, suggesting the existence of substantial genetic variation. This was further confirmed though genome wide associations using deregressed breeding values as phenotypes. The genetic correlations between these remarks and finishing traits were small but mostly negative, suggesting the possibility of enhancing pig health and welfare simultaneously with genetic improvement in finishing traits. A selection index based on the breeding values for these traits and their economic values was developed. This index is used to enhance animal welfare in pig farms.

  14. Specific genetic modifications of domestic animals by gene targeting and animal cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiangfeng

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The technology of gene targeting through homologous recombination has been extremely useful for elucidating gene functions in mice. The application of this technology was thought impossible in the large livestock species until the successful creation of the first mammalian clone "Dolly" the sheep. The combination of the technologies for gene targeting of somatic cells with those of animal cloning made it possible to introduce specific genetic mutations into domestic animals. In this review, the principles of gene targeting in somatic cells and the challenges of nuclear transfer using gene-targeted cells are discussed. The relevance of gene targeting in domestic animals for applications in bio-medicine and agriculture are also examined.

  15. Harnessing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is renewed international effort to address challenges associated with sustainable agriculture and food security. The key international framework is the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for food and. Agriculture. Through it, is established a Multilateral System (MS) of facilitated access to key plant genetic ...

  16. Upgrade of Castanea sativa (Mill.) genetic resources by sequencing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... [Gismondi A., Di Marco G., Delorenzo M. and Canini A. 2015 Upgrade of Castanea sativa (Mill.) genetic resources by sequencing of barcode markers. J. Genet. 94, 519–524]. Introduction. The Castanea genus belongs to the family Fagaceae. The first scientific evidence of its existence traces back to the.

  17. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, F.; Koskela, J.; Hubert, J.; Kraigher, H.; Longauer, R.; Olrik, D.C.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across

  18. Standards of Practice: Applying Genetics and Genomics Resources to Oncology
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Alice S; Ledbetter, Nancy J

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about genetics and genomics and its application to oncology care is rapidly expanding and evolving. As a result, oncology nurses at all levels must develop and maintain their knowledge of genetics and genomics, as well as be aware of resources to guide practice. This article focuses on implementation of the standards described in the updated Genetics/Genomics Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice by the basic practitioner.
.

  19. Indigenous chicken genetic resources in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Hilton-Taylor, 2000; Pimm & Raven, 2000). The loss of native chicken species may represent a social or economic loss for human populations, especially in developing countries. For long-term conservation and development purposes, it is therefore necessary to assess the genetic diversity of South African conserved.

  20. Seeding Solutions Volume 1: Policy Options for Genetic Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Volume 1 offers policymakers a clear description of the facts, the fights, and the fora relevant to the ownership, conservation, and exchange of genetic resources. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...

  1. Studies on Monitoring and Tracking Genetic Resources: An Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, GM; Thompson, LM; Ussery, David

    2009-01-01

    such resources are located and to mutually agreed terms regarding the sharing of benefits that could be derived from such access. One issue of particular concern for pro-vider countries is how to monitor and track genetic resources once they have left the provider country and enter into use in a variety of forms...

  2. Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    characterization, evaluation, regeneration, multiplication, distribution, utilization and conservation, together with suggested solutions that would ensure the effective and efficient management of legume genetic resources in Ghana. Les resources génétiques de légumineuses jouent un rôle très significatif dans la provision ...

  3. Fair Access to and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources : National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fair Access to and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources : National Policy Development (China, Jordan, Nepal, Peru). Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. Existing laws and mechanisms - such as intellectual property rights (IPRs) ...

  4. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-09-02

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review.

  5. Genetic resources: the basis for sustainable and competitive plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lourenço Nass

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are the fuel for breeding, which in the search for higher yield and adapted genotypes, manipulates genes in order to meet the needs of farmers, and especially, of the current market. However, the use of accessions available in germplasm banks is low. Topics discussed in this paper emphasize the importance of plant genetic resources, and warn about problems related to genetic vulnerability; also, they discuss about aspects of costs involved in conservation and suggest recommendations for strengthening the area in Brazil.

  6. An animal model of differential genetic risk for methamphetamine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara ePhillips

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the

  7. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.

    1982-01-01

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati eBanerjee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.

  9. Communicating Knowledge of Plant Genetic Resources to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Louise

    This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments...... between the grant-receivers was analysed. It was found that the potential to disseminate knowledge of plant genetic resources to the public through the grant-scheme was high but limited in scope due to the conditions that made it. With these limits the grant-receivers were successful communicators......, and their diversity as well as cooperation between them were found to enhance the potential of learning and learners. Recommendations are given to the work with plant genetic resources: It is important that international strategies and an overall national programme govern the conservation, growing and development...

  10. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lefévre, François; Kraigher, Hojka; Westergren, Marjana

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we ...

  11. Intellectual property management and commercialisation of forest genetic resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available and commercialisation of forest genetic resources. S.D.Verryn1 1Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa The CSIR Tree Improvement Research Group has an approximately 50 year old eucalypt and pine species breeding research program.... The CSIR has also monitored the genetic gains of various clones and seed sources, and has, for instance, recorded an increase of approximately 15% per generation in pure species breeding and much larger increases in clonal hybrid releases (e.g. 30...

  12. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these toxins could contribute to the progression of PD. While most cases of PD are sporadic, specific mutations in genes that cause familial forms of PD have led to provide new insights into its pathogenesis. This paper focuses on animal models of both toxin-induced and genetically determined PD that have provided significant insight for understanding this disease. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and limitations of representative models.

  13. GENETIC ENGINEERING AND CLONING IN ANIMAL AGRICULTURE: BIOETHICAL AND FOOD SAFETY CONCERNS

    OpenAIRE

    W. Fox, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The farming of animals for human medical and other commercial/ /industrial purposes is being intensified through two new biotechnologies. One is genetic engineering that involves the splicing of alien genes into target animal embryos to create ‘transgenic’ animals, or the deletion of certain genes to create ‘knockout’ genetically modified animals. The other is cloning, that entails taking cells from the desired type of animal, that may be transgenic or a ‘knockout’, or from a conventionall...

  14. Genetic and non-genetic animal models for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal etiologies. We discuss the known animal models, mostly in mice and rats, of ASD that helps us to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of human ASD. We describe only models where behavioral testing has shown autistic like behaviors. Some genetic models mimic known human syndromes like fragile X where ASD is part of the clinical picture, and others are without defined human syndromes. Among the environmentally induced ASD models in rodents, the most common model is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA) either prenatally or early postnatally. VPA induces autism-like behaviors following single exposure during different phases of brain development, implying that the mechanism of action is via a general biological mechanism like epigenetic changes. Maternal infection and inflammation are also associated with ASD in man and animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Characterization and Classification of Human and Animal Sapoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoichiro Oka

    Full Text Available Sapoviruses (SaVs are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs, including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2. We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV, one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5' RACE methods. We also determined the 5'- and 3'-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1 "GTG" at the 5'-end of the genome, and a short (9~14 nt 5'-untranslated region; and 2 the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII, sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII, and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain.

  16. Fair Access to and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources : National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institution. Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands, DLO Foundation. Institution Country. Netherlands. Institution Website. http://www.cgn.wur.nl ... Institution. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Institution Country. Jordan. Institution Website. http://www.icarda.org ...

  17. Horticultural value of wild genetic resources: introduction to the workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild plant genetic resources are increasingly becoming valuable for breeding, genomics, and ornamental horticulture programs. Wild relatives of horticultural species may offer desirable traits that are not available in cultivated varieties, but “wilds” often also have traits that are highly undesir...

  18. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...

  19. Genetic diversity and germplasm resource research on tung tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tung tree is an important woody oil-rich plant in the world. In order to determine the genetic diversity, germplasm resource and breeding method on tung tree, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) was used to investigate the cultivars in China. Among the total 110 bands amplified with 12 primers, 90 were polymorphic.

  20. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  1. Harnessing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    incorporate materials from the multilateral system into commercial products must deposit a percentage of their profits in a trust account which will be used to promote benefit sharing and conversation of plant genetic resources particularly in regard to farmers in developing countries as those in Africa as they are the world's ...

  2. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.

  3. Changing values of farm animal genomic resources. from historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of "in situ condition" has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions.

  4. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  5. The importance of genetics in the diagnosis of animal diseases - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of recombinant DNA techniques in conjunction with conventional genetic methods have led to a rapid increase in knowledge of the genetic map. Many animal genes have been mapped to chromosomes. A detailed genetic map has become of great value in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and in the development ...

  6. Strategies for management of animal genetic resources in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    , institution of a strong herd recording system, formation of ... livestock breeding, strategic disease control and networking between researchers and farmer breeder associations. Introduction ... Other species included rabbits, horses, donkeys ...

  7. the iniprovement and application of genetic resources in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    planation for this phenomenon is that natural selection has probably greatly reduced the additive variation and ensured specific and different gene complements consis- tent within the population or strain but different from one population or strain to another (Cunningham,. 1976). This explains the observed heterotic (over-.

  8. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  9. Seed quality in genetic resources conservation : a case study at the Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Groot, de E.C.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of the impact of workflow and storage conditions at the Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands (CGN) on the quality of seed samples in their genebank collection which is maintained under low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Emphasis is placed

  10. Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, Thomas; Konrad, H

    2008-04-01

    Genetic diversity is indispensable for long-term forest sustainability and is therefore mentioned in numerous binding and nonbinding political covenants calling for action. Nevertheless, there are significant obstacles to the conservation of forest genetic resources. We discuss hindrances to genetic conservation, mainly in Europe. We identified impediments by reviewing the literature and on the basis of the experiences of the authors in this field and their participation in related political processes. The impediments include (1) difficulties in assessing and monitoring genetic erosion and human impacts (e.g., by the lack of markers showing adaptive variation and the lack of record keeping on the use and transfer of forest-tree germplasm), (2) complexities of European national structures that make the development of a common strategy toward forest genetic conservation problematic, (3) lack of effective forest governance in many parts of the world, (4) the general unattractiveness of genes as flagships in raising public awareness, (5) lack of integration of genetic aspects into biodiversity conservation, and (6) the fact that scientists and politicians are often at cross-purposes. To overcome these impediments, forest geneticists and their peers in species conservation have to participate more actively in decision making. In doing so, they must be prepared to face challenges on 2 fronts: participating in political processes and the provision of significant research findings to ensure that decisions with respect to forest genetic diversity are politically implementable and effectively address targets.

  11. Poultry genetic resource conservation using primordial germ cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of poultry genetic resources are maintained in situ in living populations. However, in situ conservation of poultry genetic resources always carries the risk of loss owing to pathogen outbreaks, genetic problems, breeding cessation, or natural disasters. Cryobanking of germplasm in birds has been limited to the use of semen, preventing conservation of the W chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. A further challenge is posed by the structure of avian eggs, which restricts the cryopreservation of ova and fertilized embryos, a technique widely used for mammalian species. By using a unique biological property and accessibility of avian primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursor cells for gametes, which temporally circulate in the vasculature during early development, an avian PGC transplantation technique has been established. To date, several techniques for PGC manipulation including purification, cryopreservation, depletion, and long-term culture have been developed in chickens. PGC transplantation combined with recent advanced PGC manipulation techniques have enabled ex situ conservation of poultry genetic resources in their complete form. Here, the updated technologies for avian PGC manipulation are introduced, and then the concept of a poultry PGC-bank is proposed by considering the biological properties of avian PGCs. PMID:27210834

  12. Animal-based medicines: biological prospection and the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo M. Costa-Neto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals have been used as medicinal resources for the treatment and relieve of a myriad of illnesses and diseases in practically every human culture. Although considered by many as superstition, the pertinence of traditional medicine based on animals cannot be denied since they have been methodically tested by pharmaceutical companies as sources of drugs to the modern medical science. The phenomenon of zootherapy represents a strong evidence of the medicinal use of animal resources. Indeed, drug companies and agribusiness firms have been evaluating animals for decades without paying anything to the countries from where these genetic resources are found. The use of animals' body parts as folk medicines is relevant because it implies additional pressure over critical wild populations. It is argued that many animal species have been overexploited as sources of medicines for the traditional trade. Additionally, animal populations have become depleted or endangered as a result of their use as experimental subjects or animal models. Research on zootherapy should be compatible with the welfare of the medicinal animals, and the use of their by-products should be done in a sustainable way. It is discussed that sustainability is now required as the guiding principle for biological conservation.Os animais são utilizados como recursos medicinais para o tratamento e alívio de um gama de doenças e enfermidades em praticamente toda cultura humana. A pertinência da medicina tradicional baseada em animais, embora considerada como superstição, não deve ser negada uma vez que os animais têm sido testados metodicamente pelas companhias farmacêuticas como fontes de drogas para a ciência médica moderna. O fenômeno da zooterapia representa uma forte evidência do uso medicinal de recursos animais. De fato, as indústrias farmacêuticas e de agronegócios há décadas vêm avaliando animais sem pagar tributos aos países detentores desses recursos gen

  13. Current status and phenotypic characteristics of Bulgarian poultry genetic resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneva, A.; Gerzilov, V.; Lalev, M.; Lukanov, H.; Mincheva, N.; Oblakova, M.; Petrov, P.; Hristakieva, P.; Dimitrova, I.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria. (author)

  14. Agrobiodiversity and genetic erosion of crop varieties and plant resources in the Central Great Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Akhalkatsi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kazbegi Municipality is located in the Central Great Caucasus at an altitude between 1250 and 5047 m a.s.l. Agriculture of this area is extreme internal variability and complexity, with a multiplicity of highly localized providing the habitats and agricultural lands for much genetic erosion of crop varieties, animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for wild plant resources. Historically, Kazbegi producers had begun cultivating the land to prepare for planting in of distribution local varieties of wheat, barley, rye, oats, etc. In the only cereals, legumes, herbs and some fruits are cultivated in alpine zone as the upper limit till the location of 2160 m a.s.l. Genetic erosion has been determined historically of aboriginal crops from sheep and cattle grazing problem and reached extreme levels from 1970s in Kazbegi Municipality and causes a problem to maintain agriculture. Plant resources remained in forests and subalpine grasslands and shrub lands. The problems of these materials are habitat degradation by disturbance in many forest types with destroyed and burned. Tree seedlings are grazing by animals and forest is not restoring naturally. Forest planting is good relation for restoration of plant wild species resources. Investigation on exchange on mountain agriculture and plant resources will now be rapidly accelerated in the vital interests of mountain communities.

  15. Genetic resources of autochthonous fruit species and varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keserović Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the plentitude of genetic resources of indigenous varieties of fruit species and their importance for further development of fruit growing, especially from the aspect of breeding new varieties resistant to pathogens and abiotic stress conditions (frost, drought, sunburns, etc.. Economic significance and importance in the human nutrition, as a raw or processed fruitage, were stated as well. Based on the unique biodiversity, the Balkan Peninsula can be considered as a secondary center of divergence for a large number of fruit species, such as Malus x domestica, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis, Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. fruticosa, P. amygdalus, P. nana, Juglans regia, Corilus colurna, Corilus avellana, Castanea sativa, Fragaria vesca, Cornus mas. The old indigenous and domesticated varieties and natural populations of fruit species on the Balkan Peninsula have never been the subject of comprehensive research work on their collecting and studying. Serbia has no national scientific institution that takes care of genetic resources. Nowadays, the issue of preserving genetic resources is of great importance because, due to the intensification and modernization of plant production, many local populations have disappeared or are reduced to a small number of biotypes. The varieties with huge genetic and breeding value have disappeared forever without any possibility of their return. By importing high quality fruit varieties, we imported many diseases and various pests as well. New varieties intended for intensive cultivation require the application of expensive growing technologies. The systematic scientific work on the study of wild fruit species and autochthonous varieties is of the great interest for fruit science and practice in the future. The establishment of in situ collections with the aim to preserve valuable genetic material is mandatory. In the following period, indigenous and domesticated varieties

  16. Plant Genetic Resources for sustainability of agro industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchetta, Loretta; Del Fiore, Antonella; Di Giovanni, Barbara; Santi, Chiara; Valentina, Tolaini; Tronci, Carlo; Paodavi, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The recovery, the characterization and conservation of agro biodiversity are priority objectives of the European Union as part of strategies to preserve resources Genetic considered fundamental for sustainable development, community support, to encourage a balanced economic growth. ENEA has been involved for several years in the development of methodologies aimed at enhancing Local germplasm that can be of aid for the cultivation choices, for innovation of traditional production systems and for better use of the final product. [it

  17. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...

  18. Development of useful genetic resources by proton-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Park, Hyi Gook; Jung, Il Lae; Seo, Yong Won; Chang, Chul Seong; Kim, Jae Yoon; Ham, Jae Woong

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study is to develop new, useful and high-valuable genetic resources through the overproduction of biodegradable plastics and the propagation of wheat using proton-beam irradiation. Useful host strain was isolated through the mutagenization of the Escherichia coli K-12 strain, followed by characterizing the genetic and physiological properties of the E. coli mutant strains. The selected E. coli mutant strain produced above 85g/L of PHB, showed above 99% of PHB intracellular content and spontaneously liberated intracellular PHB granules. Based on the results, the production cost of PHB has been estimated to approximately 2$/kg, leading effective cost-down. Investigated the propagation of wheat and its variation, a selectable criterion of wet pro of was established and genetic analysis of useful mutant was carried out

  19. Choice of genetic resources needed for achievement of relevant breeding objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The author points out the importance of exploration, conservation and documentation of genetic resources and reviews the current status of utilization of available genetic resources and the present breeding strategies

  20. International agreements relating to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and implications for Dutch policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Kalaugher, E.; Bijman, J.

    2004-01-01

    Policy issues related to plant genetic resources are socially, technically and scientifically complex. This report summarises the international agreements and relevant bodies con-cerning plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), FAO

  1. Genetic diversity of flavonoid content in leaf of hawthorn resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Hawthorn (Cratageus spp.) are important medicinal plants. Flavonoids are the main active ingredient in hawthorn. With the help of hawthorn leaf flavonoids efficient detection system, vitexin, rhamnosylvitexin, hyperin, rutin and quercetin of 122 hawthorn resources was precisely measured.The flavonoid contents of 10 hawthorn species were explicited. The comparation of flavonoids revealed the abundant genetic diversity of hawthorn flavones. Large variable coefficient has been observed among 5 flavonoid monomer traits. The coefficients of variation were 44.17%, 132.2%, 157.08%, 113.91% and 31.05 for Vitexin, Rhamnosylvitexin, Hyperoside, Rutin and Quercetin respectively. The sum of these 5 flavonoid monomer contents represented the total flavonoids in hawthorn. The total coefficients of variation was 44.01%. Some high-content-flavone and valuable leaf resources were found. This research could provide accurate date for further production, breeding and the effective use of medicinal resources. (author)

  2. Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Cristina; Menozzi, Davide; Aramyan, Lusine H.; Valeeva, Natasha I.; Pakky, R.; Zimmermann, Karin L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market. Nonethel...

  3. Genetic resources as the backbone of plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, O.H.

    1977-01-01

    The defence against parasites has come to be regarded as probably the biggest problem in the production of the plants on which our own survival depends. The problem has always been there, but in our pure-bred cultivars extending over large areas it has assumed disaster proportions. The wild ancestors of many crop species evolved in balance with parasite species, their regions of genetic diversity coinciding. Domestication led to geographical dispersal and genetic differentiation of host and, presumably, of parasite species. Genetic heterogeneity may have been the saving grace of the primitive cultivars by which fairly stable populations lived for some 5000 to 10,000 years. We are now aware of the advantages and of the dangers of genetic homogeneity, and ''genetic vulnerability'' is now more than a catch phrase. We are responding to it in a variety of ways, each involving some use of new or increased genetic variation. They extend from the search for new oligogenic resistance sources, to multiple resistance, and to the various forms of ''horizontal'' or polygenic resistance. We turn to the genetic resources accumulated in the much neglected wild and primitive gene pools which helped our ancestors to survive epidemics. And we turn further towards the full circle by deliberately adopting heterogeneity in multilines of various descriptions and in varietal blends. The rate at which resistance sources are ''used up'' in the different systems now in use is discussed, in the light of the urgent need for economizing and preserving both the now used and the as yet unexplored resistance sources, on which the future stability of crop production will depend. (author)

  4. Analogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals ?

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Justin; Abrams, Stephanie; Finch, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Genetic skin diseases encompass a vast, complex, and ever expanding field. Recognition of the features of these diseases is important to ascertain a correct diagnosis, initiate treatment, consider genetic counseling, and refer patients to specialists when the disease may impact other areas. Because genodermatoses may present with a vast array of features, it can be bewildering to memorize them. This manuscript will explain and depict some genetic skin diseases that occur in both humans and do...

  5. Rare genetic diseases: update on diagnosis, treatment and online resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Robert E; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Shanker, Shreya; Andrade, Rosangela V; Aguiar, Lana R; de Carvalho, Juliana L; Costa, Fabrício F

    2018-01-01

    Rare genetic diseases collectively impact a significant portion of the world's population. For many diseases there is limited information available, and clinicians can find difficulty in differentiating between clinically similar conditions. This leads to problems in genetic counseling and patient treatment. The biomedical market is affected because pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries do not see advantages in addressing rare disease treatments, or because the cost of the treatments is too high. By contrast, technological advances including DNA sequencing and analysis, together with computer-aided tools and online resources, are allowing a more thorough understanding of rare disorders. Here, we discuss how the collection of various types of information together with the use of new technologies is facilitating diagnosis and, consequently, treatment of rare diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breeding animals, especially in the field: nutrition, access to water, ensuring the company of other animals and living space, and treatment. Animal welfare is a significant part of the process of retardation the transformation of resources natural and the most significant element contributing to its growth is the individual person directly involved in taking care of animals. Their duty resulting from ethical standards is to provide protection for animals.

  7. Animal board invited review: genetic possibilities to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to

  8. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  9. A Genetic Programming infrastructure profiting from public computation resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez de la O, F.; Rubio del Solar, M.; Guisado, J. L.; Lombrana Gonzalez, D.; Cardenas Montes, M.; Fernandez de la Vega, F.

    2007-07-01

    In this article an experience of the utilization of PRC (Public Resource Computation) in research projects that needs large quantities of CPU time is presented. We have developed a distributed architecture based on middle ware BOINC and LilGP Genetic Programming tool. In order to run LilGP applications under BOINC platforms, some core LilGP functions has been adapted to BOINC requirements. We have used a classic GP problem known as the artificial ANT in Santa Fe Trail. Some computers from a classroom were used acting as clients, proving that they can be used for scientific computation in conjunction with their primary uses. (Author)

  10. Sharing the benefits of genetic resources: from biodiversity to human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Lasén-Díaz, Carolina

    2006-12-01

    Benefit sharing aims to achieve an equitable exchange between the granting of access to a genetic resource and the provision of compensation. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, is the only international legal instrument setting out obligations for sharing the benefits derived from the use of biodiversity. The CBD excludes human genetic resources from its scope, however, this article considers whether it should be expanded to include those resources, so as to enable research subjects to claim a share of the benefits to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis. Our conclusion on this question is: 'No, the CBD should not be expanded to include human genetic resources.' There are essential differences between human and non-human genetic resources, and, in the context of research on humans, an essentially fair exchange model is already available between the health care industry and research subjects. Those who contribute to research should receive benefits in the form of accessible new health care products and services, suitable for local health needs and linked to economic prosperity (e.g. jobs). When this exchange model does not apply, as is often the case in developing countries, individually negotiated benefit sharing agreements between researchers and research subjects should not be used as 'window dressing'. Instead, national governments should focus their finances on the best economic investment they could make; the investment in population health and health research as outlined by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health; whilst international barriers to such spending need to be removed.

  11. Genetic Resources in the “Calabaza Pipiana” Squash (Cucurbita argyrosperma in Mexico: Genetic Diversity, Genetic Differentiation and Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez-de la Vega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of genetic variation allow understanding the origin, diversification and genetic resources of cultivated plants. Domesticated taxa and their wild relatives are ideal systems for studying genetic processes of plant domestication and their joint is important to evaluate the distribution of their genetic resources. Such is the case of the domesticated subspecies C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma, known in Mexico as calabaza pipiana, and its wild relative C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia. The main aim of this study was to use molecular data (microsatellites to assess the levels of genetic variation and genetic differentiation within and among populations of domesticated argyrosperma across its distribution in Mexico in comparison to its wild relative, sororia, and to identify environmental suitability in previously proposed centers of domestication. We analyzed nine unlinked nuclear microsatellite loci to assess levels of diversity and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations in 440 individuals from 19 populations of cultivated landraces of argyrosperma and from six wild populations of sororia, in order to conduct a first systematic analysis of their genetic resources. We also used species distribution models (SDMs for sororia to identify changes in this wild subspecies’ distribution from the Holocene (∼6,000 years ago to the present, and to assess the presence of suitable environmental conditions in previously proposed domestication sites. Genetic variation was similar among subspecies (HE = 0.428 in sororia, and HE = 0.410 in argyrosperma. Nine argyrosperma populations showed significant levels of inbreeding. Both subspecies are well differentiated, and genetic differentiation (FST among populations within each subspecies ranged from 0.152 to 0.652. Within argyrosperma we found three genetic groups (Northern Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, including Michoacan and Veracruz, and Pacific coast plus Durango. We detected low

  12. Preservation of plant genetic resources in the biotechnology era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    Thousands of years ago humans began domesticating crops as a food source. Among the wild germplasm available, they selected those that were best adapted for cultivation and utilization. Although wild ancestors have continued to persist in regions where domestication took place, there is a permanent risk of loss of the genetic variability of cultivated plants and their wild relatives in response to changing environmental conditions and cultural practices. Recognizing this danger, plant ex situ genebank collections were created since the beginning of the last century. World-wide, more than 6 million accessions have been accumulated including the German ex situ genebank in Gatersleben, one of the four largest global collections, housing 150,000 accessions belonging to 890 genera and 3032 species. This review summarizes the ex situ plant genetic resources conservation behavior with a special emphasis on German activities. Strategies for maintenance and management of germplasm collections are reviewed, considering modern biotechnologies (in vitro and cryo preservation). General aspects on genetic diversity and integrity are discussed.

  13. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  14. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1981-01-01

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de

  15. Animal models of disc degeneration and major genetic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Qu, Ji-Ning; Zhang, Yin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a reliable animal model of lumbar disc degeneration (AMDD) is important for studying pathogenesis and evaluating treatment effectiveness. However, an ideal AMDD for use in laboratory studies has not yet been produced. This retrospective study reviews and compares several common AMDD and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. We also suggest a new method for establishing future AMDD. The identified genes associated with disc degeneration are susceptibility genes, which elevate risk but do not necessarily lead to disease occurrence. We propose to identify families with hereditary disc degeneration, find major casual genes with exome sequencing, and establish transgenic animal models. This approach may help us to build an improved AMDD.

  16. Genetic Factors in Animal Models of Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Balfour Sartor

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical importance of host genetic susceptibility in determining chronicity, aggressiveness and complications of intestinal inflammation is clearly demonstrated by studies of inbred rodents, transgenic rats and spontaneous mutants. Inbred Lewis rats challenged by purified bacterial cell wall polymers, indomethacin or small bowel bacterial overgrowth develop chronic granulomatous intestinal inflammation with fibrosis and extraintestinal manifestations, whereas Fischer (major histocompatibility complex identical to Lewis and Buffalo rats identically stimulated demonstrate only self-limited enterocolitis with no chronic inflammation, fibrosis, granulomas or extraintestinal inflammation. Similar differential patterns of intestinal inflammation are apparent in inbred mouse strains challenged with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid, Citrobacter freundii or backcrossed with T cell receptor deficient (knockout mice. The dominant role of genetic background in induction of intestinal inflammation is further documented by spontaneous colitis which develops in spontaneously mutant mice, cotton-top tamarins, human leukocyte antigen-B27/ β2 microglobulin transgenic rats and mice with targeted deletions of certain immunoregulatory cytokine and T lymphocyte genes. Identification of the immunological mechanisms of host genetic susceptibility and the genetic basis of spontaneous colitis should provide new insights into the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. Adding 'epi-' to behaviour genetics: implications for animal domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    In this review, it is argued that greatly improved understanding of domestication may be gained from extending the field of behaviour genetics to also include epigenetics. Domestication offers an interesting framework of rapid evolutionary changes caused by well-defined selection pressures. Behaviour is an important phenotype in this context, as it represents the primary means of response to environmental challenges. An overview is provided of the evidence for genetic involvement in behavioural control and the presently used methods for finding so-called behaviour genes. This shows that evolutionary changes in behaviour are to a large extent correlated to changes in patterns of gene expression, which brings epigenetics into the focus. This area is concerned with the mechanisms controlling the timing and extent of gene expression, and a lot of focus has been placed on methylation of cytosine in promoter regions, usually associated with genetic downregulation. The review considers the available evidence that environmental input, for example stress, can modify methylation and other epigenetic marks and subsequently affect behaviour. Furthermore, several studies are reviewed, demonstrating that acquired epigenetic modifications can be inherited and cause trans-generational behaviour changes. In conclusion, epigenetics may signify a new paradigm in this respect, as it shows that genomic modifications can be caused by environmental signals, and random mutations in DNA sequence are therefore not the only sources of heritable genetic variation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  19. The importance of genetics in the diagnosis of animal diseases - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diseases have always been present in the animal population but their significance has increased in recent decades. The wealth of knowledge on genomic information, systems biology and mechanisms of diseases provide great opportunities to elucidate the genetic bases of diseases. The use of recombinant DNA ...

  20. Conserving and managing the trees of the future: genetic resources for Pacific Northwest forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic resource management has historically called for altering the genetic structure of plant populations through selection for traits of interest such as rapid growth. Although this is still a principal component of tree breeding programs in the Pacific Northwest, managing genetic resources now also brings a clear focus on retaining a broad diversity within and...

  1. Study on the Ownership of Plant Genetic Resources on Farmers’ Land

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fuyou; Song, Hongyan; Huang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect Chinese farmers’ sharing benefits and make legal preparation for accession to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, this paper analyzed differences between state sovereignty and ownership of genetic resources and between natural resources and plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. Then, it studied the regulations of the United States, European Union and Indian on the ownership of plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. On ...

  2. A review of animal models used to evaluate potential allergenicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsteller, Nathan; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Goodman, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...

  3. Genetics and Genomics of Animal Behaviour and Welfare - Challanges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per; Buitenhuis, Bart; Kjaer, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the contribution of applied ethology to animal welfare science has concentrated on understanding the reactions of animals to their housing conditions. Domestication has had small effects on fundamental aspects of animal behaviour, and therefore, the needs of present day domesticated...... animals are closely related to the evolutionary history of the ancestors. However, the last decades have seen an unprecedented intensification of selection for increased production, which has significant side-effects on behaviour and welfare. Understanding the nature of such side-effects have therefore...... emerged as a central problem to animal welfare science. Modern genetics and genomics offer tools for such research, and this review outlines some of the available methods and how these have been, and could be, used to enrich animal welfare science. An outline is given on traditional genetic selection...

  4. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scopin...

  5. Impact of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on employee turnover in animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T

    2007-03-01

    To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.

  6. Legume genetic resources and transcriptome dynamics under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Burritt, David J; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2018-01-04

    Grain legumes are an important source of nutrition and income for billions of consumers and farmers around the world. However, the low productivity of new legume varieties, due to the limited genetic diversity available for legume breeding programmes and poor policymaker support, combined with an increasingly unpredictable global climate is resulting in a large gap between current yields and the increasing demand for legumes as food. Hence, there is a need for novel approaches to develop new high-yielding legume cultivars that are able to cope with a range of environmental stressors. Next-generation technologies are providing the tools that could enable the more rapid and cost-effective genomic and transcriptomic studies for most major crops, allowing the identification of key functional and regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent achievements regarding abiotic stress resistance in a wide range of legume crops and highlight the transcriptomic and miRNA approaches that have been used. In addition, we critically evaluate the availability and importance of legume genetic resources with desirable abiotic stress resistance traits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, François; Koskela, Jarkko; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C; Schüler, Silvio; Bozzano, Michele; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Bakys, Remigijus; Baldwin, Cathleen; Ballian, Dalibor; Black-Samuelsson, Sanna; Bednarova, Dagmar; Bordács, Sándor; Collin, Eric; de Cuyper, Bart; de Vries, Sven M G; Eysteinsson, Thröstur; Frýdl, Josef; Haverkamp, Michaela; Ivankovic, Mladen; Konrad, Heino; Koziol, Czesław; Maaten, Tiit; Notivol Paino, Eduardo; Oztürk, Hikmet; Pandeva, Ivanova Denitsa; Parnuta, Gheorghe; Pilipovič, Andrej; Postolache, Dragos; Ryan, Cathal; Steffenrem, Arne; Varela, Maria Carolina; Vessella, Federico; Volosyanchuk, Roman T; Westergren, Marjana; Wolter, Frank; Yrjänä, Leena; Zariŋa, Inga

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we developed ecogeographic indicators, a marginality index, and demographic indicators to assess and monitor forest conservation efforts. The pan-European network has 1967 conservation units, 2737 populations of target trees, and 86 species of target trees. We detected a poor coincidence between FGR conservation and other biodiversity conservation objectives within this network. We identified 2 complementary strategies: a species-oriented strategy in which national conservation networks are specifically designed for key target species and a site-oriented strategy in which multiple-target units include so-called secondary species conserved within a few sites. The network is highly unbalanced in terms of species representation, and 7 key target species are conserved in 60% of the conservation units. We performed specific gap analyses for 11 tree species, including assessment of ecogeographic, demographic, and genetic criteria. For each species, we identified gaps, particularly in the marginal parts of their distribution range, and found multiple redundant conservation units in other areas. The Mediterranean forests and to a lesser extent the boreal forests are underrepresented. Monitoring the conservation efficiency of each unit remains challenging; however, conserved populations seem to be at risk of extinction. On the basis of our results, we recommend combining species-oriented and site-oriented strategies. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Dependency on floral resources determines the animals' responses to floral scents

    OpenAIRE

    Junker, Robert R; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Animal-pollinated angiosperms either depend on cross-pollination or may also reproduce after self-pollination—the former are thus obligately, the latter facultatively dependent on the service of animal-pollinators. Analogously, flower visitors either solely feed on floral resources or complement their diet with these, and are hence dependent or not on the flowers they visit. We assume that obligate flower visitors evolved abilities that enable them to effectively forage on flowers including m...

  9. The Structure of Trade in Genetic Resources: Implications for the International ABS Regime Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensive exploitation of genetic resources at the international level has led to a negotiation of an international regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS of genetic resources. Due to lack of systematic data, little is known about the structure of trade in genetic resources to inform the negotiators. This study attempts to shed a greater insight into genetic resources trade in the pharmaceutical sector in Korea, mainly relying on interviews of industry practitioners and scientists in related fields. The study finds that Korea is mainly a genetic resource importer, but that pharmaceutical firms rarely carry out bioprospecting directly, relying on semi-processed biochemicals imports trough agents. Therefore, the impact of the to-be negotiated international ABS negotiation will be larger if derivatives are included in its scope. However, the general impact on the economy as a whole would be small, given the small share of genetic resources trade compared to total trade volumes.

  10. From genetics to genomics in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovska Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical concepts in plant and livestock selection for economically important quantitative traits traditionally are based on phenotypic records, aiming at improvement of the traits by obtaining better genetic gain. The increase in genetic variation together with shortening of the generation interval is the major target of long term improvement of methods and tools for selection activities. The discoveries and implementations of biotechnology and molecular biology for selection purposes provide a stable background for generating of new knowledge and practical use in agricultural research and practice as well as to meet the growing demand for more and with better quality food and feed. The innovations in molecular knowledge related to practical selection aside with the quick quantification in breeding schemes allowed to reconsider the opportunities for sustainable development of selection methods for improvement of the traits of interest in agriculture, the quick invention and practical application of new high-throughput technologies for studying of the genomic variation, evolution, translation of proteins and metabolite determination altogether put in an open and communicative environment of information technologies provide a new holistic platform for better research and more knowledge for practical application of selection decisions.

  11. Resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does: a review of feeding and genetic strategies for suitable performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare.  Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven.  Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability.  To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum.  There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential.  The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential.  The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction.  The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level.  The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure.  The body condition of young

  12. Genetic Engineering of Dystroglycan in Animal Models of Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sciandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In skeletal muscle, dystroglycan (DG is the central component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC, a multimeric protein complex that ensures a strong mechanical link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Several muscular dystrophies arise from mutations hitting most of the components of the DGC. Mutations within the DG gene (DAG1 have been recently associated with two forms of muscular dystrophy, one displaying a milder and one a more severe phenotype. This review focuses specifically on the animal (murine and others model systems that have been developed with the aim of directly engineering DAG1 in order to study the DG function in skeletal muscle as well as in other tissues. In the last years, conditional animal models overcoming the embryonic lethality of the DG knock-out in mouse have been generated and helped clarifying the crucial role of DG in skeletal muscle, while an increasing number of studies on knock-in mice are aimed at understanding the contribution of single amino acids to the stability of DG and to the possible development of muscular dystrophy.

  13. Integration of socioeconomic and genetic aspects involved in the conservation of animal genetic resources = Integración de aspectos socioeconómicos y genéticos involucrados en la conservación de recursos genéticos animales

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Collado, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    El sector ganadero está siendo gradualmente dominado por sistemas intensivos y especializados en los que los factores de producción están controlados y en los que los caracteres productivos son los criterios principales para la selección de especies y razas. Entretanto, muchos de los bienes y servicios que tradicionalmente suministraba el ganado, tales como los fertilizantes, la tracción animal o materias primas para la elaboración vestimenta y calzado están siendo reemplazados por productos ...

  14. Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Prentice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

  15. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  16. Panel 4: Recent advances in otitis media in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Brown, Steve D; Cheeseman, Michael T; Juhn, Steven K; Jung, Timothy T K; Lim, David J; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications.

  17. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, M.W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Megens, Hendrik Jan

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR).

  18. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However,

  19. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Animal Welfare, Resource Use, and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.

    2000-01-01

    Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)

  20. Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1996-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station initiated a research program in 1994 called. "Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of soil, plant, animal, and human resources of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service Research. Its mission focuses on the development and application of new...

  1. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  2. EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN CLIMATE CHANGE (SUMMARIZING THE RESULTS OF THE EUROPEAN PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES CONFERENCE «PRERBREEDING – FISHING IN THE GENE POOL»)

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. Suprunova

    2013-01-01

    The  EUCARPIA European Plant Genetic Resources Conference «Pre6breeding – fishing in the gene pool» was held at the campus of the Swedish University of Agricultural Science  (SLU) in Alnarp from 10 to 13 June  2013. This meeting gathered various members of the gene bank community of practice as well as users of the genetic resources  from all around the World.

  3. EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES IN CLIMATE CHANGE (SUMMARIZING THE RESULTS OF THE EUROPEAN PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES CONFERENCE «PRERBREEDING – FISHING IN THE GENE POOL»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Suprunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The  EUCARPIA European Plant Genetic Resources Conference «Pre6breeding – fishing in the gene pool» was held at the campus of the Swedish University of Agricultural Science  (SLU in Alnarp from 10 to 13 June  2013. This meeting gathered various members of the gene bank community of practice as well as users of the genetic resources  from all around the World.

  4. [To reinforce the collection and usage of the genetic resource of glaucoma in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Rui-fang; Zhao, Jia-Liang

    2007-09-01

    Positive family history is one of the risk factors of glaucoma. It indicates that gene defect may play an important role in the development of glaucoma. The advancement of genetic research provides more strategies to understand the genetic mechanism of glaucoma. The precondition of understanding and studying the genetic factors is the possession of enough genetic resource related to diseases. Based on the usage of glaucomatous genetic resources, several genes and loci related to primary glaucoma were determined abroad. Although we hold the richest human genetic resources of diseases in China, there exist some problems in the collection, storage and usage of the genetic resources of diseases, including the lack of the strict guideline in practice, the lack of the active participant from the clinician, not closely work together of the researchers and clinician, in-sufficiently use of the genetic resources, loss of the genetic resources. We should envisage these problems. At present, it is urgent to rationally and use the genetic resource in China.

  5. Accounting for animal movement in estimation of resource selection functions: sampling and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, James D; Im, Hae Kyung; Rathouz, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of resource selection by animal populations emerge as a result of the behavior of many individuals. Statistical models that describe these population-level patterns of habitat use can miss important interactions between individual animals and characteristics of their local environment; however, identifying these interactions is difficult. One approach to this problem is to incorporate models of individual movement into resource selection models. To do this, we propose a model for step selection functions (SSF) that is composed of a resource-independent movement kernel and a resource selection function (RSF). We show that standard case-control logistic regression may be used to fit the SSF; however, the sampling scheme used to generate control points (i.e., the definition of availability) must be accommodated. We used three sampling schemes to analyze simulated movement data and found that ignoring sampling and the resource-independent movement kernel yielded biased estimates of selection. The level of bias depended on the method used to generate control locations, the strength of selection, and the spatial scale of the resource map. Using empirical or parametric methods to sample control locations produced biased estimates under stronger selection; however, we show that the addition of a distance function to the analysis substantially reduced that bias. Assuming a uniform availability within a fixed buffer yielded strongly biased selection estimates that could be corrected by including the distance function but remained inefficient relative to the empirical and parametric sampling methods. As a case study, we used location data collected from elk in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to show that selection and bias may be temporally variable. Because under constant selection the amount of bias depends on the scale at which a resource is distributed in the landscape, we suggest that distance always be included as a covariate in SSF analyses. This approach to

  6. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  7. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE, INCLUDING GENETIC SELECTION, IN IMPROVING ANIMAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. BROOM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal producers have to predict future situations and be aware of changing public views. At present, those in the animal industry are often trying to fight off change rather than preparing for and pre-empting it. As a consequence, many animal producers have bad public images. It is better to be proactive than reactive. Producer groups should be aware of new developments in knowledge and in public attitudes to animal-related activities. They should inform their members about how to manage animals in such a way that the welfare of the animals is good and the people involved in animal care are well-respected in society. This is especially important also for those who design and manufacture housing and equipment and those who breed animals for they can have substantial effects on animal welfare. It is important for animal welfare scientists to provide objective information about the welfare of animals, so that decisions can be taken about how animals should be bred, housed and treated. Animals use a wide range of coping mechanisms and these involve high-level brain function, with associated good and bad feelings. Where welfare is poor, the best overall assessment of welfare is a function of how bad is the effect on the individual and the duration of that effect. Conventional breeding, cloning and transgenesis can all have effects on the welfare of the animals produced. Selection for fast growth and high feed conversion efficiency in broiler chickens and other meat producing animals leads to too high an incidence of leg and other disorders. Selection for high milk yield in dairy cows leads to poor welfare associated with leg disorders, mastitis and reproductive disorders. These effects should be evaluated using a range of animal welfare measures and if there are adverse effects of genetic engineering, the usage of the animals should not be permitted except for research. In the case of genetically modified or cloned animals, any effects on function

  8. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heringstad Bjørg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (covariance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative" or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (covariance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models, residual variance on the underlying scale is not identifiable. Hence, variance of fully confounded Mendelian sampling deviations cannot be identified either, but can be inferred from the between-family variation. In the new algorithm, breeding values are sampled as in a standard animal model using the full relationship matrix, but genetic (covariance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents. Results When applied to simulated data sets, the standard animal threshold model failed to produce useful results since samples of genetic variance always drifted towards infinity, while the new algorithm produced proper parameter estimates essentially identical to the results from a sire-dam model (given the fact that no individual records exist for the parents. Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to

  9. Detecting Instability in Animal Social Networks: Genetic Fragmentation Is Associated with Social Instability in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Beisner, Brianne A.; Jackson, Megan E.; Cameron, Ashley N.; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The persistence of biological systems requires evolved mechanisms which promote stability. Cohesive primate social groups are one example of stable biological systems, which persist in spite of regular conflict. We suggest that genetic relatedness and its associated kinship structure are a potential source of stability in primate social groups as kinship structure is an important organizing principle in many animal societies. We investigated the effect of average genetic relatedness per matri...

  10. Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Abdallah

    2015-04-01

    Searching for adaptive traits in genetic resources - phenology based approach Abdallah Bari, Kenneth Street, Eddy De Pauw, Jalal Eddin Omari, and Chandra M. Biradar International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat Institutes, Rabat, Morocco Phenology is an important plant trait not only for assessing and forecasting food production but also for searching in genebanks for adaptive traits. Among the phenological parameters we have been considering to search for such adaptive and rare traits are the onset (sowing period) and the seasonality (growing period). Currently an application is being developed as part of the focused identification of germplasm strategy (FIGS) approach to use climatic data in order to identify crop growing seasons and characterize them in terms of onset and duration. These approximations of growing period characteristics can then be used to estimate flowering and maturity dates for dryland crops, such as wheat, barley, faba bean, lentils and chickpea, and assess, among others, phenology-related traits such as days to heading [dhe] and grain filling period [gfp]. The approach followed here is based on first calculating long term average daily temperatures by fitting a curve to the monthly data over days from beginning of the year. Prior to the identification of these phenological stages the onset is extracted first from onset integer raster GIS layers developed based on a model of the growing period that considers both moisture and temperature limitations. The paper presents some examples of real applications of the approach to search for rare and adaptive traits.

  11. Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M

    2010-09-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Two different ethical notions of benefit sharing of genetic resources and their implications for global development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Jonge, de B.

    2009-01-01

    Can genomics working with crop genetic resources, which can be relevant for developing countries, contribute in reducing the gap between rich and poor countries in using modern biotechnologies? In this paper we concentrate on the extent to which benefit sharing of genetic resources can be a

  13. The conservation of forest genetic resources: case histories from Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; J. Jesús Vargas-Hernández; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1998-01-01

    The genetic codes of living organisms are natural resources no less than soil, air, and water. Genetic resources-from nucleotide sequences in DNA to selected genotypes, populations, and species-are the raw material in forestry: for breeders, for the forest manager who produces an economic crop, for society that reaps the environmental benefits provided by forests, and...

  14. Genetic structure and diversity of animal populations exposed to metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Studying the genetic diversity of wild populations that are affected by pollution provides a basis for estimating the risks of environmental contamination to both wildlife, and indirectly to humans. Such research strives to produce both a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which genetic diversity is affected,and the long-term effects of the pollutants involved.In this review, we summarize key aspects of the field of genetic ecotoxicology that encompasses using genetic patterns to examine metal pollutants as environmental stressors of natural animal populations. We address genetic changes that result from xenobiotic exposure versus genetic alterations that result from natural ecological processes. We also describe the relationship between metal exposure and changes in the genetic diversity of chronically exposed populations, and how the affected populations respond to environmental stress. Further, we assess the genetic diversity of animal populations that were exposed to metals, focusing on the literature that has been published since the year 2000.Our review disclosed that the most common metals found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb; however, differences in the occurrence between aquatic (Cd=Zn>Cu>Pb>Hg) and terrestrial (Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni)environments were observed. Several molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in impacted populations, the order of the most common ones of which were SSR's > allozyme > RAPD's > mtDNA sequencing> other molecular markers.Genetic diversity was reduced for nearly all animal populations that were exposed to a single metal, or a mixture of metals in aquatic ecosystems (except in Hyalella azteca, Littorina littorea, Salmo trutta, and Gobio gobio); however, the pattern was less clear when terrestrial ecosystems were analyzed.We propose that future research in the topic area of this paper emphasizes seven key areas of activity that pertain to the methodological design of genetic

  15. Integration of population genetic structure and plant response to climate change: sustaining genetic resources through evaluation of projected threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Marcus V. Warwell; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    To assess threats or predict responses to disturbances, or both, it is essential to recognize and characterize the population structures of forest species in relation to changing environments. Appropriate management of these genetic resources in the future will require (1) understanding the existing genetic diversity/variation and population structure of forest trees...

  16. GeneEd—A Genetics Educational Resource | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of ... GeneEd website as part of her lessons on genetics. A recently developed educational website about genetics— GeneEd. ...

  17. Strategies for conserving forest genetic resources in the face of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradley St. Clair; Glenn Thomas. Howe

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is important for continued evolution of populations to new environments, as well as continued availability of traits of interest in genetic improvement programs. Rapidly changing climates present new threats to the conservation of forest genetic resources. We can no longer assume that in situ reserves will continue to preserve existing...

  18. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal ( Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rasel Uzzaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139 and expected (0.148±0.143 heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature.

  19. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  20. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  1. Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: Unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Laikre; Michael K. Schwartz; Robin S. Waples; Nils Ryman; F. W. Allendorf; C. S. Baker; D. P. Gregovich; M. M. Hansen; J. A. Jackson; K. C. Kendall; K. McKelvey; M. C. Neel; I. Olivieri; R. Short Bull; J. B. Stetz; D. A. Tallmon; C. D. Vojta; D. M. Waller

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale exploitation of wild animals and plants through fishing, hunting and logging often depends on augmentation through releases of translocated or captively raised individuals. Such releases are performed worldwide in vast numbers. Augmentation can be demographically and economically beneficial but can also cause four types of adverse genetic change to wild...

  2. ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

    2011-11-01

    The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MAINTAINING THE VIABILITY ANIMALS AND PLANT ORGANISMS IN URBAN ECOSISTEMS (ECOLOGO-GENETIC APPROUCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Makeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecologo- genetic approach is the basis genourbanology - independent scientific perspective and practical direction of the selected authors (the synthesis of population genetics and ecology of the system, which is committed to the knowledge of the genetic parameters and laws of conservation of human and ecosystem stability especially in urban landscapes. This approach (that is methodology, the concept, strategy, technologies has been tested in the ecosystems of the urban specially protected territories of Moscow and Moscow region. The state of the genofond of the organisms (model species populations whose natural habitat is the fragmented landscape of Moscow and the Moscow Region (36 animals populations and 4 plants populations was assessed. Our experience confirms efficiency of this approach in maintaining the viability animals and plant organisms in urban ecosystems.

  4. Secondary Students' Attitudes to Animal Research: Examining the Potential of a Resource to Communicate the Scientist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2015-01-01

    A DVD resource that provided a scientist's perspective on the use of animals in research and teaching was evaluated with a questionnaire that asked students' views pre and post their access to the resource. Thirty-nine secondary students (Y10-Y13) took part in three different teaching programmes that provided information about animal research and…

  5. Panel 4: Recent Advances in Otitis Media in Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, and Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532

  6. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  7. [Detection of genetically modified organisms in food and animal feed by polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-chang; Yang, Ming-jie; Yang, Xing-fen; Huang, Jun-ming

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the foods and animal feed samples in Guangzhou market. The presence of GMO were investigated by PCR detection of camv 35S promoter and nos terminator, and the presence of RoundUp Ready Soybean (RRS), Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard in GMO-positive samples were further determined by PCR detecting their specific DNA fragments respectively. One corn soup sample, two soybean samples, one potato fries sample as well as two animal feed samples were revealed to be GMO-positive in twenty-two food samples and three animal feed samples, and the presence of RRS in the GMO-positive soybean samples and the two positive animal feed samples were verified by PCR detection of a 129 bp RRS-specific DNA fragment, however, no Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard specific PCR products were obtained with the GMO-positive corn soup and animal feed DNA samples used as PCR templates. Genetically modified organism presented in foods and animal feeds even though they were not been labelled.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic diversity of Malassezia furfur from domestic and zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Laura; Bragulat, M Rosa; Castellá, Gemma; Cabañes, F Javier

    2017-12-27

    Malassezia furfur is traditionally associated to human skin, although more recent studies have been revealing its presence in a variety of animals. The aim of this study was to analyze phenotypically and genetically the diversity among strains isolated from animals of this species. We have examined 21 strains of M. furfur from domestic and wild animals held in captivity. On the one hand, their phenotypic characteristics were studied, by assessing its growth at different incubation temperatures, their catalase and β-glucosidase activities and the Tween diffusion test on Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA), and on yeast nitrogen base agar (YNBA), a synthetic medium without lipids. On the other hand, the large subunit (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal RNA and the β-tubulin gene were sequenced. Different sequence types were identified for each target gene, and fourteen genotypes were revealed. While several genotypes were obtained from the strains from domestic animals, the strains from zoo animals appeared to be genetically more stable. With ITS and β-tubulin gene, M. furfur strains grouped in two clades. One clade included the strains from domestic animals and the other clade included the strains from zoo animals. The phenotypic tests also revealed a remarkable diversity within this species, which appeared to be more significant among strains from domestic animals. Moreover, the Tween diffusion test using YNBA was more useful to observe differences among strains, which could not be perceived using SGA. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Conservation of forest genetic resources in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. St. Clair; S. Lipow; K. Vance-Borland; R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is recognized as an important requirement of sustainable forest management. Gene conservation activities include in situ conservation of native stands in reserves and ex situ conservation in seed banks, genetic tests, seed and breeding orchards, and other plantations of known identity. We present an example from Oregon and Washington...

  10. Genetic diversity and germplasm resource research on tung tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... characteristics such as insulation, acid and alkali resis- tance, as well as anticorrosion properties. It has gradually been applied to manufacturing modern paint, ..... genetic base and current situations of cultivars. This is different from earlier studies on genetic diversity at population level of some other plants, ...

  11. Advances in genetic modification of farm animals using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools (GET), including zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENS), and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These genome editing tools mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing DNA mutation frequency via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, GETs can increase gene targeting and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair more than 10,000-fold. Recently, a novel class of genome editing tools was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN. Current results indicate that these tools can be successfully employed in a broad range of organisms which renders them useful for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, including creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on the use of ZFNs to modify the genome of farm animals, summarizes current knowledge on the underlying mechanism, and discusses new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals.

  12. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2012 - 31 January 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Urbánková, Soňa; Vyskočilová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 546-549 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : genetic database * microsatellite marker loci Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biol ogy Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013

  14. Ecology-genetic consequences of the chronic irradiation of animals in Chernobyl alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, V.I.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Glazko, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations

  15. Diverse plant and animal genetic records from Holocene and Pleistocene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Binladen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including...... sequences of extinct biota, including two species of ratite moa, and 29 plant taxa characteristic of the prehuman environment. Therefore, many sedimentary deposits may contain unique, and widespread, genetic records of paleoenvironments. Udgivelsesdato: 2003 May 2...

  16. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  17. Governing the management and use of pooled microbial genetic resources: Lessons from the global crop commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halewood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights lessons learned over the last thirty years establishing a governance structure for the global crop commons that are of relevance to current champions of the microbial commons. It argues that the political, legal and biophysical situation in which microbial genetic resources (and their users are located today are similar to the situation of plant genetic resources in the mid-1990s, before the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources was negotiated. Consequently, the paper suggests that it may be useful to look to the model of global network of ex situ plant genetic resources collections as a precedent to follow – even if only loosely – in developing an intergovernmentally endorsed legal substructure and governance framework for the microbial commons.

  18. Use of Molecular Genetic Engineering in the Study of Animal Parasites and Their Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    LoVerde, Philip T

    1989-01-01

    Molecular genetics coupled with advances in immunology and parasite culture has become a powerful tool to study animal parasites and their vectors. Recombinant DNA techniques allow one to identify individual genes of DNA probes, amplify the nucleic acid of interest, and use this material to study: the role of the gene product in the biology of the organism; the evolution of parasites and their hosts; heterogeneity between species and within species; taxonomy and develop refined taxonomic tool...

  19. Animal movement constraints improve resource selection inference in the presence of telemetry error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Hooten, Mevin B; Hanks, Ephraim M; Small, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines.

  20. Animal movement constraints improve resource selection inference in the presence of telemetry error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Small, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines.

  1. How old are you? Genet age estimates in a clonal animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Durante, M K; Miller, M W; Precht, W F; Baums, I B

    2016-11-01

    Foundation species such as redwoods, seagrasses and corals are often long-lived and clonal. Genets may consist of hundreds of members (ramets) and originated hundreds to thousands of years ago. As climate change and other stressors exert selection pressure on species, the demography of populations changes. Yet, because size does not indicate age in clonal organisms, demographic models are missing data necessary to predict the resilience of many foundation species. Here, we correlate somatic mutations with genet age of corals and provide the first, preliminary estimates of genet age in a colonial animal. We observed somatic mutations at five microsatellite loci in rangewide samples of the endangered coral, Acropora palmata (n = 3352). Colonies harboured 342 unique mutations in 147 genets. Genet age ranged from 30 to 838 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.195 -04 per locus per year based on colony growth rates and 236 to 6500 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.542 -05 per locus per year based on sea level changes to habitat availability. Long-lived A. palmata genets imply a large capacity to tolerate past environmental change, and yet recent mass mortality events in A. palmata suggest that capacity is now being frequently exceeded. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Community Engagement and Field Trials of Genetically Modified Insects and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Carolyn P

    2018-01-01

    New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives. Driving a desired genotype through a population of wild animals or insects could lead to irreversible genetic modification of an entire species. The NASEM report recommends community, stakeholder, and public engagement about potential uses of the technology, and it argues that the engagement should occur as research advances, well before gene drives are deployed. Yet what "engagement" means in practice is unclear. This article seeks clarity on this problem by offering a justification for community engagement and drawing out implications of this argument for the implementation and desired outcomes of community engagement. Community engagement is essential when it comes to research that would release genetically modified insects or animals into the environment. By contrast, obtaining informed consent from people who live near such a proposed field trial is neither necessary nor sufficient. Drawing on the epistemic and moral arguments for deliberative democracy, I propose two discrete mechanisms of community engagement: community advisory boards and deliberative forums, neither of which has been systematically incorporated into research governance. The proposed mechanisms would engender respect for persons who live near field trials, even when the results of deliberation override some individuals' preferences. Community engagement foregrounds the community in our thinking about humans' relationship to nature

  3. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  4. The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    Cum laude graduation
    Among the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic

  5. Detecting instability in animal social networks: genetic fragmentation is associated with social instability in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne A Beisner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of biological systems requires evolved mechanisms which promote stability. Cohesive primate social groups are one example of stable biological systems, which persist in spite of regular conflict. We suggest that genetic relatedness and its associated kinship structure are a potential source of stability in primate social groups as kinship structure is an important organizing principle in many animal societies. We investigated the effect of average genetic relatedness per matrilineal family on the stability of matrilineal grooming and agonistic interactions in 48 matrilines from seven captive groups of rhesus macaques. Matrilines with low average genetic relatedness show increased family-level instability such as: more sub-grouping in their matrilineal groom network, more frequent fighting with kin, and higher rates of wounding. Family-level instability in multiple matrilines within a group is further associated with group-level instability such as increased wounding. Stability appears to arise from the presence of clear matrilineal structure in the rhesus macaque group hierarchy, which is derived from cohesion among kin in their affiliative and agonistic interactions with each other. We conclude that genetic relatedness and kinship structure are an important source of group stability in animal societies, particularly when dominance and/or affilative interactions are typically governed by kinship.

  6. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  7. The conservation and use of crop genetic resources for food security

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    Cum laude graduationAmong the factors hindering the conservation of crop genetic resources is a lack of essential information regarding this diversity. Questions include: (a) what is the status of diversity in our food systems, and where are the greatest vulnerabilities?, (b) where can genetic diversity be found that can be useful in increasing productivity and mitigating these vulnerabilities?, (c) is this genetic diversity available in the present and in the long term?, and (d) what steps a...

  8. tRNA Modification and Genetic Code Variations in Animal Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitsuna Watanabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In animal mitochondria, six codons have been known as nonuniversal genetic codes, which vary in the course of animal evolution. They are UGA (termination codon in the universal genetic code changes to Trp codon in all animal mitochondria, AUA (Ile to Met in most metazoan mitochondria, AAA (Lys to Asn in echinoderm and some platyhelminth mitochondria, AGA/AGG (Arg to Ser in most invertebrate, Arg to Gly in tunicate, and Arg to termination in vertebrate mitochondria, and UAA (termination to Tyr in a planaria and a nematode mitochondria, but conclusive evidence is lacking in this case. We have elucidated that the anticodons of tRNAs deciphering these nonuniversal codons (tRNATrp for UGA, tRNAMet for AUA, tRNAAsn for AAA, and tRNASer and tRNAGly for AGA/AGG are all modified; tRNATrp has 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNAMet has 5-formylcytidine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNASer has 7-methylguanosine and tRNAGly has 5-taurinomethyluridine in their anticodon wobble position, and tRNAAsn has pseudouridine in the anticodon second position. This review aims to clarify the structural relationship between these nonuniversal codons and the corresponding tRNA anticodons including modified nucleosides and to speculate on the possible mechanisms for explaining the evolutional changes of these nonuniversal codons in the course of animal evolution.

  9. Dependency on floral resources determines the animals' responses to floral scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Robert R; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-08-01

    Animal-pollinated angiosperms either depend on cross-pollination or may also reproduce after self-pollination - the former are thus obligately, the latter facultatively dependent on the service of animal-pollinators. Analogously, flower visitors either solely feed on floral resources or complement their diet with these, and are hence dependent or not on the flowers they visit. We assume that obligate flower visitors evolved abilities that enable them to effectively forage on flowers including mechanisms to bypass or tolerate floral defences such as morphological barriers and repellent / deterrent secondary metabolites. Facultative flower visitors, in contrast, are supposed to lack these adaptations and are often prevented to consume floral resources by defence mechanisms. In cases where obligate flower visitors are mutualists and facultative ones are antagonists, this dichotomy provides a solution for the plants' dilemma to attract pollinators and simultaneously repel exploiters. In a meta-analysis, we recently supported this hypothesis: obligate flower visitors are attracted to floral scents, while facultative ones are repelled. Here, we add empirical evidence to these results: bumblebees and ants, obligate and facultative flower visitors, respectively, responded as predicted by the results of the meta-analysis to synthetic floral scent compounds.

  10. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of

  11. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Karimuribo; B. Jones; M.I. Matee; D.M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; M.M. Rweyemamu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...

  12. NIASGBdb: NIAS Genebank databases for genetic resources and plant disease information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Masaru; Yamasaki, Fukuhiro; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Aoki, Takayuki; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Toshirou; Tomioka, Keisuke; Tomooka, Norihiko; Sato, Toyozo; Kawase, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) is implementing the NIAS Genebank Project for conservation and promotion of agrobiological genetic resources to contribute to the development and utilization of agriculture and agricultural products. The project's databases (NIASGBdb; http://www.gene.affrc.go.jp/databases_en.php) consist of a genetic resource database and a plant diseases database, linked by a web retrieval database. The genetic resources database has plant and microorganism search systems to provide information on research materials, including passport and evaluation data for genetic resources with the desired properties. To facilitate genetic diversity research, several NIAS Core Collections have been developed. The NIAS Rice (Oryza sativa) Core Collection of Japanese Landraces contains information on simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms. SSR marker information for azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and black gram (V. mungo) and DNA sequence data from some selected Japanese strains of the genus Fusarium are also available. A database of plant diseases in Japan has been developed based on the listing of common names of plant diseases compiled by the Phytopathological Society of Japan. Relevant plant and microorganism genetic resources are associated with the plant disease names by the web retrieval database and can be obtained from the NIAS Genebank for research or educational purposes.

  13. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  14. The Current Status of Germplum Database: a Tool for Characterization of Plum Genetic Resources in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Harta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Prunus genetic resources are kept in collections of varieties, populations and biotypes, mainly located in research and development institutes or fruit growing stations and, in the last years, by some private enterprises. Creating the experimental model for the Germplum database based on phenotypic descriptors and SSR molecular markers analysis is an important and topical objective for the efficient characterization of genetic resources and also for establishing a public-private partnership for the effective management of plum germplasm resources in Romania. The technical development of the Germplum database was completed and data will be added continuously after characterizing each new accession.

  15. [Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.

  16. Fair Access to and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources : National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. Existing laws and mechanisms - such as intellectual property rights (IPRs) - leave communities open to biopiracy because they protect individual as opposed to collective rights and do not recognize ...

  17. Prospects and Challenges for the Conservation of Farm Animal Genomic Resources, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Bruford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy, climate change and market demands. The last decade saw a step change in technological and analytical approaches to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR. These changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and the methodologies needed to exploit new, multidimensional data. The ESF Genomic Resources program final conference addressed these problems attempting to contribute to the development of the research and policy agenda for the next decade. We broadly identified four areas related to methodological and analytical challenges, data management and conservation. The overall conclusion is that there is a need for the use of current state-of-the-art tools to characterise the state of genomic resources in non-commercial and local breeds. The livestock genomic sector, which has been relatively well-organised in applying such methodologies so far, needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratisation of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.

  18. Technology assessment and resource allocation for predictive genetic testing: A study of the perspectives of Canadian genetic health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsiedel Edna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. Methods The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior lab directors and clinicians at publically funded Canadian predictive genetic testing facilities. Participants were drawn from British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Given the community sampled was identified as being relatively small and challenging to access, purposive sampling coupled with snowball sampling methodologies were utilized. Results Surveyed lab directors and clinicians indicated that predictive genetic tests were funded provincially by one of two predominant funding models, but they themselves played a significant role in how these funds were allocated for specific tests and services. They also rated and identified several factors that influenced allocation decisions and patients' decisions regarding testing. Lastly, participants provided recommendations regarding changes to existing allocation models and showed support for a national evaluation process for predictive testing. Conclusion Our findings suggest that largely local and relatively ad hoc decision making processes are being made in relation to resource allocations for predictive genetic tests and that a more coordinated and, potentially, national approach to allocation decisions in this context may be appropriate.

  19. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-track Cultivar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Timothy Welling

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  20. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  1. Animal physiology and genetic aspects of ryegrass staggers in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Wheeler, T T; Henderson, H V; Towers, N R; Phua, S H

    2017-07-01

    Ryegrass staggers (RGS) is a metabolic disease of herbivores, caused by the ingestion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) containing a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) which produces a tremorgenic toxin, lolitrem B. RGS has a major economic impact for agriculture in New Zealand as well as internationally. Management of RGS in grazing sheep can be problematic, and there is an incomplete knowledge of the interaction between the toxin and the grazing animal. This review is focused on recent advances in understanding the molecular physiology of RGS in the affected animal as well as the influence of animal genetics on the degree of susceptibility to RGS. Investigations to date suggest that the primary target for toxin is the large conductance, calcium-activated, potassium (BK) channel, resulting in disruption of neuromuscular junction signalling. Genetic investigation has established the existence of genes influencing resistance to RGS, however their identity has not been confirmed and their impact has not been established. Studies to date suggest that a multi-gene selection approach will be necessary in order to develop an effective selection tool for use in the agricultural industries.

  2. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org.

  3. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing

  4. The genetic diversity among strawberry breeding resources based on SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohwan Lim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. is a high value horticultural crop. In this study, the genetic diversity of 160 strawberry accessions was determined using five highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Sixty different alleles were identified, with allele frequencies in the range of 0.006 to1. Similarity scores were in the range of 0.034 to 0.963 (average: 0.507. The accessions were categorized into five groups. Group 1 contained two diploid Fragaria vesca species and one unknown accession. Group 2 contained one accession (F x ananassa. Group 3 contained 20 F × ananassa accessions and six unknown accessions. Group 4 contained 48 F. × ananassa accessions, one octaploid Fragaria chiloensis species, and six unknown accessions while Group 5 contained 69 F. × ananassa accessions and six unknown accessions. Accessions within a pedigree were frequently grouped together. A total of 30 novel accessions were categorized alongside existing accessions. These results will allow breeders to develop strategies which incorporate more genetic diversity into new cultivars.

  5. Convergence of Human Genetics and Animal Studies: Gene Therapy for X-Linked Retinoschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ronald A.; Wei, Lisa L.; Sieving, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Retinoschisis is an X-linked recessive genetic disease that leads to vision loss in males. X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) typically affects young males; however, progressive vision loss continues throughout life. Although discovered in 1898 by Haas in two brothers, the underlying biology leading to blindness has become apparent only in the last 15 years with the advancement of human genetic analyses, generation of XLRS animal models, and the development of ocular monitoring methods such as the electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography. It is now recognized that retinoschisis results from cyst formations within the retinal layers that interrupt normal visual neurosignaling and compromise structural integrity. Mutations in the human retinoschisin gene have been correlated with disease severity of the human XLRS phenotype. Introduction of a normal human retinoschisin cDNA into retinoschisin knockout mice restores retinal structure and improves neural function, providing proof-of-concept that gene replacement therapy is a plausible treatment for XLRS. PMID:26101206

  6. Applications of population genetics to animal breeding, from wright, fisher and lush to genomic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William G

    2014-01-01

    Although animal breeding was practiced long before the science of genetics and the relevant disciplines of population and quantitative genetics were known, breeding programs have mainly relied on simply selecting and mating the best individuals on their own or relatives' performance. This is based on sound quantitative genetic principles, developed and expounded by Lush, who attributed much of his understanding to Wright, and formalized in Fisher's infinitesimal model. Analysis at the level of individual loci and gene frequency distributions has had relatively little impact. Now with access to genomic data, a revolution in which molecular information is being used to enhance response with "genomic selection" is occurring. The predictions of breeding value still utilize multiple loci throughout the genome and, indeed, are largely compatible with additive and specifically infinitesimal model assumptions. I discuss some of the history and genetic issues as applied to the science of livestock improvement, which has had and continues to have major spin-offs into ideas and applications in other areas.

  7. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  8. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency preparedness were collected from all wards (n = 22, human health facilities (n = 40 and livestock facilities in the two districts using interview checklists and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics for resources were calculated and mapped by district. Kibaha district had a higher human population density, more health workers, better equipped health facilities and better communication and transport systems. On the other hand, Ngorongoro had a higher population of livestock and more animal health facilities but a poorer ratio of animal health workers to livestock. The average ratio of health personnel to population in catchment areas of the health facilities was 1:147 (range of 1:17−1:1200. The ratio of personnel to human population was significantly higher in Kibaha (1:95 than in Ngorongoro (1:203 district (p = 0 < 0.001. Considering the limited resources available to both human and animal health sectors and their different strengths and weaknesses there are opportunities for greater collaboration and resource-sharing between human and animal health for improved surveillance and emergency-preparedness.

  9. Natural variation, an underexploited resource of genetic variation for plant genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Blanco, C.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    The definition of gene functions requires the phenotypic characterization of genetic variants. Currently, such functional analysis of Arabidopsis genes is based largely on laboratory-induced mutants that are selected in forward and reverse genetic studies. An alternative complementary source of

  10. From animal models to human disease: a genetic approach for personalized medicine in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher-Martel, Vincent; Valdmanis, Paul N; Gould, Peter V; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas

    2016-07-11

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease in adults. Classical ALS is characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis. Approximately 10 % of ALS patients have familial form of the disease. Numerous different gene mutations have been found in familial cases of ALS, such as mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), C9ORF72, ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), optineurin (OPTN) and others. Multiple animal models were generated to mimic the disease and to test future treatments. However, no animal model fully replicates the spectrum of phenotypes in the human disease and it is difficult to assess how a therapeutic effect in disease models can predict efficacy in humans. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS leads to a variety of responses to similar treatment regimens. From this has emerged the concept of personalized medicine (PM), which is a medical scheme that combines study of genetic, environmental and clinical diagnostic testing, including biomarkers, to individualized patient care. In this perspective, we used subgroups of specific ALS-linked gene mutations to go through existing animal models and to provide a comprehensive profile of the differences and similarities between animal models of disease and human disease. Finally, we reviewed application of biomarkers and gene therapies relevant in personalized medicine approach. For instance, this includes viral delivering of antisense oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA in SOD1, TDP-43 and C9orf72 mice models. Promising gene therapies raised possibilities for treating differently the major mutations in familial ALS cases.

  11. Low extraversion and high neuroticism as indices of genetic and environmental risk for social phobia, agoraphobia, and animal phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O Joseph; Hettema, John M; Neale, Michael C; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-11-01

    The authors examined the extent to which two major personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) index the genetic and environmental risk for three phobias (social phobia, agoraphobia, and animal phobia) in twins ascertained from a large, population-based registry. Lifetime phobias and personality traits were assessed through diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaire, respectively, in 7,800 twins from female-female, male-male, and opposite-sex pairs. Sex-limited trivariate Cholesky structural equation models were used to decompose the correlations among extraversion, neuroticism, and each phobia. In the best-fitting models, genetic correlations were moderate and negative between extraversion and both social phobia and agoraphobia, and that between extraversion and animal phobia was effectively zero. Genetic correlations were high and positive between neuroticism and both social phobia and agoraphobia, and that between neuroticism and animal phobia was moderate. All of the genetic risk factors for social phobia and agoraphobia were shared with those that influence extraversion and neuroticism; in contrast, only a small proportion of the genetic risk factors for animal phobia (16%) was shared with those that influence personality. Shared environmental experiences were not a source of correlations between personality traits and phobias, and unique environmental correlations were relatively modest. Genetic factors that influence individual variation in extraversion and neuroticism appear to account entirely for the genetic liability to social phobia and agoraphobia, but not animal phobia. These findings underline the importance of both introversion (low extraversion) and neuroticism in some psychiatric disorders.

  12. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 – 31 May 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M.J.; Govers, F.; Jacobsen, E.; Mendes, O.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus,

  13. A new educational resource to improve veterinary students' animal welfare learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Annie J; Mullan, Siobhan M; Main, David C J

    2013-01-01

    A computer-aided learning (CAL) educational resource based on experiential learning principles has been developed. Its aim is to improve veterinary students' ability to critically review the effect on welfare of husbandry systems observed during their work placement on sheep farms. The CAL consisted of lectures, multiple-choice questions, video recordings of animals in various husbandry conditions, open questions, and concept maps. An intervention group of first-year veterinary students (N=31) was selected randomly to access the CAL before their sheep farm placement, and a control group (N=50) received CAL training after placement. Assessment criteria for the categories remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create, based on Bloom's revised taxonomy, were used to evaluate farm reports submitted by all students after their 2-week placement. Students in the intervention group were more likely than their untrained colleagues (pbased measurements relating to the freedom from hunger and thirst; the freedom from discomfort; and the freedom from pain, injury, or disease. Intervention group students were also more likely to analyze the freedom from pain, injury, or disease and the freedom to exhibit normal behavior and to evaluate the freedom from fear and distress. Relatively few students in each group exhibited creativity in their reports. These findings indicate that use of CAL before farm placement improved students' ability to assess and report animal welfare as part of their extramural work experience.

  14. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  15. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arias, M. C.; Atteke, C.; Augusto, S. C.; Bailey, J.; Bazaga, P.; Beheregaray, L. B.; Benoit, L.; Blatrix, R.; Born, C.; Brito, R. M.; Chen, H.-K.; Covarrubias, S.; de Vega, C.; Djiéto-Lordon, C.; Dubois, M.-P.; Francisco, F. O.; García, C.; Concalves, P. H. P.; González, C.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, C.; Hammer, M. P.; Herrera, C. M.; Itoh, H.; Kamimura, S.; Karaoglu, H.; Kojima, S.; Li, S.-L.; Ling, H. J.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; McKey, D.; Mezui-M’Eko, J.; Ornelas, J. F.; Park, R. F.; Pozo, M. I.; Ramula, S.; Rigueiro, C.; Sandoval-Castillo, J.; Santiago, L. R.; Seino, M. M.; Song, C.-B.; Takeshima, H.; Vasemägi, A.; Wellings, C. R.; Yan, J.; Du, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.-R.; Zhang, T.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2013), s. 760-762 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular ecology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12121/pdf

  16. How Policies Affect the Use of Plant Genetic Resources: The Experience of the CGIAR

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel, Lopez Noriega; Michael, Halewood; Gea, Galluzzi; Ronnie, Vernooy; Enrico, Bertacchini; Devendra, Gauchan; Eric, Welch

    2013-01-01

    There is growing recognition that sustainable intensification of agricultural production systems and their successful adaptation to changes in climate will depend upon the improved access to, and use of, genetic diversity. This paper analyzes how the collection, use and distribution of plant genetic resources by the Consortium of International Research Centers of the CGIAR are influenced by international and national policies, treaties and agreements. Some concerns exist among CGIAR scientist...

  17. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... of genetic diversity supports the hypothesis that teak has its centre of origin in India, from where it spread eastwards. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) gave an overall highly significant F st value of 0.227—population pairwise F st values were in the range 0.01–0.48. Applying the G......″st differentiation parameter, the estimated overall differentiation was 0.632, implying a strong genetic structure among populations. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, using the pairwise population matrix of G″st values as input, contained three distinct groups: (1) the eight provenances from Thailand and Laos, (2...

  18. Genetic animal models to decipher the pathogenic effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Dreumont, Natacha; Coelho, David; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Arnold, Carole

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are essential micronutrients that provide methyl groups for cellular methylations through the so-called one-carbon metabolism. Deficits in the absorption and transport or defects of the enzymes can lead to human pathogenesis comprising hematologic, neural, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular and developmental manifestations. One-carbon metabolism is a complex, multistep and multi-organ metabolism, and the understanding of the mechanisms at work have benefited from human inborn errors and population studies, as well as from nutritional animal models. Since 15 years, a wide variety of genetically engineered mice has been developed and has proved to be useful to decipher the underlying mechanisms. These genetically engineered mice target all the genes that are important for the intestinal absorption, cellular transport and metabolism of vitamin B12 and folate, which are detailed in this article. In conclusion, these mouse models represent valuable experimental paradigms for human pathogenesis. Since no animal model recapitulates the full spectrum of a human disease, researchers have to choose the one that is the most relevant for their specific needs, and this review may help in this respect. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Forest genetic resources in Serbia: State and recommendations for improvement in this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest genetic resources, which represent genetic diversity contained in the thousands of forest tree species, take a significant place in total biodiversity of Serbia. The forest ecosystems of Serbia include about 250 indigenous tree species which, according to geographical-floral elements, belong to the Middle-European, Pontic and Mediterranean element. Within the available gene pool, special attention should be addressed to wild fruit tree species and those species which are relict, endemic, rare and endangered according to the IUCN categorization. The regulatory basis for conservation and directed utilization of forest genetic resources in Serbia can be found in the strategic and legal acts in the field of environmental protection, nature conservation and forestry. Previous activities in the conservation of forest genetic resources are insufficient, whereby the level of their endangerment is continuously increasing as a result of deforestation and climate change. This situation requires a clear definition of a national strategy of conservation and directed utilization of forest genetic resources in Serbia, as a basis for planning activities in this area based on best practices.

  20. Characterization for multipurpose exploitations of genetic resources from the germplasm collection of pasture species owned by the CNR-ISPAAM in Sassari, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullitta Simonetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of genetic resources characterization of some pasture species from the germplasm collection held at ISPAAM-CNR in Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. According to the peculiarities of each species, some of the uses suggested by the experimental results were phytoremediation, wildfi re prevention, biomass production for bioenergy, forage production and multiple uses, bioactive compounds for health care of domestic animals.

  1. Human, food and animal Campylobacter spp. isolated in Portugal: high genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Andreia; Santos, Andrea; Manageiro, Vera; Martins, Ana; Fraqueza, Maria J; Caniça, Manuela; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-10-01

    Infections by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food being the main source of infection. In this study, a total of 196 Campylobacter strains (125 isolates from humans, 39 from retail food and 32 from food animal sources) isolated in Portugal between 2009 and 2012 were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and flaA short variable region (SVR) typing. Susceptibility to six antibiotics as well as the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance phenotypes was also studied. Based on MLST typing, C. coli strains were genetically more conserved, with a predominant clonal complex (CC828), than C. jejuni strains. In contrast, C. coli isolates were genetically more variable than C. jejuni with regard to flaA-SVR typing. A high rate of resistance was observed for quinolones (100% to nalidixic acid, >90% to ciprofloxacin) and, in general, resistance was more common among C. coli, especially for erythromycin (40.2% vs. 6.7%). In addition, most isolates (86%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial families. Besides the expected point mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, detected polymorphisms in the cmeABC locus likely play a role in the multiresistant phenotype. This study provides for the first time an overview of the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains from Portugal. It also shows a worrying antibiotic multiresistance rate and the emergence of Campylobacter strains resistant to antibiotics of human use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. The Collaborative Cross Resource for Systems Genetics Research of Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizio, Paul L; Ferris, Martin T

    2017-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence highlights the role of host genetic variation in driving susceptibility to severe disease following pathogen infection. In order to fully appreciate the importance of host genetics on infection susceptibility and resulting disease, genetically variable experimental model systems should be employed. These systems allow for the identification, characterization, and mechanistic dissection of genetic variants that cause differential disease responses. Herein we discuss application of the Collaborative Cross (CC) panel of recombinant inbred strains to study viral pathogenesis, focusing on practical considerations for experimental design, assessment and analysis of disease responses within the CC, as well as some of the resources developed for the CC. Although the focus of this chapter is on viral pathogenesis, many of the methods presented within are applicable to studies of other pathogens, as well as to case-control designs in genetically diverse populations.

  3. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2012 – 31 May 2012

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Papoušek, Ivo; Marešová, Eva; Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Nowak, M.; Čížková, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2012), s. 972-974 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P608 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Romanogobio * gudgeon * microsatellites * hybrid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biol ogy Impact factor: 7.432, year: 2012 http://tomato. biol .trinity.edu/manuscripts/12-5/mer-12-0021.pdf

  4. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole C

    2015-07-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.

  5. Gene therapy in large animal models of human cardiovascular genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeper, Meg M; Bish, Lawrence T; Sweeney, H Lee

    2009-01-01

    Several naturally occurring animal models for human genetic heart diseases offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate potential novel therapies, including gene therapy. Some of these diseases--especially those that result in a structural defect during development (e.g., patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis)--would likely be difficult to treat with a therapeutic gene transfer approach. However, the ability to transduce a significant proportion of the myocardial cells should make the various forms of inherited cardiomyopathy amenable to a therapeutic gene transfer approach. Adeno-associated virus may be the ideal vector for cardiac gene therapy since its low immunogenicity allows for stable transgene expression, a crucial factor when considering treatment of a chronic disease. Cardiomyopathies are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults, and large animal models are available for the major forms of inherited cardiomyopathy (dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy). One of these animal models, juvenile dilated cardiomyopathy of Portuguese water dogs, offers an effective means to assess the efficacy of therapeutic gene transfer to alter the course of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Correction of the abnormal metabolic processes that occur with heart failure (e.g., calcium metabolism, apoptosis) could normalize diseased myocardial function. Gene therapy may offer a promising new approach for the treatment of cardiac disease in both veterinary and human clinical settings.

  6. To eat and not be eaten: modelling resources and safety in multi-species animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey-prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time.

  7. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 june 2011–31 july 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus......, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata, Cryptocoryne elliptica, Cryptocoryne griffithii, Cryptocoryne minima, Cryptocoryne nurii and Cryptocoryne schulzei. This article also documents the addition of 24 sequencing primer pairs and 24 allele-specific primers or probes for Aphis glycines....

  8. Genetic opportunities to enhance sustainability of pork production in developing countries: A model for food animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Golovan, S.P.; Ajakaiye, A.; Fan, M.Z.; Hacker, R.R.; Phillips, J.P.; Meidinger, R.G.; Kelly, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)

  9. The Forest Genetic Resources Working Group of the North American Forestry Commission (FAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Schmidtling

    2002-01-01

    The Forest Genetic Resources Working Group (FGRWG) is one of seven working groups established by the North American Forest Commission (NAFC). The NAFC is one of six Forest Commissions established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (F-40). The FGRWG was established by the NAFC in 1961 as the Working Group on Forest Tree Improvement but went through several-changes...

  10. The importance and utilization of the genetic resources of cultivated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic resources (PGR) have been utilized over the millennia to improve the human condition. Domestication of major crops such as corn, rice and soybean occurred between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago; more ancient domestication of potato occurred in the Andes and of tomato in Mesoamerica. Deve...

  11. Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study,

  12. Vicissitudes of Benefit Sharing of Crop Genetic Resources: Downstream and Upstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de B.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we will first give a historic overview of the concept of benefit sharing and its appearance in official agreements, particularly with respect to crop genetic resources. It will become clear that, at present, benefit sharing is primarily considered as an instrument of compensation or

  13. Molecular fingerprinting of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) genetic resources in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in the Dominican Republic ranking 11th in the world and number one in organic cacao exports. Dominican cacao genetic resources are maintained, propagated and distributed nationally out of the IDIAF’s Mata Larga research stations. T...

  14. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Churchill, G. A.; Airey, D. C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J. M.; Attie, A. D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W. D.; Belknap, J. K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K. W.; Buck, K. J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E. J.; Cheverud, J. M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M. N.; Cox, R. D.; Crabbe, J. C.; Crusio, W. E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschepper, C. F.; Doerge, R. W.; Farber, C. R.; Forejt, Jiří; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S. J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.; de Haan, G.; Hayes, N. L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H. C.; Iraqi, F. A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H. J.; Jansen, R. C.; Jepsen, K. J.; Johnson, D. K.; Johnson, T. E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R. F.; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J. M.; Lowenstein, P. R.; Lu, L.; Lusis, A.; Manly, K. F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J. F.; Miller, D. R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B. A.; Mogil, J. S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D. G.; Mott, R.; Nadeau, J. H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R. S.; O'Hara, B. F.; Osadchuk, A. V.; Page, G. P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, A. A.; Pan, H. J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Peirce, J.; Pomp, D.; Pravenec, Michal; Prows, D. R.; Qi, Z.; Reeves, R. H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G. D.; Schadt, E. E.; Schalkwyk, L. C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.; Sillanpää, M. J.; Siracusa, L. D.; Snoeck, H. W.; Spearow, J. L.; Svenson, K.; Tarantino, L. M.; Threadgill, D.; Toth, L. A.; Valdar, W.; de Villena, F. P.; Warden, C.; Whatley, S.; Williams, R. W.; Wiltshire, T.; Yi, N.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, M.; Zou, F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 1133-1137 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : development of resources * common reference panel Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 24.695, year: 2004

  15. Beyond botany to genetic resource preservation: the S. P. Vander Kloet Vaccinium L. collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. S. P. Vander Kloet, botanist, traveled the world examining and obtaining specimens to redefine infrageneric taxonomic units within Vaccinium L., family Ericaceae. Besides his botanical treatises, his legacy includes herbarium voucher specimens and ex situ genetic resource collections including a...

  16. Innovation in conservation, how information technology tools improve the ex situ management of plant genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Many new technologies highly relevant to the PGR community have become available over the past years, especially in the fields of genomics and information technology. The effect of the second category of technologies on the ex situ manage-ment of plant genetic resources is explored. After a low

  17. Establishing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genetic resources for in vitro storage and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is used to produce sugar, a variety of alcoholic beverages, bagasse and industrial ethanol utilized in making fuel. In production fields, sugarcane is propagated vegetatively and currently, the crop’s genetic resources are also preserved as field plantings. The National Pl...

  18. The Netherlands twin register biobank: A resource for genetic epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.T. van; Brooks, A.I.; Estourgie-van Burk, G.F.; Fugman, D.A.; Hoekstra, C.; Hottenga, J.-J.; Kluft, K.; Meijer, P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Rizzu, P.; Sondervan, D.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Tischfield, J.A.; Lehner, T.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) started a large scale biological sample collection in twin families to create a resource for genetic studies on health, lifestyle and personality. Between January 2004 and July 2008, adult participants from NTR research projects were invited into the

  19. The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-06-01

    Despite several reports on the beneficial effects of buckwheat in prevention of human diseases, little attention has been devoted to the variability of biochemical and physiological traits in different buckwheat genetic resources. This review describes the biochemical evaluation of buckwheat genetic resources and the identification of elite genotypes for plant breeding and exploitation. The various types of bioactive compounds present in different varieties provide basic background information needed for the efficient production of buckwheat foods with added value. In this review, we will provide an integrated view of the biochemistry of bioactive compounds of buckwheat plants of different origin, especially of fagopyrin, proteins and amino acids, as well as of other phenolic compounds including rutin and chlorogenic acid. In addition to the genetic background, the effect of different growth conditions is discussed. The health effects of fagopyrin, phenolic acids, specific proteins and rutin are also presented.

  20. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  1. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Maarten van; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  2. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.: application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1 improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs; and (2 formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could

  3. The genetics of muscle atrophy and growth: the impact and implications of polymorphisms in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Erynn S; Gordish Dressman, Heather A; Hoffman, Eric P

    2005-10-01

    Much of the vast diversity we see in animals and people is governed by genetic loci that have quantitative effects of phenotype (quantitative trait loci; QTLs). Here we review the current knowledge of the genetics of atrophy and hypertrophy in both animal husbandry (meat quantity and quality), and humans (muscle size and performance). The selective breeding of animals for meat has apparently led to a few genetic loci with strong effects, with different loci in different animals. In humans, muscle quantitative trait loci (QTLs) appear to be more complex, with few "major" loci identified to date, although this is likely to change in the near future. We describe how the same phenotypic traits we see as positive, greater lean muscle mass in cattle or a better exercise results in humans, can also have negative "side effects" given specific environmental challenges. We also discuss the strength and limitations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) association studies; what the reader should look for and expect in a published study. Lastly we discuss the ethical and societal implications of this genetic information. As more and more research into the genetic loci that dictate phenotypic traits become available, the ethical implications of testing for these loci become increasingly important. As a society, most accept testing for genetic diseases or susceptibility, but do we as easily accept testing to determine one's athletic potential to be an Olympic endurance runner, or quarterback on the high school football team.

  4. Gene co-ops and the biotrade: translating genetic resource rights into sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, W V

    1996-04-01

    The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity marks a basic change in the international status of genetic resources. Prior to the Convention, these resources were considered to be the "heritage of mankind.' Although the intent of this open access regime was to ensure the widespread availability of genetic resources for agriculture and industry, commercial use of the resources provided no additional economic incentive for conservation by source countries. The Biodiversity Convention corrects this policy failure by establishing that states have sovereign rights over their genetic resources, thereby enabling market incentives to complement various multilateral mechanisms that might directly fund biodiversity conservation. A number of obstacles face countries that are translating this broad right to regulate access into specific policies, laws, and regulations designed to meet conservation and development objectives. A review of these obstacles and of trends in technological development suggest that nations and developing country institutions should take a set of actions to develop access legislation and Material Transfer Agreements, establish biodiversity "cooperatives' and intermediary institutions to facilitate information exchange, develop minimum standards for access legislation, and require that prior informed consent of local communities be obtained by all biodiversity collectors.

  5. Safeguarding Our Genetic Resources with Libraries of Doubled-Haploid Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchinger, Albrecht E; Schopp, Pascal; Müller, Dominik; Schrag, Tobias A; Bauer, Eva; Unterseer, Sandra; Homann, Linda; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of landraces are stored in seed banks as "gold reserves" for future use in plant breeding. In many crops, their utilization is hampered because they represent heterogeneous populations of heterozygous genotypes, which harbor a high genetic load. We show, with high-density genotyping in five landraces of maize, that libraries of doubled-haploid (DH) lines capture the allelic diversity of genetic resources in an unbiased way. By comparing allelic differentiation between heterozygous plants from the original landraces and 266 derived DH lines, we find conclusive evidence that, in the DH production process, sampling of alleles is random across the entire allele frequency spectrum, and purging of landraces from their genetic load does not act on specific genomic regions. Based on overall process efficiency, we show that generating DH lines is feasible for genetic material that has never been selected for inbreeding tolerance. We conclude that libraries of DH lines will make genetic resources accessible to crop improvement by linking molecular inventories of seed banks with meaningful phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  8. Convergence of Human Genetics and Animal Studies: Gene Therapy for X-Linked Retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ronald A; Wei, Lisa L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-06-22

    Retinoschisis is an X-linked recessive genetic disease that leads to vision loss in males. X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) typically affects young males; however, progressive vision loss continues throughout life. Although discovered in 1898 by Haas in two brothers, the underlying biology leading to blindness has become apparent only in the last 15 years with the advancement of human genetic analyses, generation of XLRS animal models, and the development of ocular monitoring methods such as the electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography. It is now recognized that retinoschisis results from cyst formations within the retinal layers that interrupt normal visual neurosignaling and compromise structural integrity. Mutations in the human retinoschisin gene have been correlated with disease severity of the human XLRS phenotype. Introduction of a normal human retinoschisin cDNA into retinoschisin knockout mice restores retinal structure and improves neural function, providing proof-of-concept that gene replacement therapy is a plausible treatment for XLRS. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory animal science: a resource to improve the quality of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, M

    2007-08-01

    The contribution of animal experimentation to biomedical research is of undoubted value, nevertheless the real usefulness of animal models is still being hotly debated. Laboratory Animal Science is a multidisciplinary approach to humane animal experimentation that allows the choice of the correct animal model and the collection of unbiased data. Refinement, Reduction and Replacement, the "3Rs rule", are now widely accepted and have a major influence on animal experimentation procedures. Refinement, namely any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to animals, has been today extended to the entire lives of the experimental animals. Reduction of the number of animals used to obtain statistically significant data may be achieved by improving experimental design and statistical analysis of data. Replacement refers to the development of validated alternative methods. A Laboratory Animal Science training program in biomedical degrees can promote the 3Rs and improve the welfare of laboratory animals as well as the quality of science with ethical, scientific and economic advantages complying with the European requirement that "persons who carry out, take part in, or supervise procedures on animals, or take care of animals used in procedures, shall have had appropriate education and training".

  10. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 December 2012-31 January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Silvia E; Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Balasundaram, Chellam; Bouza, Carmen; Calcaterra, Nora B; Cezilly, Frank; Chen, Shi-long; Cipriani, Guido; Cruz, V P; D'Esposito, D; Daniel, Carla; Dejean, Alain; Dharaneedharan, Subramanian; Díaz, Juan; Du, Man; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Dziadek, Jarosław; Foresti, F; Peng-cheng, Fu; Gao, Qing-bo; García, Graciela; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Giovino, Antonio; Goswami, Mukunda; Guarino, Carmine; Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Verónica; Harris, D J; Heo, Moon-Soo; Khan, Gulzar; Kim, Mija; Lakra, Wazir S; Lauth, Jérémie; Leclercq, Pierre; Lee, Jeonghwa; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soohyung; Lee, Theresa; Li, Yin-hu; Liu, Hongbo; Liu, Shufang; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Mandhan, Rishi Pal; Martinez, Paulino; Mayer, Veronika E; Mendel, Jan; Mendes, N J; Mendonça, F F; Minias, Alina; Minias, Piotr; Oh, Kyeong-Suk; Oliveira, C; Orivel, Jérôme; Orsini, L; Pardo, Belén G; Perera, A; Procaccini, G; Rato, C; Ríos, Néstor; Scibetta, Silvia; Sharma, Bhagwati S; Sierens, Tim; Singh, Akhilesh; Terer, Taita; Triest, Ludwig; Urbánková, Soňa; Vera, Manuel; Villanova, Gabriela V; Voglmayr, Hermann; Vyskočilová, Martina; Wang, Hongying; Wang, Jiu-li; Wattier, Rémi A; Xing, Rui; Yadav, Kamalendra; Yin, Guibo; Yuan, Yanjiao; Yun, Jong-Chul; Zhang, Fa-qi; Zhang, Jing-hua; Zhuang, Zhimeng

    2013-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 268 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alburnoides bipunctatus, Chamaerops humilis, Chlidonias hybrida, Cyperus papyrus, Fusarium graminearum, Loxigilla barbadensis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Odontesthes bonariensis, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Posidonia oceanica, Potamotrygon motoro, Rhamdia quelen, Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sibiraea angustata, Takifugu rubripes, Tarentola mauritanica, Trimmatostroma sp. and Wallago attu. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Alburnoides fasciatus, Alburnoides kubanicus, Alburnoides maculatus, Alburnoides ohridanus, Alburnoides prespensis, Alburnoides rossicus, Alburnoides strymonicus, Alburnoides thessalicus, Alburnoides tzanevi, Carassius carassius, Fusarium asiaticum, Leucaspius delineatus, Loxigilla noctis dominica, Pelecus cultratus, Phoenix canariensis, Potamotrygon falkneri, Trachycarpus fortune and Vimba vimba. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

    2011-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2011-31 January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Arnoux, E; Bell, James J; Bernadou, Abel; Bino, Giorgia; Blatrix, R; Bourguet, Denis; Carrea, Cecilia; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Cunha, Haydée A; d'Alençon, E; Ding, Yi; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; Dumas, P; Eraud, C; Faivre, B; Francisco, F O; Françoso, E; Garcia, M; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garnier, S; Gimenez, S; Gold, John R; Harris, D J; He, Guangcun; Hellemans, B; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Jing, Shengli; Kergoat, G J; Liu, Bingfang; McDowell, Jan R; McKey, D; Miller, Terrence L; Newton, Erica; Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Papetti, Chiara; Paterson, Ian; Peccoud, J; Peng, Xinxin; Piatscheck, F; Ponsard, Sergine; Reece, Kimberly S; Reisser, Céline M O; Renshaw, Mark A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sauve, M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Souche, E L; Van Houdt, J K J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Volckaert, F A M; Wang, Shuzhen; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Hangjin; Zane, Lorenzo; Zannato, Barbara; Zemlak, Tyler S; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Lili

    2012-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in central Western Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Nageswara Rao, M; Ganeshaiah, K N; Uma Shaanker, R

    2007-04-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas--national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves--serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  14. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Viana Correa da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He and observed (Ho heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS within each population and inter population variability F IS , testing relationship among five genetic groups to establish the genetic distance among them. The high level of observed heterozygosity values varied between 0.537 and 0.7871. Generally, F IS was low, suggesting that the endogamy did not exist between the tested animals.

  15. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.

  16. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Animal Science, Laboratory for Molecular Genetics Animal Biotechnology, Faculty of Animal and Aquatic Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran; Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, College of Agriculture Natural Resources, University of ...

  17. Genetic resources of perennial forage grasses in Serbia: Current state, broadening and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to historical background of vegetation development, geographical position, climate and relief, Serbia represents one of the 158 world biodiversity centres, based upon the number of plant species and territory size (biodiversity index 0.72. Large areas in Serbia are under natural grasslands and pastures, composed of forage grass species, and important as source of natural plant genetic diversity and germplasm for breeding. These eco-systems represent basic prerequisites for sustainable forage production, but very low potential of them is utilized and genetic resources are not protected. Family Poaceae is present in Serbia flora with 70 genera and among them from the aspect of forage production and quality, the most important are perennial Festuca, Lolium, Dactylis, Phleum, Bromus, Arrhenatherum, Poa and Agrostis species. Most of these grasses have been bred in Serbia and lot of cultivars were released. These cultivars contain autochthonous Serbian material and represent great and important resource of genetic variability. Therefore, collecting of new samples which are acclimatised to local eco-geographical conditions and including them in plant ex situ gene bank is of exceptional importance for further utilization in different plant breeding programmes as well as genetic resources protection. These autochthonous populations have natural variability and very often have satisfactory yielding performance in comparison with introduced cultivars, which referred them for direct phenotypic selection for cultivars release. Broadening of forage grasses genotypes collection is permanent objective of Serbian scientists. Collected accessions are being characterized and evaluated for important phenological, morphological and agronomical traits. In this paper genetic resources of forage grass species, their diversity and potentials, state of the grasses gene banks, as well as possibility for breeding of new cultivars has been analysed.

  18. Vicissitudes of benefit sharing of crop genetic resources: downstream and upstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonge, Bram De; Korthals, Michiel

    2006-12-01

    In this article, we will first give a historic overview of the concept of benefit sharing and its appearance in official agreements, particularly with respect to crop genetic resources. It will become clear that, at present, benefit sharing is primarily considered as an instrument of compensation or exchange, and thus refers to commutative justice. However, we believe that such a narrow interpretation of benefit sharing disregards, and even undermines, much of its (historical) content and potency, especially where crop genetic resources are concerned. We argue that benefit sharing should not be based merely on commutative justice but rather on a broader model that is also grounded in the concept of distributive justice. This has repercussions for the application of benefit sharing, which we try to clarify by distinguishing between downstream and upstream benefit sharing. Upstream benefit sharing is not so much inspired by compensation for actions done, or the distribution downstream of benefits developed, but by the idea of shared decision-making on the research and development of resources fundamental to human welfare. Going upstream in the research process of crop genetic resources, and determining research agendas and improving crops according to the needs of the poor, benefit sharing may well be a tool to contribute to world food security and global justice. We concretize our ideas on upstream benefit sharing by introducing a set of criteria that determine the success of consultations on agricultural research agenda setting.

  19. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa), crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Viana Correa da; Lui, Jeffrey Frederico; Band, Guilherme de Oliveira; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Grossi, Selma de Fátima; Sollero, Bruna Pena; Nunes, Cleujosí da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS ) within each population and inter population variability F IS , t...

  20. The genetics of rheumatoid arthritis and the need for animal models to find and understand the underlying genes

    OpenAIRE

    Jirholt, Johan; Lindqvist, Anna-Karin B; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2000-01-01

    The causes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are largely unknown. However, RA is most probably a multifactorial disease with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Searches for genes that influence RA have been conducted in both human and experimental model materials. Both types of study have confirmed the polygenic inheritance of the disease. It has become clear that the features of RA complicate the human genetic studies. Animal models are therefore valuable tools for identifying ...

  1. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Pre-emptive resource-constrained multimode project scheduling using genetic algorithm: A dynamic forward approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The issue resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating drawback is frequently seen after scheduling of a project in practice which causes a schedule to be useless. Modifying an over-allocated schedule is very complicated and needs a lot of efforts and time. In this paper, a new and fast tracking method is proposed to schedule large scale projects which can help project engineers to schedule the project rapidly and with more confidence. Design/methodology/approach: In this article, a forward approach for maximizing net present value (NPV in multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem while assuming discounted positive cash flows (MRCPSP-DCF is proposed. The progress payment method is used and all resources are considered as pre-emptible. The proposed approach maximizes NPV using unscheduled resources through resource calendar in forward mode. For this purpose, a Genetic Algorithm is applied to solve. Findings: The findings show that the proposed method is an effective way to maximize NPV in MRCPSP-DCF problems while activity splitting is allowed. The proposed algorithm is very fast and can schedule experimental cases with 1000 variables and 100 resources in few seconds. The results are then compared with branch and bound method and simulated annealing algorithm and it is found the proposed genetic algorithm can provide results with better quality. Then algorithm is then applied for scheduling a hospital in practice. Originality/value: The method can be used alone or as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to schedule MRCPSP-DCF problems or to modify resource over-allocated activities after scheduling a project. This can help project engineers to schedule project activities rapidly with more accuracy in practice.

  4. Conceptual models underlying economic analysis of animal health and welfare with the inclusion of three components: people, products and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, D A

    2017-04-01

    Infectious animal diseases can spill across farm boundaries, so effective management requires coordinated responses. Costs and benefits from the management of infectious diseases are such that those who make the decisions have weak incentives to act, the levels of goods and services produced from animal agriculture are probably smaller than is socially optimal and resources are likely wasted. This work provides an overview of the existing literature on conceptual economic models in animal disease management, paying particular attention to inadequate incentives to make the required biosecurity efforts. A disease transmission model follows, emphasising policy and management issues which need to be addressed to enhance the benefits that consumers and producers obtain from animal protein markets. The article concludes with comments and suggestions on tackling infectious disease as a public good, and on directions for future research.

  5. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  6. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Induced Mutations Unleash the Potentials of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chikelu Mba

    2013-01-01

    The options for increasing food production by at least 70% over the next four decades so as to keep pace with a rapidly increasing human population are bedeviled by erratic climatic conditions, depleted arable lands, dwindling water resources and by the significant environmental and health costs for increasing the use of agrochemicals. Enhanced productivities through “smart” crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs is a viable option. However, the genetic similarities amongst crop var...

  8. On protecting farmers' new varieties: new approaches to rights on collective innovations in plant genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Rene; Louwaars, Niels P.; Visser, Bert

    2006-01-01

    "Current farmers' breeding goes beyond the gradual selection in landraces, and includes development and maintenance of major new farmers' varieties that are rather uniform, in particular in South-East Asia. Modern varieties developed in the formal sector have simply replaced landraces as the source of diversity, but have not abolished farmers' breeding practices. Interpretations of the new international agreements on plant genetic resources should protect the development of modern farmers' va...

  9. India's plant variety and farmers' rights legislation: potential impact on stakeholder access to genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanna, Anitha

    2003-01-01

    The demand for extending intellectual property protection to agriculture in developing countries has met with counterclaims for granting farmers' rights. Developing countries are currently attempting to fulfill these demands by evolving new IPR regimes that simultaneously protect the rights of breeders and farmers. What are the possible implications of establishing such a system of multiple rights on the utilization and exchange of genetic resources among various actors? Could the attempt to ...

  10. Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding. A growing population and a considerable increase in living standards worldwide are increasing the demand on the primary production. At the same time, climate change is projected to lower the primary production due to increases in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]), rising temperatures and extreme climate events such as floods, storms and heatwaves. These prediction...

  11. Conservation and Use of Genetic Resources of Underutilized Crops in the Americas—A Continental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gea Galluzzi; Isabel López Noriega

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the status of an expert-informed list of underutilized crops in Latin America and analyses how the most common features of underuse apply to these. The analysis pays special attent...

  12. Conservation and Use of Genetic Resources of Underutilized Crops in the Americas—A Continental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Galluzzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the status of an expert-informed list of underutilized crops in Latin America and analyses how the most common features of underuse apply to these. The analysis pays special attention to if and how existing international policy and legal frameworks on biodiversity and plant genetic resources effectively support or not the conservation and sustainable use of underutilized crops. Results show that not all minor crops are affected by the same degree of neglect, and that the aspects under which any crop is underutilized vary greatly, calling for specific analyses and interventions. We also show that current international policy and legal instruments have so far provided limited stimulus and funding for the conservation and sustainable use of the genetic resources of these crops. Finally, the paper proposes an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating a crop’s underutilization, in order to define the most appropriate type and levels of intervention (international, national, local for improving its status.

  13. Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Spanish Forest Genetic Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, P.; Diaz-Fernandez, P. M.; Iglesias, S.; Prada, A.; Garcia del Barrio, J. M.; Alba, N.; Alia, R.

    2009-07-01

    In the last decade, forestry policies in Spain have undergone changes needed to comply with the European and world directives on forest conservation. The elaboration of strategic plans has to take into account the State organization (Central and Autonomous Regional Governments share the responsibilities), resulting in agreed documents, effective at a national level and fulfilling the peculiarities and aspirations of each region. The most recent development has been the elaboration of a Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources, which can be seen as a consequence of, among other factors, the implementation of the Spanish Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity along with Spains participation in the European Forest Genetic Resources Programme. This document arose from the lack of approaches to the conservation of population diversity of forest species in the current policies, and as a means to promote and coordinate activities on conservation and use of genetic resources. The Strategy has been arranged through a participative process involving the Forest Administration, Research Centres and Universities. The document includes a definition of priorities and proposals of activities, which are mainly focused on optimising the efficiency of existing tools and infrastructures and on increasing synergy among different initiatives. Implementation of the Strategy is expected to occur through the development of National Action Plans. Finally, coordination mechanisms must be enhanced in order to maintain the levels of cooperation achieved during the elaboration process. (Author) 18 refs.

  14. Valuation of crop genetic resources in Kaski, Nepal: farmers' willingness to pay for rice landraces conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Diwakar; Johnsen, Fred H

    2009-01-01

    Crop genetic resources constitute an important aspect of biodiversity conservation, both because of their direct value to the farmers and due to their indirect global value. This study uses the contingent valuation method to document the economic value of crop genetic resources based on the farmers' willingness to pay for conservation. A total of 107 households in Kaski, Nepal were surveyed in November 2003. Their mean willingness to pay was USD 4.18 for in situ and USD 2.20 for ex situ conservation per annum. Landholding size, household size, education level, socio-economic status, sex of respondent, number of crop landraces grown, and knowledge on biodiversity influenced the willingness to pay for in situ conservation, whereas only landholding size and household size influenced the willingness to pay for ex situ conservation. The respondents were willing to contribute more for in situ than ex situ conservation because of the additional effect of direct use and direct involvement of the farmers in in situ conservation. This study supports the view that economic valuation of crop genetic resources can assist the policy makers in setting conservation priorities.

  15. Genetic parameters for social effects on survival in cannibalistic layers: combining survival analysis and a linear animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, E.D.; Ducrocq, V.P.; Ducro, B.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens is a difficult trait to improve genetically, because censoring is high (animals still alive at the end of the testing period) and it may depend on both the individual itself and the behaviour of its group members, so-called associative effects

  16. A Mesoamerican origin of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Implications for the conservation of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, N; Albertazzi, F J; Fontecha, G; Palmieri, M; Rainer, H; van Zonneveld, M; Hormaza, J I

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1,765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the Neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from six different countries across the American continent and amplified with nine highly informative microsatellite markers. The structure analyses, fine representation of the genetic diversity and an ABC approach suggest a Mesoamerican origin of the crop, contrary to previous reports, with clear implications for the dispersion of plant germplasm between Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. These results together with the potential distribution of the species in a climatic change context using two different climate models provide new insights for the history and conservation of extant genetic resources of cherimoya that can be applied to other currently underutilized woody perennial crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Expanding Maize Genetic Resources with Predomestication Alleles: Maize–Teosinte Introgression Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Teosinte ( subsp. H. H. Iltis & Doebley has greater genetic diversity than maize inbreds and landraces ( subsp. . There are, however, limited genetic resources to efficiently evaluate and tap this diversity. To broaden resources for genetic diversity studies in maize, we developed and evaluated 928 near-isogenic introgression lines (NILs from 10 teosinte accessions in the B73 background. Joint linkage analysis of the 10 introgression populations identified several large-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL for days to anthesis (DTA, kernel row number (KRN, and 50-kernel weight (Wt50k. Our results confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits. Additionally, we used a targeted set of NILs to validate the effects of a KRN QTL located on chromosome 2. These introgression populations offer novel tools for QTL discovery and validation as well as a platform for initiating fine mapping.

  18. Long-term implications of feed energy source in different genetic types of reproductive rabbit females: I. Resource acquisition and allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnau-Bonachera, Alberto; Cervera, Concha; Blas, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    To achieve functional but also productive females, we hypothesised that it is possible to modulate acquisition and allocation of animals from different genetic types by varying the main energy source of the diet. To test this hypothesis, we used 203 rabbit females belonging to three genetic types......) enhancing milk yield; cereal starch (CS) promoting body reserves recovery. Feed intake, weight, perirenal fat thickness (PFT), milk yield and blood traits were controlled during five consecutive reproductive cycles (RCs). Females fed with CS presented higher PFT (+0.2 mm, P....05) when fed with CS during this period. Results from this work indicate that the resource acquisition capacity and allocation pattern of rabbit females is different for each genetic type. Moreover, it seems that by varying the main energy source of the diet it is possible to modulate acquisition...

  19. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  20. Canadian Open Genetics Repository (COGR): a unified clinical genomics database as a community resource for standardising and sharing genetic interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner-Ellis, Jordan; Wang, Marina; White, Shana; Lebo, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    The Canadian Open Genetics Repository is a collaborative effort for the collection, storage, sharing and robust analysis of variants reported by medical diagnostics laboratories across Canada. As clinical laboratories adopt modern genomics technologies, the need for this type of collaborative framework is increasingly important. A survey to assess existing protocols for variant classification and reporting was delivered to clinical genetics laboratories across Canada. Based on feedback from this survey, a variant assessment tool was made available to all laboratories. Each participating laboratory was provided with an instance of GeneInsight, a software featuring versioning and approval processes for variant assessments and interpretations and allowing for variant data to be shared between instances. Guidelines were established for sharing data among clinical laboratories and in the final outreach phase, data will be made readily available to patient advocacy groups for general use. The survey demonstrated the need for improved standardisation and data sharing across the country. A variant assessment template was made available to the community to aid with standardisation. Instances of the GeneInsight tool were provided to clinical diagnostic laboratories across Canada for the purpose of uploading, transferring, accessing and sharing variant data. As an ongoing endeavour and a permanent resource, the Canadian Open Genetics Repository aims to serve as a focal point for the collaboration of Canadian laboratories with other countries in the development of tools that take full advantage of laboratory data in diagnosing, managing and treating genetic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Understanding the genetic and molecular pathogenesis of Friedreich’s ataxia through animal and cellular models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Alain; Napierala, Marek; Puccio, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease. These advances were the subject of the 4th International Friedreich’s Ataxia Conference held on 5th–7th May in the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France. More than 200 scientists gathered from all over the world to present the results of research spanning all areas of investigation into FRDA (including clinical aspects, FRDA pathogenesis, genetics and epigenetics of the disease, development of new models of FRDA, and drug discovery). This review provides an update on the understanding of frataxin function, developments of animal and cellular models of the disease, and recent advances in trying to uncover potential molecules for therapy. PMID:22382366

  2. Mating practices and the dissemination of genetic disorders in domestic animals, based on the example of dog breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Baumung, R

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of simulations and genealogical data of ten dog breeds, three popular mating practices (popular sire effect, line breeding, close breeding) were investigated along with their effects on the dissemination of genetic disorders. Our results showed that the use of sires in these ten breeds is clearly unbalanced. Depending on the breed, the effective number of sires represented between 33% and 70% of the total number of sires. Mating between close relatives was also found to be quite common, and the percentage of dogs inbred after two generations ranged from 1% to about 8%. A more or less long-term genetic differentiation, linked to line breeding practices, was also emphasized in most breeds. F(IT) index based on gene dropping proved to be efficient in differentiating the effects of the different mating practices, and it ranged from -1.3% to 3.2% when real founders were used to begin a gene dropping process. Simulation results confirmed that the popular sire practice leads to a dissemination of genetic disorders. Under a realistic scenario, regarding the imbalance in the use of sires, the dissemination risk was indeed 4.4 times higher than under random mating conditions. In contrast, line breeding and close breeding practices tend to decrease the risk of the dissemination of genetic disorders. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Open Feedlots Listed in the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Animal Feeding Operations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, the Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) database does not allow facilities to be queried by watershed, therefore, this coverage was developed to assist with...

  4. From Nature to the Lab: Establishing Drosophila Resources for Evolutionary Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor G. Faria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years important tools have been developed in Drosophila to capture with the greatest possible accuracy the variation found in nature. Efforts, such as the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP or the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource (DSPR allied to the advances in whole-genome sequencing and analysis have propelled to unprecedented level our capacity to dissect the genotype-phenotype map. However, several practical problems arise upstream of these analyses starting with the collection and identification of wild specimens. These problems are dealt with in different ways by each researcher generating solutions not necessarily compatible across laboratories. Here, we provide a systematic coverage of every phase of this process based on our experience, and suggest procedures to maximize and share the generated resources potentiating future applications. We propose a detailed pipeline to guide researchers from collection in the wild to the development of a large array of molecular and genetic resources. We designed a multiplex-PCR that distinguishes sister species D. melanogaster and D. simulans and is diagnostic of the presence/absence of Wolbachia infection. These procedures may extend to other cryptic species pairs and endosymbionts. We developed a standardized protocol to create, replicate and maintain isofemale lines and outbred populations. Finally, we explore the potential of outbred populations across several applications from experimental evolution, to introgression of transgenic constructs or mutant alleles, and genomic analyses. We hope to contribute to the success in developing Drosophila resources for evolutionary genetics studies and facilitate exchanges across laboratories based on a common set of procedures.

  5. Global Characterization of Genetic Variation by Using High-Throughput Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Bujie

    into genetic variation in bovine and swine genomes and relevant methodologies; valuable resources such as novel genome sequences of pathogens, genome annotations and genetic variations were produced for research communities regard to animal health and welfare in animal breeding industriy...

  6. Change in genetic correlation due to selection using animal model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandén, I; Mäntysaari, E A; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1993-01-12

    Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculations were used to study the effect of selection on genetic correlation between two traits. The simulated breeding program was based on a closed adult multiple ovulation and embryo transfer nucleus breeding scheme. Selection was on an index calculated using multi-trait animal model (AM). Analytical formulae applicable to any evaluation method were derived to predict change in genetic (co)variance due to selection under multi-trait selection using different evaluation methods. Two formulae were investigated, one assuming phenotypic selection and the other based on a recursive two-generation AM selection index. The recursive AM method approximated information due to relatives by a relationship matrix of two generations. Genetic correlation after selection was compared under different levels of initial genetic and environmental correlations with two different selection criteria. Changes in genetic correlation were similar in simulation and analytical predictions. After one round of selection the recursive AM method and the simulation gave similar predictions while the phenotypic selection predicted usually more change in genetic correlation. After several rounds of selection both analytical formulae predicted more change in genetic correlation than the simulation. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Änderung der genetischen Korrelation bei Selektion mit einem Tiermodell Der Selektionseffekt auf die genetische Korrelation zwischen zwei Merkmalen wurde mit Hilfe von Monte Carlo-Simulation und analytischen Berechnungen untersucht. Ein geschlossener Adulter - MOET (Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer) Zuchtplan wurde simuliert. Die Selektion gründete sich auf einen Index, der die Zuchtwertschätzung des Mehrmerkmals-Tiermodells benutzte. Analytische Formeln für die Voraussage der Änderung der genetischen (Ko)varianz unter multivariate Selektion für verschiedene Zuchtwertschätzungsmethode wurden deduziert. Zwei Formeln wurden studiert

  7. Contribution of genetics to the study of animal personalities: a review of case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K.; de Jong, G.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Kempenaers, B.; Drent, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The need for evolutionary studies on quantitative traits that integrate genetics is increasing. Studies on consistent individual differences in behavioural traits provide a good opportunity to do controlled experiments on the genetic mechanisms underlying the variation and covariation in complex

  8. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight

  9. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwossen A Gebreyes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to

  10. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource: Genetic, Genomic, and Biological Knowledgebase for the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T

    2017-07-01

    The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource supports basic, translational, and computational research by providing high-quality, integrated data on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. MGI serves a strategic role for the scientific community in facilitating biomedical, experimental, and computational studies investigating the genetics and processes of diseases and enabling the development and testing of new disease models and therapeutic interventions. This review describes the nexus of the body of growing genetic and biological data and the advances in computer technology in the late 1980s, including the World Wide Web, that together launched the beginnings of MGI. MGI develops and maintains a gold-standard resource that reflects the current state of knowledge, provides semantic and contextual data integration that fosters hypothesis testing, continually develops new and improved tools for searching and analysis, and partners with the scientific community to assure research data needs are met. Here we describe one slice of MGI relating to the development of community-wide large-scale mutagenesis and phenotyping projects and introduce ways to access and use these MGI data. References and links to additional MGI aspects are provided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-04-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  12. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference Genetics Selection Evolution 2010, 42:29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg

    2010-01-01

    " or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (co)variance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean) being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative......, residual variance on the underlying scale is not identifiable. Hence, variance of fully confounded Mendelian sampling deviations cannot be identified either, but can be inferred from the between-family variation. In the new algorithm, breeding values are sampled as in a standard animal model using the full...

  13. Female reproductive system morphology of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and cryopreservation of genetic material for animal germplasm bank enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, L C; Roballo, K C S; Cury, F S; Ambrósio, C E

    2017-12-01

    The sprawl of the urbanization and road network process without building ecological corridors contributes to the high mortality rates and a threat to the population decline of wild species such as the crab-eating fox. A strategy for the ex situ conservation is the study of the reproductive biology of the species and cryopreservation of their genetic heritage through the formation of an animal germplasm bank. This research is in accordance with the principles adopted by Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation. Reproductive systems of Cerdocyon thous females (n = 7) were examined macroscopically and microscopically by histological techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Gross features showed the shape of the ovaries was similar to a bean, and the elongated oviducts lengths were between 5 and 8 cm, with body of the uterus (3 cm) with long and narrow uterine horns (9-11 cm). The cervix was as a single annular conformation carrying out communication between the uterus and the vagina. The vagina has lengthened and circular muscle and the vulva with dense anatomical conformation with a quite pronounced clitoris. In addition, with regard to the establishment of a cell line (fibroblasts) for the gene bank enrichment, cells showed a low clonogenic capacity, especially when compared to domestic dogs, which can be explained by "in vitro" environment, age and diet of the animal. However, it was possible to create a bank of limited cell number. This study had morphological and preservationist character and aimed to help at long term in the conservation of wild animal's genetic resources. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. International Instruments for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: An Historical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sonnino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews the evolution of concepts and principles that inspired the adoption and enforcement of international instruments related to the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including agreements, governance and programs. The review spans from the pioneering attempts to regulate this matter, to the negotiations that led to the current regulatory framework, covering the creation of the Panel of Experts on Plant Exploration and Introduction of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO in 1965, the establishment of the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR in 1974 and the FAO Commission on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in 1983, the adoption of the International Undertaking in 1983 and, more recently (2001, the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. The conceptual contribution, offered by Prof. Scarascia Mugnozza and other visionary scholars, to the establishment of these international instruments, is highlighted.

  15. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  16. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  17. Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium in animal and human isolates from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Mukbel, Rami; Yang, Rongchang; Ryan, Una

    2016-09-15

    Little is known about the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in Jordan and to date, only one genotyping study has been conducted on Cryptosporidium isolates from Jordanian children. In the present study, a total of 284 faecal samples from Jordanian cattle, sheep, goats and chicken and 48 human faecal samples were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a C. parvum/C. hominis specific qPCR at a lectin locus. Of these, 37 of 284 animal faecal samples were positive by qPCR at the 18S locus giving an overall prevalence of 11.6%. The point prevalence of Cryptosporidium in chickens, sheep, horses, cattle and goats ranged from 4.8% (chickens) to 18.7% (cattle). A total of six species were detected; C. xiaoi (n=9),C. andersoni (n=7),C. ryanae (n=5),C. parvum (n=4),C. baileyi (n=1) and a genetically distinct and potentially novel species in two isolates from horses. Sub-genotype analysis of the 4 C. parvum isolates at the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified subtype IIaA19G2R1 (n=2) and IIaA16GR1 (n=2). For the human samples, 4 positives (8.3% prevalence) were detected. Of these, two were C. parvum (subtypes IIdA20G1 and IIaA15G2R1) and two were C. hominis (subtypes 1bA9G3 and 1bA10G2R2). Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology and transmission of Cryptosporidium in Jordan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitating or Restraining Access To Genetic Resources? Procedural Dimensions In Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanson Chege Kamau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available States have the right to regulate access to biological resources subject to national legislations. Allowing, restricting or prohibiting access, however, requires a balance to avoid contravention of the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention requires that, in regulating access, the measures adopted do not become a hindrance to access. In many instances, however, this has been the case. Overreaction to previous cases of bio-piracy and over-enthusiasm to tap into the benefits from discovered genetic resources have caused many provider countries to either over-regulate or extremely complicate access procedures, thus deterring access. In some instances, over-regulation and complex procedures are to be blamed on the users’ reluctance to collaborate with providers in minimising or eliminating abuse. Also, the need to protect certain rights over genetic resources or of an intellectual (property character, for example, might at times complicate regulation. While it is appreciated that such issues must also be taken into account in addressing and creating a balance in access and benefit sharing, a discussion embracing all these aspects cannot be captured within the ambit of this article. Focus is therefore laid on the procedural dimensions of access in Kenya and suggestions for improvement.

  19. Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR): the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    After 20 years, progress has been made in conserving AnGR; but how it will be in ten years? Viewing gene banks and in situ conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product demand suggest a more efficient use of these practices to support sustainable production. Gene banks sh...

  20. Biobanking genetic resources: Challenges and implementation at the USDA National Animal Germplasm Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is adequate infrastructure in the US to identify and acquire germplasm from the major beef and dairy cattle and swine breeds. However, when we venture outside these species the same tasks become more difficult because of a lack of breed associations, databases that include genotypic and pheno...

  1. Phosphorus Bioavailability: A Key Aspect for Conserving this Critical Animal Feed Resource with Reference to Broiler Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhua Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential element, and the majority of animal feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource. Current global P reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. This poses the challenge of securing future P supply for the global animal feed industries. Currently, nutritionists formulate diets with substantial safety margins to guarantee that animals do not become P deficient. Excessive dietary P concentrations increase, not only the cost of diets, but also P excretion and pollution of the environment. We contend that understanding P bioavailability is central to the sustainable use of this mineral in animal agriculture. Poultry accounts for approximately 50% of animal feed phosphate consumption worldwide and for this reason we use the meat chicken or broiler as a case study to explore the nuances of P bioavailability. We conclude that, to tackle the challenge of dietary P bioavailability, cooperative research on a global scale is needed to standardise measurement procedures in order to produce a robust and reliable database which can be used by nutritionists to formulate diets to meet the bird’s P requirements precisely. Achievement of this goal will assist endeavours to sustain the global supply of phosphorus.

  2. The genetics of rheumatoid arthritis and the need for animal models to find and understand the underlying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirholt, J; Lindqvist, A B; Holmdahl, R

    2001-01-01

    The causes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are largely unknown. However, RA is most probably a multifactorial disease with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Searches for genes that influence RA have been conducted in both human and experimental model materials. Both types of study have confirmed the polygenic inheritance of the disease. It has become clear that the features of RA complicate the human genetic studies. Animal models are therefore valuable tools for identifying genes and determining their pathogenic role in the disease. This is probably the fastest route towards unravelling the pathogenesisis of RA and developing new therapies.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis: a useful tool for the management of plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Angela R

    2013-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical tool that is widely applied to the analysis of biological samples. Proteins, peptides, nonprotein amino acids, phenolic compounds, and ions can be analysed using this electrophoretic methodology. This review summarises some applications of CE to the evaluation and characterisation of plant genetic resources of both Triticum and legume species, as carried out at the Istituto di Genetica Vegetale, National Research Council (IGV-CNR) in Bari (Italy). Different protein fractions as well as nonprotein amino acids were investigated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the most user-friendly mode of CE application. The described case studies show that CZE can be applied to some institutional activities of gene banks such as the evaluation of genetic diversity within stored collections, the acquisition of new samples, the differentiation of species belonging to the same genus, the identification of misclassified accessions, and the measurement of compounds relevant to nutrition or health.

  4. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flachowsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and

  5. Genetic parameters for social effects on survival in cannibalistic layers: Combining survival analysis and a linear animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerkamp Roel F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality due to cannibalism in laying hens is a difficult trait to improve genetically, because censoring is high (animals still alive at the end of the testing period and it may depend on both the individual itself and the behaviour of its group members, so-called associative effects (social interactions. To analyse survival data, survival analysis can be used. However, it is not possible to include associative effects in the current software for survival analysis. A solution could be to combine survival analysis and a linear animal model including associative effects. This paper presents a two-step approach (2STEP, combining survival analysis and a linear animal model including associative effects (LAM. Methods Data of three purebred White Leghorn layer lines from Institut de Sélection Animale B.V., a Hendrix Genetics company, were used in this study. For the statistical analysis, survival data on 16,780 hens kept in four-bird cages with intact beaks were used. Genetic parameters for direct and associative effects on survival time were estimated using 2STEP. Cross validation was used to compare 2STEP with LAM. LAM was applied directly to estimate genetic parameters for social effects on observed survival days. Results Using 2STEP, total heritable variance, including both direct and associative genetic effects, expressed as the proportion of phenotypic variance, ranged from 32% to 64%. These results were substantially larger than when using LAM. However, cross validation showed that 2STEP gave approximately the same survival curves and rank correlations as LAM. Furthermore, cross validation showed that selection based on both direct and associative genetic effects, using either 2STEP or LAM, gave the best prediction of survival time. Conclusion It can be concluded that 2STEP can be used to estimate genetic parameters for direct and associative effects on survival time in laying hens. Using 2STEP increased the heritable

  6. [The conservation of the genetic resources of deer (Cervidae) by the cryopreservation of their germ cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipko, T P; Rott, N N; Abilov, A I; Prisiazhniuk, V E; Shishova, N V; Kombarova, N A

    1997-01-01

    Necessity of organization of a cryobank for the sperm of some taxa has been substantiated on the basis of the published data and authors' results concerning the state of genetic resources of the family Cervidae in Russia. A task has also been set to elucidate some factors that may affect the success of cryoconservation, such as the age of male donors; season; duration of sperm storage before and after freezing, including long-term storage; and the possibility of obtaining of sperm from perished males. Results are provided on the influence of these factors of the quality of spermatozoa obtained on three species of the Cervidae.

  7. The information value of non-genetic inheritance in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead English

    Full Text Available Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are increasingly well understood, less is known about how inheritance mechanisms evolve. Here, we present a simple but versatile model to explore the adaptive evolution of non-genetic inheritance. Our model is based on a switch mechanism that produces alternative phenotypes in response to different inputs, including genes and non-genetic factors transmitted from parents and the environment experienced during development. This framework shows how genetic and non-genetic inheritance mechanisms and environmental conditions can act as cues by carrying correlational information about future selective conditions. Differential use of these cues is manifested as different degrees of genetic, parental or environmental morph determination. We use this framework to evaluate the conditions favouring non-genetic inheritance, as opposed to genetic determination of phenotype or within-generation plasticity, by applying it to two putative examples of adaptive non-genetic inheritance: maternal effects on seed germination in plants and transgenerational phase shift in desert locusts. Our simulation models show how the adaptive value of non-genetic inheritance depends on its mechanism, the pace of environmental change, and life history characteristics.

  8. ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.

    2010-01-01

    : the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present......The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be......, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA...

  9. Application of dense marker genotypes for long-term genetic gain in animal breeding schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huiming

    The thesis mainly focuses on comparing genetic gain from implementing varying selection methods in a fixed long time horizon. We also focused on evaluating how the increase in rate of inbreeding, loss of allelic diversity, and genetic variation in the population influence the long-term genetic gain....... The main finding was that optimum contribution selection using marker data to constrain the avarage co-ancestry, combined with weighting markers according to their frequencies, is a promising way to obtain large genetic gain while at the same time control indbreeding in a fixed long time horizon...

  10. ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be...... in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only.......: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present...

  11. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  12. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers.

  13. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeyo Mwai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers.

  14. Regulating the Access to Genetic Resources in Brazil: Suggestions for a New Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Luiz Saccaro-Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the use of genetic resources, social justice and biodiversity conservation has proved to be one of the main matters in current environmental issues. Brazil exercises a leadership role in international debates about genetic resources and is a pioneer in the creation of a specific internal regulation. This, however, has been strongly criticized by the stakeholders, as well as the lack of incentive for biodiversity research in this country. This paper discusses some of the main conflicting points and how a new scenario of control and promotion can overcome them, based on the regulatory experience since the creation of the current regulatory framework and national indicators available in research with Brazilian species. The suggestions are based on three pillars: a new relationship between government and bioprospectors, guided by encouraging legal activities; a diffuse distribution of benefits, with simple rules, being able to capture some profit from bioprospecting; and a synergy between the existence of traditional/indigenous communities and biodiversity maintenance.

  15. Disentangling Rights to Genetic Resources Illustrated by Aquaculture and Forest Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Walløe Tvedt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions of the object of different types of right in genetic resources law. Aquaculture and forestry are used as examples, being areas of GR law that have been studied intensively at the FNI in recent years. The thesis explored here is that there are differences among how these right systems have been set up, and that these differences are highly relevant for the respective success of these systems. ‘Ownership’ is understood as a right that is enforceable amongst private parties. Regulating and specifying ownership is one of several elements of exercising sovereign rights of countries under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. The object for genetic resources contracts will be explored here. To what degree does the contract mechanism (Mutually Agreed Terms, MAT of the Nagoya Protocol (NP and the CBD capture or diverge from a substantial or functional understanding of the object of the right? Since a contract is binding only on the signatory parties, this mechanism allows for considerable flexibility. One basic element of such contractual discussion is that the subject matter is defined in the negotiation of the contract. There are institutional lessons to learn from details in the patent system, which it is argued here, are of value in the development of functional ABS systems.

  16. Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M

    2013-03-01

    Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency.

  17. Allele mining in barley genetic resources reveals genes of race-nonspecific powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eSpies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.

  18. Genetic parameters for fur quality graded on live animals and dried pelts of American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Jensen, J; Lund, M S

    2017-08-01

    Fur quality and skin size are integral qualities in the mink industry and are main determinants of sales price and subsequent income for mink fur producers. Parental animals of future generations are selected based on quality grading from live animals, but selection response is obtained from dried skins sold after pelting. In this study, we evaluated traits assessed during live grading and pelt traits examined on dried skins to determine correlation between live and pelt traits. Grading traits and body weight were measured during live animal grading for 9,539 Brown American mink, and pelt quality traits and skin size were evaluated on 8,385 dried mink skins after pelting. Data were sampled from 2 yearly production cycles. Genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method implemented in the DMU package. Heritabilities and proportions of litter variance were calculated from estimated variance components for all traits, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between all traits were estimated in a series of bivariate analyses. Heritability estimates for live grading traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.28, heritability estimates for pelt quality traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.30, and finally heritability estimates for body size traits ranged from 0.43 to 0.48. Skin size and body weight were regarded as different traits for the two sexes and were therefore analysed for each sex separately. Genetic correlations between grading traits exhibited a range of 0.30-0.99 and genetic correlations between pelt quality traits ranged from 0.38 to 0.86. Genetic correlations between quality, wool density and silky appearance evaluated during live animal grading and on dried skin after pelting were 0.74, 0.41 and 0.33, respectively. Skin size and body weight were negatively correlated with pelt quality traits and ranged from -0.55 to -0.25. Using standard selection index theory and combined information from both live grading and skin evaluation increase of reliability of selection

  19. Changing values of Farm Animal Genomic Resources. From historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari eTamminen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of AnGRs and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD, the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of in-situ condition has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic club commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions.

  20. Computer simulations to determine the efficacy of different genome resource banking strategies for maintaining genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnal, V K; Wildt, D E; Bird, D M; Monfort, S L; Ballou, J D

    2002-04-01

    Genome resource banks (GRBs) and assisted reproductive techniques are increasingly recognized as useful tools for the management and conservation of biodiversity, including endangered species. Cryotechnology permits long-term storage of valuable genetic material. Although, the actual application to endangered species management requires technical knowledge about sperm freezing and thawing, a systematic understanding of the quantitative impacts of various germ plasm storage and use scenarios is also mandatory. In this study, various GRB strategies were analyzed using the historical data from three managed populations of endangered species with varied pedigrees (Eld's deer, Przewalski's horse, and Sumatran tiger). The following types of sperm banks were assessed: (1) a "Wild Bank" consisting of sperm (i.e., genes) from 5 to 10 males unrelated to the managed population and to each other; and (2) a "Best Male" bank containing sperm from only the most genetically valuable males alive in the ex situ population at the time the bank was established. These different bank types were then used to evaluate the effectiveness of different bank usage frequencies. The efficiency of each scenario was assessed by examining the level of inbreeding and gene diversity in the population. Overall, a sperm usage frequency of five times per year was determined to be the most efficient and "wild banks" were highly successful at enhancing genetic diversity. The value of a GRB established from the ex situ population depends on how closely related the banked males are to future generations. A GRB will have significantly less benefit when banked males also produce many successful offspring, or when donors are already genetically over-represented in the population at the time of establishing the GRB.

  1. A new mutant genetic resource for tomato crop improvement by TILLING technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozio Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, the availability of gene sequences of many plant species, including tomato, has encouraged the development of strategies that do not rely on genetic transformation techniques (GMOs for imparting desired traits in crops. One of these new emerging technology is TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes, a reverse genetics tool, which is proving to be very valuable in creating new traits in different crop species. Results To apply TILLING to tomato, a new mutant collection was generated in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar Red Setter by treating seeds with two different ethylemethane sulfonate doses (0.7% and 1%. An associated phenotype database, LycoTILL, was developed and a TILLING platform was also established. The interactive and evolving database is available online to the community for phenotypic alteration inquiries. To validate the Red Setter TILLING platform, induced point mutations were searched in 7 tomato genes with the mismatch-specific ENDO1 nuclease. In total 9.5 kb of tomato genome were screened and 66 nucleotide substitutions were identified. The overall mutation density was estimated and it resulted to be 1/322 kb and 1/574 kb for the 1% EMS and 0.7% EMS treatment respectively. Conclusions The mutation density estimated in our collection and its comparison with other TILLING populations demonstrate that the Red Setter genetic resource is suitable for use in high-throughput mutation discovery. The Red Setter TILLING platform is open to the research community and is publicly available via web for requesting mutation screening services.

  2. National Measures on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing – The Case of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphrodite Smagadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was not merely to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, but to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation. The Convention stresses the sovereignty that signatory states exert over the biological wealth within their jurisdiction and calls on them to enact national legislation that will contribute to fleshing out the provisions on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. The Philippines was the first country to enact such legislation and has thus accrued a decade of experience in this field. The first and much-analysed access and benefit sharing instrument enacted by the Government of the Philippines, was Executive Order 247 of 1995. However, due to problems experienced during the implementation of the Order, draft guidelines based on the 2001 Implementing Rules to the Wildlife Act have been drafted and are expected to correct the failures of the previous law. This article takes the example of the Philippines to assess the extent to which laws regulating the access and benefit sharing of biological resources can be effective in any country.

  3. Lower dietary phosphorus supply in pigs match both animal welfare aspects and resource efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Gerlinger, Christian; Heide, Kaja; Just, Franziska; Borgelt, Luisa; Wolf, Petra; Polley, Christian; Vollmar, Brigitte; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    Dietary phosphorus frequently exceeds age-specific requirements and pig manure often contains high phosphorus load which causes environmental burden at regional scales. Therefore, feeding strategies towards improved phosphorus efficiency and reduced environmental phosphorus load have to be developed. A 5-week feeding trial was conducted: piglets received medium, lower (-25%), or higher (+25%) amounts of phosphorus and calcium. Dietary responses were reflected by performance parameters, bone characteristics, and molecular data retrieved from serum, intestinal mucosa, and kidney cortex (p phosphorus and calcium levels might be useful to improve resource efficiency and to reduce phosphorus losses along the agricultural value chain.

  4. Using HexSim to link demography and genetics in animal and plant simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulation models are essential for understanding the effects of land management practices and environmental drivers, including landscape change, shape population genetic structure and persistence probabilities. The emerging field of eco-evolutionary modeling is beginning to dev...

  5. Long-term implications of feed energy source in different genetic types of reproductive rabbit females: I. Resource acquisition and allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau-Bonachera, A; Cervera, C; Blas, E; Larsen, T; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Pascual, J J

    2017-12-11

    To achieve functional but also productive females, we hypothesised that it is possible to modulate acquisition and allocation of animals from different genetic types by varying the main energy source of the diet. To test this hypothesis, we used 203 rabbit females belonging to three genetic types: H (n=66), a maternal line characterised by hyper-prolificacy; LP (n=67), a maternal line characterised by functional hyper-longevity; R (n=79), a paternal line characterised by growth rate. Females were fed with two isoenergetic and isoprotein diets differing in energy source: animal fat (AF) enhancing milk yield; cereal starch (CS) promoting body reserves recovery. Feed intake, weight, perirenal fat thickness (PFT), milk yield and blood traits were controlled during five consecutive reproductive cycles (RCs). Females fed with CS presented higher PFT (+0.2 mm, P0.05), particularly for those fed with AF. Moreover, LP females fed with AF progressively increased PFT across the RC, whereas those fed with CS increased PFT during early lactation (+7.3%; Penergy source was almost constant during the whole experiment, except for the first RC of females from the maternal lines (H and LP). These females yielded +34.1% (Ptype. Moreover, it seems that by varying the main energy source of the diet it is possible to modulate acquisition and allocation of resources of the different genetic types. However, the response of each one depends on its priorities over time.

  6. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.

  7. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  8. Mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions generates less inbreeding without compromising genetic gain in breeding schemes with truncation selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C

    2009-01-01

    We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis by stoch......We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis...

  9. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laboratory for Molecular Genetics and Animal Biotechnology, Faculty of Animal and Aquatic Science, Department of Animal Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, P.O. Box -578, Iran; Faculty of Agronomy Sciences, Department of Animal Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural ...

  10. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

  11. Potential large animal models for gene therapy of human genetic diseases of immune and blood cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas R; Adler, Rima L; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2009-01-01

    Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system--red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets--manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutations in humans. Many of these limitations can be overcome by identifying large animals with genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system corresponding to their human disease counterparts. In this article, we describe human diseases of the cellular components of the hematopoietic system that have counterparts in large animal species, in most cases carrying mutations in the same gene (CD18 in leukocyte adhesion deficiency) or genes in interacting proteins (DNA cross-link repair 1C protein and protein kinase, DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide in radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency). Furthermore, we describe the potential of these animal models to serve as disease-specific preclinical models for testing the efficacy and safety of clinical interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy before their use in humans with the corresponding disease.

  12. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

    2013-11-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable.

  13. Genetic and Phytochemical Analysis to Evaluate the Diversity and Relationships of Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Elite Genetic Resources in a Germplasm Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Juliana Cristhina; Gonela, Adriana; Gonçalves Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Vidigal Filho, Pedro Soares; Sturion, José Alfredo; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical and genetic diversity, relationships and identification of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) elite genetic resources belonging to the Brazilian germplasm collection and mate breeding program. Mate has been studied due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, especially methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The samples were collected from the leaves of 76 mate elite genetic resources (16 progenies × 5 localities). Total DNA was extracted from mate leaves and 20 random primers were used for DNA amplification. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine) and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, and criptochlorogenic acids) were quantified by HPLC. The genetic divergence estimated was higher within (92%) than among (8%) the different populations. Analysis of genetic distance between origins provided the formation of two groups by UPGMA cluster analysis, with higher polymorphism (94.9%). The average content of caffeine ranged from 0.01 to 1.38% and theobromine of 0.10 - 0.85% (w/w). The caffeoylquinic acids concentrations (1.43 - 5.38%) showed a gradient 3-CQA > 5-CQA > 4-CQA. The coefficient of genetic variation (CVg) was of low magnitude for all mono-caffeoylquinics acids. Significant correlations (positive and negative) were observed between the phytochemical compounds. Genetic diversity analysis performed by RAPD markers showed a greater intra-populational diversity; genetic resources with low caffeine and higher theobromine content were identified and can be used in breeding programs; the correlation between methylxanthines and phenolic compounds can be used as a good predictor in future studies. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Plant genetic resources for the sustainability of agro-industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, L.; Del Fiore, A.; Di Giovanni, B.; Padovani, M.L.; Santi, C.; Troiani, V.; Tronci, C.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving, characterization and conservation of agro-biodiversity ' are the European Union's priority objectives in the context of the strategies to preserve the genetic resources deemed essential for sustainable development, for the support of the community and to encourage a balanced economic growth. A holistic, integrated strategy can create the most propitious conditions to retrieve, maintain, and use in a sustainable way and according to models of circular economy and continuous innovation, the potential of plant systems (also by-products and wastes) for the development of new sectors of economic and social interest through innovative processes with a low environmental impact, according with the European strategy to 2020 which gives priority to the development of the bio-economy. [it

  15. THE ROLE OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES AND INCREASING AGRODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana ROLJEVIC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is an ecological form of production that promotes natural processes and biological diversity, legallyregulated and is subject to inspection, which guarantees quality and health safety of food produced. Except producing healthyand quality food, the adoption of organic agriculture in recent decades has been indirectly established for saving species andvarieties of cultivated plants which is due to lack of use threat disappearance.This paper analyzes the state of the global andnational soil area under organic agriculture, as well as state of soil under organic production of grain crops as crucial for thefood security of almost all countries in the world.Furthermore, paper work presents the state of genetic resources of cereals andshow importance that organic agriculture has in process of preservation agro-diversity.

  16. Sequencing and characterization of striped venus transcriptome expand resources for clam fishery genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Coppe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The striped venus Chamelea gallina clam fishery is among the oldest and the largest in the Mediterranean Sea, particularly in the inshore waters of northern Adriatic Sea. The high fishing pressure has lead to a strong stock abundance decline, enhanced by several irregular mortality events. The nearly complete lack of molecular characterization limits the available genetic resources for C. gallina. We achieved the first transcriptome of this species with the aim of identifying an informative set of expressed genes, potential markers to assess genetic structure of natural populations and molecular resources for pathogenic contamination detection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 454-pyrosequencing of a normalized cDNA library of a pool C. gallina adult individuals yielded 298,494 raw reads. Different steps of reads assembly and filtering produced 36,422 contigs of high quality, one half of which (18,196 were annotated by similarity. A total of 111 microsatellites and 20,377 putative SNPs were identified. A panel of 13 polymorphic transcript-linked microsatellites was developed and their variability assessed in 12 individuals. Remarkably, a scan to search for contamination sequences of infectious origin indicated the presence of several Vibrionales species reported to be among the most frequent clam pathogen's species. Results reported in this study were included in a dedicated database available at http://compgen.bio.unipd.it/chameleabase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first attempt to sequence and de novo annotate the transcriptome of the clam C. gallina. The availability of this transcriptome opens new perspectives in the study of biochemical and physiological role of gene products and their responses to large and small-scale environmental stress in C. gallina, with high throughput experiments such as custom microarray or targeted re-sequencing. Molecular markers, such as the already optimized EST

  17. Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden-Davies, Harriet

    2017-03-01

    The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.

  18. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strønen, Astrid Vik; Salmela, Elina; Baldursdottir, Birna K.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only...... five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds......: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (H-E 0.035) than for other breeds (H-E 0.209-0.284). Analyses...

  19. Genetic characterization of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci of human and animal origin from mixed pig and poultry farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Willems, R.J.L.; Van den Bogaard, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Glycopeptide resistant enterococci (GRE) isolated from animals and humans were characterised using both AFPL typing and genetic characterisation of the glycopeptide resistance transposon Tn1546. All isolates were collected in 1997 when the glycopeptide avoparcin was still being used as growth...... promoter. All investigated animal isolates were from mixed pig and poultry farms in the Netherlands and the human isolated from the farmers of these farms. A total of 24 isolates were investigated. AFLP and Tn1546 typing revealed that both pig and poultry related enterococcal and vanA transposon genotypes...... were found among the human isolates indicating spread of glycopeptide resistance from both pig and poultry to the farmers. These findings contradict previous finding that showed that GRE recovered from the general population were genotypically undistinguishable from GRE isolated from pigs...

  20. Juridical and sociocultural problems on the definition of a law concerning property, usage and access to genetic resources in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, R

    1996-04-01

    The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which

  1. Prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from animals, foods and humans in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsdottir, T R; Haraldsson, G; Fridriksdottir, V; Kristinsson, K G; Gunnarsson, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of resistant bacteria in food products in Iceland is unknown, and little is known of the prevalence in production animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from healthy pigs and broiler chicken, pork, broiler meat, slaughterhouse personnel and outpatients in Iceland. A total of 419 E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using a microbroth dilution method (VetMIC), and resistant strains were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All samples were screened for enrofloxacin-resistant strains with selective agar plates. The resistance rates among E. coli isolates were moderate to high from caecal and meat samples of pigs (54.1% and 28%), broilers (33.6% and 52%) and slaughterhouse personnel (39.1%), whereas isolates from outpatients showed moderate resistance rates (23.1%). Of notice was resistance to quinolones (minimum inhibitory concentrations: nalidixic acid > or = 32, ciprofloxacin > or = 0.12 and enrofloxacin > or = 0.5), particularly among broiler and broiler meat isolates (18.2% and 36%), as there is no known antimicrobial selection pressure in the broiler production in Iceland. The majority (78.6%) of the resistant E. coli isolates was genotypically different, based on PFGE fingerprint analyses and clustering was limited. However, the same resistance pattern and pulsotype were found among isolates from broiler meat and a slaughterhouse worker, indicating spread of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from animals to humans. Diverse resistance patterns and pulsotypes suggest the presence of a large population of resistant E. coli in production animals in Iceland. This study gives baseline information on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from production animals, and their food products in Iceland and the moderate to high resistance rates emphasize the need for continuing surveillance. Further studies on the

  2. Rapid genetically modified organism (GMO screening of various food products and animal feeds using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha, V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.

  3. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Portolano, B.; Maizon, D. O.; Riggio, V.; Tolone, M.; Cacioppo, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EB...

  4. Genetic Transformation and Genomic Resources for Next-Generation Precise Genome Engineering in Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Teodoro; D’Agostino, Nunzio; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of modern agriculture facing the predicted increase of population and general environmental changes, the securement of high quality food remains a major challenge to deal with. Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. Due to their nutritional value, they have an important place in human diet. In recent years, many crop genomes have been sequenced permitting the identification of genes and superior alleles associated with desirable traits. Furthermore, innovative biotechnological approaches allow to take a step forward towards the development of new improved cultivars harboring precise genome modifications. Sequence-based knowledge coupled with advanced biotechnologies is supporting the widespread application of new plant breeding techniques to enhance the success in modification and transfer of useful alleles into target varieties. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system, zinc-finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases represent the main methods available for plant genome engineering through targeted modifications. Such technologies, however, require efficient transformation protocols as well as extensive genomic resources and accurate knowledge before they can be efficiently exploited in practical breeding programs. In this review, we revise the state of the art in relation to availability of such scientific and technological resources in various groups of vegetables, describe genome editing results obtained so far and discuss the implications for future applications. PMID:28275380

  5. Acceptance of a food of animal origin obtained through genetic modification and cloning in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Velásquez, Carlos; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 40...

  6. Animal board Invited Review: Genetic possibilities to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, N.K.; Oddy, V.H.; Basarab, J.; Cammack, K.; Hayes, B.; Hegarty, R.; Lassen, J.; McEwan, J.; Miller, S.; Pinares-Patino, C.; Haas, de Y.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic

  7. The information value of non-genetic inheritance in plants and animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    English, Sinead; Pen, Ido; Shea, Nicholas; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are

  8. Compression distance can discriminate animals by genetic profile, build relationship matrices and estimate breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Kijas, James W; Reverter, Antonio

    2015-10-13

    Genetic relatedness is currently estimated by a combination of traditional pedigree-based approaches (i.e. numerator relationship matrices, NRM) and, given the recent availability of molecular information, using marker genotypes (via genomic relationship matrices, GRM). To date, GRM are computed by genome-wide pair-wise SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) correlations. We describe a new estimate of genetic relatedness using the concept of normalised compression distance (NCD) that is borrowed from Information Theory. Analogous to GRM, the resultant compression relationship matrix (CRM) exploits numerical patterns in genome-wide allele order and proportion, which are known to vary systematically with relatedness. We explored properties of the CRM in two industry cattle datasets by analysing the genetic basis of yearling weight, a phenotype of moderate heritability. In both Brahman (Bos indicus) and Tropical Composite (Bos taurus by Bos indicus) populations, the clustering inferred by NCD was comparable to that based on SNP correlations using standard principal component analysis approaches. One of the versions of the CRM modestly increased the amount of explained genetic variance, slightly reduced the 'missing heritability' and tended to improve the prediction accuracy of breeding values in both populations when compared to both NRM and GRM. Finally, a sliding window-based application of the compression approach on these populations identified genomic regions influenced by introgression of taurine haplotypes. For these two bovine populations, CRM reduced the missing heritability and increased the amount of explained genetic variation for a moderately heritable complex trait. Given that NCD can sensitively discriminate closely related individuals, we foresee CRM having possible value for estimating breeding values in highly inbred populations.

  9. Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  10. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portolano, B.; Maizon, D.O.; Riggio, V.; Tolone, M.; Cacioppo, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than

  11. Causation of nervous system tumors in children: insights from traditional and genetically engineered animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Jerry M.

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric neurogenic tumors include primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), especially medulloblastoma; ependymomas and choroid plexus papillomas; astrocytomas; retinoblastoma; and sympathetic neuroblastoma. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, although uncommon in childhood, are also significant because they can result from exposures of children to ionizing radiation. Specific chromosomal loci and specific genes are related to each of these tumor types. Virtually all these genes appear to act as tumor suppressor genes, which are inactivated in tumor cells by mutations or by chromosomal loss. In genetically engineered mice, some genes that are clearly associated with specific human tumors (e.g., RB1 in retinoblastoma and NF2 in meningiomas and schwannomas) have no such effect. Other genetic constructs in mice involving the genes p53, ptc1, and Nf1 have produced tumors remarkably similar to some of the human pediatric neoplasms. Some of these tumors become clinically apparent after only a few weeks, while the mice are still juveniles, especially when two or more tumor suppressor genes are inactivated in the same genetic construct. Conversely, at least one genetic pathway in rodents involving point mutation in the coding region of a transforming gene (neu in malignant schwannomas) does not appear to operate in any human tumors. The nervous system is markedly susceptible to experimental carcinogenesis during early life in rodents, dogs, primates, and other nonhuman species, and there is no obvious reason why this generalization should not also apply to humans. However, except for therapeutic ionizing radiation, no physical, chemical, or biological cause of human pediatric nervous system tumors is known. The failure of experimental transplacental carcinogenesis to mirror human pediatric experience more closely may reflect the need for multiple mutational events in target cells, and for experimental carcinogens that are capable of causing the full spectrum of

  12. Evaluation of the genetic variability of 13 microsatellite markers in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evaluation of the genetic variability of 13 microsatellite markers in native Indian pigs. Rajeev Kaul Atar ... The evaluated microsatellites exhibited a very high heterozygosity and polymorphism information content. ... Animal Genetics Division, National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, P.O. Box 129, Karnal 132 001, India ...

  13. Estimates of Genetic Parameters of Production Traits for Khuzestan Buffaloes of Iran using Repeated-Records Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Baharizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo milk yield records were obtained from monthly records of the Animal Breeding Organization of Iran from 1992 to 2009 in 33 herds raised in the Khuzestan province. Variance components, heritability and repeatability were estimated for milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage. These estimates were carried out through single trait animal model using DFREML program. Herd-year-season was considered as fixed effect in the model. For milk production traits, age at calving was fitted as a covariate. The additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were also included in the model. The mean values (±SD for milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage were 2285.08±762.47 kg, 144.35±54.86 kg, 6.25±0.90%, 97.30±26.73 kg and 4.19±0.27%, respectively. The heritability (±SE of milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage were 0.093±0.08, 0.054±0.06, 0.043±0.05, 0.093±0.16 and zero, respectively. These estimates for repeatability were 0.272, 0.132, 0.043, 0.674 and 0.0002, respectively. Lower values of genetic parameter estimates require more data and reliable pedigree records.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Intimin Gene of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Human, Animals and Raw Meats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmei; Bai, Xiangning; Zhao, Ailan; Zhang, Wang; Ba, Pengbin; Liu, Kai; Jin, Yujuan; Wang, Hong; Guo, Qiusheng; Sun, Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen

    2016-01-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is considered to be an emerging enteropathogen that is more prevalent than typical EPEC in developing and developed countries. The major adherence factor, intimin, an outer membrane protein encoded by eae, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of aEPEC. This study investigated the distribution and polymorphisms of intimin subtypes of 143 aEPEC strains from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals, and raw meats in China. These aEPEC strains belonged to more than 71 different serotypes, which comprised 52 O serogroups and 24 H types. Sixty-eight different eae genotypes and 19 intimin subtypes were detected. Eighteen, eight, seven, and five intimin subtypes were identified from 86 diarrheal patients, 14 healthy carriers, 19 animals, and 24 raw meats strains, respectively. Intimin β1 was the most prevalent subtype in strains from diarrheal patients (34.88%) and animals (47.37%). There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of eae-β1 between diarrheal patients and healthy carriers (P = 0.004). Intimin-θ was more predominant among raw meat strains (50%) than among diarrheal patients strains (12.79%, P = 0.0003), healthy carrier strains (7.14%, P = 0.007), or animal strains (15.79%, P = 0.020). The two predominant subtypes (eae-β1 and eae-θ) had considerable polymorphisms with no significant differences among the four sources. PFGE analysis revealed 119 distinct patterns and the strains were clustered into 11 groups with similarity indices ranging from 63% to 100%. These results suggest that in China, aEPEC strains from different sources are highly heterogeneous. Animals and raw meats are important sources of genetically diverse intimin-harboring aEPEC, which might serve as important transmission vehicles of these bacteria.

  15. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EBVs obtained with alternative recording schemes showed different degrees of Spearman correlation with EBVs obtained using the monthly recording scheme. These correlations ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. A reduction in accuracy and intensity of selection could be anticipated if these alternative schemes are used; more research in this area is needed to reduce the costs of test-day recording.

  16. Development of Methods for Genetic Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance In Animal Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy

    should be tested in order to assist in understanding the antibiotic resistance gene variation. This study illustrates the immensity of the antibiotic resistance problem and the necessity for systematic surveillance of antibiotic consumption and resistance development at global, national, and local scales.......Antibiotic drugs are important in treating bacterial infectious diseases in humans and animals. There are severe consequences when infectious bacteria become resistant to antibiotics such as treatment failure and even death. Since antibiotics were discovered, their use has been associated...... with a parallel selection for resistant bacteria. Since the hazards related to antibiotic resistance development have been recognized, the prudent use of antibiotics has been in focus, especially concerning their use in animal production. For many years antibiotics have been, and still are, recklessly used...

  17. Grunting in genetically modified minipig animal model for Huntington ´s disease - a pilot experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 12-13 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * mitochondria * DNA damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Activities, Animations, and Online Tools to Enable Undergraduate Student Learning of Geohazards, Climate Change, and Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Walker, B.; Douglas, B. J.; Cronin, V. S.; Funning, G.; Stearns, L. A.; Charlevoix, D.; Miller, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The NSF-funded GEodesy Tools for Societal Issues (GETSI) project is developing teaching resources for use in introductory and majors-level courses, emphasizing a broad range of geodetic methods and data applied to societally important issues. The modules include a variety of hands-on activities, demonstrations, animations, and interactive online tools in order to facilitate student learning and engagement. A selection of these activities will be showcased at the AGU session. These activities and data analysis exercises are embedded in 4-6 units per module. Modules can take 2-3 weeks of course time total or individual units and activities can be selected and used over just 1-2 class periods. Existing modules are available online via serc.carleton.edu/getsi/ and include "Ice mass and sea level changes", "Imaging active tectonics with LiDAR and InSAR", "Measuring water resources with GPS, gravity, and traditional methods", "Surface process hazards", and "GPS, strain, and earthquakes". Modules, and their activities and demonstrations were designed by teams of faculty and content experts and underwent rigorous classroom testing and review using the process developed by the Science Education Resource Center's InTeGrate Project (serc.carleton.edu/integrate). All modules are aligned to Earth Science and Climate literacy principles. GETSI collaborating institutions are UNAVCO (which runs NSF's Geodetic Facility), Indiana University, and Mt San Antonio College. Initial funding came from NSF's TUES (Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM). A second phase of funding from NSF IUSE (Improving Undergraduate STEM Education) is just starting and will fund another six modules (including their demonstrations, activities, and hands-on activities) as well as considerably more instructor professional development to facilitate implementation and use.

  19. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  20. Prioritization of Malus accessions for collection cryopreservation at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, C...

  1. Effects of climate change on plant-insect interactions and prospects for resistance breeding using genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritchard, J.; Broekgaarden, C.; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the components (elevated CO2, temperature and drought) of climate change and their direct and indirect effects on plant-insect interactions. The genetic resources (such as wild relatives and traditional, locally adapted landraces) important for increasing pest/disease

  2. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  3. Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in Glossina palpalis palpalis and domestic animals of the Fontem sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Human African Trypanosomiasis is still a public health threat in Cameroon. To assess Trypanosoma brucei strains circulating in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, we conducted a genetic structure study using microsatellites to assess genotypes circulating in both tsetse flies and domestic animals. Method For this study, pyramidal traps were set up and 2695 tsetse flies were collected and 1535 (57%) living flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Furthermore, blood samples were collected from 397 domestic animals (pigs, goats, sheep and dogs). DNA was extracted from midguts and blood samples, and specific primers were used to identify trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon. All positive samples were genetically characterized with seven microsatellite markers. Results Seventy five (4.7%) midguts of tsetse flies and 140 (35.2%) domestic animals were found infected by trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon. The genetic characterization of 215 Trypanozoon positive samples (75 from tsetse and 140 from animals) revealed a genetic diversity between Trypanosoma brucei circulating in tsetse and domestic animals. Of these positive samples, 87 (40.5%) single infections were used here to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in tsetse and domestic animals. The dendrogram illustrating the genetic similarities between Trypanosoma brucei genotypes was subdivided into four clusters. The samples from tsetse belonged to the same cluster whereas the samples from domestic animals and espcially pigs were distributed in the four clusters. Conclusion Pigs appeared as the animal species harboring the highest number of different Trypanosoma brucei strains. They may play an important role in the propagation of different genotypes. The FST values revealed a sub structuration of Trypanosoma brucei according to hosts and sometimes villages. The data obtained from this study may have considerable importance for the understanding of the

  4. Study on biochemical and molecular genetic analysis of radiation effects on domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Michiharu; Fukusho, Akio; Sakota, Yoshihiro

    1997-01-01

    In the previous year, we constructed a shuttle rector pSVLsup which can replicate in animal cells and carries supF gene of E. coli as a target gene for detection of a mutation. And the effects of 35 S-labelled amino acids on the rate of mutation were investigated using pSVLsup vector. In this year, animal cells transfected with pSVLsup were cultured in the presence of 32 P-labelled deoxynucleotides to determine the rate of mutation on pSVLsup. Addition of radioactive dCTP (up to 1100 Bq) into the culture medium did not cause significant change in the mutation rate of NA-resistant E. coli transfected with pSVLsup which was recovered from Cos cells. Thus, development a more sensitive detection method seems to be necessary. Thus, the radiation effects on double stranded RNA investigated using agarose electrophoresis. The sixth segment of Africa horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 was transfected to cells infected with AHSV-A3, however, any resortant (reassembled virus) could not be obtained. When the sixth segment was exposed to 32 P-dATP (37 MBq), its band on agarose gel diminished with time, showing that contrary to expectations the damages by RI exposure in double stranded RNA are considerably large. (M.N.)

  5. Induced Mutations Unleash the Potentials of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikelu Mba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The options for increasing food production by at least 70% over the next four decades so as to keep pace with a rapidly increasing human population are bedeviled by erratic climatic conditions, depleted arable lands, dwindling water resources and by the significant environmental and health costs for increasing the use of agrochemicals. Enhanced productivities through “smart” crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs is a viable option. However, the genetic similarities amongst crop varieties—which render entire cropping systems vulnerable to the same stresses—coupled with unvarying parental materials limit the possibilities for uncovering novel alleles of genes and, hence, assembling new gene combinations to break yield plateaux and enhance resilience. Induced mutation unmasks novel alleles that are harnessed to breed superior crop varieties. The historical antecedents, theoretical and practical considerations, and the successes of induced mutations in crop improvement are reviewed along with how induced mutagenesis underpins plant functional genomics. The roles of cell and molecular biology techniques in enhancing the efficiencies for the induction, detection and deployment of mutation events are also reviewed. Also, the integration of phenomics into induced mutagenesis and the use of pre-breeding for facilitating the incorporation of mutants into crop improvement are advocated.

  6. Multilevel Association Rule Mining for Bridge Resource Management Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multilevel association rule mining for bridge resource management (BRM which is announced by IMO in 2010. The goal of this paper is to mine the association rules among the items of BRM and the vessel accidents. However, due to the indirect data that can be collected, which seems useless for the analysis of the relationship between items of BIM and the accidents, the cross level association rules need to be studied, which builds the relation between the indirect data and items of BRM. In this paper, firstly, a cross level coding scheme for mining the multilevel association rules is proposed. Secondly, we execute the immune genetic algorithm with the coding scheme for analyzing BRM. Thirdly, based on the basic maritime investigation reports, some important association rules of the items of BRM are mined and studied. Finally, according to the results of the analysis, we provide the suggestions for the work of seafarer training, assessment, and management.

  7. Epidemiological and Genetic Data Supporting the Transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among Human and Domestic Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Traub, Rebecca; Mahmud, Rohela; Mistam, Mohd Sani

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0–11.7%) and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2–71.2%), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53–8.00; p = 0.003), walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91–10.73; p<0.001) and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19–7.15; p = 0.009) were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. Conclusion This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats) populations. PMID:22347515

  8. Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7% and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003, walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; p<0.001 and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19-7.15; p = 0.009 were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. CONCLUSION: This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats populations.

  9. Correlation between genetic variability and virulence factors in clinical strains of Malassezia pachydermatis of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Parisi, Annamaria; Rizzo, Antonietta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Mallardo, Karina; Fiorito, Filomena; Baroni, Adone; De Martino, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast belonging to the microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of dog and cat, but it can also act as pathogen, causing dermatitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats and determine a correlation between genotype and phenotype. For this purpose eleven strains of M. pachydermatis were molecularly classified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions, specific for fungal rRNA genes. Furthermore, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates identifying four different genotypes. Strains belonging to genotype 1 produced the highest amount of biofilm and phospholipase activity. The inflammatory response induced by M. pachydermatis strains in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat cells) was significantly different when we compared the results obtained from each strain. In particular, HaCat cells infected with the strains belonging to genotypes 1 and 2 triggered the highest levels of increase in TLR-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and MMP-9 expression. By contrast, cells infected with the strains of genotype 3 and those of genotype 4 did not significantly induce TLR-2 and cytokines. The results obtained might suggest a possible association between genotype and virulence factors expressed by M. pachydermatis strains. This highlights the need for a more accurate identification of the yeast to improve the therapeutic approach and to monitor the onset of human infections caused by this emergent zoonotic pathogen.

  10. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rőszer, Tamás; Pintye, Éva; Benkő, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

  11. A Molecular Genetic Classification of Zooxanthellae and the Evolution of Animal-Algal Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Rob; Powers, Dennis A.

    1991-03-01

    Zooxanthellae are unicellular algae that occur as endosymbionts in many hundreds of marine invertebrate species. Because zooxanthellae have traditionally been difficult to classify, little is known about the natural history of these symbioses. Zooxanthellae were isolated from 131 individuals in 22 host taxa and characterized by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear genes that encode small ribosomal subunit RNA (ssRNA). Six algal RFLPs, distributed host species specifically, were detected. Individual hosts contained one algal RFLP. Zooxanthella phylogenetic relationships were estimated from 22 algal ssRNA sequences-one from each host species. Closely related algae were found in dissimilar hosts, suggesting that animal and algal lineages have maintained a flexible evolutionary relation with each other.

  12. Equivalence testing using existing reference data: An example with genetically modified and conventional crops in animal feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

  14. Genetic variations in marine natural population - Measurement and utility in resource management and conservation: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    the laboratory methods and genetic interpretation of gel phenotypes along with statistical methods for data analysis. The applications and perspectives for identifying and protecting genetic variation within and among marine populations are discussed in the light...

  15. Estimates of effective population size and inbreeding in South African indigenous chicken populations: implications for the conservation of unique genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani; Dzama, Kennedy; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Rhode, Clint

    2016-06-01

    Conservation of locally adapted indigenous livestock breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. Therefore, the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa initiated a conservation programme for four South African indigenous chicken breeds. The evaluation and monitoring of the genetic constitution of these conservation flocks is important for proper management of the conservation programme. Using molecular genetic analyses, the effective population sizes and relatedness of these conservation flocks were compared to village (field) chicken populations from which they were derived. Genetic diversity within and between these populations are further discussed within the context of population size. The conservation flocks for the respective breeds had relatively small effective population sizes (point estimate range 38.6-78.6) in comparison to the field populations (point estimate range 118.9-580.0). Furthermore, evidence supports a transient heterozygous excess, generally associated with the occurrence of a recent population bottleneck. Genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles, heterozygosity and information index, was also significantly reduced in the conservation flocks. The average relatedness amongst the conservation flocks was high, whilst it remained low for the field populations. There was also significant evidence for population differentiation between field and conservation populations. F st estimates for conservation flocks were moderate to high with a maximum reached between VD_C and VD_F (0.285). However, F st estimates for field population were excessively low between the NN_C and EC_F (0.007) and between EC_F and OV_F (0.009). The significant population differentiation of the conservation flocks from their geographically correlated field populations of origin is further supported by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with 10.51 % of genetic

  16. Animation company "Fast Forwards" production with HP Utility Data Center; film built using Adaptive Enterprise framework enabled by shared, virtual resource

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett Packard have produced a commercial-quality animated film using an experimental rendering service from HP Labs and running on an HP Utility Data Center (UDC). The project demonstrates how computing resources can be managed virtually and illustrates the value of utility computing, in which an end-user taps into a large pool of virtual resources, but pays only for what is used (1 page).

  17. The Economics of Information, Studiously Ignored in the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Henry Vogel et. al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economics of information has been studiously ignored in the ten Conferences of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nevertheless, an academic literature exists which recognises genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as natural and artificial information. Its unambiguous prescriptions would widen the scope of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS and resolve almost all of the contentious issues identified by Kamau et al. One begins with retroactivity: because biological resources exhibit tangible and intangible aspects, the latter can be conceptualised as a set of natural information where value currently added in a patent is access to a subset not previously accessed. The economics quickly leads to a justification for a biodiversity cartel among countries of origin, wholly analogous to monopoly intellectual property rights. To achieve such a sea change in policymaking, the justification must be accompanied by a narrative that can penetrate the social sphere, much as Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights achieved through the World Intellectual Property Organisation. Several examples of bio-discoveries drawn from a popular medium are analysed in terms of the contentious issues of the Protocol and the distinct ABS that would eventuate under cartelisation. History also offers an analogy. The Parties’ eighteen years of resistance (1993-2011 to applying the economics of information to genetic resources is reminiscent to the twenty-seven years that the British Parliament rebuffed David Ricardo’s economic analysis of the Corn Laws (1815-1842.

  18. Genetic analysis of production traits of Holstein cows in the Mediterranean climate of Iran using random regression and animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jabarzadeh Ivrigh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Productive traits such as milk production and fat and protein percentage have economic importance in the livestock industry. Accurate prediction of breeding value of animals is one of the best tools available for maximizing response to selection program. It is a fact that the main objective of the breeding program, is to achieve the maximum economic benefit. For breeders of dairy cattle, milk, fat, and protein are the main sources of income that are the most important traits in the firm goals. For evaluating the dairy cattle based on these traits (milk production, fat, and protein percentage, prediction of breeding values is essential. The present study was performed in order to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic and phenotypic trends of production traits in the Mediterranean climate of Iran (including; Ardebil, Hamadan, East and West Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces using 105118 records for Test Day and 30985 records for 305-day lactation records Related 8808 Herd of first lactation Holstein Cattle calving between 2003 to 2013. All records collected by Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Materials and Methods Records were edited using Fox pro 8.0 and ACCESS 2010 software and the wrong and unusual records were removed from the dataset. All analyses were performed using the RR (random regression routine of the WOMBAT software package using AIREML algorithm on Linux operation system. Test day records were analyzed with the following random regression model (RRM: Where; Pk; kth fixed effect of province, YSl; lth fixed effect of year-season of calving, Yklimnptv; test day record i obtained at dimt of cow p calved at the nth age group in herd-test day m, HTDm; fixed effect of mth herd-test date, Cf; The fth fixed regression coefficient for calving age, agen; The nth calving age, k; The order of fit for fixed regression coefficients (k=4, βr; The rth fixed regression coefficient, ka; The order of fit for additive

  19. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Genetic and phenotypic evidence of the Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis human-animal interface in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio eRetamal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Results of phenotypic assays showed diversity of survival capabilities among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans.

  1. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  2. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  3. Experimental embryology of mammals at the Jastrzebiec Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasiewicz, Jolanta; Andrzej-Modlinski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Our Department of Experimental Embryology originated from The Laboratory of Embryo Biotechnology, which was organized and directed by Dr. Maria Czlonkowska until her premature death in 1991. Proving successful international transfer of frozen equine embryos and generation of an embryonic sheep-goat chimaera surviving ten years were outstanding achievements of her term. In the 1990s, we produced advanced fetuses of mice after reconstructing enucleated oocytes with embryonic stem (ES) cells, as well as mice originating entirely from ES cells by substitution of the inner cell mass with ES cells. Attempts at obtaining ES cells in sheep resulted in the establishment of embryo-derived epithelioid cell lines from Polish Heatherhead and Polish Merino breeds, producing overt chimaeras upon blastocyst injection. Successful re-cloning was achieved from 8-cell rabbit embryos, and healthy animals were born from the third generation of cloned embryos. Recently mice were born after transfer of 8-cell embryonic nuclei into selectively enucleated zygotes, and mouse blastocysts were produced from selectively enucleated germinal vesicle oocytes surrounded by follicular cells, upon their reconstruction with 2-cell nuclei and subsequent activation. Embryonic-somatic chimaeras were born after transfer of foetal fibroblasts into 8-cell embryos (mouse) and into morulae and blastocysts (sheep). We also regularly perform the following applications: in vitro production of bovine embryos from slaughterhouse oocytes or those recovered by ovum pick up; cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos (freezing: mouse, rabbit, sheep, goat; vitrification: rabbit, cow); and banking of somatic cells from endangered wild mammalian species (mainly Cervidae).

  4. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulrich, K; Böhme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn.

  5. Mating strategies with genomic information reduce rates of inbreeding in animal breeding schemes without compromising genetic gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Henryon, M; Sørensen, A C

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mating strategies with genomic information realise lower rates of inbreeding (∆F) than with pedigree information without compromising rates of genetic gain (∆G). We used stochastic simulation to compare ∆F and ∆G realised by two mating strategies with pedigree and genomic information in five breeding schemes. The two mating strategies were minimum-coancestry mating (MC) and minimising the covariance between ancestral genetic contributions (MCAC). We also simulated random mating (RAND) as a reference point. Generations were discrete. Animals were truncation-selected for a single trait that was controlled by 2000 quantitative trait loci, and the trait was observed for all selection candidates before selection. The criterion for selection was genomic-breeding values predicted by a ridge-regression model. Our results showed that MC and MCAC with genomic information realised 6% to 22% less ∆F than MC and MCAC with pedigree information without compromising ∆G across breeding schemes. MC and MCAC realised similar ∆F and ∆G. In turn, MC and MCAC with genomic information realised 28% to 44% less ∆F and up to 14% higher ∆G than RAND. These results indicated that MC and MCAC with genomic information are more effective than with pedigree information in controlling rates of inbreeding. This implies that genomic information should be applied to more than just prediction of breeding values in breeding schemes with truncation selection.

  6. Expression profiling of a genetic animal model of depression reveals novel molecular pathways underlying depressive-like behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Blaveri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression.In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7 and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL.These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research.

  7. An online resource of digital stories about cancer genetics: qualitative study of patient preferences and information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, Rachel; Mundy, Lisa; Hilgart, Jennifer

    2011-09-30

    The Cancer Genetics Service for Wales (CGSW) was established in 1998 as an all-Wales service for individuals with concerns about their family history of cancer. CGSW offers a range of services such as risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing. Individuals referred to cancer genetics services often have unmet information and support needs, and they value access to practical and experiential information from other patients and health professionals. As a result of the lifelong nature of genetic conditions, a fundamental challenge is to meet the ongoing needs of these patients by providing easily accessible and reliable information. Our aims were to explore how the long-term information and support needs of CGSW patients could be met and to assess whether an online bank of digital stories about cancer genetics would be acceptable to patients. In 2009, CGSW organized patient panels across Wales. During these events, 169 patients were asked for their feedback about a potential online resource of digital stories from CGSW patients and staff. A total of 75 patients registered to take part in the project and 23 people from across Wales agreed to share their story. All participants took part in a follow-up interview. Patient preferences for an online collection of cancer genetics stories were collected at the patient panels. Key topics to be covered by the stories were identified, and this feedback informed the development of the website to ensure that patients' needs would be met. The 23 patient storytellers were aged between 28 and 75 years, and 19 were female. The digital stories reflect patients' experiences within CGSW and the implications of living with or at risk of cancer. Follow-up interviews with patient storytellers showed that they shared their experiences as a means of helping other patients and to increase understanding of the cancer genetics service. Digital stories were also collected from 12 members of staff working at CGSW. The digital

  8. Distribution of genetic diversity in wild European populations of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola): implications for plant genetic resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Sretenovic Rajicic, T.; Treuren, van R.; Dehmer, K.J.; Linden, van der C.G.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation in Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was studied across Europe from the Czech Republic to the United Kingdom, using three molecular marker systems, simple sequence repeat (SSR, microsatellites), AFLP and nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling. The

  9. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-02-26

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be

  10. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's

  11. Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Bultet, Lisandra; Nicholson, Pamela; Rychener, Lorenz; Dreyer, Margaux; Gözel, Bulent; Origgi, Francesco C.; Oevermann, Anna; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS) infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM), we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence mechanisms of the

  12. Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM, we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence

  13. Current political commitments’ challenges for ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview regarding capacity building needs for supporting political commitments’ implementation and furthermore, the development of new political, technical and scientific measures for ensuring the proper conservation of biodiversity and considering in a cost-effective way ex situ conservation tools and methods. Domesticated and wild species, threatened and not threatened native species belonging to the natural capital, due to anthropic pressure and climate change may be drastically affected for their status of conservation in their ecosystems of origin. Thus, ex situ conservation is important to be taken into consideration for ensuring the proper conservation of native species. Still, ex situ conservation is a tool which is in use for many activities for many years such as: research, trade, industry, medicine, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. Romania needs to further develop its specific legislation framework in specific domains such as trade of exotic and native threatened species as well as for other domains such as zoos and aquaria, seeds exchange between botanical gardens, bioprospecting, wild threatened species rescue, capture and reintroduction, collection, access for benefit sharing. Also for agriculture should be developed ex situ conservationmeasures closely connected with breeding programmes dedicated to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (i.e. gene banks conservation, breeding programmes, on farm conservation. Only by harmonizing at the legal level, based on science, all these specific domains, extremely sensitive, dealing with ex situ conservation it will be possible in the future to secure food and ecosanogenesis ensuring the appropriate status of in situ conservation of biodiversity as a whole. As it is not possible to apply conservation measures, either in situ either ex situ either both, to all species it is appropriate to further develop strategic tools for prioritizing our efforts in a cost

  14. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-02-09

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.

  15. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang ePurwantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing gold standards for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/.

  16. Genetic structure of Trypanosoma congolense "forest type" circulating in domestic animals and tsetse flies in the South-West region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogue, Pythagore Soubgwi; Njiokou, Flobert; Simo, Gustave

    2017-01-01

    Despite the economic impact of trypanosome infections, few investigations have been undertaken on the population genetics and transmission dynamics of animal trypanosomes. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma congolense "forest type", with the ultimate goal of understanding its transmission dynamics between tsetse flies and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected from pigs, sheep, goats and dogs in five villages in Fontem, South-West region of Cameroon. In these villages, tsetse were captured, dissected and their mid-guts collected. DNA was extracted from blood and tsetse mid-guts and specific primers were used to identify T. congolense "forest type". All positive samples were genetically characterized with seven microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses were performed on samples showing single infections of T. congolense "forest type". Of the 299 blood samples, 137 (46%) were infected by T. congolense "forest type". About 3% (54/1596) of tsetse fly mid-guts were infected by T. congolense "forest type". Of 182 samples with T. congolense "forest type", 52 were excluded from the genetic analysis. The genetic analysis on the 130 remaining samples revealed polymorphism within and between subpopulations of the target trypanosome. The dendrogram of genetic similarities was subdivided into two clusters and three sub-clusters, indicating one major and several minor genotypes of T. congolense "forest type" in tsetse and domestic animals. The low F ST values suggest low genetic differentiation and no sub-structuration within subpopulations. The same T. congolense genotypes appear to circulate in tsetse and domestic animals. © P.S. Fogue et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  17. Genetic structure of Trypanosoma congolense “forest type” circulating in domestic animals and tsetse flies in the South-West region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogue Pythagore Soubgwi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the economic impact of trypanosome infections, few investigations have been undertaken on the population genetics and transmission dynamics of animal trypanosomes. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma congolense “forest type”, with the ultimate goal of understanding its transmission dynamics between tsetse flies and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected from pigs, sheep, goats and dogs in five villages in Fontem, South-West region of Cameroon. In these villages, tsetse were captured, dissected and their mid-guts collected. DNA was extracted from blood and tsetse mid-guts and specific primers were used to identify T. congolense “forest type”. All positive samples were genetically characterized with seven microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses were performed on samples showing single infections of T. congolense “forest type”. Of the 299 blood samples, 137 (46% were infected by T. congolense “forest type”. About 3% (54/1596 of tsetse fly mid-guts were infected by T. congolense “forest type”. Of 182 samples with T. congolense “forest type”, 52 were excluded from the genetic analysis. The genetic analysis on the 130 remaining samples revealed polymorphism within and between subpopulations of the target trypanosome. The dendrogram of genetic similarities was subdivided into two clusters and three sub-clusters, indicating one major and several minor genotypes of T. congolense “forest type” in tsetse and domestic animals. The low FSTvalues suggest low genetic differentiation and no sub-structuration within subpopulations. The same T. congolense genotypes appear to circulate in tsetse and domestic animals.

  18. Genetic structure of Trypanosoma congolense “forest type” circulating in domestic animals and tsetse flies in the South-West region of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogue, Pythagore Soubgwi; Njiokou, Flobert; Simo, Gustave

    2017-01-01

    Despite the economic impact of trypanosome infections, few investigations have been undertaken on the population genetics and transmission dynamics of animal trypanosomes. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to investigate the population genetics of Trypanosoma congolense “forest type”, with the ultimate goal of understanding its transmission dynamics between tsetse flies and domestic animals. Blood samples were collected from pigs, sheep, goats and dogs in five villages in Fontem, South-West region of Cameroon. In these villages, tsetse were captured, dissected and their mid-guts collected. DNA was extracted from blood and tsetse mid-guts and specific primers were used to identify T. congolense “forest type”. All positive samples were genetically characterized with seven microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses were performed on samples showing single infections of T. congolense “forest type”. Of the 299 blood samples, 137 (46%) were infected by T. congolense “forest type”. About 3% (54/1596) of tsetse fly mid-guts were infected by T. congolense “forest type”. Of 182 samples with T. congolense “forest type”, 52 were excluded from the genetic analysis. The genetic analysis on the 130 remaining samples revealed polymorphism within and between subpopulations of the target trypanosome. The dendrogram of genetic similarities was subdivided into two clusters and three sub-clusters, indicating one major and several minor genotypes of T. congolense “forest type” in tsetse and domestic animals. The low FSTvalues suggest low genetic differentiation and no sub-structuration within subpopulations. The same T. congolense genotypes appear to circulate in tsetse and domestic animals. PMID:29261481

  19. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  20. Resource allocation for maximizing prediction accuracy and genetic gain of genomic selection in plant breeding: a simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Aaron J

    2013-03-01

    Allocating resources between population size and replication affects both genetic gain through phenotypic selection and quantitative trait loci detection power and effect estimation accuracy for marker-assisted selection (MAS). It is well known that because alleles are replicated across individuals in quantitative trait loci mapping and MAS, more resources should be allocated to increasing population size compared with phenotypic selection. Genomic selection is a form of MAS using all marker information simultaneously to predict individual genetic values for complex traits and has widely been found superior to MAS. No studies have explicitly investigated how resource allocation decisions affect success of genomic selection. My objective was to study the effect of resource allocation on response to MAS and genomic selection in a single biparental population of doubled haploid lines by using computer simulation. Simulation results were compared with previously derived formulas for the calculation of prediction accuracy under different levels of heritability and population size. Response of prediction accuracy to resource allocation strategies differed between genomic selection models (ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction [RR-BLUP], BayesCπ) and multiple linear regression using ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS), leading to different optimal resource allocation choices between OLS and RR-BLUP. For OLS, it was always advantageous to maximize population size at the expense of replication, but a high degree of flexibility was observed for RR-BLUP. Prediction accuracy of doubled haploid lines included in the training set was much greater than of those excluded from the training set, so there was little benefit to phenotyping only a subset of the lines genotyped. Finally, observed prediction accuracies in the simulation compared well to calculated prediction accuracies, indicating these theoretical formulas are useful for making resource allocation

  1. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon-implications for genetic resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M

    2004-05-01

    Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( P<0.01) among populations along both rivers. There was no relation between genetic differentiation and the geographical location of populations along the rivers. Since natural seed dispersal by birds and rodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, P<0.01). A comparison with samples from other landraces in Peru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities.

  2. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  3. Comparison between sire-maternal grandsire and animal models for genetic evaluation of longevity in a dairy cattle population with small herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenko, J; Gorjanc, G; Kovač, M; Ducrocq, V

    2013-01-01

    Survival analysis techniques for sire-maternal grandsire (MGS) and animal models were used to test the genetic evaluation of longevity in a Slovenian Brown cattle population characterized by small herds. Three genetic models were compared: a sire-MGS model for bulls and an approximate animal model based on estimated breeding values (EBV) from the sire-MGS model for cows, an animal model, and an animal model based on the estimated variance components from the sire-MGS model. In addition, modeling the contemporary group effect was defined as either a herd or a herd-year (HY) effect. With various restrictions on the minimum HY group size (from 1 to 10 cows per HY), changes in estimates of variance components, and consequently also in EBV, were observed for the sire-MGS and animal models. Variance of contemporary group effects decreased when an HY effect was fitted instead of a herd effect. In the case of a sire-MGS model, estimates of additive genetic variance were mostly robust to changes in minimum HY group size or fitting herd or HY effect, whereas they increased in the animal model when HY instead of herd effects was fitted, possibly revealing some confounding between cow EBV and contemporary group effect. Estimated heritabilities from sire-MGS models were between 0.091 and 0.119 and were mainly influenced by the restriction on the HY group size. Estimated heritabilities from animal models were higher: between 0.125 and 0.160 when herd effect was fitted and between 0.171 and 0.210 when HY effect was fitted. Rank correlations between the animal model and the approximate animal model based on EBV from the sire-MGS model were high: 0.94 for cows and 0.93 for sires when a herd effect was fitted and 0.90 for cows and 0.93 for sires when an HY effect was fitted. Validation performed on the independent validation data set revealed that the correlation between sire EBV and daughter survival were slightly higher with the approximate animal model based on EBV from the sire

  4. Germplasm morgue or gold mine? Enhancing the value of plant genetic resource collections for plant breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity is the raw material that plant breeders require to develop cultivars that are productive, nutritious, pest and stress tolerant, and water and nutrient use efficient. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) contains a wealth of genetic diversity, including improved varie...

  5. Malus sieversii, a valuable genetic resource for disease resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domesticated crop cultivars inevitably represent a subset of the genetic variation found in their wild ancestors (progenitors) due to genetic bottlenecks that result during the process of crop domestication. Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, is one of the ancestral proge...

  6. Genetic Resources of Pinus cembra L. Marginal Populations from the Tatra Mountains: Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Celiński, Konrad; Chudzińska, Ewa; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Niemtur, Stanisław

    2015-04-01

    The levels of variation and genetic diversity of offspring of randomly selected old mother trees in four marginal populations of the Pinus cembra in the Tatra Mountains were analyzed. Twenty-four isozyme loci were analyzed (nine of them were monomorphic). The analyzed offspring of Swiss stone pine showed highly diverse polymorphism at the levels of both provenances and individual families (the offspring of one mother tree). The mean observed heterozygosity was low and very similar to that of other Carpathian populations. The genetic diversity (mean Fst = 11%) between the four provenances was higher than that observed for populations from the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps. The genetic uniqueness (high genetic richness and diversity) of the analyzed Tatra populations of P. cembra as a whole and particular tree stands requires protection because of their valuable contribution to the species total genetic diversity (gene pool).

  7. Pre-natal genetic counselling in a resource limited country - a single center geneticist's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroze, B.; Jehan, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the needs related to prenatal genetic counselling in a developing country. Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted at the Prenatal-Genetic Counselling Clinic of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from October 2007 to September 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data was stored in the form of patient charts. Information was then extracted from the charts and entered into a structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 93 couples in the study, 49(53%) were in the self-referral group and 44(47%) were in the physician-referral group. Diagnosis was not given for previously affected children by the paediatrician or by obstetrician for recurrent miscarriages in 68(73%)cases. Besides, 20(22%) couples had voluntarily terminated a pregnancy without any tests because of the fear of having a diseased child. Eleven (12%) couples were looking for amniocentensis or chorionic villus sampling. Death in previous children was the main reason to seek genetic counselling and was seen in 57(61%) couples. Consanguinity was seen in 77(83%) couples. Conclusion: A clear deficiency of knowledge of genetics was seen among the non-genetic healthcare providers. Demand of antenatal genetic testing among the public was also seen, highlighting the need of diagnostic facility for genetic and metabolic disorders. However, this needs to be explored in the context of the existing healthcare infrastructure. (author)

  8. Pitx3 deficient mice as a genetic animal model of co-morbid depressive disorder and parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Kang, Young-Mi; Kang, Young; Park, Tae-Shin; Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Han, Baek-Soo; Kim, Chun-Hyung; Lee, Chul-Ho; Ardayfio, Paul A; Han, Pyung-Lim; Jung, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2014-03-13

    Approximately 40-50% of all patients with Parkinson׳s disease (PD) show symptoms and signs of depressive disorders, for which neither pathogenic understanding nor rational treatment are available. Using Pit3x-deficient mice, a model for selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we tested depression-related behaviors and acute stress responses to better understand how a nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit increases the prevalence of depressive disorders in PD patients. Pitx3-deficient mice showed decreased sucrose consumption and preference in the two-bottle free-choice test of anhedonia. Acute restraint stress increased c-Fos (known as a neuronal activity marker) expression levels in various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), in both Pitx3+/+ and -/- mice. However, the stress-induced increases in c-Fos levels in the cortex, dorsal striatum, and PVN were significantly greater in Pitx3-/- than +/+ mice, suggesting that signs of depressive disorders in parkinsonism are related to altered stress vulnerability. Based on these results, we propose that Pitx3-/- mice may serve as a useful genetic animal model for co-morbid depressive disorder and parkinsonism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of animals from embryo transfer on the genetic evaluation of growth in Simmental beef cattle by using multi-trait models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Reis Mota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The weight records from Simmental beef cattle were used in a genetic evaluation of growth with or without the inclusion of animals obtained by embryo transfer. A multi-trait model in which embryo transfer individuals were excluded (MTM1 contained 29,510 records from 10,659 animals, while another model without exclusion of these animals (MTM2 contained 62,895 weight records from 23,160 animals. The weight records were adjusted for ages of 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days. The (covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The (covariance components were similar in both models, except for maternal permanent environment variance. Direct heritabilities (h²d in MTM1 were 0.04, 0.11, 0.20, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.42, while in MTM2 they were 0.11, 0.11, 0.17, 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26 for 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days of age, respectively. Estimates of h²d in MTM1 were higher than in MTM2 for the weight at 365 days of age. Genetic correlations between weights in both models ranged from moderate to high, suggesting that these traits may be determined mainly by the same genes. Animals from embryo transfer may be included in the genetic evaluation of Simmental beef cattle in Brazil; this inclusion may provide potential gains in accuracy and genetic gains by reducing the interval between generations.

  10. Behavioral and genetic evidence for a novel animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype

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    Zhang-James Y

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial

  11. Exploration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis to Improve Animal Welfare by Means of Genetic Selection: Lessons from the South African Merino

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    Schalk Cloete

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to improve animal production by means of genetic selection, if the environment does not allow full expression of the animal’s genetic potential. This concept may well be the future for animal welfare, because it highlights the need to incorporate traits related to production and robustness, simultaneously, to reach sustainable breeding goals. This review explores the identification of potential genetic markers for robustness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA, since this axis plays a vital role in the stress response. If genetic selection for superior HPAA responses to stress is possible, then it ought to be possible to breed robust and easily managed genotypes that might be able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions whilst expressing a high production potential. This approach is explored in this review by means of lessons learnt from research on Merino sheep, which were divergently selected for their multiple rearing ability. These two selection lines have shown marked differences in reproduction, production and welfare, which makes this breeding programme ideal to investigate potential genetic markers of robustness. The HPAA function is explored in detail to elucidate where such genetic markers are likely to be found.

  12. Animal Activities: A Handbook of Humane Education Ideas, Resources and Materials for Elementary School Teachers. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Dottie, Comp.; Ryther, Sherry, Comp.

    The information and activities in this handbook are designed to help children focus on the special needs that animals (wild and domestic) have and what children can do to help meet these needs. The following are included: (1) activities and games on the care of domestic animals; (2) instructions for making a book which shows the similarities…

  13. Rapid Genetic Adaptation during the First Four Months of Survival under Resource Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations.

  15. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Chemandwa Ndiwa

    Full Text Available The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations.

  16. Utilizing Genetic Resources and Precision Agriculture to Enhance Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail KANTOR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Originally from Africa, watermelon is a staple crop in South Carolina and rich source of important phytochemicals that promote human health. As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desired fruit quality, modern watermelon cultivars are susceptible to biotic and abiotic stress. The present review discusses how genetic selection and breeding combined with geospatial technologies (precision agriculture may help enhance watermelon varieties for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Gene loci identified and selected in undomesticated watermelon accessions are responsible for resistance to diseases, pests and abiotic stress. Vegetable breeding programs use traditional breeding methodologies and genomic tools to introduce gene loci conferring biotic or abiotic resistance into the genome background of elite watermelon cultivars. This continuous approach of collecting, evaluating and identifying useful genetic material is valuable for enhancing genetic diversity and tolerance and combined with precision agriculture could increase food security in the Southeast.

  17. Non-genetic risk factors in haemophilia A inhibitor management - the danger theory and the use of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, K M; Søndergaard, H; Skov, S; Wiinberg, B

    2016-09-01

    In haemophilia A (HA) management, antidrug antibodies, or inhibitors, are a serious complication that renders factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy ineffective, increases morbidity and reduces quality of life for affected patients. Inhibitor development aetiology is multifactorial and covers both genetic and therapy related risk factors. Many therapy-related risk factors have proven difficult to confirm due to several confounding factors and the small study populations available. However, clinical studies indicate that e.g. on-demand treatment and surgery affect inhibitor development, and explanations for this association are being investigated. A potential explanation is the danger signal effect, where the immune response is activated by endogenous or exogenous danger or damage signals present at the time and site of FVIII administration. The danger theory explains how alarm signals from stressed, injured or dying cells can activate an immune reaction, without the involvement of foreign antigens. Bleeds, trauma, surgery or concomitant infection could be events initiating danger signalling in HA patients, resulting in an immune reaction towards administered FVIII that otherwise would pass unnoticed. This role of danger in HA inhibitor formation has previously been suggested, but a thorough discussion of this subject is lacking. The present review will discuss the potential role of danger signals in haemophilia and inhibitor development, with focus on treatment related risk factors with a suspected danger signal aetiology; on-demand treatment, treatment during major bleeds or surgery, and treatment during infection or vaccination. Clinical studies as well as animal experiments addressing these factors will be reviewed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Targeted genetic manipulations of neuronal subtypes using promoter-specific combinatorial AAVs in wild-type animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, Heinrich S.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Bass, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Techniques to genetically manipulate the activity of defined neuronal subpopulations have been useful in elucidating function, however applicability to translational research beyond transgenic mice is limited. Subtype targeted transgene expression can be achieved using specific promoters, but often currently available promoters are either too large to package into many vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV), or do not drive expression at levels sufficient to alter behavior. To permit neuron subtype specific gene expression in wildtype animals, we developed a combinatorial AAV targeting system that drives, in combination, subtype specific Cre-recombinase expression with a strong but non-specific Cre-conditional transgene. Using this system we demonstrate that the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre-AAV) restricted expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (EF1α-DIO-ChR2-EYFP-AAV) to the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA), or an activating DREADD (hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-AAV) to  the  rat  locus  coeruleus  (LC). High expression levels were achieved in both regions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed the majority of ChR2+ neurons (>93%) colocalized with TH in the VTA, and optical stimulation evoked striatal dopamine release. Activation of TH neurons in the LC produced sustained EEG and behavioral arousal. TH-specific hM3Dq expression in the LC was further compared with: (1) a Cre construct driven by a strong but non-specific promoter (non-targeting); and (2) a retrogradely-transported WGA-Cre delivery mechanism (targeting a specific projection). IHC revealed that the area of c-fos activation after CNO treatment in the LC and peri-LC neurons appeared proportional to the resulting increase in wakefulness (non-targeted > targeted > ACC to LC projection restricted). Our dual AAV targeting system effectively overcomes the large size and weak activity barrier prevalent with many subtype specific promoters by functionally separating subtype specificity from

  19. 'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...

  20. Advances in the genetic dissection of plant cell walls: tools and resources available in Miscanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancho eSlavov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical C4 grasses from the genus Miscanthus are believed to have great potential as biomass crops. However, Miscanthus species are essentially undomesticated, and genetic, molecular and bioinformatics tools are in very early stages of development. Furthermore, similar to other crops targeted as lignocellulosic feedstocks, the efficient utilisation of biomass is hampered by our limited knowledge of the structural organisation of the plant cell wall and the underlying genetic components that control this organisation. The Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS has assembled an extensive collection of germplasm for several species of Miscanthus. In addition, an integrated, multidisciplinary research programme at IBERS aims to inform accelerated breeding for biomass productivity and composition, while also generating novel fundamental knowledge. Here we review recent advances with respect to the genetic characterisation of the cell wall in Miscanthus. First, we present a summary of recent and on-going biochemical studies, including prospects and limitations for the development of powerful phenotyping approaches. Second, we review current knowledge about genetic variation for cell wall characteristics of Miscanthus and illustrate how phenotypic data, combined with high-density arrays of single nucleotide polymorphisms, are being used in genome-wide association studies to generate testable hypotheses and guide biological discovery. Finally, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the molecular biology of cell wall biosynthesis in Miscanthus and closely related grasses, discuss the key conceptual and technological bottlenecks, and outline the short-term prospects for progress in this field.

  1. Advances in the genetic dissection of plant cell walls: tools and resources available in Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Gancho; Allison, Gordon; Bosch, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Tropical C4 grasses from the genus Miscanthus are believed to have great potential as biomass crops. However, Miscanthus species are essentially undomesticated, and genetic, molecular and bioinformatics tools are in very early stages of development. Furthermore, similar to other crops targeted as lignocellulosic feedstocks, the efficient utilization of biomass is hampered by our limited knowledge of the structural organization of the plant cell wall and the underlying genetic components that control this organization. The Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) has assembled an extensive collection of germplasm for several species of Miscanthus. In addition, an integrated, multidisciplinary research programme at IBERS aims to inform accelerated breeding for biomass productivity and composition, while also generating fundamental knowledge. Here we review recent advances with respect to the genetic characterization of the cell wall in Miscanthus. First, we present a summary of recent and on-going biochemical studies, including prospects and limitations for the development of powerful phenotyping approaches. Second, we review current knowledge about genetic variation for cell wall characteristics of Miscanthus and illustrate how phenotypic data, combined with high-density arrays of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, are being used in genome-wide association studies to generate testable hypotheses and guide biological discovery. Finally, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the molecular biology of cell wall biosynthesis in Miscanthus and closely related grasses, discuss the key conceptual and technological bottlenecks, and outline the short-term prospects for progress in this field.

  2. Variation in chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents in genetic resources of Lactuca L. species (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, I.; Lebeda, A.; Janeček, J.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Křístková, E.; Vránová, O.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 385-397 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Asteraceae * Chromosome number * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2002

  3. Storytellers as partners in developing a genetics education resource for health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Maggie; Tonkin, Emma; Skirton, Heather; McDonald, Kevin; Cope, Buddug; Morgan, Rhian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Advances in genetics are bringing unprecedented opportunities for understanding health and disease, developing new therapies and changes in healthcare practice. Many nurses and midwives lack competence and confidence in integrating genetics into professional practice. One approach to enhance understanding of genetics is to simulate clinical exposure through storytelling. Stories are acknowledged as a powerful learning tool, being understandable and memorable, stimulating critical thinking, and linking theory to practice. Telling Stories, Understanding Real Life Genetics is a freely accessible website that sets people's stories within an education framework. The links between the stories and professional practice are made explicit and additional features support learning and teaching. Care of the storytellers within an ethical framework is of paramount importance. Storytellers are viewed as partners in the project. The challenges encountered include preserving the authentic voice and dignity of the storyteller. Project team members have also experienced ‘professional shame’ when negative experiences have been recounted, and the stories have had an impact on the team. The experience of working with storytellers has been positive. The storytellers want to be heard so that others will benefit from their stories. They serve as a reminder of why this work is important. PMID:22197414

  4. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for investigation of the genetic association of Clostridium difficile isolates from food, food animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jane W; Tulenko, Mary M; Shutt, Kathleen A; Thompson, Angela D; Weese, J Scott; Songer, J Glenn; Limbago, Brandi M; Harrison, Lee H

    2011-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Diarrheal disease in food animals due to C. difficile infection has been well documented. Recently, reports of C. difficile infections in patients with no known risk factors for disease have raised concern of community acquisition through food animals and food. In this study, multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was performed on a collection of 97C. difficile isolates of human, animal and food origin belonging to either the North American pulsed-field type (NAP) 1 or NAP7/NAP8. MLVA discriminated between NAP1 and NAP7/NAP8 populations. Three clusters of food, food animal and human NAP1 isolates were highly related by MLVA. These data suggest the possibility of either laboratory contamination or widespread distribution of clonal C. difficile populations. Community-associated NAP1 isolates were unrelated to NAP1 food and food animal isolates. Two MLVA loci were absent and 1 was invariant in all NAP7/NAP8 isolates. Therefore, MLVA discrimination was not sufficient to make assessments regarding the genetic associations among food, food animal and human isolates belonging to the NAP7/NAP8 pulsovar. Rigorous epidemiologic and laboratory investigations that employ highly discriminatory genotyping methods are necessary to compare C. difficile isolates from food and food animals to those from humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, animal feed and food products of animal origin, in Portugal - Genetic analysis of isolates with reduced susceptibility/resistance to third generation cephalosporins and cephamycins

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Lurdes; Manageiro, Vera; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Ferreira, Eugénia; Correia, Ivone; Themudo, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Teresa; Caniça, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen and one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans. An epidemiologic study was conducted on 1600 Salmonella spp isolates recovered from poultry, swine, other animal species, animal feed and food products of animal origin, over the period of 2009-2013, to determine their serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of ten antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethopri...

  6. MOSAIC: a chemical-genetic interaction data repository and web resource for exploring chemical modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Justin; Simpkins, Scott W; Safizadeh, Hamid; Li, Sheena C; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Yashiroda, Yoko; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Boone, Charles; Myers, Chad L

    2018-04-01

    Chemical-genomic approaches that map interactions between small molecules and genetic perturbations offer a promising strategy for functional annotation of uncharacterized bioactive compounds. We recently developed a new high-throughput platform for mapping chemical-genetic (CG) interactions in yeast that can be scaled to screen large compound collections, and we applied this system to generate CG interaction profiles for more than 13 000 compounds. When integrated with the existing global yeast genetic interaction network, CG interaction profiles can enable mode-of-action prediction for previously uncharacterized compounds as well as discover unexpected secondary effects for known drugs. To facilitate future analysis of these valuable data, we developed a public database and web interface named MOSAIC. The website provides a convenient interface for querying compounds, bioprocesses (Gene Ontology terms) and genes for CG information including direct CG interactions, bioprocesses and gene-level target predictions. MOSAIC also provides access to chemical structure information of screened molecules, chemical-genomic profiles and the ability to search for compounds sharing structural and functional similarity. This resource will be of interest to chemical biologists for discovering new small molecule probes with specific modes-of-action as well as computational biologists interested in analysing CG interaction networks. MOSAIC is available at http://mosaic.cs.umn.edu. hisyo@riken.jp, yoshidam@riken.jp, charlie.boone@utoronto.ca or chadm@umn.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Genetic resources in Musa bananas and improvement of their disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Fuentes, O.L.

    1977-01-01

    The cultivated bananas belong to the genus Musa and it is the wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana which contributed to the origin of the sorts used as food. Most of these are triploids and possess a high degree of sterility. The sources of variation that are of importance for genetic improvement of the bananas are (1) hereditary differences between the cultivated clones; (2) difference between species and sub-species; (3) differences between the primitive cultivars derived from Musa acuminata, and (4) mutations that can be artiificially induced. The bananas are attacked by many diseases. Their vulnerability to certain diseases is highly significant in view of the extreme genetic uniformity of the commercial crops and the absence of resistant genes. In the past the wild species and the diploids used as food served as sources of resistance. However, efforts to induce resistance in the cultivated triploid bananas have not been successful. The use of mutagenic agents is proposed as a possible way of improving genetic variability in banana cultivation. (author)

  8. Genetic analysis of the Gdh and Bg genes of animal-derived Giardia duodenalis isolates in Northeastern China and evaluation of zoonotic transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 61 G. duodenalis isolates from animal feces (dairy and beef cattle, sheep and rabbits in Heilongjiang Province were characterized at the gdh and bg loci in the present study. The gdh and bg gene sequences of sheep-derived G. duodenalis assemblage AI, and the gdh sequences of rabbit-derived G. duodenalis assemblage B had 100% similarity with those from humans, respectively. Novel subtypes of G. duodenalis were identified, with one and seven subtypes for assemblages A and E at the gdh locus, and two and three subtypes for assemblages B and E at the bg locus, respectively. Three pairs of the same bg sequences of assemblage E were observed in sheep and cattle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first description of genetic characterizations of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from rabbits, sheep and cattle in Mainland China. Homology analysis of assemblages AI and B implied the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The novel subtypes of assemblages of G. duodenalis may represent the endemic genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in Heilongjiang Province, China.

  9. Comparison of Population Genetic Structure of Two Seashore-Dwelling Animal Species, Periwinkle Littorina brevicula and Acorn Barnacle Fistulobalanus albicostatus from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Yuhyun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of marine animals that inhabit the seashore is affected by numerous factors. Of these, gene flow and natural selection during recruitment have strong influences on the genetic structure of seashore-dwelling species that have larval periods. Relative contributions of these two factors to the genetic structure of marine species would be determined mainly by the duration of larval stage. The relationship between larval period and genetic structure of population has been rarely studied in Korea. In this study, genetic variations of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI were analyzed in two dominant species on rocky shore habitats in the Korean peninsula: periwinkle Littorina brevicula and acorn barnacle Fistulobalanus albicostatus. Both species are not strongly structured and may have experienced recent population expansion. Unlike periwinkle, however, barnacle populations have considerable genetic variation, and show a bimodal pattern of mismatch distribution. These results suggest that barnacle populations are more affected by local adaptation rather than gene flow via larval migration. The bimodal patterns of barnacle populations observed in mismatch distribution plots imply that they may have experienced secondary contact. Further studies on seashore-dwelling species are expected to be useful in understanding the evolution of the coastal ecosystem around Korean waters.

  10. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  11. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Johnson, Kammy R; Karpati, Adam; Rubin, Carol S; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Esteban, J Emilio; Currier, Russell W; Smith, Kathleen; Thu, Kendall M; McGeehin, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of > 100 microg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  12. Genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPRs) and DBA/2 mice: Two animal models of audiogenic reflex epilepsy for the evaluation of new generation AEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio; Citraro, Rita; Meldrum, Brian S

    2017-06-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge about DBA/2 mice and genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPRs) and discusses the contribution of such animal models on the investigation of possible new therapeutic targets and new anticonvulsant compounds for the treatment of epilepsy. Also, possible chemical or physical agents acting as proconvulsant agents are described. Abnormal activities of enzymes involved in catecholamine and serotonin synthesis and metabolism were reported in these models, and as a result of all these abnormalities, seizure susceptibility in both animals is greatly affected by pharmacological manipulations of the brain levels of monoamines and, prevalently, serotonin. In addition, both genetic epileptic models permit the evaluation of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions among several drugs measuring plasma and/or brain level of each compound. Audiogenic models of epilepsy have been used not only for reflex epilepsy studies, but also as animal models of epileptogenesis. The seizure predisposition (epileptiform response to sound stimulation) and substantial characterization of behavioral, cellular, and molecular alterations in both acute and chronic (kindling) protocols potentiate the usefulness of these models in elucidating ictogenesis, epileptogenesis, and their mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Genetic and Reflex Epilepsies, Audiogenic Seizures and Strains: From Experimental Models to the Clinic". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diverse Rice Landraces of North-East India Enables the Identification of Novel Genetic Resources for Magnaporthe Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanth, Bangale; Vishalakshi, Balija; Sathish Kumar, P; Rama Devi, S J S; Bhadana, Vijay Pal; Senguttuvel, P; Kumar, Sudhir; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Prasad, M S; Madhav, Maganti S

    2017-01-01

    North-East (NE) India, the probable origin of rice has diverse genetic resources. Many rice landraces of NE India were not yet characterized for blast resistance. A set of 232 landraces of NE India, were screened for field resistance at two different hotspots of rice blast, viz., IIRR-UBN, Hyderabad and ICAR-NEH, Manipur in two consecutive seasons. The phenotypic evaluation as well as gene profiling for 12 major blast resistance genes ( Pitp , Pi33 , Pi54 , Pib , Pi20 , Pi38 , Pita2 , Pi1 , Piz , Pi9 , Pizt , and Pi40 ) with linked as well as gene-specific markers, identified 84 resistant landraces possessing different gene(s) either in singly or in combinations and also identified seven resistant landraces which do not have the tested genes, indicating the valuable genetic resources for blast resistance. To understand the molecular diversity existing in the population, distance and model based analysis were performed using 120 SSR markers. Results of both analyses are highly correlated by forming two distinct subgroups and the existence of high diversity (24.9% among the subgroups; 75.1% among individuals of each subgroup) was observed. To practically utilize the diversity in the breeding program, a robust core set having an efficiency index of 0.82 which consists of 33 landraces were identified through data of molecular, blast phenotyping, and important agro-morphological traits. The association of eight novel SSR markers for important agronomic traits which includes leaf and neck blast resistance was determined using genome-wide association analysis. The current study focuses on identifying novel resources having field resistance to blast as well as markers which can be explored in rice improvement programs. It also entails the development of a core set which can aid in representing the entire diversity for efficiently harnessing its properties to broaden the gene pool of rice.

  14. Valuing animal genetic resources in peasant economies: The case of the box keken creole pig in Yukatan

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Drucker, Adam; Anderson, Simon; Ferraes-Ehuan, Nancy; Gomez, Veronica

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of a choice-experiment study to model preferences over a selection of breed traits of 'creole' pigs. The study was conducted amongst households of backyard producers and small farmers rearing this local breed in Yucatan, Mexico. Hypothetical choice data were collected to estimate the preference of households over alternative pigs profiles whose attributes distinguish creole pigs from the potentially more productive, yet less adapted exotic breeds currently threatening to...

  15. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Kumari, Meena; JinGo, Min; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D.G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; SolerArtigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; MariaCorsi, Anna; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Steven M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, Will T.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Radha Mani, K.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würz, Peter; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kranthi Kumar, M.J.; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Wong, Tien Y.; Shyong Tai, E.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn , Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10−8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10−8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10−6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10−6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095

  16. MARRVEL: Integration of Human and Model Organism Genetic Resources to Facilitate Functional Annotation of the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julia; Al-Ouran, Rami; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Seon-Young; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Comjean, Aram; Mohr, Stephanie E; Perrimon, Norbert; Liu, Zhandong; Bellen, Hugo J

    2017-06-01

    One major challenge encountered with interpreting human genetic variants is the limited understanding of the functional impact of genetic alterations on biological processes. Furthermore, there remains an unmet demand for an efficient survey of the wealth of information on human homologs in model organisms across numerous databases. To efficiently assess the large volume of publically available information, it is important to provide a concise summary of the most relevant information in a rapid user-friendly format. To this end, we created MARRVEL (model organism aggregated resources for rare variant exploration). MARRVEL is a publicly available website that integrates information from six human genetic databases and seven model organism databases. For any given variant or gene, MARRVEL displays information from OMIM, ExAC, ClinVar, Geno2MP, DGV, and DECIPHER. Importantly, it curates model organism-specific databases to concurrently display a concise summary regarding the human gene homologs in budding and fission yeast, worm, fly, fish, mouse, and rat on a single webpage. Experiment-based information on tissue expression, protein subcellular localization, biological process, and molecular function for the human gene and homologs in the seven model organisms are arranged into a concise output. Hence, rather than visiting multiple separate databases for variant and gene analysis, users can obtain important information by searching once through MARRVEL. Altogether, MARRVEL dramatically improves efficiency and accessibility to data collection and facilitates analysis of human genes and variants by cross-disciplinary integration of 18 million records available in public databases to facilitate clinical diagnosis and basic research. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2014-06-01

    In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blue Tigers, Black Tapirs, & the Pied Raven of the Faroe Islands: Teaching Genetic Drift Using Real-Life Animal Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robischon, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Genetic drift is a concept of population genetics that is central to understanding evolutionary processes and aspects of conservation biology. It is frequently taught using rather abstract representations. I introduce three real-life zoological examples, based on historical and recent color morphs of tigers, tapirs, and ravens, that can complement…

  19. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF), water (water footprint, WF) and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF) during the production process. The wide range of different land a...

  20. The combined use of embryos and semen for cryogenic conservation of mammalian livestock genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzi Flavia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this empirical simulation study was to evaluate the use of a combination of semen and embryos in the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed. Such an approach was compared for banks with varying proportions of embryos on the basis of the amount of the material to be stored, time for reconstruction, maintenance of genetic variability, and probability of failure during reconstruction. Four types of populations were simulated, based on reproductive rate: single offspring, twinning, enhanced reproduction, and litter bearing. Reconstruction was simulated for banks consisting of different combinations of semen and reduced numbers of embryos (expressed as a percentage of the material needed for a bank containing exclusively embryos and ranging from 10 to 90%. The use of a combination of semen and embryos increased the number of insemination cycles needed for reconstruction and the level of genetic relatedness in the reconstructed population. The risk for extinction was unacceptably high when a very low proportion of embryos (