Full Text Available The overall aim of gene conservation is the preservation of animal genetic resources (AnGR. Since the well balanced, diverse and healthy supply of food is a major element of the national food sovereignty, hence successful animal production is not possible without preservation of AnGR. Moreover, local breeds are considered as part of national treasures, cultural values, and pre-requisit for a landscape-friendly, biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive agriculture. In thematic gene conservation, our primary concerns are economically important traits, adaptability and biological diversity of breeds. Beside these, aesthetic and ethical issues to be considered as well.
Genetic diversity is the basis of agriculture. Adapting populations of domestic animals through breeding is impossible withot genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is part of the history of mankind and is essential for future improvements in agricultural production.
Animal and Dairy Science Reseorch Instiute, Irene, 1675. In the process of abandoning ... genetic improvement of the industry on a national basis. Quantitatively the ..... rapidly developing, challenging and competitive world with its modern ...
South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Tindano, K; Moula, N; Leroy, P; Traoré, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N
Farm animal genetic resources are threatened worldwide. Participation in markets, while representing a crucial way out of poverty for many smallholders, affects genetic management choices with associated sustainability concerns. This paper proposes a contextualized study of the interactions between markets and animal genetic resources management, in the case of sheep markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It focusses on the organization of marketing chains and the valuation of genetic characteristics by value chain actors. Marketing chain characterization was tackled through semi-structured interviews with 25 exporters and 15 butchers, both specialized in sheep. Moreover, revealed preference methods were applied to analyse the impact of animals' attributes on market pricing. Data were collected from 338 transactions during three different periods: Eid al-Adha, Christmas and New Year period, and a neutral period. The neutral period is understood as a period not close to any event likely to influence the demand for sheep. The results show that physical characteristics such as live weight, height at withers and coat colour have a strong influence on the animals' prices. Live weight has also had an increasing marginal impact on price. The different markets (local butcher, feasts, export market, sacrifices) represent distinct demands for genetic characteristics, entailing interesting consequences for animal genetic resource management. Any breeding programme should therefore take this diversity into account to allow this sector to contribute better to a sustainable development of the country.
Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.
Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo
Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477
Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling
Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation...
Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.
This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and
Cardellino, R.; Hoffmann, I.; Tempelman, K.A.
As part of the country-driven strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources, FAO invited 188 counties to participate in the First Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, with 145 consenting. Their reports are an important source of information on the use of biotechnology, particularly biotechnical products and processes. This paper analyses information from country reports so far submitted, and is therefore preliminary. There is clearly a big gap in biotechnology applications between developed and developing countries, with artificial insemination the most common technology used in developing countries, although not everywhere. More complex techniques, such as embryo transfer (ET) and molecular tools, are even less frequent in developing countries. Most developing countries wish to expand ET and establish gene banks and cryoconservation techniques. There are very few examples in developing countries of livestock breeding programmes capable of incorporating molecular biotechnologies in livestock genetic improvement programmes. (author)
Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.
A comparison of genetic diversity between South African conserved and field ... economic loss for human populations, especially in developing countries. .... for Development of National Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources.
special issues: Special Issues on Animal Models in Biomedical Research1 °, New Ra Models of Obesity and Type II Diabetes ", and Pain in Animals and...country of Central and South America, as well as to the Caribbean, and Mexico and published notices in newsletters. Young scientists from Mexico, Peru , and... diabetes ) Kom MowaKi Ph.D, Department of Cell Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, 25 S . . .. ,2
CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:
CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Office:
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...
Full Text Available China is recognized as an important region for plant biodiversity based on its vast and historical collection of vegetable germplasm. The aim of this review is to describe the exploration status of vegetable genetic resources in China, including their collection, preservation, evaluation, and utilization. China has established a number of national-level vegetable genetic resources preservation units, including the National Mid-term Genebank for Vegetable Germplasm Resources, the National Germplasm Repository for Vegetatively-Propagated Vegetables, and the National Germplasm Repository for Aquatic Vegetables. In 2015, at least 36 000 accessions were collected and preserved in these units. In the past decade, 44 descriptors and data standards for different species have been published, and most accessions have been evaluated for screening the germplasms for specific important traits such as morphological characteristics, disease resistance, pest resistance, and stress tolerance. Moreover, the genetic diversity and evolution of some vegetable germplasms have been evaluated at the molecular level. Recently, more than 1 000 accessions were distributed to researchers and breeders each year by various means for vegetable research and production. However, additional wild-relative and abroad germplasms from other regions need to be collected and preserved in the units to expand genetic diversity. Furthermore, there is a need to utilize advanced techniques to better understand the background and genetic diversity of a wide range of vegetable genetic resources. This review will provide agricultural scientists’ insights into the genetic diversity in China and provide information on the distribution and potential utilization of these valuable genetic resources. Keywords: vegetable, genetic resource, preservation, evaluation, utilization
As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit quality, watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus) share a narrow genetic base. Africa is the center of origin and diversity of watermelon and is considered to be the central continent for collecting and conserving useful ge...
The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.
This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample
The long-term preservation of forest genetic resources is a vital part of preserving our forest crops for future generations. Unfortunately there are few genebanks dedicated to forest trees and very few methods aside from field plantings of germplasm collections of elite clonal individuals. The use ...
The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity .... and gene targeting in embryonic stem cells) has been a powerful tool in .... endonucleases that are designed to make a doublestrand.
Mulvihill, John J.
Reviews observations on domestic animals that have led to the identification of environmental teratogens, and have provided insight into the pathogenesis of congenital defects and genetic diseases in man." (Author/AL)
Howe, K S
Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.
New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)
Full Text Available Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are necessary in food production and biodiversity conservation. These are the most important natural resources, in addition to air, water and soil. Unfortunately, during the evolution large number of plant genetic resources has been lost. The biggest negative impact on loss of plant genetic resources had been made by humans through the modernization of agriculture and the creation of varieties of high genetic uniformity. FAO and its operation through international mechanisms, such as the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first legal act which regulates all levels of biodiversity: ecosystems, species and genetic resources, biotechnology, including the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (regulates the transfer of genetic material across the border, contributed to the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. In addition to the Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO has been defined by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in more specific and detailed way, the preservation of genetic resources. The objectives of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use. There are four basic pillars which form the substance of the Contract, Sustainable use of plant genetic resources, Farmers' Rights, the Multilateral System and the Global Information System. Two organizations, the International Biodiversity and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants trying to solve the issues of protection of the population and old varieties as intellectual property.
Full Text Available The maintenance and preservation of biodiversity is going through the processes of conservation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems and habitats, as well as the preservation and recovery of species. Genetic diversity means the variety and total number of genes contained in plant and animal species and microorganisms. Genetic diversity is the basic unit of diversity, which is responsible for differences between individuals, populations and species. Genetic diversity is very important for the preservation of biodiversity and can be saved in several ways. Part of the germplasm is maintained through breeding programs as they evaluate germplasm stored and used as a source of needed diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity is one of the most important international agreements to protect nature and conserve genetic resources. International treaties governing the use of genetic resources for food and agriculture are a way to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of plant resources for food and agriculture, and to regulate the rights of farmers.
A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...
/90/e25.pdf. Li H., Liang Y., Sui L., Gao X. and He C. 2011 Characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Mediterranean blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis by EST database mining and cross-species amplification. J. Genet.
, under which we will consider for pub- lication brief reports of the development and/or routine use of molecular markers for assessing genetic variability within and among species, as well as reports outlining useful pedagogical ...
Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.
Genomics and high through-put phenotyping are ushering in a new era of accessing genetic diversity held in plant genetic resources, the cornerstone of both traditional and genomics-assisted breeding efforts of food legume crops. Acknowledged or not, yield plateaus must be broken given the daunting ...
Justin Finch, MD
The genetic skin diseases we will review are pigmentary mosaicism, piebaldism, albinism, Griscelli syndrome, ectodermal dysplasias, Waardenburg syndrome, and mucinosis in both humans and domesticated animals.
Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.
This research presents the effect of the 10-year long civil war in Sierra Leone on rice genetic resources, using farmers and their seed systems in three selected districts as reference points. The war disrupted all forms of production and development in the country and like other sectors of the
Ukendt, FAO; Ukendt, DFSC; Ukendt, ICRAF
FAO, IPGRI/SAFORGEN, DFSCand ICRAF have cooperated on the compilation of17 booklets on the state of Forest Genetic Resources for thecountries listed below. When ordering your book please remember to write the country required on the email. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d\\Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia......, Guinee, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, North of Nigeria, North Cameroon, Senegal, Sudan, Tchad and Togo....
Н. Е. Волкова
Full Text Available Purpose. Literature review of DNA banks creation as the current strategy of plant genetic resources conservation. Results. The current state of plant genetic resources conservation was analyzed in the context of the threat of genetic erosion. The importance of DNA banks was shown which function is to store DNA samples and associated products and disseminate them for research purposes. The main DNA banks in the world were described, including the Republican DNA Bank of Human, Animals, Plants and Microorganisms at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Stages of DNA banking were considered: tissue sampling (usually from leaves, cell destruction, DNA extraction, DNA storage. Different methods of tissue sampling, extraction and DNA storage were compared. The need for Plant DNA Bank creation in Ukraine was highlighted. Conclusions. DNA collections is an important resource in the global effort to overcome the crisis in biodiversity, for managing world genetic resources and maximizing their potential.
Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo
Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling.
Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches.
Davidoff, Donald J.
Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…
Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia
The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
used to promote benefit sharing and conversation of plant genetic resources particularly in ... and Government at the World Food Summit agreed on a global plan of action ... the sustainable use of plant genetic resources by providing a flexible.
The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to ...
Vries, R.B.M. de
The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not
Plant genetic resources management in Ghana: Some challenges in legumes. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... The Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, serving as the national gene bank of Ghana, together with other stakeholders, had made strenuous efforts in managing the legume genetic resources in ...
Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.
Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a primary brain tumor found in the cerebellum of children. The tumor occurs in association with two inherited cancer syndromes: Turcot syndrome and Gorlin syndrome. Insights into the molecular biology of the tumor have come from looking at alterations in the genes altered in these syndromes, PTC and APC, respectively. Murine models of medulloblastoma have been constructed based on these alterations. Additional murine models that, while mimicking the appearance of the human tumor, seem unrelated to the human tumor's molecular alterations have been made. In this review, the clinical picture, origin, molecular biology, murine models of medulloblastoma are discussed. Although a great deal has been discovered about this tumor, the genetic alterations responsible for tumor development in a majority of patients have yet to be described.
Full Text Available Plant Genetic Resources (PGR continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion are discussed.4. Genetic Resources Conservation. Because of genetic erosion there is a need for conservation. PGR should be consigned to the appropriate method of conservation (ex situ, in situ, on-farm according to the scientific basis of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity and the evolutionary status of plants (cultivated plants, weeds, related wild plants (crop wild relatives.5. GMO. The impact of genetically engineered plants on genetic diversity is discussed.6. The Conclusions and Recommendations stress the importance of PGR. Their conservation and use are urgent necessities for the present development and future survival of mankind.
Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang
A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed
Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.
Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The
A. H. D. Brown; G. F. Moran
Genetic data are an essential prerequisite for analysing the genetic structure of tree populations. The isozyme technique is the best currently available method for obtaining such data. Despite several shortcomings, isozyme data directly evaluate the genetic resources of forest trees, and can thus be used to monitor and manipulate these resources. For example,...
Alemu, Setegn Worku
This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...
Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang
Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are
Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang
Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that "…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity." However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are
Full Text Available Excessive presence of wild ungulates can produce negative effects on herbaceous crops or woody species, and to face this problem, habitat improvements are often performed to recreate suitable environments for a given animal species and to attract animals far from cultivated crops. A common example of these interventions is represented by grassland restoration and to evaluate the real animal preferences on restored forage resources a proper trial was established in a hilly area of Tuscany (central Italy, inside the historical Park of Pratolino, near Florence. The trial compared six different forage species or mixtures sown in plots: vegetal material was represented by two pure stands (Onobrychis viciifolia and Medicago sativa and four mixtures differing in number and kind of used species. Plots were utilised only by wild animals occurring in the area. Data collection consisted of botanical samples in each plot in different periods to obtain the percent presence of each species. At the same time, a visual estimation of animal intake on all occurring species was performed to obtain the browsing ratio of single species and overall defoliation rate for each species/mixture. Moreover, six camera traps were placed on the boundary of the experimental site to record videos of wild animals browsing in the area for identification of animals actually occurring on different plots and for comparison of these results with botanical data. Vegetation surveys permitted a proper evaluation of animals intake and of their feeding preferences. In general, sown species performed a major role in animal browsing, even if in some periods also a few native species (such as Plantago lanceolata or Cichorium intybus were utilised in a strong way, depending on vegetation context and existing biomass. Camera traps results permitted the identification of browsing animal species (mainly represented by roe deer and plots frequentation resulted to be highly related to animal
An animal model utilizes all relationships available in a given data set. Estimates for variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, maternal environmental and direct environmental effects, and their covariances between direct and maternal genetic effects for post weaning growth traits have been obtained with ...
This book is an advanced textbook covering the application of quantitative genetics theory to analysis of actual data (both trait and DNA marker information) for breeding populations of crops, trees, and animals. Chapter 1 is an introduction to basic software used for trait data analysis. Chapter 2 ...
Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.
Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Sam C Banks
Full Text Available Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing, as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.
Berry Donagh P
Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.
Mansfield, Keith G; Riley, Lela K; Kent, Michael L
Despite advances, infectious diseases remain a threat to animal facilities, continue to affect animal health, and serve as potential confounders of experimental research. A workshop entitled Detection, Impact, and Control of Specific Pathogens in Animal Resource Facilities was sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and National Institutes of Aging (NIA) and held April 23-24, 2009, at the Lister Hill Conference Center on the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Bethesda campus. The meeting brought together laboratory animal scientists and veterinarians with experience in fish, rodent, and nonhuman primate models to identify common issues and problems. Session speakers addressed (1) common practices and current knowledge of these species, (2) new technologies in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, (3) impact of environmental quality on infectious disease, (4) normal microbial flora in health and disease, (5) genetics and infectious disease, and (6) specific infectious agents and their impact on research. Attendees discussed current challenges and future needs, highlighting the importance of education and training, the funding of critical infrastructure and resource research, and the need for improved communication of disease risks and integration of these risks with strategic planning. NIH and NCRR have a strong record of supporting resource initiatives that have helped address many of these issues and recent efforts have focused on the building of consortium activities among such programs. This manuscript summarizes the presentations and conclusions of participants at the meeting; abstracts and a full conference report are available online (www.ncrr.nih.gov).
Garrity, GM; Thompson, LM; Ussery, David
The principles underlying fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the utilization of genetic resources are set out in Article 15 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which stipulate that access to genetic resources is subject to the prior informed consent of the country where...
Reilly, Matthew T.; Harris, R. Adron; Noronha, Antonio
Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene’s function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput “next-generation sequencing” technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism. PMID:23134044
Bogart, J P; Bi, K
Polyploid animals have independently evolved from diploids in diverse taxa across the tree of life. We review a few polyploid animal species or biotypes where recently developed molecular and cytogenetic methods have significantly improved our understanding of their genetics, reproduction and evolution. Mitochondrial sequences that target the maternal ancestor of a polyploid show that polyploids may have single (e.g. unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma) or multiple (e.g. parthenogenetic polyploid lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis) origins. Microsatellites are nuclear markers that can be used to analyze genetic recombinations, reproductive modes (e.g. Ambystoma) and recombination events (e.g. polyploid frogs such as Pelophylax esculentus). Hom(e)ologous chromosomes and rare intergenomic exchanges in allopolyploids have been distinguished by applying genome-specific fluorescent probes to chromosome spreads. Polyploids arise, and are maintained, through perturbations of the 'normal' meiotic program that would include pre-meiotic chromosome replication and genomic integrity of homologs. When possible, asexual, unisexual and bisexual polyploid species or biotypes interact with diploid relatives, and genes are passed from diploid to polyploid gene pools, which increase genetic diversity and ultimately evolutionary flexibility in the polyploid. When diploid relatives do not exist, polyploids can interact with another polyploid (e.g. species of African Clawed Frogs in the genus Xenopus). Some polyploid fish (e.g. salmonids) and frogs (Xenopus) represent independent lineages whose ancestors experienced whole genome duplication events. Some tetraploid frogs (P. esculentus) and fish (Squaliusalburnoides) may be in the process of becoming independent species, but diploid and triploid forms of these 'species' continue to genetically interact with the comparatively few tetraploid populations. Genetic and genomic interaction between polyploids and diploids is a complex
Genome resource banking is the systematic collection, storage, and redistribution of biomaterials in an organized, logistical, and secure manner. Genome cryobanks usually contain biomaterials and associated genomic information essential for progression of biomedicine, human health, and research. In that regard, appropriate genome cryobanks could provide essential biomaterials for both current and future research projects in the form of various cell types and tissues, including sperm, oocytes, embryos, embryonic or adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and gonadal tissues. In addition to cryobanked germplasm, cryobanking of DNA, serum, blood products, and tissues from scientifically, economically, and ecologically important species has become a common practice. For revitalization of the whole organism, cryopreserved germplasm in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, offer a powerful approach for research model management, as well as assisting in animal production for agriculture, conservation, and human reproductive medicine. Recently, many developed and developing countries have allocated substantial resources to establish genome resources banks which are responsible for safeguarding scientifically, economically, and ecologically important wild type, mutant, and transgenic plants, fish, and local livestock breeds, as well as wildlife species. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John K. Critser, who has made profound contributions to the science of cryobiology and establishment of genome research and resources centers for mice, rats, and swine. Emphasis will be given to application of genome resource banks to species with substantial contributions to the advancement of biomedicine and human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gabriel R. Nemogá Soto
Full Text Available This article provides an historical account of the changes that have taken place regarding ownership, control and access over genetic resources. Once considered the common heritage of humanity, rights over genetic resources, it is argued, have undergone radical transformations. The global legal framework regarding genetic resources has shifted to legitimize and promote their appropriation and monopolization. This transformation embraced the expansion of intellectual property rights over genetic material and information, including living organisms, through the World Trade Organization´s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs. This was coupled by the adoption of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which recognizes sovereign rights of the countries of origin over their genetic resources and, at the same time, obligates them to permit access to those resources. The Colombian Constitution of 1991 and unparalleled judicial decisions during the last decade reaffirmed sovereign rights over genetic resources in Colombia. Conversely, the genetic resources and the traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities continue to be freely accessible resources within the current Colombian legal framework.
Plant genetic resource collections provide novel materials to the breeding and research communities. Availability of detailed documentation of passport, phenotypic, and genetic data increases the value of the genebank accessions. Inclusion of georeferenced sources, habitats, and sampling data in co...
Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P
Recent advances in genetic and ecological studies of wild animal populations in Chernobyl and Fukushima have demonstrated significant genetic, physiological, developmental, and fitness effects stemming from exposure to radioactive contaminants. The few genetic studies that have been conducted in Chernobyl generally show elevated rates of genetic damage and mutation rates. All major taxonomic groups investigated (i.e., birds, bees, butterflies, grasshoppers, dragonflies, spiders, mammals) displayed reduced population sizes in highly radioactive parts of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In Fukushima, population censuses of birds, butterflies, and cicadas suggested that abundances were negatively impacted by exposure to radioactive contaminants, while other groups (e.g., dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, spiders) showed no significant declines, at least during the first summer following the disaster. Insufficient information exists for groups other than insects and birds to assess effects on life history at this time. The differences observed between Fukushima and Chernobyl may reflect the different times of exposure and the significance of multigenerational mutation accumulation in Chernobyl compared to Fukushima. There was considerable variation among taxa in their apparent sensitivity to radiation and this reflects in part life history, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary history. Interestingly, for birds, population declines in Chernobyl can be predicted by historical mitochondrial DNA base-pair substitution rates that may reflect intrinsic DNA repair ability. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mathur, Pramod K; Vogelzang, Roos; Mulder, Herman A; Knol, Egbert F
Animal health and welfare are monitored during meat inspection in many slaughter plants around the world. Carcasses are examined by meat inspectors and remarks are made with respect to different diseases, injuries, and other abnormalities. This is a valuable data resource for disease prevention and enhancing animal welfare, but it is rarely used for this purpose. Records on carcass remarks on 140,375 finisher pigs were analyzed to investigate the possibility of genetic selection to reduce the risk of the most prevalent diseases and indicators of suboptimal animal welfare. As part of this, effects of some non-genetic factors such as differences between farms, sexes, and growth rates were also examined. The most frequent remarks were pneumonia (15.4%), joint disorders (9.8%), pleuritis (4.7%), pericarditis (2.3%), and liver lesions (2.2%). Joint disorders were more frequent in boars than in gilts. There were also significant differences between farms. Pedigree records were available for 142,324 pigs from 14 farms and were used for genetic analysis. Heritability estimates for pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, liver lesions, and joint disorders were 0.10, 0.09, 0.14, 0.24, and 0.17 on the liability scale, respectively, suggesting the existence of substantial genetic variation. This was further confirmed though genome wide associations using deregressed breeding values as phenotypes. The genetic correlations between these remarks and finishing traits were small but mostly negative, suggesting the possibility of enhancing pig health and welfare simultaneously with genetic improvement in finishing traits. A selection index based on the breeding values for these traits and their economic values was developed. This index is used to enhance animal welfare in pig farms.
Full Text Available Abstract The technology of gene targeting through homologous recombination has been extremely useful for elucidating gene functions in mice. The application of this technology was thought impossible in the large livestock species until the successful creation of the first mammalian clone "Dolly" the sheep. The combination of the technologies for gene targeting of somatic cells with those of animal cloning made it possible to introduce specific genetic mutations into domestic animals. In this review, the principles of gene targeting in somatic cells and the challenges of nuclear transfer using gene-targeted cells are discussed. The relevance of gene targeting in domestic animals for applications in bio-medicine and agriculture are also examined.
Kouba, Andrew J; Vance, Carrie K
As amphibian populations continue to decline, both government and non-government organisations are establishing captive assurance colonies to secure populations deemed at risk of extinction if left in the wild. For the most part, little is known about the nutritional ecology, reproductive biology or husbandry needs of the animals placed into captive breeding programs. Because of this lack of knowledge, conservation biologists are currently facing the difficult task of maintaining and reproducing these species. Academic and zoo scientists are beginning to examine different technologies for maintaining the genetic diversity of founder populations brought out of the wild before the animals become extinct from rapidly spreading epizootic diseases. One such technology is genetic resource banking and applied reproductive technologies for species that are difficult to reproduce reliably in captivity. Significant advances have been made in the last decade for amphibian assisted reproduction including the use of exogenous hormones for induction of spermiation and ovulation, in vitro fertilisation, short-term cold storage of gametes and long-term cryopreservation of spermatozoa. These scientific breakthroughs for a select few species will no doubt serve as models for future assisted breeding protocols and the increasing number of amphibians requiring conservation intervention. However, the development of specialised assisted breeding protocols that can be applied to many different families of amphibians will likely require species-specific modifications considering their wide range of reproductive modes. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current state of knowledge in the area of assisted reproduction technologies and gene banking for the conservation of amphibians.
Keywords: Population genetic structure, Safflower, simple sequence repeat, C. oxyacanthus,. AMOVA .... next-generation sequencing methods, the most dinucleotide repeats were AT (Lee et al. 2014; .... seeds by wind to far distances. Indeed ...
Lefevre, F.; Koskela, J.; Hubert, J.; Kraigher, H.; Longauer, R.; Olrik, D.C.; Vries, de S.M.G.
Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across
Full Text Available The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the
Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.
Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.
Fair Access to and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources : National Policy Development (China, Jordan, Nepal, Peru). Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. Existing laws and mechanisms - such as intellectual property rights (IPRs) ...
Ergaz, Zivanit; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal etiologies. We discuss the known animal models, mostly in mice and rats, of ASD that helps us to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of human ASD. We describe only models where behavioral testing has shown autistic like behaviors. Some genetic models mimic known human syndromes like fragile X where ASD is part of the clinical picture, and others are without defined human syndromes. Among the environmentally induced ASD models in rodents, the most common model is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA) either prenatally or early postnatally. VPA induces autism-like behaviors following single exposure during different phases of brain development, implying that the mechanism of action is via a general biological mechanism like epigenetic changes. Maternal infection and inflammation are also associated with ASD in man and animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sapoviruses (SaVs are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs, including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2. We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV, one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5' RACE methods. We also determined the 5'- and 3'-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1 "GTG" at the 5'-end of the genome, and a short (9~14 nt 5'-untranslated region; and 2 the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII, sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII, and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain.
Wehrli Judith; Cottier Thomas
Marine genetic resources other than fish and mammals are of increasing commercial interest and importance in genetic engineering but fail being properly addressed in the law of the sea and in international economic law. The paper analyses the implication of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea the Convention on Biodiversity the WTO Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and related instruments under the auspices of WIPO. The paper argues that the tri...
The use of recombinant DNA techniques in conjunction with conventional genetic methods have led to a rapid increase in knowledge of the genetic map. Many animal genes have been mapped to chromosomes. A detailed genetic map has become of great value in the diagnosis of genetic diseases and in the development ...
Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.
Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...
The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...
The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of "in situ condition" has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions.
The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...
Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.
Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.
Groot, S.P.C.; Groot, de E.C.
This report describes an analysis of the impact of workflow and storage conditions at the Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands (CGN) on the quality of seed samples in their genebank collection which is maintained under low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Emphasis is placed
Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear
Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...
Marsteller, Nathan; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Goodman, Richard E.
Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...... of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).......Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...
Eraldo M. Costa-Neto
Full Text Available Animals have been used as medicinal resources for the treatment and relieve of a myriad of illnesses and diseases in practically every human culture. Although considered by many as superstition, the pertinence of traditional medicine based on animals cannot be denied since they have been methodically tested by pharmaceutical companies as sources of drugs to the modern medical science. The phenomenon of zootherapy represents a strong evidence of the medicinal use of animal resources. Indeed, drug companies and agribusiness firms have been evaluating animals for decades without paying anything to the countries from where these genetic resources are found. The use of animals' body parts as folk medicines is relevant because it implies additional pressure over critical wild populations. It is argued that many animal species have been overexploited as sources of medicines for the traditional trade. Additionally, animal populations have become depleted or endangered as a result of their use as experimental subjects or animal models. Research on zootherapy should be compatible with the welfare of the medicinal animals, and the use of their by-products should be done in a sustainable way. It is discussed that sustainability is now required as the guiding principle for biological conservation.Os animais são utilizados como recursos medicinais para o tratamento e alívio de um gama de doenças e enfermidades em praticamente toda cultura humana. A pertinência da medicina tradicional baseada em animais, embora considerada como superstição, não deve ser negada uma vez que os animais têm sido testados metodicamente pelas companhias farmacêuticas como fontes de drogas para a ciência médica moderna. O fenômeno da zooterapia representa uma forte evidência do uso medicinal de recursos animais. De fato, as indústrias farmacêuticas e de agronegócios há décadas vêm avaliando animais sem pagar tributos aos países detentores desses recursos gen
This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments....... Three studies were made using frameworks from educational research, communication theory, and network theory: At first an analysis of the conditions influencing the formulation of the grant-scheme was made, secondly a study of the grant-receivers’ communication was conducted, and finally the cooperation......, and their diversity as well as cooperation between them were found to enhance the potential of learning and learners. Recommendations are given to the work with plant genetic resources: It is important that international strategies and an overall national programme govern the conservation, growing and development...
Teneva, A.; Gerzilov, V.; Lalev, M.; Lukanov, H.; Mincheva, N.; Oblakova, M.; Petrov, P.; Hristakieva, P.; Dimitrova, I.; Periasamy, K.
Full text: Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria. (author)
Full Text Available Kazbegi Municipality is located in the Central Great Caucasus at an altitude between 1250 and 5047 m a.s.l. Agriculture of this area is extreme internal variability and complexity, with a multiplicity of highly localized providing the habitats and agricultural lands for much genetic erosion of crop varieties, animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for wild plant resources. Historically, Kazbegi producers had begun cultivating the land to prepare for planting in of distribution local varieties of wheat, barley, rye, oats, etc. In the only cereals, legumes, herbs and some fruits are cultivated in alpine zone as the upper limit till the location of 2160 m a.s.l. Genetic erosion has been determined historically of aboriginal crops from sheep and cattle grazing problem and reached extreme levels from 1970s in Kazbegi Municipality and causes a problem to maintain agriculture. Plant resources remained in forests and subalpine grasslands and shrub lands. The problems of these materials are habitat degradation by disturbance in many forest types with destroyed and burned. Tree seedlings are grazing by animals and forest is not restoring naturally. Forest planting is good relation for restoration of plant wild species resources. Investigation on exchange on mountain agriculture and plant resources will now be rapidly accelerated in the vital interests of mountain communities.
Full Text Available The paper describes the plentitude of genetic resources of indigenous varieties of fruit species and their importance for further development of fruit growing, especially from the aspect of breeding new varieties resistant to pathogens and abiotic stress conditions (frost, drought, sunburns, etc.. Economic significance and importance in the human nutrition, as a raw or processed fruitage, were stated as well. Based on the unique biodiversity, the Balkan Peninsula can be considered as a secondary center of divergence for a large number of fruit species, such as Malus x domestica, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis, Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. fruticosa, P. amygdalus, P. nana, Juglans regia, Corilus colurna, Corilus avellana, Castanea sativa, Fragaria vesca, Cornus mas. The old indigenous and domesticated varieties and natural populations of fruit species on the Balkan Peninsula have never been the subject of comprehensive research work on their collecting and studying. Serbia has no national scientific institution that takes care of genetic resources. Nowadays, the issue of preserving genetic resources is of great importance because, due to the intensification and modernization of plant production, many local populations have disappeared or are reduced to a small number of biotypes. The varieties with huge genetic and breeding value have disappeared forever without any possibility of their return. By importing high quality fruit varieties, we imported many diseases and various pests as well. New varieties intended for intensive cultivation require the application of expensive growing technologies. The systematic scientific work on the study of wild fruit species and autochthonous varieties is of the great interest for fruit science and practice in the future. The establishment of in situ collections with the aim to preserve valuable genetic material is mandatory. In the following period, indigenous and domesticated varieties
Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Park, Hyi Gook; Jung, Il Lae; Seo, Yong Won; Chang, Chul Seong; Kim, Jae Yoon; Ham, Jae Woong
The aim of this study is to develop new, useful and high-valuable genetic resources through the overproduction of biodegradable plastics and the propagation of wheat using proton-beam irradiation. Useful host strain was isolated through the mutagenization of the Escherichia coli K-12 strain, followed by characterizing the genetic and physiological properties of the E. coli mutant strains. The selected E. coli mutant strain produced above 85g/L of PHB, showed above 99% of PHB intracellular content and spontaneously liberated intracellular PHB granules. Based on the results, the production cost of PHB has been estimated to approximately 2$/kg, leading effective cost-down. Investigated the propagation of wheat and its variation, a selectable criterion of wet pro of was established and genetic analysis of useful mutant was carried out
Adams, Clark E.
Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…
The author points out the importance of exploration, conservation and documentation of genetic resources and reviews the current status of utilization of available genetic resources and the present breeding strategies
Zhao, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, Z.
Hawthorn (Cratageus spp.) are important medicinal plants. Flavonoids are the main active ingredient in hawthorn. With the help of hawthorn leaf flavonoids efficient detection system, vitexin, rhamnosylvitexin, hyperin, rutin and quercetin of 122 hawthorn resources was precisely measured.The flavonoid contents of 10 hawthorn species were explicited. The comparation of flavonoids revealed the abundant genetic diversity of hawthorn flavones. Large variable coefficient has been observed among 5 flavonoid monomer traits. The coefficients of variation were 44.17%, 132.2%, 157.08%, 113.91% and 31.05 for Vitexin, Rhamnosylvitexin, Hyperoside, Rutin and Quercetin respectively. The sum of these 5 flavonoid monomer contents represented the total flavonoids in hawthorn. The total coefficients of variation was 44.01%. Some high-content-flavone and valuable leaf resources were found. This research could provide accurate date for further production, breeding and the effective use of medicinal resources. (author)
The defence against parasites has come to be regarded as probably the biggest problem in the production of the plants on which our own survival depends. The problem has always been there, but in our pure-bred cultivars extending over large areas it has assumed disaster proportions. The wild ancestors of many crop species evolved in balance with parasite species, their regions of genetic diversity coinciding. Domestication led to geographical dispersal and genetic differentiation of host and, presumably, of parasite species. Genetic heterogeneity may have been the saving grace of the primitive cultivars by which fairly stable populations lived for some 5000 to 10,000 years. We are now aware of the advantages and of the dangers of genetic homogeneity, and ''genetic vulnerability'' is now more than a catch phrase. We are responding to it in a variety of ways, each involving some use of new or increased genetic variation. They extend from the search for new oligogenic resistance sources, to multiple resistance, and to the various forms of ''horizontal'' or polygenic resistance. We turn to the genetic resources accumulated in the much neglected wild and primitive gene pools which helped our ancestors to survive epidemics. And we turn further towards the full circle by deliberately adopting heterogeneity in multilines of various descriptions and in varietal blends. The rate at which resistance sources are ''used up'' in the different systems now in use is discussed, in the light of the urgent need for economizing and preserving both the now used and the as yet unexplored resistance sources, on which the future stability of crop production will depend. (author)
Rollin, Bernard E
The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very
Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y
Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to
A. B. Lisitsyn
Full Text Available The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity require further researches to develop modern techniques and product recipes with specified propertiesfor consumers with food hypersensitivity. Existing technologies are based on the elimination and or reduction of the content of the allergenic substance in food. The article provides an overview of causes of food intolerance and food allergy, legislative background, a list of food allergens and methods of control, market profile of hypoallergenic produce and scientific approaches to creating hypoallergenic food products based on raw materials of animal origin.
Pogue, Robert E; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Shanker, Shreya; Andrade, Rosangela V; Aguiar, Lana R; de Carvalho, Juliana L; Costa, Fabrício F
Rare genetic diseases collectively impact a significant portion of the world's population. For many diseases there is limited information available, and clinicians can find difficulty in differentiating between clinically similar conditions. This leads to problems in genetic counseling and patient treatment. The biomedical market is affected because pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries do not see advantages in addressing rare disease treatments, or because the cost of the treatments is too high. By contrast, technological advances including DNA sequencing and analysis, together with computer-aided tools and online resources, are allowing a more thorough understanding of rare disorders. Here, we discuss how the collection of various types of information together with the use of new technologies is facilitating diagnosis and, consequently, treatment of rare diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osborne, L R; Lee, J R; Scherer, S W
A little over a century ago, the HMS Beagle sailed the Pacific Ocean bringing Charles Darwin to the perfect environment in which to piece together his observations forming the theory of evolution. Now, geneticists and laypeople alike surf the equally formidable waters of the internet in search of enlightenment. Here, we attempt to help you navigate towards resources for human genetics by providing maps to three destinations: The Human Genome Project (Box 1), education (Box 2), and human genetic diseases (Box 3). For each, we highlight a few sites that we consider are the most informative and original. A more extensive list containing other useful sites has been compiled and posted on a 'jump site' at: http:/(/)www.cgdn.generes.ca/.
No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de
Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.
The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized
In this review, it is argued that greatly improved understanding of domestication may be gained from extending the field of behaviour genetics to also include epigenetics. Domestication offers an interesting framework of rapid evolutionary changes caused by well-defined selection pressures. Behaviour is an important phenotype in this context, as it represents the primary means of response to environmental challenges. An overview is provided of the evidence for genetic involvement in behavioural control and the presently used methods for finding so-called behaviour genes. This shows that evolutionary changes in behaviour are to a large extent correlated to changes in patterns of gene expression, which brings epigenetics into the focus. This area is concerned with the mechanisms controlling the timing and extent of gene expression, and a lot of focus has been placed on methylation of cytosine in promoter regions, usually associated with genetic downregulation. The review considers the available evidence that environmental input, for example stress, can modify methylation and other epigenetic marks and subsequently affect behaviour. Furthermore, several studies are reviewed, demonstrating that acquired epigenetic modifications can be inherited and cause trans-generational behaviour changes. In conclusion, epigenetics may signify a new paradigm in this respect, as it shows that genomic modifications can be caused by environmental signals, and random mutations in DNA sequence are therefore not the only sources of heritable genetic variation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Hill, W.G.; Mulder, H.A.; Zhang, X.S.
Considerable attention has been paid to estimating genetic variability in quantitative traits and to how it is maintained and changed by selection in natural and domesticated populations, but rather little attention has been paid to how levels of environmental and phenotypic variance are influenced.
D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...
Sánchez-de la Vega, Guillermo; Castellanos-Morales, Gabriela; Gámez, Niza; Hernández-Rosales, Helena S.; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P.; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Lira-Saade, Rafael; Eguiarte, Luis E.
Analyses of genetic variation allow understanding the origin, diversification and genetic resources of cultivated plants. Domesticated taxa and their wild relatives are ideal systems for studying genetic processes of plant domestication and their joint is important to evaluate the distribution of their genetic resources. Such is the case of the domesticated subspecies C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma, known in Mexico as calabaza pipiana, and its wild relative C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia. The main aim of this study was to use molecular data (microsatellites) to assess the levels of genetic variation and genetic differentiation within and among populations of domesticated argyrosperma across its distribution in Mexico in comparison to its wild relative, sororia, and to identify environmental suitability in previously proposed centers of domestication. We analyzed nine unlinked nuclear microsatellite loci to assess levels of diversity and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations in 440 individuals from 19 populations of cultivated landraces of argyrosperma and from six wild populations of sororia, in order to conduct a first systematic analysis of their genetic resources. We also used species distribution models (SDMs) for sororia to identify changes in this wild subspecies’ distribution from the Holocene (∼6,000 years ago) to the present, and to assess the presence of suitable environmental conditions in previously proposed domestication sites. Genetic variation was similar among subspecies (HE = 0.428 in sororia, and HE = 0.410 in argyrosperma). Nine argyrosperma populations showed significant levels of inbreeding. Both subspecies are well differentiated, and genetic differentiation (FST) among populations within each subspecies ranged from 0.152 to 0.652. Within argyrosperma we found three genetic groups (Northern Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, including Michoacan and Veracruz, and Pacific coast plus Durango). We detected low levels of gene
Guillermo Sánchez-de la Vega
Full Text Available Analyses of genetic variation allow understanding the origin, diversification and genetic resources of cultivated plants. Domesticated taxa and their wild relatives are ideal systems for studying genetic processes of plant domestication and their joint is important to evaluate the distribution of their genetic resources. Such is the case of the domesticated subspecies C. argyrosperma ssp. argyrosperma, known in Mexico as calabaza pipiana, and its wild relative C. argyrosperma ssp. sororia. The main aim of this study was to use molecular data (microsatellites to assess the levels of genetic variation and genetic differentiation within and among populations of domesticated argyrosperma across its distribution in Mexico in comparison to its wild relative, sororia, and to identify environmental suitability in previously proposed centers of domestication. We analyzed nine unlinked nuclear microsatellite loci to assess levels of diversity and distribution of genetic variation within and among populations in 440 individuals from 19 populations of cultivated landraces of argyrosperma and from six wild populations of sororia, in order to conduct a first systematic analysis of their genetic resources. We also used species distribution models (SDMs for sororia to identify changes in this wild subspecies’ distribution from the Holocene (∼6,000 years ago to the present, and to assess the presence of suitable environmental conditions in previously proposed domestication sites. Genetic variation was similar among subspecies (HE = 0.428 in sororia, and HE = 0.410 in argyrosperma. Nine argyrosperma populations showed significant levels of inbreeding. Both subspecies are well differentiated, and genetic differentiation (FST among populations within each subspecies ranged from 0.152 to 0.652. Within argyrosperma we found three genetic groups (Northern Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, including Michoacan and Veracruz, and Pacific coast plus Durango. We detected low
Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.
The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this
Thousands of years ago humans began domesticating crops as a food source. Among the wild germplasm available, they selected those that were best adapted for cultivation and utilization. Although wild ancestors have continued to persist in regions where domestication took place, there is a permanent risk of loss of the genetic variability of cultivated plants and their wild relatives in response to changing environmental conditions and cultural practices. Recognizing this danger, plant ex situ genebank collections were created since the beginning of the last century. World-wide, more than 6 million accessions have been accumulated including the German ex situ genebank in Gatersleben, one of the four largest global collections, housing 150,000 accessions belonging to 890 genera and 3032 species. This review summarizes the ex situ plant genetic resources conservation behavior with a special emphasis on German activities. Strategies for maintenance and management of germplasm collections are reviewed, considering modern biotechnologies (in vitro and cryo preservation). General aspects on genetic diversity and integrity are discussed.
Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous
Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.
Full Text Available The classical concepts in plant and livestock selection for economically important quantitative traits traditionally are based on phenotypic records, aiming at improvement of the traits by obtaining better genetic gain. The increase in genetic variation together with shortening of the generation interval is the major target of long term improvement of methods and tools for selection activities. The discoveries and implementations of biotechnology and molecular biology for selection purposes provide a stable background for generating of new knowledge and practical use in agricultural research and practice as well as to meet the growing demand for more and with better quality food and feed. The innovations in molecular knowledge related to practical selection aside with the quick quantification in breeding schemes allowed to reconsider the opportunities for sustainable development of selection methods for improvement of the traits of interest in agriculture, the quick invention and practical application of new high-throughput technologies for studying of the genomic variation, evolution, translation of proteins and metabolite determination altogether put in an open and communicative environment of information technologies provide a new holistic platform for better research and more knowledge for practical application of selection decisions.
Full Text Available Number of plant species and populations in the diet and agriculture, and knowledge about them, their cultivation and use, represent the biological, cultural and social heritage of the humankind. Due to favourable geographic, soil, and climate conditions, and large diversity of flora in Serbia, there is a rich tradition of vegetable use in the diet, cultivated and volunteer, autochthonous. More than 70 botanical vegetable species that are accepted for long-term preservation are mentioned nowadays in Serbia. Besides that, some plant species that are classified as industrial, medicinal and aromatic plants are being used as vegetables. Vegetables include legumes used as stewing vegetables. Serbia has three vegetable regions: lowlands (along the rivers Danube, Tisa and Sava, Moravian (along three Morava Rivers and their tributaries and mountainous (Eastern, South-eastern and Western areas, Kosovo and Metohija. In these regions, genetic resources of vegetables should be looked for in cultivated and volunteering flora of different domestic and domesticated populations developed due to adaptation to the specific abiotic and biotic factors, including breeders' selection. International and national projects have been organised in the field of preserving genetic resources of vegetables in the past, as well as nowadays in Serbia. Collected samples are stored in Plant Gene Bank of Serbia and in gene banks all over the world. Significant part is located in the collections of national institutes and faculties. Samples are described with passport data, while those in collections even in more detail. However, none of this is sufficient. In the last decades in Serbia, many populations and vegetable species have threatened to disappear. Many villages are disappearing, there are few growers of vegetables, and extinction of numerous valuable genotypes is accelerated by unfavourable weather conditions. Large number of cultivars and vegetable species that were
Jennifer R. Prentice
Full Text Available The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.
Hasler, B; Delabouglise, A; Babo Martins, S
The primary role of animal health economics is to inform decision-making by determining optimal investments for animal health. Animal health surveillance produces information to guide interventions. Consequently, investments in surveillance and intervention must be evaluated together. This article explores the different theoretical frameworks and methods developed to assess and optimise the spending of resources in surveillance and intervention and their technical interdependence. The authors present frameworks that define the relationship between health investment and losses due to disease, and the relationship between surveillance and intervention resources. Surveillance and intervention are usually considered as technical substitutes, since increased investments in surveillance reduce the level of intervention resources required to reach the same benefit. The authors also discuss approaches used to quantify externalities and non-monetary impacts. Finally, they describe common economic evaluation types, including optimisation, acceptability and least-cost studies.
Rogelberg, Steven G; Reeve, Charlie L; Spitzmüller, Christiane; DiGiacomo, Natalie; Clark, Olga L; Teeter, Lisa; Walker, Alan G; Starling, Paula G; Carter, Nathan T
To examine the effects of euthanasia rates, euthanasia practices, and human resource practices on the turnover rate among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters. Cross-sectional original study. 36 shelters across the United States that employed at least 5 full-time employees and performed euthanasia on site. By mail, 1 survey was sent to each shelter. Surveys were completed by a senior member of management and were returned by mail. Questions assessed characteristics (eg, euthanasia rates) and practices of the animal shelter, along with employee turnover rates. By use of correlation coefficients and stepwise regression analyses, key predictors of turnover rates among employees with euthanasia responsibilities were investigated. Employee turnover rates were positively related to euthanasia rate. Practices that were associated with decreased turnover rates included provision of a designated euthanasia room, exclusion of other live animals from vicinity during euthanasia, and removal of euthanized animals from a room prior to entry of another animal to be euthanized. Making decisions regarding euthanasia of animals on the basis of factors other than behavior and health reasons was related to increased personnel turnover. With regard to human resources practices, shelters that used a systematic personnel selection procedure (eg, standardized testing) had comparatively lower employee turnover. Data obtained may suggest several specific avenues that can be pursued to mitigate turnover among employees with euthanasia responsibilities at animal shelters and animal control or veterinary medical organizations.
Integration of socioeconomic and genetic aspects involved in the conservation of animal genetic resources = Integración de aspectos socioeconómicos y genéticos involucrados en la conservación de recursos genéticos animales
Martín Collado, Daniel
El sector ganadero está siendo gradualmente dominado por sistemas intensivos y especializados en los que los factores de producción están controlados y en los que los caracteres productivos son los criterios principales para la selección de especies y razas. Entretanto, muchos de los bienes y servicios que tradicionalmente suministraba el ganado, tales como los fertilizantes, la tracción animal o materias primas para la elaboración vestimenta y calzado están siendo reemplazados por productos ...
Odintsova, Veronika V; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dolan, Conor V; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Martin, Nicholas G; Slagboom, P Eline; Ordoñana, Juan R; Boomsma, Dorret I
Twin registers are wonderful research resources for research applications in medical and behavioral genetics, epidemiology, psychology, molecular genetics, and other areas of research. New registers continue to be launched all over the world as researchers from different disciplines recognize the
Full Text Available The intensive exploitation of genetic resources at the international level has led to a negotiation of an international regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS of genetic resources. Due to lack of systematic data, little is known about the structure of trade in genetic resources to inform the negotiators. This study attempts to shed a greater insight into genetic resources trade in the pharmaceutical sector in Korea, mainly relying on interviews of industry practitioners and scientists in related fields. The study finds that Korea is mainly a genetic resource importer, but that pharmaceutical firms rarely carry out bioprospecting directly, relying on semi-processed biochemicals imports trough agents. Therefore, the impact of the to-be negotiated international ABS negotiation will be larger if derivatives are included in its scope. However, the general impact on the economy as a whole would be small, given the small share of genetic resources trade compared to total trade volumes.
Juan José Pascual
Full Text Available In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare. Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven. Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability. To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum. There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential. The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential. The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction. The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level. The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure. The body condition of young
Junker, Robert R; Blüthgen, Nico
Animal-pollinated angiosperms either depend on cross-pollination or may also reproduce after self-pollination—the former are thus obligately, the latter facultatively dependent on the service of animal-pollinators. Analogously, flower visitors either solely feed on floral resources or complement their diet with these, and are hence dependent or not on the flowers they visit. We assume that obligate flower visitors evolved abilities that enable them to effectively forage on flowers including m...
Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.
The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615
Beisner, Brianne A.; Jackson, Megan E.; Cameron, Ashley N.; McCowan, Brenda
The persistence of biological systems requires evolved mechanisms which promote stability. Cohesive primate social groups are one example of stable biological systems, which persist in spite of regular conflict. We suggest that genetic relatedness and its associated kinship structure are a potential source of stability in primate social groups as kinship structure is an important organizing principle in many animal societies. We investigated the effect of average genetic relatedness per matri...
Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.
Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)
Bruford, Michael W; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Amaral, Andreia J; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F; Hall, Stephen J G; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-Ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang
Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However,
Bruford, M.W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Megens, Hendrik Jan
Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR).
Deborah M. Finch
The Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station initiated a research program in 1994 called. "Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of soil, plant, animal, and human resources of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service Research. Its mission focuses on the development and application of new...
Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.
: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present...... that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA...
Forester, James D; Im, Hae Kyung; Rathouz, Paul J
Patterns of resource selection by animal populations emerge as a result of the behavior of many individuals. Statistical models that describe these population-level patterns of habitat use can miss important interactions between individual animals and characteristics of their local environment; however, identifying these interactions is difficult. One approach to this problem is to incorporate models of individual movement into resource selection models. To do this, we propose a model for step selection functions (SSF) that is composed of a resource-independent movement kernel and a resource selection function (RSF). We show that standard case-control logistic regression may be used to fit the SSF; however, the sampling scheme used to generate control points (i.e., the definition of availability) must be accommodated. We used three sampling schemes to analyze simulated movement data and found that ignoring sampling and the resource-independent movement kernel yielded biased estimates of selection. The level of bias depended on the method used to generate control locations, the strength of selection, and the spatial scale of the resource map. Using empirical or parametric methods to sample control locations produced biased estimates under stronger selection; however, we show that the addition of a distance function to the analysis substantially reduced that bias. Assuming a uniform availability within a fixed buffer yielded strongly biased selection estimates that could be corrected by including the distance function but remained inefficient relative to the empirical and parametric sampling methods. As a case study, we used location data collected from elk in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to show that selection and bias may be temporally variable. Because under constant selection the amount of bias depends on the scale at which a resource is distributed in the landscape, we suggest that distance always be included as a covariate in SSF analyses. This approach to
Ormandy, Elisabeth H
This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. 2016 FRAME.
Gillies, Cameron S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Nielsen, Scott E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Aldridge, Cameron L; Frair, Jacqueline L; Saher, D Joanne; Stevens, Cameron E; Jerde, Christopher L
1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population-level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is constant given individual variation in resource availability. 3. Although researchers have identified ways to minimize autocorrelation, variation between individuals caused by differences in selection or available resources, including functional responses in resource selection, have not been well addressed. 4. Here we review random-effects models and their application to resource selection modelling to overcome these common limitations. We present a simple case study of an analysis of resource selection by grizzly bears in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains with and without random effects. 5. Both categorical and continuous variables in the grizzly bear model differed in interpretation, both in statistical significance and coefficient sign, depending on how a random effect was included. We used a simulation approach to clarify the application of random effects under three common situations for telemetry studies: (a) discrepancies in sample sizes among individuals; (b) differences among individuals in selection where availability is constant; and (c) differences in availability with and without a functional response in resource selection. 6. We found that random intercepts accounted for unbalanced sample designs, and models with random intercepts and coefficients improved model fit given the variation in selection among individuals and functional responses in selection. Our empirical example and simulations demonstrate how including random effects in resource selection models can aid interpretation and address difficult assumptions
Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.
Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon
A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation
Martínez, Marcela L; Labuckas, Diana O; Lamarque, Alicia L; Maestri, Damián M
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is the most widespread tree nut in the world. There is a great diversity of genotypes differing in forestry, productivity, physical and chemical nut traits. Some of them have been evaluated as promising and may serve as germplasm sources for breeding. The nutritional importance of the nut is related to the seed (kernel). It is a nutrient-dense food mainly owing to its oil content (up to 740 g kg(-1) in some commercial varieties), which can be extracted easily by screw pressing and consumed without refining. Walnut oil composition is dominated largely by unsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic together with lesser amounts of oleic and linolenic acids). Minor components of walnut oil include tocopherols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, hydrocarbons and volatile compounds. Phenolic compounds, present at high levels in the seed coat but poorly extracted with the oil, have been extensively characterised and found to possess strong antioxidant properties. The oil extraction residue is rich in proteins (unusually high in arginine, glutamic and aspartic acids) and has been employed in the formulation of various functional food products. This review describes current scientific knowledge concerning walnut genetic resources and composition as well as by-product obtainment and characteristics. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N
The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
F. Thomas Ledig; J. Jesús Vargas-Hernández; Kurt H. Johnsen
The genetic codes of living organisms are natural resources no less than soil, air, and water. Genetic resources-from nucleotide sequences in DNA to selected genotypes, populations, and species-are the raw material in forestry: for breeders, for the forest manager who produces an economic crop, for society that reaps the environmental benefits provided by forests, and...
Bryce A. Richardson; Marcus V. Warwell; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald
To assess threats or predict responses to disturbances, or both, it is essential to recognize and characterize the population structures of forest species in relation to changing environments. Appropriate management of these genetic resources in the future will require (1) understanding the existing genetic diversity/variation and population structure of forest trees...
Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Brown, Steve D.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Juhn, Steven K.; Jung, Timothy T. K.; Lim, David J.; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J. Christopher
Background Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Objective To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. Data Sources and Review Methods A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Results Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications. PMID:23536532
D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B
described by the concept of animal temperament (also known as coping styles, personality or behavioural syndromes), but this has rarely been demonstrated at the genetic level in farm animals. These findings may have practical implications for the development of breeding programmes aimed at altering animal temperament. Breeding to reduce aggression could result in some reduction in activity at weighing. This would have consequences for animal production, because pigs which are inactive at weighing take longer to move into and out of the weigh crate, and perhaps also for animal welfare.
Md. Rasel Uzzaman
Full Text Available Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139 and expected (0.148±0.143 heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature.
Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie
Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Choisy, Marc; de Roode, Jacobus C
Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the evolution of genetically fixed versus phenotypically plastic forms of medication. Our model shows that the relative benefits (the antiparasitic properties of medicinal food) and costs (side effects of medicine, the costs of searching for medicine, and the costs of plasticity itself) crucially determine whether medication is genetically fixed or phenotypically plastic. Our model suggests that animals evolve phenotypic plasticity when parasite risk (a combination of virulence and prevalence and thus a measure of the strength of parasite-mediated selection) is relatively low to moderately high and genetically fixed medication when parasite risk becomes very high. The latter occurs because at high parasite risk, the costs of plasticity are outweighed by the benefits of medication. Our model provides a simple and general framework to study the conditions that drive the evolution of alternative forms of animal medication.
Diane S. Daniel
Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis ranks as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A strong epidemiological link has been reported between E. faecalis inhabiting animals and environmental sources. This study investigates the genetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in E. faecalis from three sources in Malaysia. A total of 250 E. faecalis isolates were obtained consisting of 120 isolates from farm animals, 100 isolates from water sources and 30 isolates from hospitalized patients. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis-typing yielded 63 pulsotypes, with high diversity observed in all sources (D = ≥0.901. No pulsotype was common to all the three sources. Each patient room had its own unique PFGE pattern which persisted after six months. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Fosfomycin were evaluated. Resistance to Tetracycline was most prevalent in isolates from farm animals (62% and water sources (49%. Water isolates (86% had a higher prevalence of the asa1 gene, which encodes for aggregation substance, whereas clinical (78% and farm animal isolates (87% had a higher prevalence of the esp gene, encoding a surface exposed protein. This study generates knowledge on the genetic diversity of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence characteristics from various sources in Malaysia. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Enterococcus faecalis, Genetic diversity, Molecular typing, Virulence markers
de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon
A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.
Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick
Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.
Glazko, V.I.; Grodzinskij, D.M.; Glazko, T.T.
The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations
Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Binladen, J.
Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including...... the oldest authenticated ancient DNA sequences known, and megafaunal sequences including mammoth, bison, and horse. The genetic data record a number of dramatic changes in the taxonomic diversity and composition of Beringian vegetation and fauna. Temperate cave sediments in New Zealand also yielded DNA...
Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro
Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Mitchell Katrina B
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is
B. St. Clair; S. Lipow; K. Vance-Borland; R. Johnson
Conservation of genetic diversity is recognized as an important requirement of sustainable forest management. Gene conservation activities include in situ conservation of native stands in reserves and ex situ conservation in seed banks, genetic tests, seed and breeding orchards, and other plantations of known identity. We present an example from Oregon and Washington...
Devlin-Durante, M K; Miller, M W; Precht, W F; Baums, I B
Foundation species such as redwoods, seagrasses and corals are often long-lived and clonal. Genets may consist of hundreds of members (ramets) and originated hundreds to thousands of years ago. As climate change and other stressors exert selection pressure on species, the demography of populations changes. Yet, because size does not indicate age in clonal organisms, demographic models are missing data necessary to predict the resilience of many foundation species. Here, we correlate somatic mutations with genet age of corals and provide the first, preliminary estimates of genet age in a colonial animal. We observed somatic mutations at five microsatellite loci in rangewide samples of the endangered coral, Acropora palmata (n = 3352). Colonies harboured 342 unique mutations in 147 genets. Genet age ranged from 30 to 838 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.195 -04 per locus per year based on colony growth rates and 236 to 6500 years assuming a mutation rate of 1.542 -05 per locus per year based on sea level changes to habitat availability. Long-lived A. palmata genets imply a large capacity to tolerate past environmental change, and yet recent mass mortality events in A. palmata suggest that capacity is now being frequently exceeded. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brianne A Beisner
Full Text Available The persistence of biological systems requires evolved mechanisms which promote stability. Cohesive primate social groups are one example of stable biological systems, which persist in spite of regular conflict. We suggest that genetic relatedness and its associated kinship structure are a potential source of stability in primate social groups as kinship structure is an important organizing principle in many animal societies. We investigated the effect of average genetic relatedness per matrilineal family on the stability of matrilineal grooming and agonistic interactions in 48 matrilines from seven captive groups of rhesus macaques. Matrilines with low average genetic relatedness show increased family-level instability such as: more sub-grouping in their matrilineal groom network, more frequent fighting with kin, and higher rates of wounding. Family-level instability in multiple matrilines within a group is further associated with group-level instability such as increased wounding. Stability appears to arise from the presence of clear matrilineal structure in the rhesus macaque group hierarchy, which is derived from cohesion among kin in their affiliative and agonistic interactions with each other. We conclude that genetic relatedness and kinship structure are an important source of group stability in animal societies, particularly when dominance and/or affilative interactions are typically governed by kinship.
Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.
The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)
Mendel, Jan; Urbánková, Soňa; Vyskočilová, M.
Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 546-549 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : genetic database * microsatellite marker loci Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013
N. Benbrahim; F. Gaboun
Zaer lentil has been on-farm conserved thanks to farmers’ knowledges and practices add to its genetic diversity. Its notoriety is related to its specific adaptation and organoleptic traits. The main objective of this study is to identify farmers’ practices that have allowed a dynamic adaptation potential and an add value on quality product. It was based on (1) farmers’ survey on seed management system, (2) Zaer lentil genetic diversity analysis using agro-morphological traits and (3) technolo...
Kellerhals, Markus; Duffy, Brion
Modern apple breeding strategies are mainly considering the most advanced selections and culti-vars as parents. This tends to lead to a narrowed genetic basis. The introgression of traditional va-rieties and accessions of the gene pool is often feared due to undesirable characteristics that might be incorporated. However, there is scope for considering a wider genetic basis in apple breeding to support sustainable fruit production systems. The focus at Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil (ACW) is p...
Full Text Available The paper highlights lessons learned over the last thirty years establishing a governance structure for the global crop commons that are of relevance to current champions of the microbial commons. It argues that the political, legal and biophysical situation in which microbial genetic resources (and their users are located today are similar to the situation of plant genetic resources in the mid-1990s, before the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources was negotiated. Consequently, the paper suggests that it may be useful to look to the model of global network of ex situ plant genetic resources collections as a precedent to follow – even if only loosely – in developing an intergovernmentally endorsed legal substructure and governance framework for the microbial commons.
Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.
The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an initial research on interdependence mong countries on crop diversity provided information helpful for countries to establish the Treaty, and in particular its Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-s...
Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg
Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where...... records exist for the parents). Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to the sire-dam model). Conclusions The new algorithm to estimate genetic parameters via Gibbs sampling solves the bias problems typically occurring in animal...... individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (co)variance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative...
Brost, Brian M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Small, Robert J.
Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines.
Moore, K L; Mrode, R; Coffey, M P
Visual Image analysis (VIA) of carcass traits provides the opportunity to estimate carcass primal cut yields on large numbers of slaughter animals. This allows carcases to be better differentiated and farmers to be paid based on the primal cut yields. It also creates more accurate genetic selection due to high volumes of data which enables breeders to breed cattle that better meet the abattoir specifications and market requirements. In order to implement genetic evaluations for VIA primal cut yields, genetic parameters must first be estimated and that was the aim of this study. Slaughter records from the UK prime slaughter population for VIA carcass traits was available from two processing plants. After edits, there were 17 765 VIA carcass records for six primal cut traits, carcass weight as well as the EUROP conformation and fat class grades. Heritability estimates after traits were adjusted for age ranged from 0.32 (0.03) for EUROP fat to 0.46 (0.03) for VIA Topside primal cut yield. Adjusting the VIA primal cut yields for carcass weight reduced the heritability estimates, with estimates of primal cut yields ranging from 0.23 (0.03) for Fillet to 0.29 (0.03) for Knuckle. Genetic correlations between VIA primal cut yields adjusted for carcass weight were very strong, ranging from 0.40 (0.06) between Fillet and Striploin to 0.92 (0.02) between Topside and Silverside. EUROP conformation was also positively correlated with the VIA primal cuts with genetic correlation estimates ranging from 0.59 to 0.84, whereas EUROP fat was estimated to have moderate negative correlations with primal cut yields, estimates ranged from -0.11 to -0.46. Based on these genetic parameter estimates, genetic evaluation of VIA primal cut yields can be undertaken to allow the UK beef industry to select carcases that better meet abattoir specification and market requirements.
Tech Directions, 2008
Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…
Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko
Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.
Luo, Zihan; Armour, Simon; McGeehan, Joe
This paper shows how a genetic algorithm can be used as a method of obtaining the near-optimal solution of the resource block scheduling problem in a cooperative cellular network. An exhaustive search is initially implementedto guarantee that the optimal result, in terms of maximizing the bandwidth efficiency of the overall network, is found, and then the genetic algorithm with the properly selected termination conditions is used in the same network. The simulation results show that the genet...
Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)
The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.
Full Text Available Zaer lentil has been on-farm conserved thanks to farmers’ knowledges and practices add to its genetic diversity. Its notoriety is related to its specific adaptation and organoleptic traits. The main objective of this study is to identify farmers’ practices that have allowed a dynamic adaptation potential and an add value on quality product. It was based on (1 farmers’ survey on seed management system, (2 Zaer lentil genetic diversity analysis using agro-morphological traits and (3 technological and nutritional analysis. The results show that the on-farm conservation of Zaer lentil is linked to its specific adaptation related to seed production and seed exchange system, to its genetic diversity (21.7%
Müller, M; Brem, G
Novel approaches to modify disease resistance or susceptibility in livestock are justified not only by economical reasons and with respect to animal welfare but also by recent advancements in molecular genetics. The control or elimination of infectious pathogens in farm animals is historically achieved by the use of vaccines and drugs and by quarantine safeguards and eradication. Currently, research on the improvement of disease resistance based on nucleic acid technology focuses on two main issues: additive gene transfer and the development of nucleic acid vaccines. The strategies aim at the stable or transient expression of components known to influence non-specific or specific host defence mechanisms against infectious pathogens. Thus, candidates for gene transfer experiments include all genes inducing or conferring innate and acquired immunity as well as specific disease resistance genes. Referring to the site and mode of action and the source of the effective agent the strategies are termed 'intracellular', 'genetic' and 'congenital' immunisation. The targeted disruption (deletive gene transfer) of disease susceptibility genes awaits the establishment of totipotential embryonic cell lineages in farm animals. The cytokine network regulates cellular viability, growth and differentiation in physiological and pathophysiological states. The identification of the JAK-STAT pathway used by many cytokines for their intracellular signal propagation has provided not only new target molecules for modulating the immune response but will also permit the further elucidation of host-pathogen interactions and resistance mechanisms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. Methods We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs, the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for motor activity, gross motor coordination, and skilled reaching. Wistar (WIS rats were used as controls. Results Similar to children with ADHD, young adolescent SHRs displayed locomotor hyperactivity in a familiar, but not in a novel environment. They also had lower performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared to WIS rats, especially in the most sensitive measure of skilled performance (i.e., single attempt success. In contrast, their gross motor performance on a Rota-Rod test was similar to that of WIS rats. Conclusion The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying fine motor skill problems in children with ADHD.
Potapov, Anton M; Tiunov, Alexei V; Scheu, Stefan
Despite the major importance of soil biota in nutrient and energy fluxes, interactions in soil food webs are poorly understood. Here we provide an overview of recent advances in uncovering the trophic structure of soil food webs using natural variations in stable isotope ratios. We discuss approaches of application, normalization and interpretation of stable isotope ratios along with methodological pitfalls. Analysis of published data from temperate forest ecosystems is used to outline emerging concepts and perspectives in soil food web research. In contrast to aboveground and aquatic food webs, trophic fractionation at the basal level of detrital food webs is large for carbon and small for nitrogen stable isotopes. Virtually all soil animals are enriched in 13 C as compared to plant litter. This 'detrital shift' likely reflects preferential uptake of 13 C-enriched microbial biomass and underlines the importance of microorganisms, in contrast to dead plant material, as a major food resource for the soil animal community. Soil organic matter is enriched in 15 N and 13 C relative to leaf litter. Decomposers inhabiting mineral soil layers therefore might be enriched in 15 N resulting in overlap in isotope ratios between soil-dwelling detritivores and litter-dwelling predators. By contrast, 13 C content varies little between detritivores in upper litter and in mineral soil, suggesting that they rely on similar basal resources, i.e. little decomposed organic matter. Comparing vertical isotope gradients in animals and in basal resources can be a valuable tool to assess trophic interactions and dynamics of organic matter in soil. As indicated by stable isotope composition, direct feeding on living plant material as well as on mycorrhizal fungi is likely rare among soil invertebrates. Plant carbon is taken up predominantly by saprotrophic microorganisms and channelled to higher trophic levels of the soil food web. However, feeding on photoautotrophic microorganisms and non
Jill Wegrzyn; Meg Staton; Emily Grau; Richard Cronn; C. Dana Nelson
Genetics and genomics are increasingly important in forestry management and conservation. Next generation sequencing can increase analytical power, but still relies on building on the structure of previously acquired data. Data standards and data sharing allow the community to maximize the analytical power of high throughput genomics data. The landscape of incomplete...
Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.
The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing
Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of
Wells, Kevin D
Modern biotechnology resulted from of a series of incremental improvements in the understanding of DNA and the enzymes that nature evolved to manipulate it. As the potential impact of genetic engineering became apparent, scientists began the process of trying to identify the potential unintended consequences. Restrictions to recombinant DNA experimentation were at first self-imposed. Collaborative efforts between scientists and lawyers formalized an initial set of guidelines. These guidelines have been used to promulgate regulations around world. However, the initial guidelines were only intended as a starting point and were motivated by a specific set of concerns. As new data became available, the guidelines and regulations should have been adapted to the new knowledge. Instead, other social drivers drove the development of regulations. For most species and most applications, the framework that was established has slowly allowed some products to reach the market. However, genetically engineered livestock that are intended for food have been left in a regulatory state of limbo. To date, no genetically engineered food animal is available in the marketplace. A short history and a U.S.-based genetic engineer's perspective are presented. In addition, a request to regulatory agencies is presented for consideration as regulation continues to evolve. Regulators appear to have shown preference for the slow, random progression of evolution over the efficiency of intentional design.
Hill, William G
Although animal breeding was practiced long before the science of genetics and the relevant disciplines of population and quantitative genetics were known, breeding programs have mainly relied on simply selecting and mating the best individuals on their own or relatives' performance. This is based on sound quantitative genetic principles, developed and expounded by Lush, who attributed much of his understanding to Wright, and formalized in Fisher's infinitesimal model. Analysis at the level of individual loci and gene frequency distributions has had relatively little impact. Now with access to genomic data, a revolution in which molecular information is being used to enhance response with "genomic selection" is occurring. The predictions of breeding value still utilize multiple loci throughout the genome and, indeed, are largely compatible with additive and specifically infinitesimal model assumptions. I discuss some of the history and genetic issues as applied to the science of livestock improvement, which has had and continues to have major spin-offs into ideas and applications in other areas.
Junker, Robert R; Blüthgen, Nico
Animal-pollinated angiosperms either depend on cross-pollination or may also reproduce after self-pollination - the former are thus obligately, the latter facultatively dependent on the service of animal-pollinators. Analogously, flower visitors either solely feed on floral resources or complement their diet with these, and are hence dependent or not on the flowers they visit. We assume that obligate flower visitors evolved abilities that enable them to effectively forage on flowers including mechanisms to bypass or tolerate floral defences such as morphological barriers and repellent / deterrent secondary metabolites. Facultative flower visitors, in contrast, are supposed to lack these adaptations and are often prevented to consume floral resources by defence mechanisms. In cases where obligate flower visitors are mutualists and facultative ones are antagonists, this dichotomy provides a solution for the plants' dilemma to attract pollinators and simultaneously repel exploiters. In a meta-analysis, we recently supported this hypothesis: obligate flower visitors are attracted to floral scents, while facultative ones are repelled. Here, we add empirical evidence to these results: bumblebees and ants, obligate and facultative flower visitors, respectively, responded as predicted by the results of the meta-analysis to synthetic floral scent compounds.
Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A
At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of
Full Text Available In Romania, Prunus genetic resources are kept in collections of varieties, populations and biotypes, mainly located in research and development institutes or fruit growing stations and, in the last years, by some private enterprises. Creating the experimental model for the Germplum database based on phenotypic descriptors and SSR molecular markers analysis is an important and topical objective for the efficient characterization of genetic resources and also for establishing a public-private partnership for the effective management of plum germplasm resources in Romania. The technical development of the Germplum database was completed and data will be added continuously after characterizing each new accession.
E.D. Karimuribo; B. Jones; M.I. Matee; D.M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; M.M. Rweyemamu
A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...
Samuel, Biju; Mathew, Jeeno
Resource Allocation is procedure of doling out or allocating the accessible assets in a monetary way and productive way. Resource allocation is the scheduling of the accessible assets and accessible exercises or activities required while thinking about both the asset accessibility and the total project completion time. Asset provisioning and allocation takes care of that issue by permitting the specialist co-ops to deal with the assets for every individual demand of asset. A probabilistic selection procedure has been developed in order to ensure various selections of chromosomes
Picher-Martel, Vincent; Valdmanis, Paul N; Gould, Peter V; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease in adults. Classical ALS is characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis. Approximately 10 % of ALS patients have familial form of the disease. Numerous different gene mutations have been found in familial cases of ALS, such as mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), C9ORF72, ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), optineurin (OPTN) and others. Multiple animal models were generated to mimic the disease and to test future treatments. However, no animal model fully replicates the spectrum of phenotypes in the human disease and it is difficult to assess how a therapeutic effect in disease models can predict efficacy in humans. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS leads to a variety of responses to similar treatment regimens. From this has emerged the concept of personalized medicine (PM), which is a medical scheme that combines study of genetic, environmental and clinical diagnostic testing, including biomarkers, to individualized patient care. In this perspective, we used subgroups of specific ALS-linked gene mutations to go through existing animal models and to provide a comprehensive profile of the differences and similarities between animal models of disease and human disease. Finally, we reviewed application of biomarkers and gene therapies relevant in personalized medicine approach. For instance, this includes viral delivering of antisense oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA in SOD1, TDP-43 and C9orf72 mice models. Promising gene therapies raised possibilities for treating differently the major mutations in familial ALS cases.
Zhang, W; Shi, F
In the past few years, genetically modified (GM) crops aimed at producing food/feed that became part of the regular agriculture in many areas of the world. However, we are uncertain whether GM food and feed can exert potential adverse effects on humans or animals. Of importance, the reproductive toxicology of GM crops has been studied using a number of methods, and by feeding GM crops to a number species of animals to ensure the safety assessment of GM food and feed. It appears that there are no adverse effects of GM crops on many species of animals in acute and short-term feeding studies, but serious debates of effects of long-term and multigenerational feeding studies remain. The aims of this review are to focus on the latest (last 3 to 4 years) findings and debates on reproduction of male and female animals after feeding daily diets containing the GM crops, and to present the possible mechanism(s) to explain their influences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. Methods The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior lab directors and clinicians at publically funded Canadian predictive genetic testing facilities. Participants were drawn from British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Given the community sampled was identified as being relatively small and challenging to access, purposive sampling coupled with snowball sampling methodologies were utilized. Results Surveyed lab directors and clinicians indicated that predictive genetic tests were funded provincially by one of two predominant funding models, but they themselves played a significant role in how these funds were allocated for specific tests and services. They also rated and identified several factors that influenced allocation decisions and patients' decisions regarding testing. Lastly, participants provided recommendations regarding changes to existing allocation models and showed support for a national evaluation process for predictive testing. Conclusion Our findings suggest that largely local and relatively ad hoc decision making processes are being made in relation to resource allocations for predictive genetic tests and that a more coordinated and, potentially, national approach to allocation decisions in this context may be appropriate.
Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. Existing laws and mechanisms - such as intellectual property rights (IPRs) - leave communities open to biopiracy because they protect individual as opposed to collective rights and do not recognize ...
Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J
Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.
Michael William Bruford
Full Text Available Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy, climate change and market demands. The last decade saw a step change in technological and analytical approaches to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR. These changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and the methodologies needed to exploit new, multidimensional data. The ESF Genomic Resources program final conference addressed these problems attempting to contribute to the development of the research and policy agenda for the next decade. We broadly identified four areas related to methodological and analytical challenges, data management and conservation. The overall conclusion is that there is a need for the use of current state-of-the-art tools to characterise the state of genomic resources in non-commercial and local breeds. The livestock genomic sector, which has been relatively well-organised in applying such methodologies so far, needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratisation of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.
Alonso-Blanco, C.; Koornneef, M.
The definition of gene functions requires the phenotypic characterization of genetic variants. Currently, such functional analysis of Arabidopsis genes is based largely on laboratory-induced mutants that are selected in forward and reverse genetic studies. An alternative complementary source of
Full Text Available A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency preparedness were collected from all wards (n = 22, human health facilities (n = 40 and livestock facilities in the two districts using interview checklists and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics for resources were calculated and mapped by district. Kibaha district had a higher human population density, more health workers, better equipped health facilities and better communication and transport systems. On the other hand, Ngorongoro had a higher population of livestock and more animal health facilities but a poorer ratio of animal health workers to livestock. The average ratio of health personnel to population in catchment areas of the health facilities was 1:147 (range of 1:17−1:1200. The ratio of personnel to human population was significantly higher in Kibaha (1:95 than in Ngorongoro (1:203 district (p = 0 < 0.001. Considering the limited resources available to both human and animal health sectors and their different strengths and weaknesses there are opportunities for greater collaboration and resource-sharing between human and animal health for improved surveillance and emergency-preparedness.
Nelson, Nicole C
In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to 'knock out' specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins's work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a 'well-done experiment,' I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community's knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well.
Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.
Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.
Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.
Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M.J.; Govers, F.; Jacobsen, E.; Mendes, O.; Lee, van der T.A.J.
This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus,
Bal Krishna Joshi
Agricultural biodiversity is the basis of human life and food security. Nepal with 577 cultivated species possesses huge diversity at varietal as well as landrace levels. In most agricultural crops the rapid genetic erosion due to several reasons is a common phenomenon. Thus, considering the importance of agricultural biodiversity declared by Convention on Biological Diversity for sustainable food production, National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center (NAGRC) has been established for conse...
Forsberg, C.W.; Golovan, S.P.; Ajakaiye, A.; Fan, M.Z.; Hacker, R.R.; Phillips, J.P.; Meidinger, R.G.; Kelly, J.M.
Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of genetic resources characterization of some pasture species from the germplasm collection held at ISPAAM-CNR in Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. According to the peculiarities of each species, some of the uses suggested by the experimental results were phytoremediation, wildfi re prevention, biomass production for bioenergy, forage production and multiple uses, bioactive compounds for health care of domestic animals.
Arias, M. C.; Atteke, C.; Augusto, S. C.; Bailey, J.; Bazaga, P.; Beheregaray, L. B.; Benoit, L.; Blatrix, R.; Born, C.; Brito, R. M.; Chen, H.-K.; Covarrubias, S.; de Vega, C.; Djiéto-Lordon, C.; Dubois, M.-P.; Francisco, F. O.; García, C.; Concalves, P. H. P.; González, C.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, C.; Hammer, M. P.; Herrera, C. M.; Itoh, H.; Kamimura, S.; Karaoglu, H.; Kojima, S.; Li, S.-L.; Ling, H. J.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; McKey, D.; Mezui-M’Eko, J.; Ornelas, J. F.; Park, R. F.; Pozo, M. I.; Ramula, S.; Rigueiro, C.; Sandoval-Castillo, J.; Santiago, L. R.; Seino, M. M.; Song, C.-B.; Takeshima, H.; Vasemägi, A.; Wellings, C. R.; Yan, J.; Du, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.-R.; Zhang, T.-Y.
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2013), s. 760-762 ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular ecology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12121/pdf
Gordon, Erynn S; Gordish Dressman, Heather A; Hoffman, Eric P
Much of the vast diversity we see in animals and people is governed by genetic loci that have quantitative effects of phenotype (quantitative trait loci; QTLs). Here we review the current knowledge of the genetics of atrophy and hypertrophy in both animal husbandry (meat quantity and quality), and humans (muscle size and performance). The selective breeding of animals for meat has apparently led to a few genetic loci with strong effects, with different loci in different animals. In humans, muscle quantitative trait loci (QTLs) appear to be more complex, with few "major" loci identified to date, although this is likely to change in the near future. We describe how the same phenotypic traits we see as positive, greater lean muscle mass in cattle or a better exercise results in humans, can also have negative "side effects" given specific environmental challenges. We also discuss the strength and limitations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) association studies; what the reader should look for and expect in a published study. Lastly we discuss the ethical and societal implications of this genetic information. As more and more research into the genetic loci that dictate phenotypic traits become available, the ethical implications of testing for these loci become increasingly important. As a society, most accept testing for genetic diseases or susceptibility, but do we as easily accept testing to determine one's athletic potential to be an Olympic endurance runner, or quarterback on the high school football team.
Maurizio, Paul L; Ferris, Martin T
An increasing body of evidence highlights the role of host genetic variation in driving susceptibility to severe disease following pathogen infection. In order to fully appreciate the importance of host genetics on infection susceptibility and resulting disease, genetically variable experimental model systems should be employed. These systems allow for the identification, characterization, and mechanistic dissection of genetic variants that cause differential disease responses. Herein we discuss application of the Collaborative Cross (CC) panel of recombinant inbred strains to study viral pathogenesis, focusing on practical considerations for experimental design, assessment and analysis of disease responses within the CC, as well as some of the resources developed for the CC. Although the focus of this chapter is on viral pathogenesis, many of the methods presented within are applicable to studies of other pathogens, as well as to case-control designs in genetically diverse populations.
Stachowiak, M; Szczerbal, I; Switonski, M
The role of domestic mammals in the development of human biomedical sciences has been widely documented. Among these model species the pig and dog are of special importance. Both are useful for studies on the etiology of human obesity. Genome sequences of both species are known and advanced genetic tools [eg, microarray SNP for genome wide association studies (GWAS), next generation sequencing (NGS), etc.] are commonly used in such studies. In the domestic pig the accumulation of adipose tissue is an important trait, which influences meat quality and fattening efficiency. Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for pig fatness traits were identified, while gene polymorphisms associated with these traits were also described. The situation is different in dog population. Generally, excessive accumulation of adipose tissue is considered, similar to humans, as a complex disease. However, research on the genetic background of canine obesity is still in its infancy. Between-breed differences in terms of adipose tissue accumulation are well known in both animal species. In this review we show recent advances of studies on adipose tissue accumulation in pigs and dogs, and their potential importance for studies on human obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dichter, Gabriel S; Damiano, Cara A; Allen, John A
This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette's syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.
Dichter Gabriel S
Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.
Englishby, Tanya M; Moore, Kirsty L; Berry, Donagh P; Coffey, Mike P; Banos, Georgios
Abattoir data are an important source of information for the genetic evaluation of carcass traits, but also for on-farm management purposes. The present study aimed to quantify the contribution of herd environment to beef carcass characteristics (weight, conformation score and fat score) with particular emphasis on generating finishing herd-specific profiles for these traits across different ages at slaughter. Abattoir records from 46,115 heifers and 78,790 steers aged between 360 and 900days, and from 22,971 young bulls aged between 360 and 720days, were analysed. Finishing herd-year and animal genetic (co)variance components for each trait were estimated using random regression models. Across slaughter age and gender, the ratio of finishing herd-year to total phenotypic variance ranged from 0.31 to 0.72 for carcass weight, 0.21 to 0.57 for carcass conformation and 0.11 to 0.44 for carcass fat score. These parameters indicate that the finishing herd environment is an important contributor to carcass trait variability and amenable to improvement with management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey-prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time.
Oct 14, 2015 ... The cluster analysis shows that Najdi breed is genetically different from both Harri and Awassi and .... Genetic distance value of 0.0 reflects very high similarity between ..... The State of the Worlds Animal Genetic Resources for.
van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.
There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at
Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.T. van; Brooks, A.I.; Estourgie-van Burk, G.F.; Fugman, D.A.; Hoekstra, C.; Hottenga, J.-J.; Kluft, K.; Meijer, P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Rizzu, P.; Sondervan, D.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Tischfield, J.A.; Lehner, T.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.
In 2004 the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) started a large scale biological sample collection in twin families to create a resource for genetic studies on health, lifestyle and personality. Between January 2004 and July 2008, adult participants from NTR research projects were invited into the
Churchill, G. A.; Airey, D. C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J. M.; Attie, A. D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W. D.; Belknap, J. K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K. W.; Buck, K. J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E. J.; Cheverud, J. M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M. N.; Cox, R. D.; Crabbe, J. C.; Crusio, W. E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschepper, C. F.; Doerge, R. W.; Farber, C. R.; Forejt, Jiří; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S. J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.; de Haan, G.; Hayes, N. L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H. C.; Iraqi, F. A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H. J.; Jansen, R. C.; Jepsen, K. J.; Johnson, D. K.; Johnson, T. E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R. F.; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J. M.; Lowenstein, P. R.; Lu, L.; Lusis, A.; Manly, K. F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J. F.; Miller, D. R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B. A.; Mogil, J. S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D. G.; Mott, R.; Nadeau, J. H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R. S.; O'Hara, B. F.; Osadchuk, A. V.; Page, G. P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, A. A.; Pan, H. J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Peirce, J.; Pomp, D.; Pravenec, Michal; Prows, D. R.; Qi, Z.; Reeves, R. H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G. D.; Schadt, E. E.; Schalkwyk, L. C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.; Sillanpää, M. J.; Siracusa, L. D.; Snoeck, H. W.; Spearow, J. L.; Svenson, K.; Tarantino, L. M.; Threadgill, D.; Toth, L. A.; Valdar, W.; de Villena, F. P.; Warden, C.; Whatley, S.; Williams, R. W.; Wiltshire, T.; Yi, N.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, M.; Zou, F.
Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 1133-1137 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : development of resources * common reference panel Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 24.695, year: 2004
Significance and impact of the study: Considering the limited number of accessions of the unknown cultivars and the replanting of old vineyards with vines approved by Cangas Quality Wine regulations, their conservation and study is vital to provide genetic resources for potential breeding or technological purposes in the future.
Etten, van J.
Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study,
Dr. S. P. Vander Kloet, botanist, traveled the world examining and obtaining specimens to redefine infrageneric taxonomic units within Vaccinium L., family Ericaceae. Besides his botanical treatises, his legacy includes herbarium voucher specimens and ex situ genetic resource collections including a...
Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.
This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus......, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne · purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne · purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis...
WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; LIANG Xueqing
The relation between human and crop resources belongs to the ethic of resources exploitation. The purposes of discussing the ethic of crop resources are to protect the ecology and safety of crops, to gain sustainable development, furthermore, to choose and form the production structure that is favorable to saving crop resources and protecting the ecology of crops. Plant genetic engineering is the technology of molecule breeding of rearrangement of inheritance materials at the level of molecule directionally, of improving plant properties and of breeding high quality and yield varieties of crops. The prominent effects of the technology on the crop ecological system are human subjective factors increasing as well as violating the nature and intensifying the conflict between human being and nature.Therefore, in plant genetic engineering, crop resources exploitation should follow certain ethic principles. Under the theory of ethics of natural resources, by the means of biologioal statistics, the author systematically analyzed the possible model of crop resources transfer between generations as well as the transfer mode of magnitude of real materials and magnitude of value.
Moyle, L. C.
Full Text Available The utility of genetic data in conservation efforts, particularly in comparison to demographic information, is the subject of ongoing debate. Using a database of information surveyed from 181 US endangered and threatened species recovery plans, we addressed the following questions concerning the use of genetic information in animal recovery plans: I. What is the relative prominence of genetic vs. demographic data in recovery plan development? and, II. When are genetic factors viewed as a threat, and how do plans respond to genetic threats? In general, genetics appear to play a minor and relatively ill-defined part in the recovery planning process; demographic data are both more abundant and more requested in recovery plans, and tasks are more frequently assigned to the collection / monitoring of demographic rather than genetic information. Nonetheless, genetic threats to species persistence and recovery are identified in a substantial minority (22% of recovery plans, although there is little uniform response to these perceived threats in the form of specific proposed recovery or management tasks. Results indicate that better guidelines are needed to identify how and when genetic information is most useful for species recovery; we highlight specific contexts in which genetics may provide unique management information, beyond that provided by other kinds of data.
Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.
Since the beginning of the large-scale commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the mid-nineties, it has continuously increased. This has occurred in particular in non-European countries from which these crops may be exported as commodities to Europe and other markets. Before
Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun
This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Abreu, Aluana Gonç alves; Albaina, A.; Alpermann, Tilman J.; Apkenas, Vanessa E.; Bankhead-Dronnet, Sté phanie; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L.; Cho, Changhung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Auré lie; De Feraudy, D.; Estonba, Andone; Hankeln, Thomas M A; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsaiwen; Huang, Tsurngjuhn; Irigoien, Xabier; Iriondo, Mikel; Kay, Kathleen M.; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; Le Hé nanff, Maxime; Lieutier, Franç ois; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, Carmen; Martin, Carine; Morris, Veronica Ruth Franco; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Pardo, D.; Plieske, Jö rg; Pointeau, Sophie; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M.; Schwarcz, Kaiser D.; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L.; Solferini, Vera Nisaka; Stevens, Virginie M.; Veith, Michael W.; Wen, Meijuan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jenn M.; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe
This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves
This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Program for conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources has been defined for 2016-2025 period and it is a base for concrete activities in this field. This Program could be divided into several parts that deal with: the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources; status of forest genetic resources in Serbia; previous activities on the conservation of forest genetic resources; and objectives, priorities and measures of conservation. The Program should have an impact on the development of the forestry sector through the following activities: conservation and sustainable utilization of the available gene pool; improving forest management in accordance with conservation principles; improving the production of reproductive material of forest trees; make the public awareness of the need for conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources; fulfillment of international obligations related to this field and the possibility of joining FAO activities related to forest genetic resources - development of the national report as a part of the publication The State of the World's Forest Genetic Resources. Implementation of the Program will depend upon raising the awareness on the importance, conservation and sustainable utilization of forest genetic resources, as a precondition for the forests survival; it will depend of funds that will be allocated for this purpose and enthusiasm of people who deal with these issues.
Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven
Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.
Arias, M C; Arnoux, E; Bell, James J; Bernadou, Abel; Bino, Giorgia; Blatrix, R; Bourguet, Denis; Carrea, Cecilia; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Cunha, Haydée A; d'Alençon, E; Ding, Yi; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; Dumas, P; Eraud, C; Faivre, B; Francisco, F O; Françoso, E; Garcia, M; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garnier, S; Gimenez, S; Gold, John R; Harris, D J; He, Guangcun; Hellemans, B; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Jing, Shengli; Kergoat, G J; Liu, Bingfang; McDowell, Jan R; McKey, D; Miller, Terrence L; Newton, Erica; Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Papetti, Chiara; Paterson, Ian; Peccoud, J; Peng, Xinxin; Piatscheck, F; Ponsard, Sergine; Reece, Kimberly S; Reisser, Céline M O; Renshaw, Mark A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sauve, M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Souche, E L; Van Houdt, J K J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Volckaert, F A M; Wang, Shuzhen; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Hangjin; Zane, Lorenzo; Zannato, Barbara; Zemlak, Tyler S; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Lili
This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng
This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Due to historical background of vegetation development, geographical position, climate and relief, Serbia represents one of the 158 world biodiversity centres, based upon the number of plant species and territory size (biodiversity index 0.72. Large areas in Serbia are under natural grasslands and pastures, composed of forage grass species, and important as source of natural plant genetic diversity and germplasm for breeding. These eco-systems represent basic prerequisites for sustainable forage production, but very low potential of them is utilized and genetic resources are not protected. Family Poaceae is present in Serbia flora with 70 genera and among them from the aspect of forage production and quality, the most important are perennial Festuca, Lolium, Dactylis, Phleum, Bromus, Arrhenatherum, Poa and Agrostis species. Most of these grasses have been bred in Serbia and lot of cultivars were released. These cultivars contain autochthonous Serbian material and represent great and important resource of genetic variability. Therefore, collecting of new samples which are acclimatised to local eco-geographical conditions and including them in plant ex situ gene bank is of exceptional importance for further utilization in different plant breeding programmes as well as genetic resources protection. These autochthonous populations have natural variability and very often have satisfactory yielding performance in comparison with introduced cultivars, which referred them for direct phenotypic selection for cultivars release. Broadening of forage grasses genotypes collection is permanent objective of Serbian scientists. Collected accessions are being characterized and evaluated for important phenological, morphological and agronomical traits. In this paper genetic resources of forage grass species, their diversity and potentials, state of the grasses gene banks, as well as possibility for breeding of new cultivars has been analysed.
Howe, K S; Häsler, B; Stärk, K D C
This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mitigation resources expended. Crucially, elementary economic principles show that mitigation, defined as loss reduction achieved by surveillance and intervention, must be explicitly conceptualized as a three-variable process, and the relative contributions of surveillance and intervention resources investigated with regard to the substitution possibilities between them. Modelling the resultant mitigation surfaces for different diseases should become a standard approach to animal health policy analysis for economic efficiency, a contribution to the evolving agenda for animal health economics research.
Roger B. Sher
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that results in the progres-sive death of motor neurons, leading to paralysis and eventual death. There is presently no cure for ALS, and only two drugs are available, neither of which provide significant extension of life. The wide variation in onset and progression of the disease, both in sporadic and even in strongly penetrant monogenic famil-ial forms of ALS, indicate that in addition to background genetic variation impacting the disease process, environmental exposures are likely contributors. Epidemiological evidence worldwide implicates exposures to bacterial toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, and trauma as probable environmental factors. Here, we review current advances in gene-environment interactions in ALS animal models. We report our recent discov-eries in a zebrafish model of ALS in relation to exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin BMAA, and discuss several results from mouse models that show interactions with exposure to mercury and statin drugs, both leading to acceleration of the disease process. The increasing research into this combinatorial gene-environ-ment process is just starting, but shows early promise to uncover the underlying biochemical pathways that instigate the initial motor neuron defects and lead to their rapidly progressive dysfunction.
Martelli, Alain; Napierala, Marek; Puccio, Hélène
In 1996, a link was identified between Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), the most common inherited ataxia in men, and alterations in the gene encoding frataxin (FXN). Initial studies revealed that the disease is caused by a unique, most frequently biallelic, expansion of the GAA sequence in intron 1 of FXN. Since the identification of this link, there has been tremendous progress in understanding frataxin function and the mechanism of FRDA pathology, as well as in developing diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for the disease. These advances were the subject of the 4th International Friedreich’s Ataxia Conference held on 5th–7th May in the Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France. More than 200 scientists gathered from all over the world to present the results of research spanning all areas of investigation into FRDA (including clinical aspects, FRDA pathogenesis, genetics and epigenetics of the disease, development of new models of FRDA, and drug discovery). This review provides an update on the understanding of frataxin function, developments of animal and cellular models of the disease, and recent advances in trying to uncover potential molecules for therapy. PMID:22382366
Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S
This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X
This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose: The issue resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating drawback is frequently seen after scheduling of a project in practice which causes a schedule to be useless. Modifying an over-allocated schedule is very complicated and needs a lot of efforts and time. In this paper, a new and fast tracking method is proposed to schedule large scale projects which can help project engineers to schedule the project rapidly and with more confidence. Design/methodology/approach: In this article, a forward approach for maximizing net present value (NPV in multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem while assuming discounted positive cash flows (MRCPSP-DCF is proposed. The progress payment method is used and all resources are considered as pre-emptible. The proposed approach maximizes NPV using unscheduled resources through resource calendar in forward mode. For this purpose, a Genetic Algorithm is applied to solve. Findings: The findings show that the proposed method is an effective way to maximize NPV in MRCPSP-DCF problems while activity splitting is allowed. The proposed algorithm is very fast and can schedule experimental cases with 1000 variables and 100 resources in few seconds. The results are then compared with branch and bound method and simulated annealing algorithm and it is found the proposed genetic algorithm can provide results with better quality. Then algorithm is then applied for scheduling a hospital in practice. Originality/value: The method can be used alone or as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to schedule MRCPSP-DCF problems or to modify resource over-allocated activities after scheduling a project. This can help project engineers to schedule project activities rapidly with more accuracy in practice.
This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions
Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo
Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.
Bal Krishna Joshi
Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity is the basis of human life and food security. Nepal with 577 cultivated species possesses huge diversity at varietal as well as landrace levels. In most agricultural crops the rapid genetic erosion due to several reasons is a common phenomenon. Thus, considering the importance of agricultural biodiversity declared by Convention on Biological Diversity for sustainable food production, National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center (NAGRC has been established for conservation and sustainable utilization of agricultural biodiversity. This paper thus delineates the application of biotechnological tools adopted by NAGRC for effective and efficient conservation and use of agricultural plant genetic resources (APGRs. Among the adopted technologies, tissue bank using shoot tip culture of vegetatively propagating and recalcitrant crops eg potato, sugarcane, banana, sweet potato, etc are in function. Under the molecular marker technology, currently random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been used for developing DNA profiles, identifying duplicates in the collections, assessing genetic diversity and screening accessions against economic traits. DNA bank has also been created for storing DNA of indigenous crops and these DNA can be accessed for research and study. Genotypic database has been developed for chayote, finger millet, wheat and maize for identification and selection of the accessions.
Larranaga, N; Albertazzi, F J; Fontecha, G; Palmieri, M; Rainer, H; van Zonneveld, M; Hormaza, J I
Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1,765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the Neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from six different countries across the American continent and amplified with nine highly informative microsatellite markers. The structure analyses, fine representation of the genetic diversity and an ABC approach suggest a Mesoamerican origin of the crop, contrary to previous reports, with clear implications for the dispersion of plant germplasm between Central and South America in pre-Columbian times. These results together with the potential distribution of the species in a climatic change context using two different climate models provide new insights for the history and conservation of extant genetic resources of cherimoya that can be applied to other currently underutilized woody perennial crops. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Paksi, A. B. N.; Ma'ruf, A.
In general, both machines and human resources are needed for processing a job on production floor. However, most classical scheduling problems have ignored the possible constraint caused by availability of workers and have considered only machines as a limited resource. In addition, along with production technology development, routing flexibility appears as a consequence of high product variety and medium demand for each product. Routing flexibility is caused by capability of machines that offers more than one machining process. This paper presents a method to address scheduling problem constrained by both machines and workers, considering routing flexibility. Scheduling in a Dual-Resource Constrained shop is categorized as NP-hard problem that needs long computational time. Meta-heuristic approach, based on Genetic Algorithm, is used due to its practical implementation in industry. Developed Genetic Algorithm uses indirect chromosome representative and procedure to transform chromosome into Gantt chart. Genetic operators, namely selection, elitism, crossover, and mutation are developed to search the best fitness value until steady state condition is achieved. A case study in a manufacturing SME is used to minimize tardiness as objective function. The algorithm has shown 25.6% reduction of tardiness, equal to 43.5 hours.
Full Text Available Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the status of an expert-informed list of underutilized crops in Latin America and analyses how the most common features of underuse apply to these. The analysis pays special attention to if and how existing international policy and legal frameworks on biodiversity and plant genetic resources effectively support or not the conservation and sustainable use of underutilized crops. Results show that not all minor crops are affected by the same degree of neglect, and that the aspects under which any crop is underutilized vary greatly, calling for specific analyses and interventions. We also show that current international policy and legal instruments have so far provided limited stimulus and funding for the conservation and sustainable use of the genetic resources of these crops. Finally, the paper proposes an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating a crop’s underutilization, in order to define the most appropriate type and levels of intervention (international, national, local for improving its status.
Strandén, I; Mäntysaari, E A; Mäki-Tanila, A
Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculations were used to study the effect of selection on genetic correlation between two traits. The simulated breeding program was based on a closed adult multiple ovulation and embryo transfer nucleus breeding scheme. Selection was on an index calculated using multi-trait animal model (AM). Analytical formulae applicable to any evaluation method were derived to predict change in genetic (co)variance due to selection under multi-trait selection using different evaluation methods. Two formulae were investigated, one assuming phenotypic selection and the other based on a recursive two-generation AM selection index. The recursive AM method approximated information due to relatives by a relationship matrix of two generations. Genetic correlation after selection was compared under different levels of initial genetic and environmental correlations with two different selection criteria. Changes in genetic correlation were similar in simulation and analytical predictions. After one round of selection the recursive AM method and the simulation gave similar predictions while the phenotypic selection predicted usually more change in genetic correlation. After several rounds of selection both analytical formulae predicted more change in genetic correlation than the simulation. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Änderung der genetischen Korrelation bei Selektion mit einem Tiermodell Der Selektionseffekt auf die genetische Korrelation zwischen zwei Merkmalen wurde mit Hilfe von Monte Carlo-Simulation und analytischen Berechnungen untersucht. Ein geschlossener Adulter - MOET (Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer) Zuchtplan wurde simuliert. Die Selektion gründete sich auf einen Index, der die Zuchtwertschätzung des Mehrmerkmals-Tiermodells benutzte. Analytische Formeln für die Voraussage der Änderung der genetischen (Ko)varianz unter multivariate Selektion für verschiedene Zuchtwertschätzungsmethode wurden deduziert. Zwei Formeln wurden studiert
The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.
Machado, L C; Roballo, K C S; Cury, F S; Ambrósio, C E
The sprawl of the urbanization and road network process without building ecological corridors contributes to the high mortality rates and a threat to the population decline of wild species such as the crab-eating fox. A strategy for the ex situ conservation is the study of the reproductive biology of the species and cryopreservation of their genetic heritage through the formation of an animal germplasm bank. This research is in accordance with the principles adopted by Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation. Reproductive systems of Cerdocyon thous females (n = 7) were examined macroscopically and microscopically by histological techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Gross features showed the shape of the ovaries was similar to a bean, and the elongated oviducts lengths were between 5 and 8 cm, with body of the uterus (3 cm) with long and narrow uterine horns (9-11 cm). The cervix was as a single annular conformation carrying out communication between the uterus and the vagina. The vagina has lengthened and circular muscle and the vulva with dense anatomical conformation with a quite pronounced clitoris. In addition, with regard to the establishment of a cell line (fibroblasts) for the gene bank enrichment, cells showed a low clonogenic capacity, especially when compared to domestic dogs, which can be explained by "in vitro" environment, age and diet of the animal. However, it was possible to create a bank of limited cell number. This study had morphological and preservationist character and aimed to help at long term in the conservation of wild animal's genetic resources. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Vítor G. Faria
Full Text Available In recent years important tools have been developed in Drosophila to capture with the greatest possible accuracy the variation found in nature. Efforts, such as the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP or the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource (DSPR allied to the advances in whole-genome sequencing and analysis have propelled to unprecedented level our capacity to dissect the genotype-phenotype map. However, several practical problems arise upstream of these analyses starting with the collection and identification of wild specimens. These problems are dealt with in different ways by each researcher generating solutions not necessarily compatible across laboratories. Here, we provide a systematic coverage of every phase of this process based on our experience, and suggest procedures to maximize and share the generated resources potentiating future applications. We propose a detailed pipeline to guide researchers from collection in the wild to the development of a large array of molecular and genetic resources. We designed a multiplex-PCR that distinguishes sister species D. melanogaster and D. simulans and is diagnostic of the presence/absence of Wolbachia infection. These procedures may extend to other cryptic species pairs and endosymbionts. We developed a standardized protocol to create, replicate and maintain isofemale lines and outbred populations. Finally, we explore the potential of outbred populations across several applications from experimental evolution, to introgression of transgenic constructs or mutant alleles, and genomic analyses. We hope to contribute to the success in developing Drosophila resources for evolutionary genetics studies and facilitate exchanges across laboratories based on a common set of procedures.
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, the Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) database does not allow facilities to be queried by watershed, therefore, this coverage was developed to assist with...
Full Text Available Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are increasingly well understood, less is known about how inheritance mechanisms evolve. Here, we present a simple but versatile model to explore the adaptive evolution of non-genetic inheritance. Our model is based on a switch mechanism that produces alternative phenotypes in response to different inputs, including genes and non-genetic factors transmitted from parents and the environment experienced during development. This framework shows how genetic and non-genetic inheritance mechanisms and environmental conditions can act as cues by carrying correlational information about future selective conditions. Differential use of these cues is manifested as different degrees of genetic, parental or environmental morph determination. We use this framework to evaluate the conditions favouring non-genetic inheritance, as opposed to genetic determination of phenotype or within-generation plasticity, by applying it to two putative examples of adaptive non-genetic inheritance: maternal effects on seed germination in plants and transgenerational phase shift in desert locusts. Our simulation models show how the adaptive value of non-genetic inheritance depends on its mechanism, the pace of environmental change, and life history characteristics.
Rousham, Emily K; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, Mohammad Aminul
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is recognized as a One Health challenge because of the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria and genes among humans, animals and the environment on a global scale. However, there is a paucity of research assessing ABR contemporaneously in humans, animals and the environment in low-resource settings. This critical review seeks to identify the extent of One Health research on ABR in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing research has highlighted hotspots for environmental contamination; food-animal production systems that are likely to harbour reservoirs or promote transmission of ABR as well as high and increasing human rates of colonization with ABR commensal bacteria such as Escherichia coli However, very few studies have integrated all three components of the One Health spectrum to understand the dynamics of transmission and the prevalence of community-acquired resistance in humans and animals. Microbiological, epidemiological and social science research is needed at community and population levels across the One Health spectrum in order to fill the large gaps in knowledge of ABR in low-resource settings. © 2018 The Author(s).
Wondwossen A Gebreyes
Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to
Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Newport, Melanie J; Oliveira, Celso J B; Schlesinger, Larry S; Saif, Yehia M; Kariuki, Samuel; Saif, Linda J; Saville, William; Wittum, Thomas; Hoet, Armando; Quessy, Sylvain; Kazwala, Rudovick; Tekola, Berhe; Shryock, Thomas; Bisesi, Michael; Patchanee, Prapas; Boonmar, Sumalee; King, Lonnie J
Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight
Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying
Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat
Tian, Xingke; Yuan, Shengrui
Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) is a kind of important scheduling problem. To achieve a certain optimal goal such as the shortest duration, the smallest cost, the resource balance and so on, it is required to arrange the start and finish of all tasks under the condition of satisfying project timing constraints and resource constraints. In theory, the problem belongs to the NP-hard problem, and the model is abundant. Many combinatorial optimization problems are special cases of RCPSP, such as job shop scheduling, flow shop scheduling and so on. At present, the genetic algorithm (GA) has been used to deal with the classical RCPSP problem and achieved remarkable results. Vast scholars have also studied the improved genetic algorithm for the RCPSP problem, which makes it to solve the RCPSP problem more efficiently and accurately. However, for the selection of the main parameters of the genetic algorithm, there is no parameter optimization in these studies. Generally, we used the empirical method, but it cannot ensure to meet the optimal parameters. In this paper, the problem was carried out, which is the blind selection of parameters in the process of solving the RCPSP problem. We made sampling analysis, the establishment of proxy model and ultimately solved the optimal parameters.
Eppig, Janan T
The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource supports basic, translational, and computational research by providing high-quality, integrated data on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. MGI serves a strategic role for the scientific community in facilitating biomedical, experimental, and computational studies investigating the genetics and processes of diseases and enabling the development and testing of new disease models and therapeutic interventions. This review describes the nexus of the body of growing genetic and biological data and the advances in computer technology in the late 1980s, including the World Wide Web, that together launched the beginnings of MGI. MGI develops and maintains a gold-standard resource that reflects the current state of knowledge, provides semantic and contextual data integration that fosters hypothesis testing, continually develops new and improved tools for searching and analysis, and partners with the scientific community to assure research data needs are met. Here we describe one slice of MGI relating to the development of community-wide large-scale mutagenesis and phenotyping projects and introduce ways to access and use these MGI data. References and links to additional MGI aspects are provided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
... appointed members will be from the general public including leaders in, fields of public policy, trade... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for Nominations AGENCY: Agricultural Research...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. Description The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. Conclusions The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.
Jung, Sook; Jesudurai, Christopher; Staton, Margaret; Du, Zhidian; Ficklin, Stephen; Cho, Ilhyung; Abbott, Albert; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Main, Dorrie
Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.
Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.
Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model
Evanson Chege Kamau
Full Text Available States have the right to regulate access to biological resources subject to national legislations. Allowing, restricting or prohibiting access, however, requires a balance to avoid contravention of the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention requires that, in regulating access, the measures adopted do not become a hindrance to access. In many instances, however, this has been the case. Overreaction to previous cases of bio-piracy and over-enthusiasm to tap into the benefits from discovered genetic resources have caused many provider countries to either over-regulate or extremely complicate access procedures, thus deterring access. In some instances, over-regulation and complex procedures are to be blamed on the users’ reluctance to collaborate with providers in minimising or eliminating abuse. Also, the need to protect certain rights over genetic resources or of an intellectual (property character, for example, might at times complicate regulation. While it is appreciated that such issues must also be taken into account in addressing and creating a balance in access and benefit sharing, a discussion embracing all these aspects cannot be captured within the ambit of this article. Focus is therefore laid on the procedural dimensions of access in Kenya and suggestions for improvement.
Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and
Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M
Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency.
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Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy
with a parallel selection for resistant bacteria. Since the hazards related to antibiotic resistance development have been recognized, the prudent use of antibiotics has been in focus, especially concerning their use in animal production. For many years antibiotics have been, and still are, recklessly used...... in the animal production especially in the form of growth promoters. Due to the associated risks of resistant zoonotic bacteria transmission from animals to humans, it is of interest to keep antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance under strict surveillance.This PhD study was based on the development of real......-time PCR (qPCR) assays that supply an easy and rapid method for quantifying antibiotic resistance levels in animal herds. The pig production is accountable for a large portion of the antibiotics used for food producing animals in Denmark. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance genes included in this study...
Jan 25, 2010 ... Veterinary and genetic research has been successfully used in diagnosis and ... pathogen sequencing programmes in which scientists are ..... Selectively nonselective drugs for mood disorders and schizophrenia. Nature Rev ...
Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.
Nilo Luiz Saccaro-Junior
Full Text Available The relationship between the use of genetic resources, social justice and biodiversity conservation has proved to be one of the main matters in current environmental issues. Brazil exercises a leadership role in international debates about genetic resources and is a pioneer in the creation of a specific internal regulation. This, however, has been strongly criticized by the stakeholders, as well as the lack of incentive for biodiversity research in this country. This paper discusses some of the main conflicting points and how a new scenario of control and promotion can overcome them, based on the regulatory experience since the creation of the current regulatory framework and national indicators available in research with Brazilian species. The suggestions are based on three pillars: a new relationship between government and bioprospectors, guided by encouraging legal activities; a diffuse distribution of benefits, with simple rules, being able to capture some profit from bioprospecting; and a synergy between the existence of traditional/indigenous communities and biodiversity maintenance.
Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.
Jensen, Per; Buitenhuis, Bart; Kjaer, Joergen
Traditionally, the contribution of applied ethology to animal welfare science has concentrated on understanding the reactions of animals to their housing conditions. Domestication has had small effects on fundamental aspects of animal behaviour, and therefore, the needs of present day domesticated...... animals are closely related to the evolutionary history of the ancestors. However, the last decades have seen an unprecedented intensification of selection for increased production, which has significant side-effects on behaviour and welfare. Understanding the nature of such side-effects have therefore...... methods applied on behaviour and welfare related variables. Significant improvements in levels of fearfulness and abnormal behaviour have been achieved by selecting populations against these traits. As a next step, it is necessary to map the loci involved in affecting these traits, and quantitative trait...
Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve
There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514
Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate
There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable.
Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of AnGRs and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD, the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of in-situ condition has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic club commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions.
Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; de Magalhães, João Pedro
The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology. PMID:23193293
Full Text Available The objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was not merely to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, but to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation. The Convention stresses the sovereignty that signatory states exert over the biological wealth within their jurisdiction and calls on them to enact national legislation that will contribute to fleshing out the provisions on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. The Philippines was the first country to enact such legislation and has thus accrued a decade of experience in this field. The first and much-analysed access and benefit sharing instrument enacted by the Government of the Philippines, was Executive Order 247 of 1995. However, due to problems experienced during the implementation of the Order, draft guidelines based on the 2001 Implementing Rules to the Wildlife Act have been drafted and are expected to correct the failures of the previous law. This article takes the example of the Philippines to assess the extent to which laws regulating the access and benefit sharing of biological resources can be effective in any country.
Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.
Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea
In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can
Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly E; Wolf, Amparo; Jalali, Sharzhad; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Zadeh, Gelareh
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor. Over the past few years tremendous genomic and proteomic characterization along with robust animal models of GBM have provided invaluable data that show that "GBM", although histologically indistinguishable from one another, are comprised of molecularly heterogenous diseases. In addition, robust pre-clinical models and a better understanding of the core pathways disrupted in GBM are providing a renewed optimism for novel strategies targeting these devastating tumors. Here, we summarize a brief history of the disease, our current molecular knowledge, lessons from animal models and emerging concepts of angiogenesis, invasion, and metabolism in GBM that may lend themselves to therapeutic targeting.
Schnettler, Berta; Velásquez, Carlos; Miranda, Horacio
With the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 40...
English, Sinead; Pen, Ido; Shea, Nicholas; Uller, Tobias
Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are
Hudson, Nicholas J; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Kijas, James W; Reverter, Antonio
Genetic relatedness is currently estimated by a combination of traditional pedigree-based approaches (i.e. numerator relationship matrices, NRM) and, given the recent availability of molecular information, using marker genotypes (via genomic relationship matrices, GRM). To date, GRM are computed by genome-wide pair-wise SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) correlations. We describe a new estimate of genetic relatedness using the concept of normalised compression distance (NCD) that is borrowed from Information Theory. Analogous to GRM, the resultant compression relationship matrix (CRM) exploits numerical patterns in genome-wide allele order and proportion, which are known to vary systematically with relatedness. We explored properties of the CRM in two industry cattle datasets by analysing the genetic basis of yearling weight, a phenotype of moderate heritability. In both Brahman (Bos indicus) and Tropical Composite (Bos taurus by Bos indicus) populations, the clustering inferred by NCD was comparable to that based on SNP correlations using standard principal component analysis approaches. One of the versions of the CRM modestly increased the amount of explained genetic variance, slightly reduced the 'missing heritability' and tended to improve the prediction accuracy of breeding values in both populations when compared to both NRM and GRM. Finally, a sliding window-based application of the compression approach on these populations identified genomic regions influenced by introgression of taurine haplotypes. For these two bovine populations, CRM reduced the missing heritability and increased the amount of explained genetic variation for a moderately heritable complex trait. Given that NCD can sensitively discriminate closely related individuals, we foresee CRM having possible value for estimating breeding values in highly inbred populations.
Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C
We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis by stoch...
Bacchetta, L.; Del Fiore, A.; Di Giovanni, B.; Padovani, M.L.; Santi, C.; Troiani, V.; Tronci, C.
Retrieving, characterization and conservation of agro-biodiversity ' are the European Union's priority objectives in the context of the strategies to preserve the genetic resources deemed essential for sustainable development, for the support of the community and to encourage a balanced economic growth. A holistic, integrated strategy can create the most propitious conditions to retrieve, maintain, and use in a sustainable way and according to models of circular economy and continuous innovation, the potential of plant systems (also by-products and wastes) for the development of new sectors of economic and social interest through innovative processes with a low environmental impact, according with the European strategy to 2020 which gives priority to the development of the bio-economy. [it
The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.
Full Text Available Buffalo milk yield records were obtained from monthly records of the Animal Breeding Organization of Iran from 1992 to 2009 in 33 herds raised in the Khuzestan province. Variance components, heritability and repeatability were estimated for milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage. These estimates were carried out through single trait animal model using DFREML program. Herd-year-season was considered as fixed effect in the model. For milk production traits, age at calving was fitted as a covariate. The additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were also included in the model. The mean values (±SD for milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage were 2285.08±762.47 kg, 144.35±54.86 kg, 6.25±0.90%, 97.30±26.73 kg and 4.19±0.27%, respectively. The heritability (±SE of milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage were 0.093±0.08, 0.054±0.06, 0.043±0.05, 0.093±0.16 and zero, respectively. These estimates for repeatability were 0.272, 0.132, 0.043, 0.674 and 0.0002, respectively. Lower values of genetic parameter estimates require more data and reliable pedigree records.
Rice, Jerry M.
Pediatric neurogenic tumors include primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), especially medulloblastoma; ependymomas and choroid plexus papillomas; astrocytomas; retinoblastoma; and sympathetic neuroblastoma. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors, although uncommon in childhood, are also significant because they can result from exposures of children to ionizing radiation. Specific chromosomal loci and specific genes are related to each of these tumor types. Virtually all these genes appear to act as tumor suppressor genes, which are inactivated in tumor cells by mutations or by chromosomal loss. In genetically engineered mice, some genes that are clearly associated with specific human tumors (e.g., RB1 in retinoblastoma and NF2 in meningiomas and schwannomas) have no such effect. Other genetic constructs in mice involving the genes p53, ptc1, and Nf1 have produced tumors remarkably similar to some of the human pediatric neoplasms. Some of these tumors become clinically apparent after only a few weeks, while the mice are still juveniles, especially when two or more tumor suppressor genes are inactivated in the same genetic construct. Conversely, at least one genetic pathway in rodents involving point mutation in the coding region of a transforming gene (neu in malignant schwannomas) does not appear to operate in any human tumors. The nervous system is markedly susceptible to experimental carcinogenesis during early life in rodents, dogs, primates, and other nonhuman species, and there is no obvious reason why this generalization should not also apply to humans. However, except for therapeutic ionizing radiation, no physical, chemical, or biological cause of human pediatric nervous system tumors is known. The failure of experimental transplacental carcinogenesis to mirror human pediatric experience more closely may reflect the need for multiple mutational events in target cells, and for experimental carcinogens that are capable of causing the full spectrum of
Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.
Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 12-13 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington ´s disease * mitochondria * DNA damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology
Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Traub, Rebecca; Mahmud, Rohela; Mistam, Mohd Sani
Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7%) and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003), walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; pdomestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats) populations.
The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which
Sun, C; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S
Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... the results suggest that the animal model, rather than the sire model, should be used for genetic evaluation of fertility traits......Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... 1995 to 2004. The traits in the analysis were days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, days from first to last insemination, number of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The correlations between sire estimated breeding value...
Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.
Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from
Emmans, G; Kyriazakis, I
Selection in commercial populations on aspects of output, such as for growth rate in poultry. against fatness and for growth rate in pigs, and for milk yield in cows, has had very barge effects on such outputs over the past 50 years. Partly because of the cost of recording intake, there has been little or no selection for food intake or feeding behaviour. In order to predict the effects of such past, and future, selection on intake it is necessary to have some suitable theoretical framework. Intake needs to be predicted in order to make rational feeding and environmental decisions. The idea that an animal will eat 'to meet its requirements' has proved useful and continues to be fruitful. An important part of the idea is that the animal (genotype) can be described in a way that is sufficient for the accurate prediction of its outputs over time. Such descriptions can be combined with a set of nutritional constants to calculate requirements. There appears to have been no change in the nutritional constants under selection for output. Under such selection it is simplest to assume that changes in intake follow from the changes in output rates, so that intake changes become entirely predictable. It is suggested that other ways that have been proposed for predicting intake cannot be successful in predicting the effects of selection. Feeding behaviour is seen as being the means that the animal uses to attain its intake rather than being the means by which that intake can be predicted. Thus, the organisation of feeding behaviour can be used to predict neither intake nor the effects of selection on it.
First National Report on Forest Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture,The Netherlands : country report for the FAO first state of the world's forest genetic resources for food and agriculture, Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague, November 2012
The Dutch national report is designed to contribute to a regional and global sysnthesis of the state of forest genetic resources and in particular to examine trends over the past ten years. After a general introduction to the Dutch forest sector and the historical background of today's forests, it
Tanna, Preena; Strauss, Rupert W; Fujinami, Kaoru; Michaelides, Michel
Stargardt disease (STGD1; MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4. Significant advances have been made over the last 10 years in our understanding of both the clinical and molecular features of STGD1, and also the underlying pathophysiology, which has culminated in ongoing and planned human clinical trials of novel therapies. The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease, conventional and novel imaging findings, current knowledge of animal models and pathogenesis, and the multiple avenues of intervention being explored. PMID:27491360
Full Text Available Introduction: Infectious diarrhoea particularly due to pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in developing countries, including India. Despite significant reports of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC pathotypes around the globe, studies which address genetic relatedness, antibiogram profile and their correlation with respect to their isolation from different sources are sparse. The present study determines isolation and identification of DEC pathotypes from different sources, their genetic characterisation, antibiogram profile and their correlation if any. Materials and methods: A total of 336 samples comprising diarrhoeic stool samples from infants (n=103, young animal (n=106, foods (n=68 and associated environmental sources (n=59 were collected from Bareilly region of India. All the samples were screened by using standard microbiological methods for the detection of E. coli. The identified E. coli were then confirmed as DEC pathotypes using polymerase chain reaction–based assays. Those DEC pathotypes identified as Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC were further confirmed using HEp-2 adherence assay. All the isolated DEC pathotypes were studied for their genetic diversity using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using disc diffusion method as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results and discussion: Of the four DEC pathotypes investigated, EAEC was found to be the predominant pathogen with an isolation rate of 16.5% from infants, 17.9% from young animals, 16.2% from foods and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. These EAEC isolates, on further characterisation, revealed predominance of ‘atypical’ EAEC, with an isolation rate of 10.7% from infants, 15.1% from young animals, 16.2% from foods, and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. On PFGE analysis, discrimination was evident within DEC pathotypes as 52 unique pulsotypes were
Cutforth, Tyler; DeMille, Mellissa MC; Agalliu, Ilir; Agalliu, Dritan
Streptococcus pyogenes infections have been associated with two autoimmune diseases of the CNS: Sydenham’s chorea (SC) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS). Despite the high frequency of pharyngeal streptococcus infections among children, only a small fraction develops SC or PANDAS. This suggests that several factors in combination are necessary to trigger autoimmune complications: specific S. pyogenes strains that induce a strong immune response toward the host nervous system; genetic susceptibility that predispose children toward an autoimmune response involving movement or tic symptoms; and multiple infections of the throat or tonsils that lead to a robust Th17 cellular and humoral immune response when untreated. In this review, we summarize the evidence for each factor and propose that all must be met for the requisite neurovascular pathology and behavioral deficits found in SC/PANDAS. PMID:27110222
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7% and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003, walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; p<0.001 and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19-7.15; p = 0.009 were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. CONCLUSION: This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats populations.
Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.
The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among
Mason, P.G.; Cock, M.J.W.; Barratt, B.I.P.; Klapwijk, J.N.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Brodeur, J.; Hoelmer, K.A.; Heimpel, G.E.
The Nagoya Protocol is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity that provides a framework for the effective implementation of the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including invertebrate biological control agents.
Tanna, Preena; Strauss, Rupert W; Fujinami, Kaoru; Michaelides, Michel
Stargardt disease (STGD1; MIM 248200) is the most prevalent inherited macular dystrophy and is associated with disease-causing sequence variants in the gene ABCA4 Significant advances have been made over the last 10 years in our understanding of both the clinical and molecular features of STGD1, and also the underlying pathophysiology, which has culminated in ongoing and planned human clinical trials of novel therapies. The aims of this review are to describe the detailed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease, conventional and novel imaging findings, current knowledge of animal models and pathogenesis, and the multiple avenues of intervention being explored. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Rowan, Rob; Powers, Dennis A.
Zooxanthellae are unicellular algae that occur as endosymbionts in many hundreds of marine invertebrate species. Because zooxanthellae have traditionally been difficult to classify, little is known about the natural history of these symbioses. Zooxanthellae were isolated from 131 individuals in 22 host taxa and characterized by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear genes that encode small ribosomal subunit RNA (ssRNA). Six algal RFLPs, distributed host species specifically, were detected. Individual hosts contained one algal RFLP. Zooxanthella phylogenetic relationships were estimated from 22 algal ssRNA sequences-one from each host species. Closely related algae were found in dissimilar hosts, suggesting that animal and algal lineages have maintained a flexible evolutionary relation with each other.
Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Walker, B.; Douglas, B. J.; Cronin, V. S.; Funning, G.; Stearns, L. A.; Charlevoix, D.; Miller, M. M.
The NSF-funded GEodesy Tools for Societal Issues (GETSI) project is developing teaching resources for use in introductory and majors-level courses, emphasizing a broad range of geodetic methods and data applied to societally important issues. The modules include a variety of hands-on activities, demonstrations, animations, and interactive online tools in order to facilitate student learning and engagement. A selection of these activities will be showcased at the AGU session. These activities and data analysis exercises are embedded in 4-6 units per module. Modules can take 2-3 weeks of course time total or individual units and activities can be selected and used over just 1-2 class periods. Existing modules are available online via serc.carleton.edu/getsi/ and include "Ice mass and sea level changes", "Imaging active tectonics with LiDAR and InSAR", "Measuring water resources with GPS, gravity, and traditional methods", "Surface process hazards", and "GPS, strain, and earthquakes". Modules, and their activities and demonstrations were designed by teams of faculty and content experts and underwent rigorous classroom testing and review using the process developed by the Science Education Resource Center's InTeGrate Project (serc.carleton.edu/integrate). All modules are aligned to Earth Science and Climate literacy principles. GETSI collaborating institutions are UNAVCO (which runs NSF's Geodetic Facility), Indiana University, and Mt San Antonio College. Initial funding came from NSF's TUES (Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM). A second phase of funding from NSF IUSE (Improving Undergraduate STEM Education) is just starting and will fund another six modules (including their demonstrations, activities, and hands-on activities) as well as considerably more instructor professional development to facilitate implementation and use.
van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin
An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sarkisova, Karine; van Luijtelaar, Gilles
A great number of clinical observations show a relationship between epilepsy and depression. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy, including absence epilepsy, has a genetic basis. The review provides evidence that WAG/Rij rats can be regarded as a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression. WAG/Rij rats, originally developed as an animal model of human absence epilepsy, share many EEG and behavioral characteristics resembling absence epilepsy in humans, including the similarity of action of various antiepileptic drugs. Behavioral studies indicate that WAG/Rij rats exhibit depression-like symptoms: decreased investigative activity in the open field test, increased immobility in the forced swimming test, and decreased sucrose consumption and preference (anhedonia). In addition, WAG/Rij rats adopt passive strategies in stressful situations, express some cognitive disturbances (reduced long-term memory), helplessness, and submissiveness, inability to make choice and overcome obstacles, which are typical for depressed patients. Elevated anxiety is not a characteristic (specific) feature of WAG/Rij rats; it is a characteristic for only a sub-strain of WAG/Rij rats susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Interestingly, WAG/Rij rats display a hyper-response to amphetamine similar to anhedonic depressed patients. WAG/Rij rats are sensitive only to chronic, but not acute, antidepressant treatments, suggesting that WAG/Rij rats fulfill a criterion of predictive validity for a putative animal model of depression. However, more and different antidepressant drugs still await evaluation. Depression-like behavioral symptoms in WAG/Rij rats are evident at baseline conditions, not exclusively after stress. Experiments with foot-shock stress do not point towards higher stress sensitivity at both behavioral and hormonal levels. However, freezing behavior (coping deficits) and blunted response of 5HT in the frontal cortex to uncontrollable sound stress
Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is a worldwide zoonotic agent that has been recognized as a very important food-borne bacterial pathogen, mainly associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this work was to determine genotypic and phenotypic evidence of S. Enteritidis transmission among seabirds, poultry and humans in Chile. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based virulotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. Pathogenicity-associated phenotypes were determined with survival to free radicals, acidic pH, starvation, antimicrobial resistance, and survival within human dendritic cells. As result of PCR and PFGE assays, some isolates from the three hosts showed identical genotypic patterns, and through MLST it was determined that all of them belong to sequence type 11. Results of phenotypic assays showed diversity of survival capabilities among isolates. When results were analyzed according to bacterial host, statistical differences were identified in starvation and dendritic cells survival assays. In addition, isolates from seabirds showed the highest rates of resistance to gentamycin, tetracycline and ampicillin. Overall, the very close genetic and phenotypic traits shown by isolates from humans, poultry and seabirds suggest the inter-species transmission of S. Enteritidis bacteria between hosts, likely through anthropogenic environmental contamination that determines infection of seabirds with bacteria that are potentially pathogenic for other susceptible organism, including humans.
Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif
EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Shabel, Steven J; Murphy, Ryan T; Malinow, Roberto
The lateral habenula (LHb) is activated by aversive stimuli and the omission of reward, inhibited by rewarding stimuli and is hyperactive in helpless rats-an animal model of depression. Here we test the hypothesis that congenital learned helpless (cLH) rats are more sensitive to decreases in reward size and/or less sensitive to increases in reward than wild-type (WT) control rats. Consistent with the hypothesis, we found that cLH rats were slower to switch preference between two responses after a small upshift in reward size on one of the responses but faster to switch their preference after a small downshift in reward size. cLH rats were also more risk-averse than WT rats-they chose a response delivering a constant amount of reward ("safe" response) more often than a response delivering a variable amount of reward ("risky" response) compared to WT rats. Interestingly, the level of bias toward negative events was associated with the rat's level of risk aversion when compared across individual rats. cLH rats also showed impaired appetitive Pavlovian conditioning but more accurate responding in a two-choice sensory discrimination task. These results are consistent with a negative learning bias and risk aversion in cLH rats, suggesting abnormal processing of rewarding and aversive events in the LHb of cLH rats.
Tyson, Trevor; Senchuk, Megan; Cooper, Jason F; George, Sonia; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M; Brundin, Patrik
Cell-to-cell spreading of misfolded α-synuclein (α-syn) is suggested to contribute to the progression of neuropathology in Parkinson's disease (PD). Compelling evidence supports the hypothesis that misfolded α-syn transmits from neuron-to-neuron and seeds aggregation of the protein in the recipient cells. Furthermore, α-syn frequently appears to propagate in the brains of PD patients following a stereotypic pattern consistent with progressive spreading along anatomical pathways. We have generated a C. elegans model that mirrors this progression and allows us to monitor α-syn neuron-to-neuron transmission in a live animal over its lifespan. We found that modulation of autophagy or exo/endocytosis, affects α-syn transfer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that silencing C. elegans orthologs of PD-related genes also increases the accumulation of α-syn. This novel worm model is ideal for screening molecules and genes to identify those that modulate prion-like spreading of α-syn in order to target novel strategies for disease modification in PD and other synucleinopathies.
Full Text Available The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression.In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7 and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL.These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research.
В. М. Кір’ян
Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate genetic resources collection of soft winter wheat plants (new collection accessions of Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production and select initial material for breeding of adaptive, productive and qualitative soft winter wheat varieties. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The authors pre- sented results of study of over 1000 samples of gene pool of soft winter wheat from 25 countries during 2001–2005 in Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev, NAAS of Ukraine for a complex of economic traits. More than 400 new sources with high adaptive properties were selected that combine traits of high productivity and high quality of grain, early ripening, resistance to biotic and abiotic fac- tors (the assessment of samples for 16 valuable traits is given. The selected material comes from various agro-cli- matic zones, including zones of unsustainable agriculture. Conclusions. Recommended sources of traits that have breeding value will allow to enrich high-quality assortment of wheat and considerably accelerate breeding process du- ring development of new soft winter wheat varieties.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multilevel association rule mining for bridge resource management (BRM which is announced by IMO in 2010. The goal of this paper is to mine the association rules among the items of BRM and the vessel accidents. However, due to the indirect data that can be collected, which seems useless for the analysis of the relationship between items of BIM and the accidents, the cross level association rules need to be studied, which builds the relation between the indirect data and items of BRM. In this paper, firstly, a cross level coding scheme for mining the multilevel association rules is proposed. Secondly, we execute the immune genetic algorithm with the coding scheme for analyzing BRM. Thirdly, based on the basic maritime investigation reports, some important association rules of the items of BRM are mined and studied. Finally, according to the results of the analysis, we provide the suggestions for the work of seafarer training, assessment, and management.
Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam
We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be
Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM, we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence
Aguilar-Bultet, Lisandra; Nicholson, Pamela; Rychener, Lorenz; Dreyer, Margaux; Gözel, Bulent; Origgi, Francesco C.; Oevermann, Anna; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS) infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM), we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence mechanisms of the
Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit
had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern......) the Indian provenances from the dry interior and the moist west coast and (3) the provenances from northern Myanmar. The provenances from southern Myanmar were placed close to the root of the tree together with the three provenances from the semi-moist east coast of India. A Bayesian cluster analysis using...
Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M
Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( Prodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, PPeru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities.
Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Sretenovic Rajicic, T.; Treuren, van R.; Dehmer, K.J.; Linden, van der C.G.; Hintum, van T.J.L.
Genetic variation in Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was studied across Europe from the Czech Republic to the United Kingdom, using three molecular marker systems, simple sequence repeat (SSR, microsatellites), AFLP and nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling. The
of the effective population size (Ne) for extending popula- tion genetics theory developed ..... animal genetic resources management plans: management of small populations at risk. Food and Agriculture Organization,. Rome, Italy. Fisher R. A. ...
Hewlett Packard have produced a commercial-quality animated film using an experimental rendering service from HP Labs and running on an HP Utility Data Center (UDC). The project demonstrates how computing resources can be managed virtually and illustrates the value of utility computing, in which an end-user taps into a large pool of virtual resources, but pays only for what is used (1 page).
Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji
The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30 o C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)
Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu
The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.
Xiyong, C.; Haixia, X.U.; Feng, C.
To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)
Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna
Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.
Abu Assar, A H; Salih, M; Ali, A M [Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), P.O. Box 126 Wad Medani (Sudan); Uptmoor, R [Institute of Vegetable and Fruit Science, University of Hannover, Herrengauser Strabe 2.30419 Hanover (Greece); Abdelmula, A A [Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, postal code: 13314 Shambat (Sudan); Ordon, F [Institute of Eqidemiology and Resistance, Federal Centre for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants, Theodor-Roemer-Weg 4, D-06449 Aschersleben (Greece); Wagner, C; Friedt, W [Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breedin 1, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen (Greece)
Forty sorghum genotype were investigated for genetic diversity and drought tolerance. Diversity parameters were estimated using 16 simple sequence repeats markers. For assessment of drought tolerance, the genotype were field evaluated under normal and drought stress condition for two seasons in three environments, in Sudan. In total, 98 SSRs alleles were detected with an average of 6.1 alleles per locus. The estimated polymorphic information contents ranged from 0.33 to 0.86. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.00 to 0.88 with a low mean of 0.32. The dendrogram, generated from the UPGMA cluster analysis, showed two main clusters differentiated into nine sub-clusters with close relationship to morphological characters and pedigree information. Mantel statistics revealed a good fit of the cophenetic values to the original data set (r= 0.88). The overall mean genetic diversity was 0.67. Significant differences were detected among genotypes under both normal and drought stressed conditions for all measured traits. Based on the relative yield, the most drought-tolerant genotypes were Arfa Gadamak, Wad Ahmed, El-Najada, Korcola, ICSR 92003 And Sham Sham. Drought five days delay in flowering, and the earliest genotypes were PI 569695, PI 570446, PI 569953, Dwarf White Milo and PI 56995. (Author)
Abu Assar, A. H.; Salih, M.; Ali, A. M.; Uptmoor, R.; Abdelmula, A. A.; Ordon, F.; Wagner, C.; Friedt, W.
Forty sorghum genotype were investigated for genetic diversity and drought tolerance. Diversity parameters were estimated using 16 simple sequence repeats markers. For assessment of drought tolerance, the genotype were field evaluated under normal and drought stress condition for two seasons in three environments, in Sudan. In total, 98 SSRs alleles were detected with an average of 6.1 alleles per locus. The estimated polymorphic information contents ranged from 0.33 to 0.86. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.00 to 0.88 with a low mean of 0.32. The dendrogram, generated from the UPGMA cluster analysis, showed two main clusters differentiated into nine sub-clusters with close relationship to morphological characters and pedigree information. Mantel statistics revealed a good fit of the cophenetic values to the original data set (r= 0.88). The overall mean genetic diversity was 0.67. Significant differences were detected among genotypes under both normal and drought stressed conditions for all measured traits. Based on the relative yield, the most drought-tolerant genotypes were Arfa Gadamak, Wad Ahmed, El-Najada, Korcola, ICSR 92003 And Sham Sham. Drought five days delay in flowering, and the earliest genotypes were PI 569695, PI 570446, PI 569953, Dwarf White Milo and PI 56995. (Author)
Cheng, Guyue; Dong, Xiaobing; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui
Fluoroquinolones (FQNs) are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The residues and antimicrobial resistance of such antibiotics are a major public health concern. To realize multianalyte detection of FQN residues, a genetically modified bacterium, Escherichia coli pK12 harboring plasmid pRecAlux3, was constructed in this study to develop a bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for the detection of FQNs in animal-derived foods. This assay was based on the principle of induction of an SOS response by FQNs via inducing the recA-promoter-fused luciferase reporter gene existing on the plasmid pRecAlux3. E. coli pK12 was able to recognize 11 FQNs: difloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. This method could be applied to 11 edible tissues, including milk, fish muscle, and the muscles, livers, and kidneys of cattle, chickens, and pigs, with a very simple and rapid sample extraction procedure using only phosphate-buffered saline. The limits of detection of the FQNs were between 12.5 and 100 μg kg(-1), all of which were lower than the maximum residue limits. Most of the recoveries of the FQNs were in the range from 60 to 120 %, and the interassay coefficients of variation were less than 30 %. This method, confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography, is reliable and can be used as both a screening test and a semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of FQN is known.
Nishio, Sogo; Takada, Norio; Saito, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Iketani, Hiroyuki
Pears (Pyrus spp.) are one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions. Japanese pear breeding has been carried out for over 100 years, working to release new cultivars that have good fruit quality and other desirable traits. Local cultivar 'Nijisseiki' and its relatives, which have excellent fruit texture, have been repeatedly used as parents in the breeding program. This strategy has led to inbreeding within recent cultivars and selections. To avoid inbreeding depression, we need to clarify the degree of inbreeding among crossbred cultivars and to introgress genetic resources that are genetically different from modern cultivars and selections. The objective of the present study was to clarify the genetic relatedness between modern Japanese pear cultivars and diverse Asian pear genetic resources. We genotyped 207 diverse accessions by using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity and allelic richness of modern cultivars was obviously decreased compared with that of wild individuals, Chinese pear cultivars, and local cultivars. In analyses using Structure software, the 207 accessions were classified into four clusters (K = 4): one consisting primarily of wild individuals, one of Chinese pear cultivars, one of local cultivars from outside the Kanto region, and one containing both local cultivars from the Kanto region and crossbred cultivars. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar to those from the Structure analysis. Wild individuals and Chinese pears appeared to be distinct from other groups, and crossbred cultivars became closer to 'Nijisseiki' as the year of release became more recent. Both Structure and PCoA results suggest that the modern Japanese pear cultivars are genetically close to local cultivars that originated in the Kanto region, and that the genotypes of the modern cultivars were markedly biased toward 'Nijisseiki'. Introgression of germplasm from Chinese pear and wild individuals that are
Lorenz, Aaron J
Allocating resources between population size and replication affects both genetic gain through phenotypic selection and quantitative trait loci detection power and effect estimation accuracy for marker-assisted selection (MAS). It is well known that because alleles are replicated across individuals in quantitative trait loci mapping and MAS, more resources should be allocated to increasing population size compared with phenotypic selection. Genomic selection is a form of MAS using all marker information simultaneously to predict individual genetic values for complex traits and has widely been found superior to MAS. No studies have explicitly investigated how resource allocation decisions affect success of genomic selection. My objective was to study the effect of resource allocation on response to MAS and genomic selection in a single biparental population of doubled haploid lines by using computer simulation. Simulation results were compared with previously derived formulas for the calculation of prediction accuracy under different levels of heritability and population size. Response of prediction accuracy to resource allocation strategies differed between genomic selection models (ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction [RR-BLUP], BayesCπ) and multiple linear regression using ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS), leading to different optimal resource allocation choices between OLS and RR-BLUP. For OLS, it was always advantageous to maximize population size at the expense of replication, but a high degree of flexibility was observed for RR-BLUP. Prediction accuracy of doubled haploid lines included in the training set was much greater than of those excluded from the training set, so there was little benefit to phenotyping only a subset of the lines genotyped. Finally, observed prediction accuracies in the simulation compared well to calculated prediction accuracies, indicating these theoretical formulas are useful for making resource allocation
Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel
The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context.
Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial
Full Text Available It is a difficult task to improve animal production by means of genetic selection, if the environment does not allow full expression of the animal’s genetic potential. This concept may well be the future for animal welfare, because it highlights the need to incorporate traits related to production and robustness, simultaneously, to reach sustainable breeding goals. This review explores the identification of potential genetic markers for robustness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA, since this axis plays a vital role in the stress response. If genetic selection for superior HPAA responses to stress is possible, then it ought to be possible to breed robust and easily managed genotypes that might be able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions whilst expressing a high production potential. This approach is explored in this review by means of lessons learnt from research on Merino sheep, which were divergently selected for their multiple rearing ability. These two selection lines have shown marked differences in reproduction, production and welfare, which makes this breeding programme ideal to investigate potential genetic markers of robustness. The HPAA function is explored in detail to elucidate where such genetic markers are likely to be found.
Genetic diversity is the raw material that plant breeders require to develop cultivars that are productive, nutritious, pest and stress tolerant, and water and nutrient use efficient. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) contains a wealth of genetic diversity, including improved varie...
Afroze, B.; Jehan, F.
Objective: To assess the needs related to prenatal genetic counselling in a developing country. Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted at the Prenatal-Genetic Counselling Clinic of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from October 2007 to September 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data was stored in the form of patient charts. Information was then extracted from the charts and entered into a structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 93 couples in the study, 49(53%) were in the self-referral group and 44(47%) were in the physician-referral group. Diagnosis was not given for previously affected children by the paediatrician or by obstetrician for recurrent miscarriages in 68(73%)cases. Besides, 20(22%) couples had voluntarily terminated a pregnancy without any tests because of the fear of having a diseased child. Eleven (12%) couples were looking for amniocentensis or chorionic villus sampling. Death in previous children was the main reason to seek genetic counselling and was seen in 57(61%) couples. Consanguinity was seen in 77(83%) couples. Conclusion: A clear deficiency of knowledge of genetics was seen among the non-genetic healthcare providers. Demand of antenatal genetic testing among the public was also seen, highlighting the need of diagnostic facility for genetic and metabolic disorders. However, this needs to be explored in the context of the existing healthcare infrastructure. (author)
Arnau-Bonachera, Alberto; Cervera, Concha; Blas, Enrique
To achieve functional but also productive females, we hypothesised that it is possible to modulate acquisition and allocation of animals from different genetic types by varying the main energy source of the diet. To test this hypothesis, we used 203 rabbit females belonging to three genetic types...
Menezes, M.R.; Parulekar, A.H.
A number of molecular and biochemical tools which can be applied to the identification of species and the detection of genetic variation within species have been developed in recent years. All these methods rely on the ability to distinguish between...
Sahajpal, Ruchika; Kandoi, Gaurav; Dhiman, Heena; Raj, Sweety; Scaria, Vinod; Bhartiya, Deeksha; Hasija, Yasha
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by fastidious pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB has emerged as one of the major causes of mortality in the developing world. Role of host genetic factors that modulate disease susceptibility have not been studied widely. Recent studies have reported few genetic loci that provide impetus to this area of research. The availability of tools has enabled genome-wide scans for disease susceptibility loci associated with infectious dis...
Lövgren, K M; Søndergaard, H; Skov, S; Wiinberg, B
In haemophilia A (HA) management, antidrug antibodies, or inhibitors, are a serious complication that renders factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy ineffective, increases morbidity and reduces quality of life for affected patients. Inhibitor development aetiology is multifactorial and covers both genetic and therapy related risk factors. Many therapy-related risk factors have proven difficult to confirm due to several confounding factors and the small study populations available. However, clinical studies indicate that e.g. on-demand treatment and surgery affect inhibitor development, and explanations for this association are being investigated. A potential explanation is the danger signal effect, where the immune response is activated by endogenous or exogenous danger or damage signals present at the time and site of FVIII administration. The danger theory explains how alarm signals from stressed, injured or dying cells can activate an immune reaction, without the involvement of foreign antigens. Bleeds, trauma, surgery or concomitant infection could be events initiating danger signalling in HA patients, resulting in an immune reaction towards administered FVIII that otherwise would pass unnoticed. This role of danger in HA inhibitor formation has previously been suggested, but a thorough discussion of this subject is lacking. The present review will discuss the potential role of danger signals in haemophilia and inhibitor development, with focus on treatment related risk factors with a suspected danger signal aetiology; on-demand treatment, treatment during major bleeds or surgery, and treatment during infection or vaccination. Clinical studies as well as animal experiments addressing these factors will be reviewed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To
Avrani, Sarit; Bolotin, Evgeni; Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth
Many bacteria, including the model bacterium Escherichia coli can survive for years within spent media, following resource exhaustion. We carried out evolutionary experiments, followed by whole genome sequencing of hundreds of evolved clones to study the dynamics by which E. coli adapts during the first 4 months of survival under resource exhaustion. Our results reveal that bacteria evolving under resource exhaustion are subject to intense selection, manifesting in rapid mutation accumulation, enrichment in functional mutation categories and extremely convergent adaptation. In the most striking example of convergent adaptation, we found that across five independent populations adaptation to conditions of resource exhaustion occurs through mutations to the three same specific positions of the RNA polymerase core enzyme. Mutations to these three sites are strongly antagonistically pleiotropic, in that they sharply reduce exponential growth rates in fresh media. Such antagonistically pleiotropic mutations, combined with the accumulation of additional mutations, severely reduce the ability of bacteria surviving under resource exhaustion to grow exponentially in fresh media. We further demonstrate that the three positions at which these resource exhaustion mutations occur are conserved for the ancestral E. coli allele, across bacterial phyla, with the exception of nonculturable bacteria that carry the resource exhaustion allele at one of these positions, at very high frequencies. Finally, our results demonstrate that adaptation to resource exhaustion is not limited by mutational input and that bacteria are able to rapidly adapt under resource exhaustion in a temporally precise manner through allele frequency fluctuations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François
The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations.
Titus Chemandwa Ndiwa
Full Text Available The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations.
Full Text Available Originally from Africa, watermelon is a staple crop in South Carolina and rich source of important phytochemicals that promote human health. As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desired fruit quality, modern watermelon cultivars are susceptible to biotic and abiotic stress. The present review discusses how genetic selection and breeding combined with geospatial technologies (precision agriculture may help enhance watermelon varieties for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Gene loci identified and selected in undomesticated watermelon accessions are responsible for resistance to diseases, pests and abiotic stress. Vegetable breeding programs use traditional breeding methodologies and genomic tools to introduce gene loci conferring biotic or abiotic resistance into the genome background of elite watermelon cultivars. This continuous approach of collecting, evaluating and identifying useful genetic material is valuable for enhancing genetic diversity and tolerance and combined with precision agriculture could increase food security in the Southeast.
Wiehle, Martin; Prinz, Kathleen; Kehlenbeck, Katja; Goenster, Sven; Mohamed, Seifeldin Ali; Finkeldey, Reiner; Buerkert, Andreas; Gebauer, Jens
• Adansonia digitata L. is one of the most important indigenous fruit trees of mainland Africa. Despite its significance for subsistence and income generation of local communities, little is known about the genetic and morphological variability of East African populations of A. digitata, including those of Sudan. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to analyze genetic and morphological variability of different baobab populations in Kordofan, Sudan and to estimate the effect of human intervention on genetic differentiation and diversity.• A total of 306 trees were randomly sampled from seven spatially separated locations in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan, to cover a wide range of differing environmental gradients and management regimes ('homesteads' and 'wild'). Genetic analyses were conducted using nine microsatellite markers. Because of the tetraploid nature of A. digitata, different approaches were applied to estimate patterns of genetic diversity. Investigations were completed by measurements of dendrometric and fruit morphological characters.• Genetic diversity was balanced and did not differ between locations or management regimes, although tendencies of higher diversity in 'homesteads' were observed. A Bayesian cluster approach detected two distinct gene pools in the sample set, mainly caused by one highly diverse population close to a main road. The variability of tree characters and fruit morphometries was high, and significantly different between locations.• Results indicated a rather positive effect with human intervention. The observed populations provide a promising gene pool and likely comprise ecotypes well-adapted to environmental conditions at the northern distribution range of the species, which should be considered in conservation and management programs. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Full Text Available The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called ‘Human Continuum’ discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 61 G. duodenalis isolates from animal feces (dairy and beef cattle, sheep and rabbits in Heilongjiang Province were characterized at the gdh and bg loci in the present study. The gdh and bg gene sequences of sheep-derived G. duodenalis assemblage AI, and the gdh sequences of rabbit-derived G. duodenalis assemblage B had 100% similarity with those from humans, respectively. Novel subtypes of G. duodenalis were identified, with one and seven subtypes for assemblages A and E at the gdh locus, and two and three subtypes for assemblages B and E at the bg locus, respectively. Three pairs of the same bg sequences of assemblage E were observed in sheep and cattle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first description of genetic characterizations of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from rabbits, sheep and cattle in Mainland China. Homology analysis of assemblages AI and B implied the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The novel subtypes of assemblages of G. duodenalis may represent the endemic genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in Heilongjiang Province, China.
Doležalová, I.; Lebeda, A.; Janeček, J.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Křístková, E.; Vránová, O.
Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 385-397 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Asteraceae * Chromosome number * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2002
‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...
May 23, 2016 ... been reported to have negative effects on some production and fitness traits in ..... Drakensberger Handbook 2011, First Edition. www.drakensbergers,co.za ... of National Farm Animal Genetic Resources Management Plans.
In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.; Hussain, M.
A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets...... for FMDV. In the Landhi dairy colony, Pakistan, a cohort of 179 apparently healthy animals was studied. On their arrival within the colony, thirty‐nine (22%) of these animals were found positive for FMDV RNA (serotype A was identified), while 130 (72.6%) had antibodies to FMDV non‐structural proteins. Thus...
Genetic drift is a concept of population genetics that is central to understanding evolutionary processes and aspects of conservation biology. It is frequently taught using rather abstract representations. I introduce three real-life zoological examples, based on historical and recent color morphs of tigers, tapirs, and ravens, that can complement…
Clarke, A M; Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Berry, D P
In genetic improvement programmes for beef cattle, the effect of selecting for a given trait or index on other economically important traits, or their predictors, must be quantified to ensure no deleterious consequential effects go unnoticed. The objective was to compare live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations of male progeny of sires selected on an economic index in Ireland. This beef carcass index (BCI) is expressed in euros and based on weaning weight, feed intake, carcass weight and carcass conformation and fat scores. The index is used to aid in the genetic comparison of animals for the expected profitability of their progeny at slaughter. A total of 107 progeny from beef sires of high (n = 11) or low (n = 11) genetic merit for the BCI were compared in either a bull (slaughtered at 16 months of age) or steer (slaughtered at 24 months of age) production system, following purchase after weaning (8 months of age) from commercial beef herds. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 factorial design (two levels of genetic merit by two production systems). Progeny of high BCI sires had heavier carcasses, greater (P animal value (obtained by multiplying carcass weight by carcass value, which was based on the weight of meat in each cut by its commercial value) than progeny of low BCI sires. Regression of progeny performance on sire genetic merit was also undertaken across the entire data set. In steers, the effect of BCI on carcass meat proportion, calculated carcass value (c/kg) and animal value was positive (P carcass fat proportion (P carcass weight followed the same trends as BCI. Muscularity scores, carcass meat proportion and calculated carcass value increased, whereas scanned fat depth, carcass fat and bone proportions decreased with increasing sire EPD for conformation score. The opposite association was observed for sire EPD for fat score. Results from this study show that selection using the BCI had positive
Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas
Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity...... and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F...... and genetic variation in the F2 population, respectively. This fulfills the purpose of creating a resource population divergent for OOR traits. Strong genetic correlations were found between weight and lean mass at dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning (0.56 – 0.97). Weight and conformation also...
ACHMAD NUR CHAMDI
Full Text Available Bali cattle is an Indonesian native beef cattle, the result of domestication of Banteng (Bos-bibos banteng. The main problem faced in the development of Bali cattle is the low quality of breed, which is predicted as the effect of inbreeding or raising management. The affects of genetic and cross breeding which usually inflict a loss are the decreasing of cattle’s endurance, fertility and birth weight. Seeing the fact, the government effort to introduce a quality bull to the breed source areas, the determination of cattle release including the controll on the cutting of productive female cattle, and to exactly count the number of Bali cattle which can be released in order to do not disturb its population balance, so it is necessary to do conservation attempt by in-situ and ex-situ. The result of this study shows that the characteristics on genetic resource of Bali cattle which comprises documentation, evaluation on reproduction and production, and attempt in increasing Bali cattle’s genetic quality in Indonesia have been done, eventhough those are still limited.
Borges Fuentes, O.L.
The cultivated bananas belong to the genus Musa and it is the wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana which contributed to the origin of the sorts used as food. Most of these are triploids and possess a high degree of sterility. The sources of variation that are of importance for genetic improvement of the bananas are (1) hereditary differences between the cultivated clones; (2) difference between species and sub-species; (3) differences between the primitive cultivars derived from Musa acuminata, and (4) mutations that can be artiificially induced. The bananas are attacked by many diseases. Their vulnerability to certain diseases is highly significant in view of the extreme genetic uniformity of the commercial crops and the absence of resistant genes. In the past the wild species and the diploids used as food served as sources of resistance. However, efforts to induce resistance in the cultivated triploid bananas have not been successful. The use of mutagenic agents is proposed as a possible way of improving genetic variability in banana cultivation. (author)
Limited therapeutic options due to antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a major threat to human and animal health worldwide. There is a paucity of information on ß-lactam resistant Esherichia coli isolated from companion animals in developing countries; therefore their zoonotic impact is unknown. This s...
Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.
Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.
Campagnolo, Enzo R; Johnson, Kammy R; Karpati, Adam; Rubin, Carol S; Kolpin, Dana W; Meyer, Michael T; Esteban, J Emilio; Currier, Russell W; Smith, Kathleen; Thu, Kendall M; McGeehin, Michael
Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of > 100 microg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.
Sonia E. Eynard
Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations.
Eynard, Sonia E; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P L; Restoux, Gwendal
Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC) strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations. Copyright © 2018 Eynard et al.
Umakanth, Bangale; Vishalakshi, Balija; Sathish Kumar, P; Rama Devi, S J S; Bhadana, Vijay Pal; Senguttuvel, P; Kumar, Sudhir; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Prasad, M S; Madhav, Maganti S
North-East (NE) India, the probable origin of rice has diverse genetic resources. Many rice landraces of NE India were not yet characterized for blast resistance. A set of 232 landraces of NE India, were screened for field resistance at two different hotspots of rice blast, viz., IIRR-UBN, Hyderabad and ICAR-NEH, Manipur in two consecutive seasons. The phenotypic evaluation as well as gene profiling for 12 major blast resistance genes ( Pitp , Pi33 , Pi54 , Pib , Pi20 , Pi38 , Pita2 , Pi1 , Piz , Pi9 , Pizt , and Pi40 ) with linked as well as gene-specific markers, identified 84 resistant landraces possessing different gene(s) either in singly or in combinations and also identified seven resistant landraces which do not have the tested genes, indicating the valuable genetic resources for blast resistance. To understand the molecular diversity existing in the population, distance and model based analysis were performed using 120 SSR markers. Results of both analyses are highly correlated by forming two distinct subgroups and the existence of high diversity (24.9% among the subgroups; 75.1% among individuals of each subgroup) was observed. To practically utilize the diversity in the breeding program, a robust core set having an efficiency index of 0.82 which consists of 33 landraces were identified through data of molecular, blast phenotyping, and important agro-morphological traits. The association of eight novel SSR markers for important agronomic traits which includes leaf and neck blast resistance was determined using genome-wide association analysis. The current study focuses on identifying novel resources having field resistance to blast as well as markers which can be explored in rice improvement programs. It also entails the development of a core set which can aid in representing the entire diversity for efficiently harnessing its properties to broaden the gene pool of rice.
Wang, Julia; Al-Ouran, Rami; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Seon-Young; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Comjean, Aram; Mohr, Stephanie E; Perrimon, Norbert; Liu, Zhandong; Bellen, Hugo J
One major challenge encountered with interpreting human genetic variants is the limited understanding of the functional impact of genetic alterations on biological processes. Furthermore, there remains an unmet demand for an efficient survey of the wealth of information on human homologs in model organisms across numerous databases. To efficiently assess the large volume of publically available information, it is important to provide a concise summary of the most relevant information in a rapid user-friendly format. To this end, we created MARRVEL (model organism aggregated resources for rare variant exploration). MARRVEL is a publicly available website that integrates information from six human genetic databases and seven model organism databases. For any given variant or gene, MARRVEL displays information from OMIM, ExAC, ClinVar, Geno2MP, DGV, and DECIPHER. Importantly, it curates model organism-specific databases to concurrently display a concise summary regarding the human gene homologs in budding and fission yeast, worm, fly, fish, mouse, and rat on a single webpage. Experiment-based information on tissue expression, protein subcellular localization, biological process, and molecular function for the human gene and homologs in the seven model organisms are arranged into a concise output. Hence, rather than visiting multiple separate databases for variant and gene analysis, users can obtain important information by searching once through MARRVEL. Altogether, MARRVEL dramatically improves efficiency and accessibility to data collection and facilitates analysis of human genes and variants by cross-disciplinary integration of 18 million records available in public databases to facilitate clinical diagnosis and basic research. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Astrid V Stronen
Full Text Available Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035 than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284. Analyses of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds and examined flanking genome regions (1 megabase for genes under possible selection to identify potential adaptive differences among breeds; outliers were observed in flanking regions of genes associated with key functions including the immune system, metabolism, cognition and physical development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation. Because phenotypes are often paramount for domestic breed owners, such a strategy could provide a helpful approach for genetic rescue and restoration of other domestic populations at
Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this empirical simulation study was to evaluate the use of a combination of semen and embryos in the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed. Such an approach was compared for banks with varying proportions of embryos on the basis of the amount of the material to be stored, time for reconstruction, maintenance of genetic variability, and probability of failure during reconstruction. Four types of populations were simulated, based on reproductive rate: single offspring, twinning, enhanced reproduction, and litter bearing. Reconstruction was simulated for banks consisting of different combinations of semen and reduced numbers of embryos (expressed as a percentage of the material needed for a bank containing exclusively embryos and ranging from 10 to 90%. The use of a combination of semen and embryos increased the number of insemination cycles needed for reconstruction and the level of genetic relatedness in the reconstructed population. The risk for extinction was unacceptably high when a very low proportion of embryos (
Full Text Available The allocation of information is one of the main responsibilities of a manager. In case there is a limitation in the available resources, the issue of resources allocation is raised. Universities and post graduate centers have faced limitations in accessing resources such as budget, human resources, physical space, etc. This problem results in inappropriate use of the approved budget in buying and sharing the different types of information resources, lack of easy access to information resources by users, and users’ dissatisfaction. This paper is intended to see whether the model of genetic algorithm can be used in helping library heads of university to develop a support system for the proper allocation of resources. The data of the central library of a university as the main core of DSS through using genetic algorithm in MATLAB was used in order to come up with a better distribution of effective resources. Research methodology used in this paper was field study and survey. The findings indicated that genetic algorithm was successful in achieving this end.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to
Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells
The medaka Oryzias latipes is a small egg-laying freshwater teleost, and has become an excellent model system for developmental genetics and evolutionary biology. The medaka genome is relatively small in size, approximately 800 Mb, and the genome sequencing project was recently completed by Japanese research groups, providing a high-quality draft genome sequence of the inbred Hd-rR strain of medaka. In this review, I present an overview of the medaka genome project including genome resources, followed by specific findings obtained with the medaka draft genome. In particular, I focus on the analysis that was done by taking advantage of the medaka system, such as the sex chromosome differentiation and the regional history of medaka species using single nucleotide polymorphisms as genomic markers.
Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt
The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...
Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, hereinafter TK, is a broad concept that is deeply rooted in the life of billions of people, especially within the indigenous communities that have developed it either in the North or in the South. TK has multiple manifestations in several fields, from medicinal uses of plants and herbs, to artistic creations. Bio-prospective activities during the 90 have brought the TK problematic to the international fora: the indigenous communities, South Governments, NGO’s and some other groups have complained against the everlasting misappropriation of TK. Since genetic resources are scarce in the North, TK has been reaching increasing value for transnational companies and Universities research groups who have turned their interest to it as a critical source of their R+D projects to advance their business and academic agendas. This work addresses the problematic of TK as well as the Access to Genetic Resources and the benefit Sharing derived from it (hereinafter ABS. It intends to contribute to clarify some still obscure issues for Chile and to show some valuable international experiences to advance in the process of drafting a national strategy, policy and legislation to regulate the issues surrounding TK and AGR. The work calls for a collaborative approach between the main stakeholders to better achieve huge humanity challenges as fighting hunger and catastrophic diseases. The first part addresses the main concerns about TK from an international legal perspective, explaining different views and issues, some of them quite controversial. The second part brings up an interesting new approach to align conflicting interest in the international world, the so-called public-private partnership. The third part is an attempt to provide guidance to decision makers in Chile and eventually some other developing countries on how to face such a process having in mind the fulfillment of the principles and objectives surrounding TK and ABS. The
Mathe, A.; Wegener, Gregers; Finger, B.
Background: Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behavior in rodents. However, little knowledge is available to what extent the NPS system is involved in depression-related behaviors. The aim of the present work was to characterize...... the effects of centrally administered NPS on depression- and anxiety-related behaviors, using a well validated animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats and their controls the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). Methods: Male and female were tested. Seven days following insertion....... In selected animals effect of NPS on home cage activity was explored. Finally, brains from separate groups of naive animals were harvested; hippocampi, amygdalae and PVN punched out, and mRNA transcripts measured with the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR). Results: The most salient...
Gason, Alexandra A; Aitken, MaryAnne; Delatycki, Martin B; Sheffield, Edith; Metcalfe, Sylvia A
Tay Sachs disease is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder, for which carrier screening programs exist worldwide. Education for those offered a screening test is essential in facilitating informed decision-making. In Melbourne, Australia, we have designed, developed, and evaluated a computer-based instructional resource for use in the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program for secondary school students attending Jewish schools. The resource entitled "Genetics in the Community: Tay Sachs disease" was designed on a platform of educational learning theory. The development of the resource included formative evaluation using qualitative data analysis supported by descriptive quantitative data. The final resource was evaluated within the screening program and compared with the standard oral presentation using a questionnaire. Knowledge outcomes were measured both before and after either of the educational formats. Data from the formative evaluation were used to refine the content and functionality of the final resource. The questionnaire evaluation of 302 students over two years showed the multimedia resource to be equally effective as an oral educational presentation in facilitating participants' knowledge construction. The resource offers a large number of potential benefits, which are not limited to the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program setting, such as delivery of a consistent educational message, short delivery time, and minimum financial and resource commitment. This article outlines the value of considering educational theory and describes the process of multimedia development providing a framework that may be of value when designing genetics multimedia resources in general.
Candice M Mitchell
Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human and animal pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases. Since the first isolation of C. pneumoniae TWAR in 1965, all human isolates have been essentially clonal, providing little evolutionary insight. To address this gap, we investigated the genetic diversity of 30 isolates from diverse geographical locations, from both human and animal origin (amphibian, reptilian, equine and marsupial. Based on the level of variation that we observed at 23 discreet gene loci, it was clearly evident that the animal isolates were more diverse than the isolates of human origin. Furthermore, we show that C. pneumoniae isolates could be grouped into five major genotypes, A-E, with A, B, D and E genotypes linked by geographical location, whereas genotype C was found across multiple continents. Our evidence strongly supports two separate animal-to-human cross species transfer events in the evolutionary history of this pathogen. The C. pneumoniae human genotype identified in the USA, Canada, Taiwan, Iran, Japan, Korea and Australia (non-Indigenous most likely originated from a single amphibian or reptilian lineage, which appears to have been previously geographically widespread. We identified a separate human lineage present in two Australian Indigenous isolates (independent geographical locations. This lineage is distinct and is present in Australian amphibians as well as a range of Australian marsupials.
Eynard, Sonia E.; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P.L.; Restoux, Gwendal
Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a
Odong, T L; Jansen, J; van Eeuwijk, F A; van Hintum, T J L
Definition of clear criteria for evaluation of the quality of core collections is a prerequisite for selecting high-quality cores. However, a critical examination of the different methods used in literature, for evaluating the quality of core collections, shows that there are no clear guidelines on the choices of quality evaluation criteria and as a result, inappropriate analyses are sometimes made leading to false conclusions being drawn regarding the quality of core collections and the methods to select such core collections. The choice of criteria for evaluating core collections appears to be based mainly on the fact that those criteria have been used in earlier publications rather than on the actual objectives of the core collection. In this study, we provide insight into different criteria used for evaluating core collections. We also discussed different types of core collections and related each type of core collection to their respective evaluation criteria. Two new criteria based on genetic distance are introduced. The consequences of the different evaluation criteria are illustrated using simulated and experimental data. We strongly recommend the use of the distance-based criteria since they not only allow the simultaneous evaluation of all variables describing the accessions, but they also provide intuitive and interpretable criteria, as compared with the univariate criteria generally used for the evaluation of core collections. Our findings will provide genebank curators and researchers with possibilities to make informed choices when creating, comparing and using core collections.
Streeter, Ian; Harrison, Peter W.; Faulconbridge, Adam; Flicek, Paul; Parkinson, Helen; Clarke, Laura
The Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative (HipSci) isf establishing a large catalogue of human iPSC lines, arguably the most well characterized collection to date. The HipSci portal enables researchers to choose the right cell line for their experiment, and makes HipSci's rich catalogue of assay data easy to discover and reuse. Each cell line has genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and cellular phenotyping data. Data are deposited in the appropriate EMBL-EBI archives, including the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), ArrayExpress and PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) databases. The project will make 500 cell lines from healthy individuals, and from 150 patients with rare genetic diseases; these will be available through the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC). As of August 2016, 238 cell lines are available for purchase. Project data is presented through the HipSci data portal (http://www.hipsci.org/lines) and is downloadable from the associated FTP site (ftp://ftp.hipsci.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp). The data portal presents a summary matrix of the HipSci cell lines, showing available data types. Each line has its own page containing descriptive metadata, quality information, and links to archived assay data. Analysis results are also available in a Track Hub, allowing visualization in the context of public genomic annotations (http://www.hipsci.org/data/trackhubs). PMID:27733501
Streeter, Ian; Harrison, Peter W; Faulconbridge, Adam; Flicek, Paul; Parkinson, Helen; Clarke, Laura
The Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative (HipSci) isf establishing a large catalogue of human iPSC lines, arguably the most well characterized collection to date. The HipSci portal enables researchers to choose the right cell line for their experiment, and makes HipSci's rich catalogue of assay data easy to discover and reuse. Each cell line has genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and cellular phenotyping data. Data are deposited in the appropriate EMBL-EBI archives, including the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), ArrayExpress and PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) databases. The project will make 500 cell lines from healthy individuals, and from 150 patients with rare genetic diseases; these will be available through the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC). As of August 2016, 238 cell lines are available for purchase. Project data is presented through the HipSci data portal (http://www.hipsci.org/lines) and is downloadable from the associated FTP site (ftp://ftp.hipsci.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp). The data portal presents a summary matrix of the HipSci cell lines, showing available data types. Each line has its own page containing descriptive metadata, quality information, and links to archived assay data. Analysis results are also available in a Track Hub, allowing visualization in the context of public genomic annotations (http://www.hipsci.org/data/trackhubs). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Sang Gyu Kim
Full Text Available Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt.
Full Text Available The potential of the globe artichoke biodiversity in the Mediterranean area is enormous but at risk of genetic erosion because only a limited number of varieties are vegetatively propagated and grown. In Apulia (southern Italy, the Regional Government launched specific actions to rescue and preserve biodiversity of woody and vegetable crops in the framework of the Rural Development Program. Many globe artichoke ecotypes have remained neglected and unnoticed for a long time and have been progressively eroded by several causes, which include a poor phytosanitary status. Sanitation of such ecotypes from infections of vascular fungi and viruses may be a solution for their ex situ conservation and multiplication in nursery plants in conformity to the current EU Directives 93/61/CEE and 93/62/CEE that enforce nursery productions of virus-free and true-to-type certified stocks. Five Apulian ecotypes, Bianco di Taranto, Francesina, Locale di Mola, Verde di Putignano and Violetto di Putignano, were sanitized from artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV, artichoke latent virus (ArLV and tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV by meristem-tip culture and in vitro thermotherapy through a limited number of subcultures to reduce the risk of “pastel variants” induction of and loss of earliness. A total of 25 virus-free primary sources were obtained and conserved ex situ in a nursery.
Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N
Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.
Travis Luc Goron
Full Text Available Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana, foxtail millet (Setaria italica, kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum, barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp., and little millet (Panicum sumatrense. Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed orphan cereals. Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers (e.g. nutritional quality which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.
Norbert V. DeByle
The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...
Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T
Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO: http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat, can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.
Fu Linglin; Shuai Jiangbing; Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia; Li Jianrong
This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG) 5 primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG) 5 -PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: → The host-origin library developed by (GTG) 5 -PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. → Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. → High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. → Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.
Over the past century, socio-environmental evolution (e.g., reduced pathogenic load, decreased physical activity [PA], improved nutrition) led to cumulative increments in maternal energy resources (i.e., body mass, adiposity) and decrements in energy expenditure and metabolic control. These decrements reduced the competition between maternal and fetal energy demands and increased the availability of energy substrates to the intrauterine milieu. This perturbation of mother-conceptus energy partitioning stimulated fetal pancreatic beta-cell and adipocyte hyperplasia, thereby inducing an enduring competitive advantage of adipocytes over other tissues in the acquisition and sequestering of nutrient-energy via intensified insulin secretion and hyperplastic adiposity. At menarche, the competitive dominance of adipocytes was further amplified via hormone-induced adipocyte hyperplasia and weight-induced decrements in PA. These metabolic and behavioral effects were propagated progressively when obese, inactive, metabolically compromised women produced progressively larger, more inactive and metabolically compromised children. Consequently, the evolution of human energy metabolism was significantly altered. This phenotypic evolution was exacerbated by increments in the use of Caesarian sections that allowed both the larger fetuses and the metabolically compromised mothers who produced them to survive and reproduce. Thus, natural selection was iatrogenically rendered artificial selection, and the frequency of obese, inactive, metabolically compromised phenotypes increased in the global population. By the late 20th century, a metabolic tipping point was reached in which the post-prandial insulin response was so intense, the relative number of adipocytes so magnified, and inactivity so pervasive that the competitive dominance of adipocytes in the sequestering of nutrient-energy was inevitable, and obesity was unavoidable. PMID:25440888
Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo
Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most important bacterial pathogens based on its incidence and the severity of its associated infections. In addition, severe MRSA infections can occur in hospitalised patients or healthy individuals from the community. Studies have shown the infiltration of MRSA isolates of community origin into hospitals and variants of hospital-associated MRSA have caused infections in the community. These rapid epidemiological changes represent a challenge for the molecular characterisation of such bacteria as a hospital or community-acquired pathogen. To efficiently control the spread of MRSA, it is important to promptly detect the mecA gene, which is the determinant of methicillin resistance, using a polymerase chain reaction-based test or other rapidly and accurate methods that detect the mecA product penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a or PBP2’. The recent emergence of MRSA isolates that harbour a mecA allotype, i.e., the mecC gene, infecting animals and humans has raised an additional and significant issue regarding MRSA laboratory detection. Antimicrobial drugs for MRSA therapy are becoming depleted and vancomycin is still the main choice in many cases. In this review, we present an overview of MRSA infections in community and healthcare settings with focus on recent changes in the global epidemiology, with special reference to the MRSA picture in Brazil.
Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Ferreira, Fabienne Antunes
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens based on its incidence and the severity of its associated infections. In addition, severe MRSA infections can occur in hospitalised patients or healthy individuals from the community. Studies have shown the infiltration of MRSA isolates of community origin into hospitals and variants of hospital-associated MRSA have caused infections in the community. These rapid epidemiological changes represent a challenge for the molecular characterisation of such bacteria as a hospital or community-acquired pathogen. To efficiently control the spread of MRSA, it is important to promptly detect the mecA gene, which is the determinant of methicillin resistance, using a polymerase chain reaction-based test or other rapidly and accurate methods that detect the mecA product penicillin-binding protein (PBP)2a or PBP2’. The recent emergence of MRSA isolates that harbour a mecA allotype, i.e., the mecC gene, infecting animals and humans has raised an additional and significant issue regarding MRSA laboratory detection. Antimicrobial drugs for MRSA therapy are becoming depleted and vancomycin is still the main choice in many cases. In this review, we present an overview of MRSA infections in community and healthcare settings with focus on recent changes in the global epidemiology, with special reference to the MRSA picture in Brazil. PMID:24789555
Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.
Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 61-65 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. Liblice, 08.11.2015-10.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington’s disease * grunting * transgenic pigs Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.209, year: 2015
Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Clark, Jeremy J; Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Seeman, Phillip; Phillips, Paul E M; Akil, Huda
Rats selectively bred based on high or low reactivity to a novel environment were characterized for other behavioral and neurobiological traits thought to be relevant to addiction vulnerability. The two lines of animals, which differ in their propensity to self-administer drugs, also differ in the value they attribute to cues associated with reward, in impulsive behavior, and in their dopamine system. When a cue was paired with food or cocaine reward bred high-responder rats (bHRs) learned to...
Full Text Available Management of forest genetic resources requires experimental data related to the genetic variation of the species and populations under different climatic conditions. Foresters also demand to know how the main selective drivers will influence the adaptability of the genetic resources. To assess the inter- and intraspecific variation and plasticity in seedling drought tolerance at a relevant genetic resource management scale, we tested the changes in growth and biomass allocation of seedlings of Pinus oocarpa, P. patula and P. pseudostrobus under two contrasting watering regimes. We found general significant intraspecific variation and intraspecific differences in plasticity, since both population and watering by population interaction were significant for all three species. All the species and populations share a common general avoidance mechanism (allometric adjustment of shoot/root biomass. However, the intraspecific variation and differences in phenotypic plasticity among populations modify the adaptation strategies of the species to drought. Some of the differences are related to the climatic conditions of the location of origin. We confirmed that even at reduced geographical scales, Mexican pines present differences in the response to water stress. The differences among species and populations are relevant in afforestation programs as well as in genetic conservation activities.
Geary, Janis; Jardine, Cynthia G; Guebert, Jenilee; Bubela, Tania
Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK). Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Review. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.
Full Text Available Background. Research in northern Canada focused on Aboriginal peoples has historically benefited academia with little consideration for the people being researched or their traditional knowledge (TK. Although this attitude is changing, the complexity of TK makes it difficult to develop mechanisms to preserve and protect it. Protecting TK becomes even more important when outside groups become interested in using TK or materials with associated TK. In the latter category are genetic resources, which may have commercial value and are the focus of this article. Objective. This article addresses access to and use of genetic resources and associated TK in the context of the historical power-imbalances in research relationships in Canadian north. Design. Review. Results. Research involving genetic resources and TK is becoming increasingly relevant in northern Canada. The legal framework related to genetic resources and the cultural shift of universities towards commercial goals in research influence the environment for negotiating research agreements. Current guidelines for research agreements do not offer appropriate guidelines to achieve mutual benefit, reflect unequal bargaining power or take the relationship between parties into account. Conclusions. Relational contract theory may be a useful framework to address the social, cultural and legal hurdles inherent in creating research agreements.
The Cool Season Food Legume Genome database (CSFL, www.coolseasonfoodlegume.org) is an online resource for genomics, genetics, and breeding research for chickpea, lentil,pea, and faba bean. The user-friendly and curated website allows for all publicly available map,marker,trait, gene,transcript, ger...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) is a comprehensive resource for scientists performing animal-based research to gain a better understanding of cancer,...
Vince, L; Kleter, G A; Kostov, K; Pfeiffer, D U; Guitian, J
A facultative post market monitoring of potential health impacts of genetically modified (GM) feedstuffs on livestock consuming these feeds after pre-market risk assessment is under ongoing consideration. Within the IPAFEED database, scientific studies on health effects beyond performance in livestock and the results of a systematic search for evidence of outcome effects due to GM feed are consolidated. These outcomes were reviewed and checked for consistency in order to identify plausible syndromes suitable for conducting surveillance. The 24 selected studies showed no consistent changes in any health parameter. There were no repeated studies in any species by GM crop type and animal species. As such, there is insufficient evidence to inform the design of surveillance systems for detecting known adverse effects. Animal health surveillance systems have been proposed for the post market monitoring of potential adverse effects in animals. Such systems were evaluated for their applicability to the detection of hypothetical adverse effects and their strengths and weaknesses to detect syndromes of concern are presented. For known adverse effects, applied controlled post-market studies may yield conclusive and high-quality evidence. For detecting unknown adverse effects, the use of existing surveillance systems may still be of interest. A simulation tool developed within the project can be adapted and applied to existing surveillance systems to explore their applicability to the detection of potential adverse effects of GM feed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V
The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.
Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.
The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814
G. B. Nyamushamba
Full Text Available The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.
Wang, Gui-Xiang; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Shuo; Zong, Mei; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Xing-Ying; Zhang, Yue-Yun; Wang, You-Ping; Liu, Fan
Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower "Korso" (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome) and black mustard "G1/1" (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome). However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs) were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits) and physiological (black rot/club root resistance) characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from "Korso." Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms) analysis identified the presence of "G1/1" DNA segments (average 7.5%). Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1%) was higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%), and the presence of fragments specific to Brassica carinata (BBCC 2n = 34) were common (average 15.5%). Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4%) was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%). Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.
Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.
Halewood, Michael; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Sackville Hamilton, Ruaraidh; Kurtz, Brad; Marden, Emily; Welch, Eric; Michiels, Frank; Mozafari, Javad; Sabran, Muhamad; Patron, Nicola; Kersey, Paul; Bastow, Ruth; Dorius, Shawn; Dias, Sonia; McCouch, Susan; Powell, Wayne
Contents Summary 1407 I. Introduction 1408 II. Technological advances and their utility for gene banks and breeding, and longer-term contributions to SDGs 1408 III. The challenges that must be overcome to realise emerging R&D opportunities 1410 IV. Renewed governance structures for PGR (and related big data) 1413 V. Access and benefit sharing and big data 1416 VI. Conclusion 1417 Acknowledgements 1417 ORCID 1417 References 1417 SUMMARY: Over the last decade, there has been an ongoing revolution in the exploration, manipulation and synthesis of biological systems, through the development of new technologies that generate, analyse and exploit big data. Users of Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) can potentially leverage these capacities to significantly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of their efforts to conserve, discover and utilise novel qualities in PGR, and help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This review advances the discussion on these emerging opportunities and discusses how taking advantage of them will require data integration and synthesis across disciplinary, organisational and international boundaries, and the formation of multi-disciplinary, international partnerships. We explore some of the institutional and policy challenges that these efforts will face, particularly how these new technologies may influence the structure and role of research for sustainable development, ownership of resources, and access and benefit sharing. We discuss potential responses to political and institutional challenges, ranging from options for enhanced structure and governance of research discovery platforms to internationally brokered benefit-sharing agreements, and identify a set of broad principles that could guide the global community as it seeks or considers solutions. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.
Nnamani, Catherine Veronica; Ajayi, Sunday Adesola; Oselebe, Happiness Ogba; Atkinson, Christopher John; Igboabuchi, Anastasia Ngozi; Ezigbo, Eucharia Chizoba
The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa ( e x. A. Rich.) Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB)), is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD). Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ) were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40-50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific knowledge
Catherine Veronica Nnamani
Full Text Available The southeastern part of Nigeria is one of the major hotspots of useful plant genetic resources. These endemic species are associated with a rich indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity in relation to their use and conservation. Sphenostylis stenocarpa (ex. A. Rich. Harms., (African Yam Bean (AYB, is one such crop within the family of Fabaceae. Its nutritional and eco-friendly characteristics have value in ameliorating malnutrition, hidden hunger and environmental degradation inherent in resource-poor rural and semi-rural communities throughout Africa. However, lack of information from the custodians of this crop is limiting its sustainable development. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys on the diversity, uses, and constraints limiting the cultivation and use of the crop in southeastern Nigeria were carried out. Five-hundred respondents were randomly selected and data collected through oral interviews and focused group discussion (FGD. Semi-structured questionnaires (SSQ were also used to elicit information from a spectrum of AYB users comprising community leaders, farmers, market women and consumers in five States. Results showed that the majority of the respondents lacked formal education and were of the age group of 40–50 years, while the female gender dominated with limited access to land and extension officers. Seed coat colour largely determined utilization. Long cooking time, requirement for staking materials, aging of farmers and low market demand were among the major constraints limiting further cultivation and utilization of AYB. In-situ conservation was by hanging dried fruits by the fireside, beside the house, storing in earthenware, calabash gourds, cans and bottles. It is concluded that there is urgent need to scale up conservation through robust linkages between contemporary scientific domains and indigenous peoples in order to harness and incorporate the rich indigenous knowledge in local communities for enhanced scientific
Charles M. Shackleton
Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.
Roč. 43, č. 9 (1998), s. 386 ISSN 0044-4847. [Genetics Day-International conference on animal genetics /18./. 08.09.1998-10.09.1998, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter
In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.
Elizângela Emídio Cunha
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os impactos de se ignorarem os efeitos de dominância sobre a estimação de parâmetros genéticos e a predição de valores genéticos pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita sob modelo animal aditivo empregando-se o MTDFREML. Para a mesma arquitetura genômica, foram simulados dois modelos de ação gênica: um deles incluiu apenas efeitos aditivos dos genes e o outro, efeitos aditivos e dominância completa e positiva para 100% dos locos. Sob cada modelo genético, foram geradas três populações-base correspondentes às características com herdabilidades de 0,15 (baixa, 0,30 (média e 0,60 (alta. A partir das populações-base, foram geradas as populações iniciais, que, submetidas a seleção e a acasalamentos ao acaso, durante seis gerações consecutivas e discretas, resultaram cada uma em 18.000 indivíduos com registro. As estimativas dos componentes de variância e herdabilidade obtidas no modelo com ação gênica aditiva foram semelhantes aos seus valores reais para todas as características, ao passo que, sob ação gênica de dominância, todos os componentes foram superestimados, principalmente a variância genética aditiva. A variância de dominância não-estimada pelo modelo animal adotado foi redistribuída entre os componentes genético aditivo e residual estimados. Houve perda na acurácia da avaliação genética sob o modelo genético com dominância e essa perda foi traduzida por correlações mais baixas entre os valores genéticos verdadeiros e preditos dos animais. Há necessidade de novos estudos, já que os genomas simulados podem não corresponder aos sistemas biológicos verdadeiros.The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of ignoring the dominance effects on the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of genetic values by the restricted maximum likelihood method, under the additive animal model, using MTDFREML. Two gene action models were
Jacquet, P.; Vankerkom, J.; Lambiet-Collier, M.
A comparison was made of the radiosensitivities of the resting oocyte of guinea pig in its two different states, the 'large' resting and 'contracted' oocyte, also extending the investigations to the radiosensitivity of the female germ cells at earlier stages during intrauterine life. Irradiation induced a dose-dependent decrease in the total number of oocytes, and this effect was more pronounced in animals irradiated as adults (target cells: contracted resting oocytes). Our results also suggested that the LD 50 of the large guinea pig resting oocyte should be around 4 Gy, a value similar to that obtained recently for the equivalent human oocyte. This confirms the high radioresistance of the guinea pig oocyte and the consequent suitability of this species for further detailed studies in relation to genetic hazards in man. (author)
A Mark Ibekwe
Full Text Available Escherichia coli are widely used as indicators of fecal contamination, and in some cases to identify host sources of fecal contamination in surface water. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for 600 generic E. coli isolates obtained from surface water and sediment from creeks and channels along the middle Santa Ana River (MSAR watershed of southern California, USA, after a 12 month study. Evaluation of E. coli populations along the creeks and channels showed that E. coli were more prevalent in sediment compared to surface water. E. coli populations were not significantly different (P = 0.05 between urban runoff sources and agricultural sources, however, E. coli genotypes determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were less diverse in the agricultural sources than in urban runoff sources. PFGE also showed that E. coli populations in surface water were more diverse than in the sediment, suggesting isolates in sediment may be dominated by clonal populations.Twenty four percent (144 isolates of the 600 isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. Most multiple resistances were associated with inputs from urban runoff and involved the antimicrobials rifampicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The occurrence of a greater number of E. coli with multiple antibiotic resistances from urban runoff sources than agricultural sources in this watershed provides useful evidence in planning strategies for water quality management and public health protection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an economically important cool season grain legume crop that is valued for its nutritive seeds having high protein content. However, several biotic and abiotic stresses and the low genetic variability in the chickpea genome have continuously hindered the chickpea molecular breeding programs. STMS (Sequence Tagged Microsatellite Sites markers which are preferred for the construction of saturated linkage maps in several crop species, have also emerged as the most efficient and reliable source for detecting allelic diversity in chickpea. However, the number of STMS markers reported in chickpea is still limited and moreover exhibit low rates of both inter and intraspecific polymorphism, thereby limiting the positions of the SSR markers especially on the intraspecific linkage maps of chickpea. Hence, this study was undertaken with the aim of developing additional STMS markers and utilizing them for advancing the genetic linkage map of chickpea which would have applications in QTL identification, MAS and for de novo assembly of high throughput whole genome sequence data. Results A microsatellite enriched library of chickpea (enriched for (GT/CAn and (GA/CTn repeats was constructed from which 387 putative microsatellite containing clones were identified. From these, 254 STMS primers were designed of which 181 were developed as functional markers. An intraspecific mapping population of chickpea, [ICCV-2 (single podded × JG-62 (double podded] and comprising of 126 RILs, was genotyped for mapping. Of the 522 chickpea STMS markers (including the double-podding trait, screened for parental polymorphism, 226 (43.3% were polymorphic in the parents and were used to genotype the RILs. At a LOD score of 3.5, eight linkage groups defining the position of 138 markers were obtained that spanned 630.9 cM with an average marker density of 4.57 cM. Further, based on the common loci present between the current map
Gaur, Rashmi; Sethy, Niroj K; Choudhary, Shalu; Shokeen, Bhumika; Gupta, Varsha; Bhatia, Sabhyata
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an economically important cool season grain legume crop that is valued for its nutritive seeds having high protein content. However, several biotic and abiotic stresses and the low genetic variability in the chickpea genome have continuously hindered the chickpea molecular breeding programs. STMS (Sequence Tagged Microsatellite Sites) markers which are preferred for the construction of saturated linkage maps in several crop species, have also emerged as the most efficient and reliable source for detecting allelic diversity in chickpea. However, the number of STMS markers reported in chickpea is still limited and moreover exhibit low rates of both inter and intraspecific polymorphism, thereby limiting the positions of the SSR markers especially on the intraspecific linkage maps of chickpea. Hence, this study was undertaken with the aim of developing additional STMS markers and utilizing them for advancing the genetic linkage map of chickpea which would have applications in QTL identification, MAS and for de novo assembly of high throughput whole genome sequence data. A microsatellite enriched library of chickpea (enriched for (GT/CA)n and (GA/CT)n repeats) was constructed from which 387 putative microsatellite containing clones were identified. From these, 254 STMS primers were designed of which 181 were developed as functional markers. An intraspecific mapping population of chickpea, [ICCV-2 (single podded) × JG-62 (double podded)] and comprising of 126 RILs, was genotyped for mapping. Of the 522 chickpea STMS markers (including the double-podding trait, screened for parental polymorphism, 226 (43.3%) were polymorphic in the parents and were used to genotype the RILs. At a LOD score of 3.5, eight linkage groups defining the position of 138 markers were obtained that spanned 630.9 cM with an average marker density of 4.57 cM. Further, based on the common loci present between the current map and the previously published chickpea
Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C
Consider the estimation of genetic (co)variance components from a maternal animal model (MAM) using a conjugated Bayesian approach. Usually, more uncertainty is expected a priori on the value of the maternal additive variance than on the value of the direct additive variance. However, it is not possible to model such differential uncertainty when assuming an inverted Wishart (IW) distribution for the genetic covariance matrix. Instead, consider the use of a generalized inverted Wishart (GIW) distribution. The GIW is essentially an extension of the IW distribution with a larger set of distinct parameters. In this study, the GIW distribution in its full generality is introduced and theoretical results regarding its use as the prior distribution for the genetic covariance matrix of the MAM are derived. In particular, we prove that the conditional conjugacy property holds so that parameter estimation can be accomplished via the Gibbs sampler. A sampling algorithm is also sketched. Furthermore, we describe how to specify the hyperparameters to account for differential prior opinion on the (co)variance components. A recursive strategy to elicit these parameters is then presented and tested using field records and simulated data. The procedure returned accurate estimates and reduced standard errors when compared with non-informative prior settings while improving the convergence rates. In general, faster convergence was always observed when a stronger weight was placed on the prior distributions. However, analyses based on the IW distribution have also produced biased estimates when the prior means were set to over-dispersed values. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Palanisamy, Srikanth; Chang, YuChen; Scaria, Joy; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Peters, Kenlyn E; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O
Pathogenic Escherichia coli has been listed among the most important bacteria associated with foodborne illnesses around the world. We investigated the genetic relatedness among Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated along the animal food supply chain and from humans diagnosed with gastroenteritis in Qatar. Samples were collected from different sources along the food supply chain and from patients admitted to the hospital with complaints of gastroenteritis. All samples were screened for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC using a combination of bacterial enrichment and molecular detection techniques. A proportional sampling approach was used to select positive samples from each source for further multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Seven housekeeping genes described for STEC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed by MLST. Isolates were characterized by allele composition, sequence type (ST) and assessed for epidemiologic relationship within and among different sources. Nei's genetic distance was calculated at the allele level between sample pools in each site downstream. E. coli O157:H7 occurred at a higher rate in slaughterhouse and retail samples than at the farm or in humans in our sampling. The ST171, an ST common to enterotoxigenic E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, was the most common ST (15%) in the food supply chain. None of the genetic distances among the different sources was statistically significant. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenic strains are present along the supply chain at different levels and with varying relatedness. Clinical isolates were the most diverse, as expected, considering the polyclonal diversity in the human microbiota. The high occurrence of these food adulterants among the farm products suggests that implementation of sanitary measures at that level might reduce the risk of human exposure.
Determination of staphylococcal exotoxins, SCCmec types, and genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments in Korea
Youn, Jung-Ho; Ahn, Kuk Ju; Lim, Suk-Kyung
The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored the canine enterotoxin SEC gene. However, the S. intermedius exfoliative toxin gene was found in 166 SIG isolates although the S. aureus-derived exfoliative toxin genes, such as eta, etb and etd, were not detected. SCCmec typing resulted in classifying one isolate as SCCmec type IV, 41 isolates as type V (including three S. intermedius isolates), and 10 isolates as non-classifiable. Genetic relatedness of all S. pseudintermedius isolates recovered from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strains having the same band patterns were detected in S. pseudintermedius isolates collected at 13 and 18 months, suggesting possible colonization and/or expansion of a specific S. pseudintermedius strain in a veterinary hospital. PMID:21897094
Mergy, Marc A.; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Davis, Gwynne L.; Jessen, Tammy N.; Wright, Jane; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Hahn, Maureen K.; Blakely, Randy D.
Alterations in dopamine (DA) signaling underlie the most widely held theories of molecular and circuit level perturbations that lead to risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The DA transporter (DAT), a presynaptic reuptake protein whose activity provides critical support for DA signaling by limiting DA action at pre- and postsynaptic receptors, has been consistently associated with ADHD through pharmacological, behavioral, brain imaging and genetic studies. Currently, the animal models of ADHD exhibit significant limitations, stemming in large part from their lack of construct validity. To remedy this situation, we have pursued the creation of a mouse model derived from a functional nonsynonymous variant in the DAT gene (SLC6A3) of ADHD probands. We trace our path from the identification of these variants to in vitro biochemical and physiological studies to the production of the DAT Val559 mouse model. We discuss our initial findings with these animals and their promise in the context of existing rodent models of ADHD. PMID:24332984
Geoffrey A Walford
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have uncovered a large number of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes. In many cases the causal gene or polymorphism has not been identified, and its impact on response to anti-hyperglycemic medications is unknown. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH, NCT01762046 is a novel resource of genetic and biochemical data following glipizide and metformin administration. We describe recruitment, enrollment, and phenotyping procedures and preliminary results for the first 668 of our planned 1,000 participants enriched for individuals at risk of requiring anti-diabetic therapy in the future.All individuals are challenged with 5 mg glipizide × 1; twice daily 500 mg metformin × 2 days; and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test following metformin. Genetic variants associated with glycemic traits and blood glucose, insulin, and other hormones at baseline and following each intervention are measured.Approximately 50% of the cohort is female and 30% belong to an ethnic minority group. Following glipizide administration, peak insulin occurred at 60 minutes and trough glucose at 120 minutes. Thirty percent of participants experienced non-severe symptomatic hypoglycemia and required rescue with oral glucose. Following metformin administration, fasting glucose and insulin were reduced. Common genetic variants were associated with fasting glucose levels.SUGAR-MGH represents a viable pharmacogenetic resource which, when completed, will serve to characterize genetic influences on pharmacological perturbations, and help establish the functional relevance of newly discovered genetic loci to therapy of type 2 diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01762046.
Roten, Linda Tømmerdal; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Gundersen, Astrid Solberg; Fenstad, Mona Høysæter; Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin Melheim; Solberg, Per; Tappert, Christian; Araya, Elisabeth; Bærheim, Gunhild; Lyslo, Ingvill; Tollaksen, Kjersti; Bjørge, Line; Austgulen, Rigmor
Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication without curative treatment available. A Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort was established to provide a new resource for genetic and molecular studies aiming to improve the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Participants were recruited from five Norwegian hospitals after diagnoses of preeclampsia registered in the Medical birth registry of Norway were verified according to the study's inclusion criteria. Detailed obstetric information and information on personal and family disease history focusing on cardiovascular health was collected. At attendance anthropometric measurements were registered and blood samples were drawn. The software package SPSS 19.0 for Windows was used to compute descriptive statistics such as mean and SD. P-values were computed based on t-test statistics for normally distributed variables. Nonparametrical methods (chi square) were used for categorical variables. A cohort consisting of 496 participants (355 females and 141 males) representing 137 families with increased occurrence of preeclampsia has been established, and blood samples are available for 477 participants. Descriptive analyses showed that about 60% of the index women's pregnancies with birth data registered were preeclamptic according to modern diagnosis criteria. We also found that about 41% of the index women experienced more than one preeclamptic pregnancy. In addition, the descriptive analyses confirmed that preeclamptic pregnancies are more often accompanied with delivery complications. The data and biological samples collected in this Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort will provide an important basis for future research. Identification of preeclampsia susceptibility genes and new biomarkers may contribute to more efficient strategies to identify mothers "at risk" and contribute to development of novel preventative therapies.
Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.
... can be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ...
De La Vega, Francisco M; Dailey, David; Ziegle, Janet; Williams, Julie; Madden, Dawn; Gilbert, Dennis A
Since public and private efforts announced the first draft of the human genome last year, researchers have reported great numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We believe that the availability of well-mapped, quality SNP markers constitutes the gateway to a revolution in genetics and personalized medicine that will lead to better diagnosis and treatment of common complex disorders. A new generation of tools and public SNP resources for pharmacogenomic and genetic studies--specifically for candidate-gene, candidate-region, and whole-genome association studies--will form part of the new scientific landscape. This will only be possible through the greater accessibility of SNP resources and superior high-throughput instrumentation-assay systems that enable affordable, highly productive large-scale genetic studies. We are contributing to this effort by developing a high-quality linkage disequilibrium SNP marker map and an accompanying set of ready-to-use, validated SNP assays across every gene in the human genome. This effort incorporates both the public sequence and SNP data sources, and Celera Genomics' human genome assembly and enormous resource ofphysically mapped SNPs (approximately 4,000,000 unique records). This article discusses our approach and methodology for designing the map, choosing quality SNPs, designing and validating these assays, and obtaining population frequency ofthe polymorphisms. We also discuss an advanced, high-performance SNP assay chemisty--a new generation of the TaqMan probe-based, 5' nuclease assay-and high-throughput instrumentation-software system for large-scale genotyping. We provide the new SNP map and validation information, validated SNP assays and reagents, and instrumentation systems as a novel resource for genetic discoveries.
Estudos traducionais de neuropsiquiatria e esquizofrenia: modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento Translational neuropsychiatry of genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia
Michael G. Gottschalk
Full Text Available Sintomas psiquiátricos são subjetivos por natureza e tendem a se sobrepor entre diferentes desordens. Sendo assim, a criação de modelos de uma desordem neuropsiquiátrica encontra desafios pela falta de conhecimento dos fundamentos da fisiopatologia e diagnósticos precisos. Modelos animais são usados para testar hipóteses de etiologia e para representar a condição humana tão próximo quanto possível para aumentar nosso entendimento da doença e avaliar novos alvos para a descoberta de drogas. Nesta revisão, modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento de esquizofrenia são discutidos com respeito a achados comportamentais e neurofisiológicos e sua associação com a condição clínica. Somente modelos animais específicos de esquizofrenia podem, em último caso, levar a novas abordagens diagnósticas e descoberta de drogas. Argumentamos que biomarcadores moleculares são importantes para aumentar a tradução de animais a humanos, já que faltam a especificidade e a fidelidade necessárias às leituras comportamentais para avaliar sintomas psiquiátricos humanos.Psychiatric symptoms are subjective by nature and tend to overlap between different disorders. The modelling of a neuropsychiatric disorder therefore faces challenges because of missing knowledge of the fundamental pathophysiology and a lack of accurate diagnostics. Animal models are used to test hypotheses of aetiology and to represent the human condition as close as possible to increase our understanding of the disease and to evaluate new targets for drug discovery. In this review, genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia are discussed with respect to behavioural and neurophysiological findings and their association with the clinical condition. Only specific animal models of schizophrenia may ultimately lead to novel diagnostic approaches and drug discovery. We argue that molecular biomarkers are important to improve animal to human
Estudos traducionais de neuropsiquiatria e esquizofrenia: modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento Translational neuropsychiatry of genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia
Michael G Gottschalk
Full Text Available Sintomas psiquiátricos são subjetivos por natureza e tendem a se sobrepor entre diferentes desordens. Sendo assim, a criação de modelos de uma desordem neuropsiquiátrica encontra desafios pela falta de conhecimento dos fundamentos da fisiopatologia e diagnósticos precisos. Modelos animais são usados para testar hipóteses de etiologia e para representar a condição humana tão próximo quanto possível para aumentar nosso entendimento da doença e avaliar novos alvos para a descoberta de drogas. Nesta revisão, modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento de esquizofrenia são discutidos com respeito a achados comportamentais e neurofisiológicos e sua associação com a condição clínica. Somente modelos animais específicos de esquizofrenia podem, em último caso, levar a novas abordagens diagnósticas e descoberta de drogas. Argumentamos que biomarcadores moleculares são importantes para aumentar a tradução de animais a humanos, já que faltam a especificidade e a fidelidade necessárias às leituras comportamentais para avaliar sintomas psiquiátricos humanos.Psychiatric symptoms are subjective by nature and tend to overlap between different disorders. The modelling of a neuropsychiatric disorder therefore faces challenges because of missing knowledge of the fundamental pathophysiology and a lack of accurate diagnostics. Animal models are used to test hypotheses of aetiology and to represent the human condition as close as possible to increase our understanding of the disease and to evaluate new targets for drug discovery. In this review, genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia are discussed with respect to behavioural and neurophysiological findings and their association with the clinical condition. Only specific animal models of schizophrenia may ultimately lead to novel diagnostic approaches and drug discovery. We argue that molecular biomarkers are important to improve animal to human
Mouton, Moné; Harvey, Brian H; Cockeran, Marike; Brink, Christiaan B
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant and drug of abuse, commonly used early in life, including in childhood and adolescence. Adverse effects include psychosis, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as increased risk of developing a mental disorder later in life. The current study investigated the long-term effects of chronic METH exposure during pre-adolescence in stress-sensitive Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats (genetic model of depression) and control Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. METH or vehicle control was administered twice daily from post-natal day 19 (PostND19) to PostND34, followed by behavioural testing at either PostND35 (early effects) or long-lasting after withdrawal at PostND60 (early adulthood). Animals were evaluated for depressive-like behaviour, locomotor activity, social interaction and object recognition memory. METH reduced depressive-like behaviour in both FSL and FRL rats at PostND35, but enhanced this behaviour at PostND60. METH also reduced locomotor activity on PostND35 in both FSL and FRL rats, but without effect at PostND60. Furthermore, METH significantly lowered social interaction behaviour (staying together) in both FRL and FSL rats at PostND35 and PostND60, whereas self-grooming time was significantly reduced only at PostND35. METH treatment enhanced exploration of the familiar vs. novel object in the novel object recognition test (nORT) in FSL and FRL rats on PostND35 and PostND60, indicative of reduced cognitive performance. Thus, early-life METH exposure induce social and cognitive deficits. Lastly, early-life exposure to METH may result in acute antidepressant-like effects immediately after chronic exposure, whereas long-term effects after withdrawal are depressogenic. Data also supports a role for genetic predisposition as with FSL rats.
de Groot, M; van Haeringen, W A
In this study, the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) recommended panel for the identification of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is characterized based on commonly used statistical parameters. The marker panel is based on 16 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (PIGN15, PIGN10, PIGN57, PIGN26, CliμD16, CliμD19, PIGN12, CliμD17, CliμT17, PIGN04, CliμD01, CliμD11, CliμD35, CliμT02, CliμT13, CliμT43). The alleles of the 16 loci consist of a mixture of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexameric repeat patterns. A sex determination marker was included in the multiplex for quality control. The repeat sequence of the PIGN markers was previously unpublished and therefore sequenced to reveal the sequence pattern. In total, 1421 pigeons were genotyped on 16 STR loci to generate allele frequency data for each locus. For all 16 markers combined, a PE1 (combined non-exclusion probability, first parent) of 0.9986 and PE2 (combined non-exclusion probability, second parent) of >0.9999 was observed. Comparing the alleged father and mother, a PE value of >0.9999 was observed. Two of the markers, CliμD19 and PIGN12, were found to have relatively high Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and F(null) values. Therefore these markers may be considered to be replaced by other STRs. Another point of discussion may be to add a gender identification marker to the recommended ISAG panel. Not only can this serve as an extra identification marker, but this can also confirm the sex of a sample, because it is challenging to determine the sex based on phenotypical characteristics, especially for chicks. In conclusion, the set of 16 STR markers can be used in routine parentage verification and the identification of individuals. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.
Wegener, Gregers; Finger, Beate C; Elfving, Betina; Keller, Kirsten; Liebenberg, Nico; Fischer, Christina W; Singewald, Nicolas; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Mathé, Aleksander A
Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behaviour in rodents. However, little knowledge is available regarding the NPS system in depression-related behaviours, and whether NPS also exerts anxiolytic effects in an animal model of psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize the effects of NPS on depression- and anxiety-related parameters, using male and female rats in a well-validated animal model of depression: the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We found that FSL showed greater immobility in the forced swim test (FST) than FRL, confirming their phenotype. However, NPS did not affect depression-related behaviour in any rat line. No significant differences in baseline anxiety levels between the FSL and FRL strains were observed, but FSL and FRL rats displayed less anxiety-like behaviour compared to SD rats. NPS decreased anxiety-like behaviour on the elevated plus-maze in all strains. The expression of the NPSR in the amygdala, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and hippocampus was equal in all male strains, although a trend towards reduced expression within the amygdala was observed in FSL rats compared to SD rats. In conclusion, NPS had a marked anxiolytic effect in FSL, FRL and SD rats, but did not modify the depression-related behaviour in any strain, in spite of the significant differences in innate level between the strains. These findings suggest that NPS specifically modifies anxiety behaviour but cannot overcome/reverse a genetically mediated depression phenotype.
Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.
Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which
Arthur da Silva Mariante
Full Text Available Most livestock are not indigenous to Brazil. Several animal species were considered domesticated in the pre-colonial period, since the indigenous people manage them as would be typical of European livestock production. For over 500 years there have been periodic introductions resulting in the wide range of genetic diversity that for centuries supported domestic animal production in the country. Even though these naturalized breeds have acquired adaptive traits after centuries of natural selection, they have been gradually replaced by exotic breeds, to such an extent, that today they are in danger of extinction To avoid further loss of this important genetic material, in 1983 Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources among its priorities. In this paper we describe the effort to genetically characterize these populations, as a tool to ensure their genetic variability. To effectively save the threatened local breeds of livestock it is important to find a niche market for each one, reinserting them in production systems. They have to be utilized in order to be conserved. And there is no doubt that due to their adaptive traits, the Brazilian local breeds of livestock can play an important role in animal production, to meet society needs.
Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O; Lihare, G O
Genetic improvement of farm animals encompasses both mating and selection for desired traits and indigenous chicken genetic resources are no exception. In Kenya, previous attempts to genetically improve indigenous chicken involved cross-breeding scheme by utilizing cockerels and pullets of exotic...... on production traits, determined heritability estimate on growth. Current and ongoing research is focused on molecular characterization, selection for improved immune response, carcass quality, eggs production, growth and adaptation traits. The research is also concerned with conservation of these genetic...
Athanasia D. Panopoulos
Full Text Available Summary: Large-scale collections of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could serve as powerful model systems for examining how genetic variation affects biology and disease. Here we describe the iPSCORE resource: a collection of systematically derived and characterized iPSC lines from 222 ethnically diverse individuals that allows for both familial and association-based genetic studies. iPSCORE lines are pluripotent with high genomic integrity (no or low numbers of somatic copy-number variants as determined using high-throughput RNA-sequencing and genotyping arrays, respectively. Using iPSCs from a family of individuals, we show that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrate gene expression patterns that cluster by genetic background, and can be used to examine variants associated with physiological and disease phenotypes. The iPSCORE collection contains representative individuals for risk and non-risk alleles for 95% of SNPs associated with human phenotypes through genome-wide association studies. Our study demonstrates the utility of iPSCORE for examining how genetic variants influence molecular and physiological traits in iPSCs and derived cell lines. : Working as part of the NHLBI NextGen consortium, Panopoulos and colleagues report the derivation and characterization of 222 publicly available iPSCs from ethnically diverse individuals with corresponding genomic data including SNP arrays, RNA-seq, and whole-genome sequencing. This collection provides a powerful resource to investigate the function of genetic variants. Keywords: iPSCORE, iPSC, GWAS, molecular traits, physiological traits, cardiac disease, NHLBI Next Gen, LQT2, KCNH2, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes
Full Text Available Comparison of computation time between single-trait and multiple-trait evaluations showed that with the use of the canonicat transformation associated with multiple diagonalization of (covariance matrices, multiple-trait analysis for milk, fat and protein yields is not more expensive than three single-trait analyzes. Rank correlations between breeding values for 54,820 cows with records (for their 1,406 sires estimated with the single-trait and multiple-trait models were over .98 (.99 in fat yield and over .99 (.99 in milk and protein yields. The relative gain expressed as reduction in mean prediction error variance was 3% (1% in milk yield, 6% (3% in fat yield, and .4% (.2% in protein yield for cows (for sires. Relative genetic gains were 3% (1%, 6% (2% and .5% (.2% respectively in milk, fat and protein yields for cows (for sires. The use of multiple-trait models bas therefore the advantages of improved precision and reduced selection bics. Multiple-trait analysis could be extended for the analyzes of test-day records. Results show that this or similar multiple-trait animal model could be implemented immediately in Belgium at low computing cost, using the proposed algorithme and could be the first step to new, more advanced evaluation methods.
Krüger, Alejandra; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Sanso, A. Mariel; Etcheverría, Analía I.; Bustamante, Ana V.; Burgán, Julia; Fernández, Luciana; Fernández, Daniel; Leotta, Gerardo; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Padola, Nora L.; Rossen, John W. A.
The Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) may cause serious illness in human. Here we analyze O26:H11 strains known to be among the most reported STEC strains causing human infections. Genetic characterization of strains isolated from animal, food, and clinical specimens in Argentina showed that most carried either stx1a or stx2a subtypes. Interestingly, stx2a-positive O26:H11 rarely isolated from cattle in other countries showed to be an important proportion of O26:H11 strains circulating in cattle and food in our region. Seventeen percent of the isolates harbored more than one gene associated with antimicrobial resistance. In addition to stx, all strains contained the virulence genes eae-β, tir, efa, iha, espB, cif, espA, espF, espJ, nleA, nleB, nleC, and iss; and all except one contained ehxA, espP, and cba genes. On the other hand, toxB and espI genes were exclusively observed in stx2-positive isolates, whereas katP was only found in stx1a-positive isolates. Our results show that O26:H11 STEC strains circulating in Argentina, including those isolated from humans, cattle, and meat products, present a high pathogenic potential, and evidence that cattle can be a reservoir of O26:H11 strains harboring stx2a. PMID:26539413
Luiz Lehmann Coutinho
Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows
Winton, Clare L; Plante, Yves; Hind, Pamela; McMahon, Robert; Hegarty, Matthew J; McEwan, Neil R; Davies-Morel, Mina C G; Morgan, Charly M; Powell, Wayne; Nash, Deborah M
Most species exist as subdivided ex situ daughter population(s) derived from a single original group of individuals. Such subdivision occurs for many reasons both natural and manmade. Traditional British and Irish pony breeds were introduced to North America (U.S.A. and Canada) within the last 150 years, and subsequently equivalent breed societies were established. We have analyzed selected U.K. and North American equivalent pony populations as a case study for understanding the relationship between putative source and derived subpopulations. Diversity was measured using mitochondrial DNA and a panel of microsatellite markers. Genetic signatures differed between the North American subpopulations according to historical management processes. Founder effect and stochastic drift was apparent, particularly pronounced in some breeds, with evidence of admixture of imported mares of different North American breeds. This demonstrates the importance of analysis of subpopulations to facilitate understanding the genetic effects of past management practices and to lead to informed future conservation strategies.
Full Text Available The hermaphroditic Mangrove Killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is the world's only vertebrate that routinely self-fertilizes. As such, highly inbred and presumably isogenic "clonal" lineages of this androdioecious species have long been maintained in several laboratories and used in a wide variety of experiments that require genetically uniform vertebrate specimens. Here we conduct a genetic inventory of essentially all laboratory stocks of the Mangrove Killifish held worldwide. At 32 microsatellite loci, these stocks proved to show extensive interline differentiation as well as some intraline variation, much of which can be attributed to post-origin de novo mutations and/or to the segregation of polymorphisms from wild progenitors. Our genetic findings also document that many of the surveyed laboratory strains are not what they have been labeled, apparently due to the rather frequent mishandling or unintended mixing of various laboratory stocks over the years. Our genetic inventory should help to clarify much of this confusion about the clonal identities and genetic relationships of laboratory lines, and thereby help to rejuvenate interest in K. marmoratus as a reliable vertebrate model for experimental research that requires or can capitalize upon "clonal" replicate specimens.
Boronnikova, S V; Kalendar', R N
Species-specific LTR retrotransposons were first cloned in five rare relic species of drug plants located in the Perm' region. Sequences of LTR retrotransposons were used for PCR analysis based on amplification of repeated sequences from LTR or other sites of retrotransposons (IRAP). Genetic diversity was studied in six populations of rare relic species of plants Adonis vernalis L. by means of the IRAP method; 125 polymorphic IRAP-markers were analyzed. Parameters for DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity of A. vernalis populations were determined.
Full Text Available In the lead-up to two meetings in June 2005 which will address the question of whether there should be an obligation of disclosure of origin of genetic resources in patent applications, this paper uses the on-going international policy debate in this area as a platform both to make some specific observations about this particular issue, and to offer some comments on the broader question which it raises of how the intellectual property world integrates with other legal and ethical regimes.
Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)
inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...
Scott, W.A.; Turner, R.M.; McCammon, R.B.
Integrated logic circuits were described as a means of formally representing genetic-geologic models for estimating undiscovered uranium resources. The logic circuits are logical combinations of selected geologic characteristics judged to be associated with particular types of uranium deposits. Each combination takes on a value which corresponds to the combined presence, absence, or don't know states of the selected characteristic within a specified geographic cell. Within each cell, the output of the logic circuit is taken as a measure of the favorability of occurrence of an undiscovered deposit of the type being considered. In this way, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data are incorporated explicitly into potential uranium resource estimates. The present report describes how integrated logic circuits are constructed by use of a computer graphics program. A user's guide is also included
... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...
Full Text Available Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate.Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi-Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analysed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture.
Hugh C. Black
This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...
Hoban, S. M.; Arntzen, J. W.; Bertorelle, G.; Bryja, Josef; Fernandes, M.; Frith, K.; Gaggiotti, O. E.; Galbusera, P.; Godoy, J. A.; Hauffe, H. C.; Hoelzel, A. R.; Nichols, R. A.; Pérez-Espona, S.; Primmer, C. R.; Russo, I.-R.; Segelbacher, G.; Siegismund, H. R.; Sihvonen, M.; Sjögren-Gulve, P.; Vernesi, C.; Vila, C.; Bruford, M. W.
Roč. 21, č. 6 (2013), s. 433-437 ISSN 1617-1381 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Capacity-building * Conservation planning * Data * Decision-making * Management * Online resource * Policy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2013
Eduardo Rodríguez Yunta
Full Text Available En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en su uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y el ser requisito previo para ensayos en humanos, como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos se refieren a que no representan completamente la condición humana como modelo; que realizar pruebas de toxicidad causan grave daño a los animales; que se altera su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas y el riesgo de introducir organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano impone la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, puesto que se está trabajando con seres vivos con capacidad de sentir.Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling.
El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib
Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437
... mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Help Me Understand Genetics Genetic Consultation How are genetic conditions treated or managed? How are genetic conditions treated or managed? Many ...
Full Text Available Four Korean native cattle (KNC breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120 and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56. Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.
Jones, David B; Jerry, Dean R; Khatkar, Mehar S; Raadsma, Herman W; Zenger, Kyall R
The silver-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, is an important tropical aquaculture species extensively farmed for the highly sought "South Sea" pearls. Traditional breeding programs have been initiated for this species in order to select for improved pearl quality, but many economic traits under selection are complex, polygenic and confounded with environmental factors, limiting the accuracy of selection. The incorporation of a marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding approach would greatly benefit pearl breeding programs by allowing the direct selection of genes responsible for pearl quality. However, before MAS can be incorporated, substantial genomic resources such as genetic linkage maps need to be generated. The construction of a high-density genetic linkage map for P. maxima is not only essential for unravelling the genomic architecture of complex pearl quality traits, but also provides indispensable information on the genome structure of pearl oysters. A total of 1,189 informative genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were incorporated into linkage map construction. The final linkage map consisted of 887 SNPs in 14 linkage groups, spans a total genetic distance of 831.7 centimorgans (cM), and covers an estimated 96% of the P. maxima genome. Assessment of sex-specific recombination across all linkage groups revealed limited overall heterochiasmy between the sexes (i.e. 1.15:1 F/M map length ratio). However, there were pronounced localised differences throughout the linkage groups, whereby male recombination was suppressed near the centromeres compared to female recombination, but inflated towards telomeric regions. Mean values of LD for adjacent SNP pairs suggest that a higher density of markers will be required for powerful genome-wide association studies. Finally, numerous nacre biomineralization genes were localised providing novel positional information for these genes. This high-density SNP genetic map is the first comprehensive linkage
Cooke, Fred C.; And Others
To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the animal health assistant is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…
Colin Kahlil Khoury
Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.
Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C
Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.
Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.
Deficits in social interaction are primary characteristics of autism, which has strong genetic components. Genetically-manipulated mouse models may provide a useful research tool to advance the investigation of genes associated with autism. To identify these genes using mouse models, behavioral assays for social relationships in the background strains must be developed. The present study examined colony formation in groups of one male and three female mice (Experiment 1) and, groups of three ...
Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter
This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...
Schiavo, G; Bertolini, F.; Utzeri, V J
Casertana is an endangered autochthonous pig breed (raised in south-central Italy) that is considered to be the descendant of the influential Neapolitan pig population that was used to improve British breeds in the 19th century. Casertana pigs are characterized by a typical, almost complete, hair...
Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.Com base no debate gerado pelos alimentos geneticamente modificados (GM, tanto em países desenvolvidos como em países em desenvolvimento, a partir do uso da conjoint analysis, o objetivo foi avaliar a importância dos fatores determinantes na preferência de alimentos GM pelos consumidores das cidades de Temuco e Talca, zona Centro-Sul do Chile, e a existência de diferentes segmentos de mercado, mediante uma enquete a 800 pessoas. Utilizando conjoint analysis, se determinou, em geral, que a existência de modificação genética foi mais importante que a marca e o preço na decisão de compra de ambos os alimentos. Mediante análise cluster, se distinguiram três segmentos, o mais numeroso (51,4% deu leve maior importância à marca e preferiu leite e molho de tomate geneticamente modificado. O segundo grupo (41,0% deu
Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...
Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a seleção, utilizando valores genéticos preditos pelo BLUP clássico (BLUP, BLUP marcadores (BLUPM e pela seleção individual (SI, usando simulação com o programa Genesys. Para obter a matriz de similaridade genética utilizada no BLUPM, foram simulados cem marcadores moleculares do tipo microssatélite (SSR - Simple Sequence Repeat, por meio de um coeficiente de similaridade correspondente à distância euclideana média para dados quantitativos. A fim de comparar os diferentes métodos, utilizaram-se populações com tamanho efetivo de 66,66 e média de 30 repetições, avaliando-se os valores fenotípicos médios. Os ganhos ao longo das 20 gerações de seleção foram maiores para o BLUP em relação ao BLUPM, e este foi superior à SI. Quanto ao ganho obtido nas cinco primeiras gerações, o BLUPM apresentou ganhos semelhantes ao BLUP e superiores à SI. Diferentes sistemas de acasalamento dos reprodutores selecionados não revelaram diferenças em ganho genético nos métodos baseados no BLUP.The objective of this work was to compare selection based on breeding values predicted by classical best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP, BLUP associated with molecular markers (BLUPM and individual selection (IS using data simulated with the Genesys program. To obtain the genetic similarity matrix to be used in BLUPM, a hundred microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats were simulated using a similarity coefficient corresponding to the mean Euclidean distance between quantitative data. The different selection methods were compared using populations of an effective size of 66.66 and a mean of 30 repetitions, and mean phenotypic values were determined. Genetic gain obtained over 20 generations of selection was higher for BLUP than BLUPM, which in turn was superior to IS. Similar genetic gains were obtained for BLUPM and BLUP only when the gain for the first five generations was considered, and these
Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne
) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways......'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...
Full Text Available Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates consisted of 73 Gram negative bacteria and 379 Gram positive bacteria were isolated from samples collected and screened for bacteriocin activity. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassay using agar spot tests were carried out on liquid and semisolid medium assessing 8 kins of indicators of pathogenic bacteria and food borne pathogens. A total of 51 bacteriocin producing strains were collected and some of the strains had high inhibitory zone such as Lactobacillus casei SS14C (26 mm, Enterobacter cloacae SRUT (24mm, Enterococcus faecalis SK39 (21mm and Bifidobacterium dentium SS14T (20mm respectively, to Salmonella typhimurium BCC B0046/ATCC 13311, E. coli O157 hemolytic BCC B2717, Listeria monocytogenes BCC B2767/ATCC 7764 and Escherichia coli VTEC O157 BCC B2687. Evaluation after conservation ex situ to all bacterocin producing strain at 5oC for 1 year in freeze drying ampoules in vacuum and dry condition revealed the decreasing viability starting from log 0.8 CFU/ml for Lactococcus and Leuconostoc to log 2.2. CFU/ml for Streptococcus. Result of the study showed that the bacteriocin producing strains obtained were offered a potential resource for preventing disease of livestock and food borne diseases.
Legarra, Andrés; Vitezica, Zulma G
In pedigreed populations with a major gene segregating for a quantitative trait, it is not clear how to use pedigree, genotype and phenotype information when some individuals are not genotyped. We propose to consider gene content at the major gene as a second trait correlated to the quantitative trait, in a gene content multiple-trait best linear unbiased prediction (GCMTBLUP) method. The genetic covariance between the trait and gene content at the major gene is a function of the substitution effect of the gene. This genetic covariance can be written in a multiple-trait form that accommodates any pattern of missing values for either genotype or phenotype data. Effects of major gene alleles and the genetic covariance between genotype at the major gene and the phenotype can be estimated using standard EM-REML or Gibbs sampling. Prediction of breeding values with genotypes at the major gene can use multiple-trait BLUP software. Major genes with more than two alleles can be considered by including negative covariances between gene contents at each different allele. We simulated two scenarios: a selected and an unselected trait with heritabilities of 0.05 and 0.5, respectively. In both cases, the major gene explained half the genetic variation. Competing methods used imputed gene contents derived by the method of Gengler et al. or by iterative peeling. Imputed gene contents, in contrast to GCMTBLUP, do not consider information on the quantitative trait for genotype prediction. GCMTBLUP gave unbiased estimates of the gene effect, in contrast to the other methods, with less bias and better or equal accuracy of prediction. GCMTBLUP improved estimation of genotypes in non-genotyped individuals, in particular if these individuals had own phenotype records and the trait had a high heritability. Ignoring the major gene in genetic evaluation led to serious biases and decreased prediction accuracy. CGMTBLUP is the best linear predictor of additive genetic merit including
... features. Type 1 is the most common, or classical, form of this condition and is associated with ... be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: ...
Biber-Klemm, Susette; Martinez, Sylvia I.; Jacob, Anne; Jevtic, Ana
This manual contains a set of model clauses that enables users and providers of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge to set up a legal contract that is adapted to the individual academic research situation. If mutually negotiated and agreed upon by the involved partners this agreement can yield a “Mutually Agreed Terms” ABS contract.
Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...
Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed
Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...
Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew
In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...
While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political
Silva, A C M; Paiva, S R; Albuquerque, M S M; Egito, A A; Santos, S A; Lima, F C; Castro, S T; Mariante, A S; Correa, P S; McManus, C M
Genetic variability at 11 microsatellite markers was analyzed in five naturalized/local Brazilian horse breeds or genetic groups. Blood samples were collected from 328 animals of the breeds Campeira (Santa Catarina State), Lavradeira (Roraima State), Pantaneira (Pantanal Mato-Grossense), Mangalarga Marchador (Minas Gerais State), as well as the genetic group Baixadeiro (Maranhão State), and the exotic breeds English Thoroughbred and Arab. We found significant genetic variability within evaluated microsatellite loci, with observed heterozygosis varying between 0.426 and 0.768 and polymorphism information content values of 0.751 to 0.914. All breeds showed high inbreeding coefficients and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The smallest genetic distance was seen between the Pantaneira and Arab breeds. The principal component analyzes and Bayesian approach demonstrated that the exotic breeds have had a significant influence on the genetic formation of the local breeds, with introgression of English Throroughbred in Pantaneira and Lavradeira, as well as genetic proximity between the Arab, Pantaneira and Mangalarga Marchador populations. This study shows the need to conserve traits acquired by naturalized horse breeds over centuries of natural selection in Brazil due to the genetic uniqueness of each group, suggesting a reduced gene flow between them. These results reinforce the need to include these herds in animal genetic resource conservation programs to maximize the genetic variability and conserve useful allele combinations.
Alasaad, S; Soglia, D; Spalenza, V; Maione, S; Soriguer, R C; Pérez, J M; Rasero, R; Degiorgis, M P Ryser; Nimmervoll, H; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L
The present study examined the relationship among individual Sarcoptes scabiei mites from 13 wild mammalian populations belonging to nine species in four European countries using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) as genetic marker. The ITS-2 plus primer flanking 5.8S and 28S rDNA (ITS-2+) was amplified from individual mites by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the amplicons were sequenced directly. A total of 148 ITS-2+ sequences of 404bp in length were obtained and 67 variable sites were identified (16.59%). UPGMA analyses did not show any geographical or host-specific clustering, and a similar outcome was obtained using population pairwise Fst statistics. These results demonstrated that ITS-2 rDNA does not appear to be suitable for examining genetic diversity among mite populations.
SCHNETTLER, Berta; VELÁSQUEZ, Carlos; MIRANDA, Horacio; LOBOS, Germán; ORELLANA, Ligia; SEPÚLVEDA, José; MIRANDA, Edgardo; ADASME-BERRÍOS, Cristian; GRUNERT, Klaus
AbstractWith the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 400 people in southern Chile, distributed using a simple allocation among the subsamples. Using a conjoint analysis, it was found that consumers preferred milk from a conventional cow. Using a c...
Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities
Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.
Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth
This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR
Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie
reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual......-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...
O. V. Zhukov
Full Text Available The genetic connection of animal complexes and soil cover is in the basis of diagnostic ability of animals to indicate and quantity assessment of soil processes. The ecoiGgical view and peculiarity of soil animal complexes has the most impotent value. The soil animal complexes of steppe and their trans-formation under artificial forest are discussed
Fisher, Joan K; Bromley, Russell L; Mansfield, Brian C
My Retina Tracker™ is a new on-line registry for people affected with inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases, and their unaffected, genetic relatives. Created and supported by the Foundation Fighting Blindness, it is an international resource designed to capture the disease from the perspective of the registry participant and their retinal health care providers. The registry operates under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol and allows sharing of de-identified data with participants, researchers and clinicians. All participants sign an informed consent that includes selecting which data they wish to share. There is no minimum age of participation. Guardians must sign on behalf of minors, and children between the ages of 12 to 17 also sign an informed assent. Participants may compare their disease to others in the registry using graphical interpretations of the aggregate registry data. Researchers and clinicians have two levels of access. The first provides an interface to interrogate all data fields registrants have agreed to share based on their answers in the IRB informed consent. The second provides a route to contact people in the registry who may be eligible for studies or trials, through the Foundation.
Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.
Morphological, Phenological And Agronomical Characterisation Of Variability Among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Local Populations From The National Centre For Plant Genetic Resources: Polish Genebank
Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to analyse the morphological, phenological and agronomical variability among common bean local populations from The National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Polish Genebank, in order to know the relation among them, and to identify potentially useful accessions for future production and breeding. A considerable genotypic variation for number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant and weight of seeds per plant were found. Studied bean accessions differed significantly in terms of thousand seeds weight (TSW as well as severity of bacterial halo blight and anthracnose, the major bean diseases. The lowest genotypic diversity was found for the percentage of protein in the seeds, the length of the vegetation period and lodging. The cluster analysis allowed identification of five groups of bean accessions. Genotypes from the first cluster (POLPOD 98-77, KOS 002 and Raba cv. and from the second cluster (WUKR 06-573a, KRA 4, WUKR 06-0534 together with Prosna cv. are of the highest usefulness for breeding purposes. There was no grouping of local populations depending on region of origin.
Bheekhee, H.; Hulman, B.; Boodoo, A.A.; Ramnauth, R.K.; Lam Heung Yuen, R.; Fakim, R.; Dobee, B.
Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)
Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.
Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf
This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lisa M. Tarantino
Full Text Available The etiology of complex psychiatric disorders results from both genetics and the environment. No definitive environmental factor has been implicated, but studies suggest that deficits in maternal care and bonding may be an important contributing factor in the development of anxiety and depression. Perinatal mood disorders such as postpartum depression (PPD occur in approximately 10% of pregnant women and can result in detriments in infant care and bonding. The consequences of impaired maternal-infant attachment during critical early brain development may lead to adverse effects on socioemotional and neurocognitive development in infants resulting in long-term behavioral and emotional problems, including increased vulnerability for mental illness. The exact mechanisms by which environmental stressors such as poor maternal care increase the risk for psychiatric disorders are not known and studies in humans have proven challenging. Two inbred mouse strains may prove useful for studying the interaction between maternal care and mood disorders. BALB/c (BALB mice are considered an anxious strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6 mice in behavioral models of anxiety. These strain differences are most often attributed to genetics but may also be due to environment and gene by environment interactions. For example, BALB mice are described as poor mothers and B6 mice as good mothers and mothering behavior in rodents has been reported to affect both anxiety and stress behaviors in offspring. Changes in gene methylation patterns in response to maternal care have also been reported, providing evidence for epigenetic mechanisms. Characterization of these two mouse inbred strains over the course of pregnancy and in the postpartum period for behavioral and neuroendocrine changes may provide useful information by which to inform human studies, leading to advances in our understanding of the etiology of anxiety and depression and the role of genetics and the
Chaubey, R C; Aravindakshan, M; Chauhan, P S [Genetic Toxicology and Chromosome Studies Section, Cell Biology Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)
The studies summarized in this report form a part of the program on the safety evaluation of radiation-processed foods, an important component of the development of radiation technology for food preservation from the public health point of view. These studies contributed significantly and critically to the acceptance of safety of radiation processed foods by regulatory agencies both at the national and international levels. This report contains only genetic studies, one aspect of this program, while the remaining studies will be summarized in a separate report.
Chaubey, R.C.; Aravindakshan, M.; Chauhan, P.S.
The studies summarized in this report form a part of the program on the safety evaluation of radiation-processed foods, an important component of the development of radiation technology for food preservation from the public health point of view. These studies contributed significantly and critically to the acceptance of safety of radiation processed foods by regulatory agencies both at the national and international levels. This report contains only genetic studies, one aspect of this program, while the remaining studies will be summarized in a separate report
Renfrow, S.; Meier, W. N.; Wolfe, J.; Scott, D.; Leon, A.; Weaver, R.
Decreasing Arctic sea ice has been one of the most noticeable changes on Earth over the past quarter-century. The years 2002 through 2005 have had much lower summer sea ice extents than the long-term (1979-2000). Reduced sea ice extent has a direct impact on Arctic wildlife and people, as well as ramifications for regional and global climate. Students, educators, and the general public want and need to have a better understanding of sea ice. Most of us are unfamiliar with sea ice: what it is, where it occurs, and how it affects global climate. The upcoming International Polar Year will provide an opportunity for the public to learn about sea ice. Here, we provide an overview of sea ice, the changes that the sea ice is undergoing, and information about the relation between sea ice and climate. The information presented here is condensed from the National Snow and Ice Data Center's new 'All About Sea Ice' Web site (http://www.nsidc.org/seaice/), a comprehensive resource of information for sea ice.
The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources
Full Text Available Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus in the Central valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1 populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized, 2 populations that did not experience local extinction (control, and 3 populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental. Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean Fst= 0.2769, followed by control locations (mean Fst= 0.0576 and experimental locations (mean Fst= 0.0189. Similar findings were observed for Nei’s genetic distance between samples (di,j= 0.1786, 0.0400, and 0.0037, respectively. Our results indicate that genetic change in lima beans depends on the duration and frequency of local extinction episodes. These findings also showed that control populations are not in equilibrium. Implications of these results for the establishment of conservation strategies of genetic resources of lima beans are discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3
Full Text Available Since the middle of the 1990s, parentage assignment using microsatellite markers has been introduced as a tool in aquaculture breeding. It now allows close to 100% assignment success, and offered new ways to develop aquaculture breeding using mixed family designs in industry conditions. Its main achievements are the knowledge and control of family representation and inbreeding, especially in mass spawning species, above all the capacity to estimate reliable genetic parameters in any species and rearing system with no prior investment in structures, and the development of new breeding programs in many species. Parentage assignment should not be seen as a way to replace physical tagging, but as a new way to conceive breeding programs, which have to be optimized with its specific constraints, one of the most important being to well define the number of individuals to genotype to limit costs, maximize genetic gain while minimizing inbreeding. The recent possible shift to (for the moment more costly SNP markers should benefit from future developments in genomics and MAS selection to combine parentage assignment and indirect prediction of breeding values.
Full Text Available The strong phototoxicity of the red fluorescent protein KillerRed allows it to be considered as a potential genetically encoded photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer. The advantages of KillerRed over chemical photosensitizers are its expression in tumor cells transduced with the appropriate gene and direct killing of cells through precise damage to any desired cell compartment. The ability of KillerRed to affect cell division and to induce cell death has already been demonstrated in cancer cell lines in vitro and HeLa tumor xenografts in vivo. However, the further development of this approach for PDT requires optimization of the method of treatment. In this study we tested the continuous wave (593 nm and pulsed laser (584 nm, 10 Hz, 18 ns modes to achieve an antitumor effect. The research was implemented on CT26 subcutaneous mouse tumors expressing KillerRed in fusion with histone H2B. The results showed that the pulsed mode provided a higher rate of photobleaching of KillerRed without any temperature increase on the tumor surface. PDT with the continuous wave laser was ineffective against CT26 tumors in mice, whereas the pulsed laser induced pronounced histopathological changes and inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, we selected an effective regimen for PDT when using the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed and pulsed laser irradiation.
Kamenetsky, R.; Khassanov, F.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Auger, J.; Kik, C.
Garlic clones exhibit a wide variation in vegetative traits, flavor and pungency; bolting capacity, and fertility. Cultivar characteristics differ considerably with the location of cultivation, and climate has a significant impact on garlic bulbing, florogenesis and flavor. All cultivated garlic
pdf. Jaiswal S. K., Pandey S. P., Sharma S., Prasad R., Prasad L. C., Verma R. P. S. and Joshi A. K. 2010 Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers.
Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M
important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenous chickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenous chicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions.
Patel, Bhavesh; Guo, Xiaomei; Noblet, Jillian; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S
Diverticulosis is a structural alteration of the colon tissue characterized by the development of pouch-like structures called diverticula. It afflicts a significant portion of the population in Western countries, with a higher prevalence among the elderly. Diverticulosis is believed to be the result of a synergetic interaction between inherent tissue weakness, diet, colonic microstructure, motility, and genetic factors. A validated etiology has, however, not yet been established. Non-surgical treatment is currently lacking due to this poor understanding, and surgical colon resection is the only long-term solution following recurrent complications. With rising prevalence, the burden of diverticulosis on patients and hospital resources has increased over the past several years. More efficient and less invasive treatment approaches are, thus, urgently needed. Animal models of diverticulosis are crucial to enable a preclinical assessment and evaluation of such novel approaches. This review discusses the animal models of diverticulosis that have been proposed to date. The current models require either a significant amount of time to develop diverticulosis, present a relatively low success rate, or seriously deteriorate the animals' systemic health. Recommendations are thus provided to address these pitfalls through the selection of a suitable animal and the combination of multiple risk factors for diverticulosis.
Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.
Full Text Available AbstractWith the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 400 people in southern Chile, distributed using a simple allocation among the subsamples. Using a conjoint analysis, it was found that consumers preferred milk from a conventional cow. Using a cluster analysis, in both subsamples two segments sensitive to production technology were identified. Rejection of cloning was greatest among university students, whereas a higher proportion of working adults rejected GM. The segments differed in terms of area of residence, knowledge about GM, and milk consumption habits. Contrary to what was expected, no differences were found according to education, gender or degree of satisfaction with food-related life.
Wheeler, David L.
Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)
Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg
to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...
Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life
Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter
This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...
This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables
Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly
During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…
Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción
, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...
Gene-environment interaction affects substance P and neurokinin A in the entorhinal cortex and periaqueductal grey in a genetic animal model of depression: implications for the pathophysiology of depression
Husum, Henriette; Wörtwein, Gitta; Andersson, Weronika
Evidence implies a role for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and tachykinins, e.g. substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in the pathophysiology of depression. We have previously shown that SP- and NKA-like immunoreactivity (-LI) concentrations were altered in the frontal cortex and striatum...... of the congenitally 'depressed' Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) control rats. It is also known that environmental stress may affect brain levels of tachykinins. In view of these results we decided to superimpose maternal deprivation, an early life environmental stressor......, onto the genetically predisposed 'depressed' FSL rats and the FRL control rats and use this paradigm as a model of gene-environment interaction. The adult animals were sacrificed, adrenal glands and brains dissected out and SP-, NKA- and CRH-LI levels were determined in ten discrete brain regions...
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In response to many requests from our readers, I will continue to highlight a practical topic related to animal production and health in this section of the newsletter. Increasing the efficiency of animal reproduction is a critical component of a holistic approach to sustainably increase animal productivity in developing Member States. For example, the resources spent to formulate and obtain the ingredients for dairy rations are wasted when a significant proportion of the cows in the herd are dry due to delays in achieving pregnancy. Effective genetic selection to improve productivity is only possible if a regular supply of potential replacements is generated by the females already in the herd or flock. For this reason, improving reproductive efficiency is a key aspect of many of the APH projects
Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.