WorldWideScience

Sample records for animal genetic resources

  1. The farm animal genetic resources of Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Božidarka; Marković M.; Adžić N.

    2007-01-01

    The review of farm animal genetic resources, degree of danger of extinction and way of preservation of certain autochthonous breeds of livestock in Montenegro was the aim of this article. Origin, geographical distribution, population size, morphological and productive traits of the important populations of livestock, as brachyceros breed of cattle - Busha, coarse wool domestic breeds of sheep (Pivska, Zetska zuja, Ljaba, Bardoka), domestic hilly horse breed and donkey were presented. .

  2. Study on Dynamic Information of Animal Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yue-hui; XU Gui-fang; WANG Duan-yun; LIU Hai-liang; YANG Yan

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic information of 331 animal genetic resources in 17 important animal genetic re-source provinces (regions) was analyzed. According to the population inbreeding coefficient, combiningwith the information of population dynamic change trend and cross degree, these genetic resources forthreatened degrees were classified. The results indicated that the population size of 138 breeds had in-creased, 147 breeds had decreased, 3 breeds were constant, 7 breeds (or varieties) were extinct, 9 breeds(or varieties) were critically endangered and needed urgently conserve, 50 breeds (or varieties) were endan-gered and should be conserved. We put forward a conservation and utilization plan for animal genetic re-sources.

  3. Potential Development of Local Animal Genetic Resources in Maluku

    OpenAIRE

    J.F Salamena; MALLE, D.; LATUPEIRISSA C. Ch. E.; SIWA I. P.

    2014-01-01

    Maluku has been well known as an archipelagic province consisting of small islands which are rich in natural resources such as exotic animals. Moa buffalo, Lakor goat, and Kisar sheep are local genetic resources of livestock from Maluku which have been endorsed by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia to be protected, conserved, and sustainably utilized for human welfare purposes. These three species have been a part of the local people life as food, income, savings, and or...

  4. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  5. The geographical dimension of genetic diversity: a GIScience contribution for the conservation of animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Joost, Stéphane; Golay, François; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    In its natural framework, genetic information is embedded within a geographic context. Plants and animals are directly influenced by the specific characteristics of their surrounding environment. Therefore, spatial information is a potentially important element to be considered in trying to understand genetic resources. For many years, Geographical Information Science (GIScience) turned toward environmental modelling, generally to demonstrate how GIS basic features could be efficiently applie...

  6. Economic Evaluation and Biodiversity Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Fadlaoui, Aziz; Bertaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly declining biodiversity has made international and national policies focus on the question of how best to protect genetic resources. Loss of biodiversity does not only concern wildlife, but equally affects agriculturally used species. These species, of foremost importance for the subsistence of humankind, are subject to pressures sometimes similar and sometimes very distinct from those of their wild counterparts. And so are the losses implied by this decline in diversity. This handbook...

  7. Romanian Gene Bank: Perspectives and Aspects for Farm Animal Genetic Resources Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelior Iacob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many European countries set up gene banks for farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR. This paper describes the current status of animal genetic resources cryobanking and the perspectives for in vitro conservation of endangered livestock breeds and populations. Conservation efforts in Romania are done by the National Agency for Animal Husbandry ``Prof. dr. G.K. Constantinescu``, which implements activities to aid the farm animal genetic resources conservation and to develop a gene bank. Following the examples provided by other European countries, some improvements in FAnGR management are needed, focusing on aspects and approaches such as genetic and genomic studies, assisted reproduction techniques (ART's and by strengthening collaboration with RD institutions and universities from Romania. The aim of the paper is to give a general overview on current the situation of ex situ conservation efforts of FAnGR in Romania.

  8. Regional issues on animal genetic resources: trends, policies and networking in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mäki-Tanila, A.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    European countries are individually and in collaboration carrying out active work on animal genetic resources (AnGR). The region has a very good starting point for work on AnGR: The breed concept was developed in Europe; current European mainstream breeds are derived from local breeds and, in many species, have further formed the core of the international breeds; there has always been very active research in Europe on farm animal genetics and breeding, including sustainable utilization and ma...

  9. Property rights and the management of animal genetic resources: how to secure access to drylands resources for multiple users

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Simon; Centose, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    "Genetic erosion in animal genetic resources (AnGR) is of concern where livelihoods of the poor are affected and option values for society are being lost. The poor often live in marginal areas and their livestock maintain adaptive characteristics. However, processes leading to genetic erosion do not precipitate adaptation through natural selection. This paper explores how local property rights systems in poor communities for AnGR are organized. The dynamism and dialectical aspects of these sy...

  10. Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

    2002-01-01

    Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200

  11. The farm animal genetic resources of Turkey: sheep – I – common and rare breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Kor, Aşkın; Ertuğrul, Mehmet; Cengiz, Fırat

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travelers or intruders for centuries which cause existence of considerable different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of genotypes extinct or crucially under extinction risk, domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are domesticated by human, on the other hand much more...

  12. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in...... on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources...

  13. First report on the state of the world's animal genetic resources: Views on biotechnologies as expressed in country reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has been requested by its member countries to develop and implement the Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. The global livestock sector is faced with the challenge of the fast increasing demand for animal products in developing countries. FAO has estimated that demand for meat will double by 2030 (2000 basis) and demand for milk will more than double in this 30-year period. On the other hand, animal genetic resources worldwide are disappearing rapidly. Over the past 15 years, 300 out of 6000 breeds identified by FAO have become extinct. Successful genetic improvement programs in adapted indigenous breeds are less than a handful. Although in many developing countries there have been considerable efforts in training professionals in animal genetics, breeding programs applied to livestock under low input farming systems have largely failed. As part of this country-driven strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources, FAO has invited 188 countries to participate in the First Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, to be completed before 2006. To date 145 countries have accepted to submit country reports. The analysis of country reports may also serve to estimate the gaps in biotechnology application between developed and developing countries. In September 2003, 41 country reports had officially been submitted to FAO. For this paper, 30 country reports representing all regions were analysed with regard to information on biotechnologies used in animal breeding and reproduction, in conservation of animal genetic resources and for commercial uses. In addition, the information gained from discussions in regional workshops in Latin and Central America, covering 20 countries, was included. The West Africa region was represented by 12 country reports. With few exceptions, all use AI (artificial insemination), mostly in cattle, but at a very low

  14. CRYOBANKING OF SOMATIC CELLS IN CONSERVATION OF ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES: PROSPECTS AND SUCCESSES (review)

    OpenAIRE

    G.N. SINGINA; N.A. VOLKOVA; V.A. BAGIROV; N.A. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Extinction of many species is irreversible and is a part of the natural evolution, but human activities have influenced this process, making it much faster comparing to speciation. According to FAO, approximately 20 % of the breeds of cattle, goats, pigs, horses and poultry in the world are currently at risk of disappearance, many have died in the past few years, as a result their genetic characteristics lost forever. The role of banks in the management of genetic resources and the conservati...

  15. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fis

  16. Molecular characterisation of Bulgarian livestock genetic resources and their optimal utilisation for animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure and diversity among two local cattle breeds from Bulgaria, the Rhodope Shorthorn and Grey cattle. A panel of 11 microsatellites was used for the evaluation. For these loci, allele frequencies, heterozygosity, HWE, genetic disequilibrium were determined. Both populations displayed a relatively high level of genetic variation as estimated by allelic diversity and heterozygosity. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.5424 (SPS 115) to 0.8983 (TGLA 227) for the Rhodope population and from 0.6333 (TGLA 53) to 0.9333 (TGLA227) for Grey cattle, with similar average values for the two groups (0.7858 and 0.7757). These results clearly suggest that these breeds are suitable to preserve as genetic resources. (author)

  17. The farm animal genetic resources of Turkey: sheep – II – crossbreed and extinct genotypes/breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Cengiz, Fırat; Ertuğrul, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travellers or intruders for centuries which resulted with the existence of considerably different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of the genotypes are extinct or are crucially under the risk of extinction, the domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are created by hum...

  18. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  19. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Tixier Boichard, Michèle; Toro, M.A.; Simianer, H.; Eding, H.; G. Gandini; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; GLOBALDIV Consortium,

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the world’s livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The wo...

  20. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Boettcher, P. J.; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M.A.; Simianer, H.; Eding, H.; Globaldiv, Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The wo...

  1. Objectives, criteria and methods for using molecular genetic data in priority setting for conservation of animal genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, P J; Tixier-Boichard, M; Toro, M A; Simianer, H; Eding, H; Gandini, G; Joost, S; Garcia, D; Colli, L; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2010-05-01

    The genetic diversity of the world's livestock populations is decreasing, both within and across breeds. A wide variety of factors has contributed to the loss, replacement or genetic dilution of many local breeds. Genetic variability within the more common commercial breeds has been greatly decreased by selectively intense breeding programmes. Conservation of livestock genetic variability is thus important, especially when considering possible future changes in production environments. The world has more than 7500 livestock breeds and conservation of all of them is not feasible. Therefore, prioritization is needed. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art in approaches for prioritization of breeds for conservation, particularly those approaches that consider molecular genetic information, and to identify any shortcomings that may restrict their application. The Weitzman method was among the first and most well-known approaches for utilization of molecular genetic information in conservation prioritization. This approach balances diversity and extinction probability to yield an objective measure of conservation potential. However, this approach was designed for decision making across species and measures diversity as distinctiveness. For livestock, prioritization will most commonly be performed among breeds within species, so alternatives that measure diversity as co-ancestry (i.e. also within-breed variability) have been proposed. Although these methods are technically sound, their application has generally been limited to research studies; most existing conservation programmes have effectively primarily based decisions on extinction risk. The development of user-friendly software incorporating these approaches may increase their rate of utilization. PMID:20500756

  2. Study and possible middle-term developments of the Albanian legislation relevant to Access and Benefit Sharing Related to Animal Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Kume

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Albanian legislation shows that when addressing issues relevant to Conservation, Sustainable Economic Development and use of Farm Animal Genetic Resources, no attention is paid for issues related to access and benefit sharing.By signing the Nagoya Protocol on February, 28, 2013, Albania is obliged to draft legislation in accordance and pursuant to the requirements of this Protocol.The middle term process of legislation development should treat with priority issues related to (iaccess to Animal Genetic Resources; (ii sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of such resources; (iii access to traditional knowledge associated with AnGR and (iv sharing of benefits arising from utilization of such knowledge.Through the comparative analysis of EU and other countries legislation, this paper seeks to elaborate ideas and explicate ways of addressing these issues.

  3. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  4. Evaluation of Threatening Degree of the Animal Genetic Resources in China%畜禽遗传资源受威胁程度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月辉; 吴常信

    2001-01-01

    The threatened situation of 231 animal genetic resources in China Was analysed in this paper. The result showed that 16 animal genetic resources were seriously endangered and need to be urgently conserved; 9 endangered normally should be conserved; 17 threatened minimally should be conserved necessarily; 57 endangered potentially need to be paid close attention; and 132 were safe.%本文用群体遗传学、保护生物学原理,建立了畜禽遗传资源受威胁评价方法,并对我国231个畜禽遗传资源进行了分析。结果表明,有16个畜禽遗传资源为受严重威胁资源,建议由国家采取保种场方式进行紧急保护;9个遗传资源为受威胁资源,必须采取相应措施进行保护,可采取保种场或划定保护区的方式进行保护;17个遗传资源为最低威胁资源,需视具体情况有必要进行保护,可采取由省、市、县级进行保护;57个遗传资源为潜在受威胁资源,需进行特别关注,要求在生产和利用过程中,密切监测群体的动态和性能变化;132个遗传资源为安全遗传资源。

  5. Reverse genetics with animal viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reverse genetics of negative-strand RNA viruses (NSV), which allows generation of recombinant viruses entirely from cloned cDNA, has progressed rapidly in the past decade. NSV are a large and diverse group of enveloped viruses of both medical and veterinary importance. They differ widely in morphology, genome structure and host interactions. The first NSV that was completely amenable to genetic manipulation is the neurotropathogenic rabies virus of the rhabdovirus family. In subsequent years, vesicular stomatitis virus and a number of viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae, including viruses causing important animal diseases such as rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), succumbed to genetic engineering. The ability to genetically manipulate NSV opens a wide range of possibilities to study the virus biology and develop improved vaccines. Identification and analysis of attenuating mutations using the recombinant system could lead to generation of safe vaccine strains. Introduction of one of the previously studied mutation into an infectious rabies virus (RV) clone by replacing the arginine at position 333 of RV glycoprotein (G-protein) by an aspartic acid resulted in a dramatic attenuation. Combination of this mutation with a deletion that eliminates the interaction between RV P-protein and the cytoplasmic dynein light chain (LC8), which is presumably involved in retrograde transport of RV, further attenuates the rabies virus by 30-fold after intramuscular inoculation. Since extreme attenuation may adversely affect immunogenicity, reverse genetics was used to introduce an additional Gprotein to the step-wise attenuated RV to increase its effectiveness. The resultant recombinant virus may be helpful in developing a highly safe and effective live RV vaccine for oral immunizations of animals. Reverse genetics of NSV has also helped in providing

  6. GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börner A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources play a major role for global food security. The most significant and widespread mean of conserving plant genetic resources is ex situ conservation. Most conserved accessions are kept in specialized facilities known as genebanks maintained by public or private institutions. World-wide 7.4 million accessions are stored in about 1,500 ex situ genebanks.In addition, series of genetic stocks including chromosome substitution lines, alloplasmic lines, single chromosome recombinant lines, introgression lines, etc. have been created. Analysing these genetic stocks many qualitative and quantitative inherited traits were associated to certain chromosomes, chromosome arms or introgressed segments. Today, genetic stocks are supplemented by a huge number of genotyped mapping populations. Beside progenies of bi-parental crosses (doubled haploid lines, recombinant inbred lines, etc. panels for association mapping were created recently.In our presentation we give examples for the successful utilisation of genebank accessions and genetic stocks for genetic and genomic studies. Using both segregation and association mapping approaches, data on mapping of loci/marker trait associations for a range of different traits are presented.

  7. Animal Surgery and Resources Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ASR services for NHLBI research animals include: animal model development, surgery, surgical support, post-operative care as well as technical services such as...

  8. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  9. Genetic diversity in farm animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, L. F.; Lenstra, J. A.; Eding, H.; Toro, M. A.; Scherf, B.; Pilling, D.; Negrini, R.; Finlay, E. K.; Jianlin, H.; Groeneveld, E.; Weigend, S.

    2010-01-01

    Domestication of livestock species and a long history of migrations, selection and adaptation have created an enormous variety of breeds. Conservation of these genetic resources relies on demographic characterization, recording of production environments and effective data management. In addition, m

  10. Cryopreservation of eucalyptus genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, E; Alves, A; Rodrigues, L; Jenderek, M; Hernandez-Ellis, M; Ozudogru, A; Ellis, D

    2013-01-01

    The long-term preservation of forest genetic resources is a vital part of preserving our forest crops for future generations. Unfortunately, there are few genebanks dedicated to forest trees and very few methods for long-term preservation of forest genetic resources collections aside from field plantings of a limited number of seed-derived or elite clonal individuals. The use of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of elite germplasm is increasingly being used for the long-term preservation of clonal agronomic crops but for forest trees, such as Eucalyptus, the methodology for cryopreservation of diverse genetic resources collections has not been established. We report the successful cryopreservation of a germplasm collection of in vitro shoot cultures of thirteen Eucalyptus spp. lines consisting of two E. grandis x E. camaldulensis lines, seven E. urophylla x E. grandis lines, one E. grandis line, two E. grandis x E. urophylla lines, and one E. camaldulensis line. In a comparison of two cryopreservation methods, sucrose sensitivity limited the application of encapsulation-dehydration. However, with droplet-vitrification, all thirteen lines had good survival after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. A 30 min exposure to Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) yielded post-liquid nitrogen survival between 38% and 85% depending on the line. One hundred shoot tips from all thirteen lines are currently in long-term storage as a germplasm collection. PMID:24441371

  11. Reverse genetics with animal viruses. NSV reverse genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)

  12. The genetics of deafness in domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Strain, George M

    2015-01-01

    Although deafness can be acquired throughout an animal’s life from a variety of causes, hereditary deafness, especially congenital hereditary deafness, is a significant problem in several species. Extensive reviews exist of the genetics of deafness in humans and mice, but not for deafness in domestic animals. Hereditary deafness in many species and breeds is associated with loci for white pigmentation, where the cochlear pathology is cochleo-sacular. In other cases there is no pigmentation as...

  13. The Genetics of Deafness in Domestic Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Strain, George M

    2015-01-01

    Although deafness can be acquired throughout an animal’s life from a variety of causes, hereditary deafness, especially congenital hereditary deafness, is a significant problem in several species. Extensive reviews exist of the genetics of deafness in humans and mice, but not for deafness in domestic animals. Hereditary deafness in many species and breeds is associated with loci for white pigmentation, where the cochlear pathology is cochleo-saccular. In other cases, there is no pigmentation ...

  14. The importance and implication of genetic resources in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance and preservation of biodiversity is going through the processes of conservation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems and habitats, as well as the preservation and recovery of species. Genetic diversity means the variety and total number of genes contained in plant and animal species and microorganisms. Genetic diversity is the basic unit of diversity, which is responsible for differences between individuals, populations and species. Genetic diversity is very important for the preservation of biodiversity and can be saved in several ways. Part of the germplasm is maintained through breeding programs as they evaluate germplasm stored and used as a source of needed diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity is one of the most important international agreements to protect nature and conserve genetic resources. International treaties governing the use of genetic resources for food and agriculture are a way to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of plant resources for food and agriculture, and to regulate the rights of farmers.

  15. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  16. Plant Genetic Resources: Needs, Rights, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Carolina; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; Wenzl, Peter; Powell, Wayne

    2016-08-01

    Technological advances allow us to tap into genetic resources to address food and nutritional security in the face of population growth, urbanization, climate change, and environmental degradation. It is vital, particularly for developing countries, to ensure that the policy framework regulating access and use of genetic resources keeps pace with technological developments. PMID:27422334

  17. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research. PMID:25063426

  18. Genetics of ovulation rate in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.

  19. Forest genetic resources to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Orlović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A biobased economy implies sustainable and effective use of the biomass. This includes new products from forestry. The sustainable production, use, consumption and waste management of biomass all contribute to a bioeconomy (The European Bioeconomy in 2030. In the context of bioeconomy the conservation of forest genetic resources assumes a key significance in overcoming global challenges such as climate change. Forests are expected to play a key role in climate change mitigation, but they will only be able to fulfil that role if the trees themselves are able to survive and adapt to changing climate conditions. Genetic diversity provides the fundamental basis for the evolution of forest tree species and for their adaptation to change. The enormous range of goods and services provided by trees and forests is both a function of and testimony to the genetic variability contained within them.  Conserving forest  genetic  resources  is  therefore  vital, as  they  constitute  a  unique  and  irreplaceable resource for the future, including for sustainable economic growth and progress and environmental adaption (The State of the Worlds Forest Genetic Resources 2014.Previous research of population characteristics and the effects of natural and artificial selection on the genetic structure of populations contribute to the conservation and enhancement of the gene pool of the native tree species. The balance model of the population genetic structure reveals the new properties of the populations and requires further investigations, especially of the relations of subpopulations, half-sib families and organisms and the effect of variable factors of the environment, on the exchange of genetic material within natural and cultural populations.Being of national and international significance, these resources require intensive protection and enhancement in situ and ex situ. In this paper a general introduction is given to conservation of forest genetic

  20. Cryopreservation for preservation of potato genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Takao; Arizaga, Miriam Valle

    2015-03-01

    Cryopreservation is becoming a very important tool for the long-term storage of plant genetic resources and efficient cryopreservation protocols have been developed for a large number of plant species. Practical procedures, developed using in vitro tissue culture, can be a simple and reliable preservation option of potato genetic resources rather than maintaining by vegetative propagation in genebanks due their allogamous nature. Cryopreserved materials insure a long-term backup of field collections against loss of plant germplasm. Occurrence of genetic variation, in tissue culture cells during prolonged subcultures, can be avoided with suitable cryopreservation protocols that provide high regrowth, leading and facilitating a systematic and strategic cryo-banking of plant genetic resources. Cryopreservation protocols for potato reviewed here, can efficiently complement field and in vitro conservation, providing for preservation of genotypes difficult to preserve by other methods, wild types and other species decided as priority collections. PMID:25931979

  1. Genetic resources, biotech patents and gene ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic resources are increasingly considered as ordinary commercial goods, but their value and utility go beyond the simple and immediate private profit. In contrast to other biological resources, commercial use does not focus upon the material itself but rather upon the genetic information it contains. Information goods are then usually subject to intellectual property rights, but in the biological and life science domains, property rights can have a negative influence upon the proper allocation of several goods, including genetic material or goods that are related to it. This scenario reflects the facts of recent litigations in the United States and Europe. In particular, these lawsuits have revived the debate over private ownership and control over genes. Within this context, the objective of the paper is to discuss how to recast the traditional right to access to and use of biochemical and human genetic material currently considered as part of the market framework. Looking beyond the protection of traditional public goods, the paper emphasizes the debate around the progressive commodification of human genetic resources facilitated by an improper use of intellectual property rights. Different scenarios are analyzed to evaluate alternative instruments and new regulatory approaches to avoid the private appropriation of human genetic resources and other natural assets. PMID:25845208

  2. Assessing the Permeability of Landscape Features to Animal Movement: Using Genetic Structure to Infer Functional Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sara J.; Kierepka, Elizabeth M.; Robert K Swihart; Emily K Latch; Olin E Rhodes

    2015-01-01

    Human-altered environments often challenge native species with a complex spatial distribution of resources. Hostile landscape features can inhibit animal movement (i.e., genetic exchange), while other landscape attributes facilitate gene flow. The genetic attributes of organisms inhabiting such complex environments can reveal the legacy of their movements through the landscape. Thus, by evaluating landscape attributes within the context of genetic connectivity of organisms within the landscap...

  3. Mouse Genetic and Phenotypic Resources for Human Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Paul N. Schofield; Hoehndorf, Robert; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2012-01-01

    The use of model organisms to provide information on gene function has proved to be a powerful approach to our understanding of both human disease and fundamental mammalian biology. Large-scale community projects using mice, based on forward and reverse genetics, and now the pan-genomic phenotyping efforts of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), are generating resources on an unprecedented scale which will be extremely valuable to human genetics and medicine. We discuss the ...

  4. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  5. Managing nut genetic resources under disease threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) Corvallis, Oregon, is assigned to preserve genetic resources of hazelnuts (Corylus L.) and butternuts (Juglans cinerea L.). Both crops are threatened by fungal diseases. Hazelnuts are challenged by Eastern filbert blight (EFB) [caused by Anis...

  6. [Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling. PMID:23338641

  7. [Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches. PMID:19129956

  8. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Wright

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the "domestication phenotype." In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen...

  9. Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Hammer; Yifru Teklu

    2008-01-01

    Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this...

  10. GENETIC RESOURCES AND DIVERSITY IN DAIRY BUFFALOES OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAJJAD KHAN, NAZIR AHMAD1 AND MUQARRAB ALI KHAN2

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is the main dairy animal in Pakistan. There are five known buffalo breeds in the country namely: Nili, Ravi, Nili-Ravi, Kundhi and Azi Kheli (or Azakhale. Population trend is available for Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds and is positive. Azi-Kheli breed was included in 2006 livestock census for the first time. General production system is low-input extensive system but high input intensive system prevails around most cities in the form of buffalo colonies for supplying fresh milk. Buffaloes are seasonal breeders. Vast diversity exits both at phenotypic and genetic level. Economic traits have a wide variation and genetic control is moderate for production traits but very low for reproduction traits. Inbreeding is inimical to genetic diversity and has been reported to deteriorate productivity. Efforts to improve productivity of the species are needed alongwith sustainable utilization of existing resources.

  11. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of...

  12. Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukendt, FAO; Ukendt, DFSC; Ukendt, ICRAF

    FAO, IPGRI/SAFORGEN, DFSCand ICRAF have cooperated on the compilation of17 booklets on the state of Forest Genetic Resources for thecountries listed below. When ordering your book please remember to write the country required on the email. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d\\Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Gui......, Guinee, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, North of Nigeria, North Cameroon, Senegal, Sudan, Tchad and Togo....

  13. Genetic Resources for Disease Resistance in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hysing, Shu-Chin

    2007-01-01

    Bread wheat is affected by many diseases that cause yield and quality losses. The incorporation of resistance genes is a user- and environmentally friendly method to manage disease. It is highly desirable that the resistance is durable and that the genes have a positive or no influence on agronomic performance. The characterization of genetic resources for resistance is a prerequisite for their utilization in plant breeding. The aim of the present thesis was to characterize resistance against...

  14. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not develo

  15. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    2013-01-01

    This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of living genetically modified (GM) animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU) market in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 or Directive 2001/18/EC. It provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM animals on animal and human health and the environment and the rationales for data requirements for a comprehensive ERA. The ERA should be carried out on...

  16. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  17. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented. PMID:26297608

  18. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  19. Property regime concerning genetic resources and traditional knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel R. Nemogá Soto

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an historical account of the changes that have taken place regarding ownership, control and access over genetic resources. Once considered the common heritage of humanity, rights over genetic resources, it is argued, have undergone radical transformations. The global legal framework regarding genetic resources has shifted to legitimize and promote their appropriation and monopolization. This transformation embraced the expansion of intellectual property rights over genet...

  20. Genetic resources of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tan A.S.; Tan A

    2011-01-01

    Plant genetic resources are currently of great interest since they are related to the satisfaction of people’s basic needs and to the solution of severe problems such as hunger and poverty. Turkey is one of the significant countries for the plant genetic resources and plant diversity. The conservation of plant genetic resources is necessary for the sustainable protection of genetic diversity, since Turkey encompasses areas of major centers of crop diversity...

  1. Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hammer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant Genetic Resources (PGR continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion are discussed.4. Genetic Resources Conservation. Because of genetic erosion there is a need for conservation. PGR should be consigned to the appropriate method of conservation (ex situ, in situ, on-farm according to the scientific basis of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity and the evolutionary status of plants (cultivated plants, weeds, related wild plants (crop wild relatives.5. GMO. The impact of genetically engineered plants on genetic diversity is discussed.6. The Conclusions and Recommendations stress the importance of PGR. Their conservation and use are urgent necessities for the present development and future survival of mankind.

  2. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    OpenAIRE

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Coles, David; Houdebine, Louis; Gijs A. Kleter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review identified 42 English language peer reviewed papers assessing public opinion of GM animals associated with food production. Thematic analysis...

  3. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  4. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  5. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Des

  6. Attitudes towards the use of genetically modified animals in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Weary, Daniel M

    2010-11-01

    Here we provide the first experimental evidence that public concerns about the use of animals in research are accentuated when genetically modified (GM) animals are used. Using an online survey, we probed participant views on two uses of pigs as research animals (to reduce agricultural pollution or to improve organ transplant success in humans) with and without GM. We surveyed 327 animal technicians, researchers, advocates, university students and others. In both scenarios and across demographics, support dropped off when the research required the use of GM pigs or GM corn. For example, 66% of participants supported using pigs to reduce phosphorus pollution, but this declined to 49% when the pigs were fed GM corn and to 20% when the research required the creation of a new GM line of pigs. Those involved in animal research were more consistently supportive compared to those who were not or those who were vegetarians. PMID:21560543

  7. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel; Fitak, Robert; Groeneveld, Linn F.; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Hanotte, Olivier; Hassan, Faiz-ul; Helsen, Philippe; Iacolina, Laura; Kantanen, Juha; Leempoel, Kevin; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Masembe, Charles; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Miele, Mara; Neuditschko, Markus; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Pompanon, François; Roosen, Jutta; Sevane, Natalia; Smetko, Anamarija; Štambuk, Anamaria; Streeter, Ian; Stucki, Sylvie; Supakorn, China; Telo Da Gama, Luis; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Wegmann, Daniel; Zhan, Xiangjiang

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data, the development of optimized ways to integrate these data with social and other sciences and policy analysis to enable more flexible, evidence-based models to underpin FAnGR conservation. At the conference, we attempted to identify the most important problems for effective livestock genomic resource conservation during the next decade. Twenty priority questions were identified that could be broadly categorized into challenges related to methodology, analytical approaches, data management and conservation. It should be acknowledged here that while the focus of our meeting was predominantly around genetics, genomics and animal science, many of the practical challenges facing conservation of genomic resources are

  8. Specific genetic modifications of domestic animals by gene targeting and animal cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Jiangfeng; Wang Bin

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The technology of gene targeting through homologous recombination has been extremely useful for elucidating gene functions in mice. The application of this technology was thought impossible in the large livestock species until the successful creation of the first mammalian clone "Dolly" the sheep. The combination of the technologies for gene targeting of somatic cells with those of animal cloning made it possible to introduce specific genetic mutations into domestic animals. In this ...

  9. Conservation and directed utilization of forest genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana; Milovanović Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Forest genetic resources represent the genetic diversity contained in the thousands of species of forest trees on the earth. their conservation is a set of activities and strategies, which are performed in the aim of ensuring the continued existence, evolution and availability of these resources for the present and future generations. the aim of genetic resource management is the enhancement of conditions for the continual evolution of the species which is the defensive mechanism of the organ...

  10. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff T; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D J

    2013-01-01

    Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance. PMID:23320100

  11. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam C Banks

    Full Text Available Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing, as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

  12. Genetic animal models of malformations of cortical development and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael; Roper, Steven N

    2016-02-15

    Malformations of cortical development constitute a variety of pathological brain abnormalities that commonly cause severe, medically-refractory epilepsy, including focal lesions, such as focal cortical dysplasia, heterotopias, and tubers of tuberous sclerosis complex, and diffuse malformations, such as lissencephaly. Although some cortical malformations result from environmental insults during cortical development in utero, genetic factors are increasingly recognized as primary pathogenic factors across the entire spectrum of malformations. Genes implicated in causing different cortical malformations are involved in a variety of physiological functions, but many are focused on regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and neuronal migration. Advances in molecular genetic methods have allowed the engineering of increasingly sophisticated animal models of cortical malformations and associated epilepsy. These animal models have identified some common mechanistic themes shared by a number of different cortical malformations, but also revealed the diversity and complexity of cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of the pathological lesions and resulting epileptogenesis. PMID:25911067

  13. Assessing genetic resources of summer truffle in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gažo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of summer truffle genetic resources, their description and evaluation of economically important traits in Slovak natural truffiéres started since 2005. Draft of national descriptor list has been developed to manage truffle genetic resources collected in the information system "Tuber Aestivum/ Uncinatum Phenotype Data" (TAUPD. Revision was performed in TAUPD to increase effectiveness of truffle breeding process.

  14. Studies on Monitoring and Tracking Genetic Resources: An Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, GM; Thompson, LM; Ussery, David;

    2009-01-01

    The principles underlying fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the utilization of genetic resources are set out in Article 15 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which stipulate that access to genetic resources is subject to the prior informed consent of the country where...

  15. Property regime concerning genetic resources and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Nemogá Soto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an historical account of the changes that have taken place regarding ownership, control and access over genetic resources. Once considered the common heritage of humanity, rights over genetic resources, it is argued, have undergone radical transformations. The global legal framework regarding genetic resources has shifted to legitimize and promote their appropriation and monopolization. This transformation embraced the expansion of intellectual property rights over genetic material and information, including living organisms, through the World Trade Organization´s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs. This was coupled by the adoption of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which recognizes sovereign rights of the countries of origin over their genetic resources and, at the same time, obligates them to permit access to those resources. The Colombian Constitution of 1991 and unparalleled judicial decisions during the last decade reaffirmed sovereign rights over genetic resources in Colombia. Conversely, the genetic resources and the traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities continue to be freely accessible resources within the current Colombian legal framework. 

  16. breedR: Statistical methods for forest genetic resources analysts

    OpenAIRE

    MUNOZ, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    This package provides frequentist and Bayesian statistical tools to build predictive models useful for the breeders, quantitative genetists and forest genetic resources analysts communities. It aims to assess the genetic value of individuals under a number of situations, including spatial autocorrelation, genetic/environment interaction and competition. It is under active development as part of the Trees4Future project, particularly developed having forest genetic trials in mind. But can be u...

  17. Genome resource banking of biomedically important laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, Yuksel

    2012-11-01

    Genome resource banking is the systematic collection, storage, and redistribution of biomaterials in an organized, logistical, and secure manner. Genome cryobanks usually contain biomaterials and associated genomic information essential for progression of biomedicine, human health, and research. In that regard, appropriate genome cryobanks could provide essential biomaterials for both current and future research projects in the form of various cell types and tissues, including sperm, oocytes, embryos, embryonic or adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and gonadal tissues. In addition to cryobanked germplasm, cryobanking of DNA, serum, blood products, and tissues from scientifically, economically, and ecologically important species has become a common practice. For revitalization of the whole organism, cryopreserved germplasm in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, offer a powerful approach for research model management, as well as assisting in animal production for agriculture, conservation, and human reproductive medicine. Recently, many developed and developing countries have allocated substantial resources to establish genome resources banks which are responsible for safeguarding scientifically, economically, and ecologically important wild type, mutant, and transgenic plants, fish, and local livestock breeds, as well as wildlife species. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John K. Critser, who has made profound contributions to the science of cryobiology and establishment of genome research and resources centers for mice, rats, and swine. Emphasis will be given to application of genome resource banks to species with substantial contributions to the advancement of biomedicine and human health. PMID:22981880

  18. Conservation and directed utilization of forest genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest genetic resources represent the genetic diversity contained in the thousands of species of forest trees on the earth. their conservation is a set of activities and strategies, which are performed in the aim of ensuring the continued existence, evolution and availability of these resources for the present and future generations. the aim of genetic resource management is the enhancement of conditions for the continual evolution of the species which is the defensive mechanism of the organisms in the struggle with environmental changes.

  19. Manufacturing Resource Planning Technology Based on Genetic Programming Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shiwen; LIAO Wenhe; GUO Yu; LIU Jinshan; SU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Network-based manufacturing is a kind of distributed system, which enables manufacturers to finish production tasks as well as to grasp the opportunities in the market, even if manufacturing resources are insufficient. One of the main problems in network-based manufacturing is the allocation of resources and the assignment of tasks rationally, according to flexible resource distribution. The mapping rules and relations between production techniques and resources are proposed, followed by the definition of the resource unit. Ultimately, the genetic programming method for the optimization of the manufacturing system is put forward. A set of software for the optimization system of simulation process using genetic programming techniques has been developed, and the problems of manufacturing resource planning in network-based manufacturing are solved with the simulation of optimizing methods by genetic programming. The optimum proposal of hardware planning, selection of company and scheduling will be obtained in theory to help company managers in scientific decision-making.

  20. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA of living genetically modified (GM animals, namely fish, insects and mammals and birds, to be placed on the European Union (EU market in accordance with Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 or Directive 2001/18/EC. It provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM animals on animal and human health and the environment and the rationales for data requirements for a comprehensive ERA. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach. This document describes the six sequential steps for the ERA of GM animals, as indicated in Directive 2001/18/EC: (1 problem formulation including hazard and exposure identification; (2 hazard characterisation; (3 exposure characterisation; (4 risk characterisation; (5 risk management strategies; and (6 an overall risk evaluation. The Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority follows Annex II of Directive 2001/18/EC, considering specific areas of risk to be addressed by applicants and risk assessors during the ERA of GM fish, GM insects and GM mammals and birds. Each specific area of risk is considered in a structured and systematic way following the aforementioned six steps. In addition, this Guidance Document describes several generic cross-cutting considerations (e.g. choice of comparators, use of non-GM surrogates, experimental design and statistics, long-term effects, uncertainty analysis that need to be accounted for throughout the whole ERA.

  1. An animal model of differential genetic risk for methamphetamine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara ePhillips

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the

  2. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati eBanerjee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.

  4. Genetic and non-genetic animal models for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal etiologies. We discuss the known animal models, mostly in mice and rats, of ASD that helps us to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of human ASD. We describe only models where behavioral testing has shown autistic like behaviors. Some genetic models mimic known human syndromes like fragile X where ASD is part of the clinical picture, and others are without defined human syndromes. Among the environmentally induced ASD models in rodents, the most common model is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA) either prenatally or early postnatally. VPA induces autism-like behaviors following single exposure during different phases of brain development, implying that the mechanism of action is via a general biological mechanism like epigenetic changes. Maternal infection and inflammation are also associated with ASD in man and animal models. PMID:27142188

  5. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these toxins could contribute to the progression of PD. While most cases of PD are sporadic, specific mutations in genes that cause familial forms of PD have led to provide new insights into its pathogenesis. This paper focuses on animal models of both toxin-induced and genetically determined PD that have provided significant insight for understanding this disease. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and limitations of representative models.

  6. Genetic animal models of dystonia: common features and diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Franziska; Richter, Angelika

    2014-10-01

    Animal models are pivotal for studies of pathogenesis and treatment of disorders of the central nervous system which in its complexity cannot yet be modeled in vitro or using computer simulations. The choice of a specific model to test novel therapeutic strategies for a human disease should be based on validity of the model for the approach: does the model reflect symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment response present in human patients? In the movement disorder dystonia, prior to the availability of genetically engineered mice, spontaneous mutants were chosen based on expression of dystonic features, including abnormal muscle contraction, movements and postures. Recent discovery of a number of genes and gene products involved in dystonia initiated research on pathogenesis of the disorder, and the creation of novel models based on gene mutations. Here we present a review of current models of dystonia, with a focus on genetic rodent models, which will likely be first choice in the future either for pathophysiological or for preclinical drug testing or both. In order to help selection of a model depending on expression of a specific feature of dystonia, this review is organized by symptoms and current knowledge of pathogenesis of dystonia. We conclude that albeit there is increasing need for research on pathogenesis of the disease and development of improved models, current models do replicate features of dystonia and are useful tools to develop urgently demanded treatment for this debilitating disorder. PMID:25034123

  7. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  8. Genetic Characterization and Classification of Human and Animal Sapoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Lu, Zhongyan; Phan, Tung; Delwart, Eric L.; Saif, Linda J.; Wang, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans, pigs, mink, dogs, sea lions, chimpanzees, and rats. They show a high level of diversity. A SaV genome commonly encodes seven nonstructural proteins (NSs), including the RNA polymerase protein NS7, and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2). We classified human and animal SaVs into 15 genogroups (G) based on available VP1 sequences, including three newly characterized genomes from this study. We sequenced the full length genomes of one new genogroup V (GV), one GVII and one GVIII porcine SaV using long range RT-PCR including newly designed forward primers located in the conserved motifs of the putative NS3, and also 5' RACE methods. We also determined the 5’- and 3’-ends of sea lion GV SaV and canine GXIII SaV. Although the complete genomic sequences of GIX-GXII, and GXV SaVs are unavailable, common features of SaV genomes include: 1) “GTG” at the 5′-end of the genome, and a short (9~14 nt) 5′-untranslated region; and 2) the first five amino acids (M [A/V] S [K/R] P) of the putative NS1 and the five amino acids (FEMEG) surrounding the putative cleavage site between NS7 and VP1 were conserved among the chimpanzee, two of five genogroups of pig (GV and GVIII), sea lion, canine, and human SaVs. In contrast, these two amino acid motifs were clearly different in three genogroups of porcine (GIII, GVI and GVII), and bat SaVs. Our results suggest that several animal SaVs have genetic similarities to human SaVs. However, the ability of SaVs to be transmitted between humans and animals is uncertain. PMID:27228126

  9. Dynamic Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in 33 European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we ...

  10. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  11. Animal model integration to AutDB, a genetic database for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollu Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the post-genomic era, multi-faceted research on complex disorders such as autism has generated diverse types of molecular information related to its pathogenesis. The rapid accumulation of putative candidate genes/loci for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and ASD-related animal models poses a major challenge for systematic analysis of their content. We previously created the Autism Database (AutDB to provide a publicly available web portal for ongoing collection, manual annotation, and visualization of genes linked to ASD. Here, we describe the design, development, and integration of a new module within AutDB for ongoing collection and comprehensive cataloguing of ASD-related animal models. Description As with the original AutDB, all data is extracted from published, peer-reviewed scientific literature. Animal models are annotated with a new standardized vocabulary of phenotypic terms developed by our researchers which is designed to reflect the diverse clinical manifestations of ASD. The new Animal Model module is seamlessly integrated to AutDB for dissemination of diverse information related to ASD. Animal model entries within the new module are linked to corresponding candidate genes in the original "Human Gene" module of the resource, thereby allowing for cross-modal navigation between gene models and human gene studies. Although the current release of the Animal Model module is restricted to mouse models, it was designed with an expandable framework which can easily incorporate additional species and non-genetic etiological models of autism in the future. Conclusions Importantly, this modular ASD database provides a platform from which data mining, bioinformatics, and/or computational biology strategies may be adopted to develop predictive disease models that may offer further insights into the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. It also serves as a general model for disease-driven databases curating phenotypic

  12. A multivariate analysis of rice genetic resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty rice genotypes originating from hybridization and induced mutagenesis along with some commercial varieties were subjected to diversity analysis for selection of desirable genotypes and subsequent use in the future breeding program. The data were analyzed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Mahalanobis's generalized distance (D/sup 2/). Two principal components presented 65% information of the raw data of the yield related traits. Cluster analysis (D2) exhibited six distinct clusters with the range of 2 genotypes in cluster VI to 13 in cluster I and III each. Regularly, inter-cluster distance was larger than the intra-cluster distance suggesting wider genetic diversity among the genotypes. Maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and VI (79.81) followed by cluster I and V (71.90). The highest intra-cluster distance (14.41) was observed in cluster V where as lowest intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster VI (5.87). Relatively high yielding, short stature genotypes with less number of productive tillers per plant were grouped into cluster I and II to get the highest divergence of these from clusters V and VI. The genotypes in cluster I and II showed high inter-cluster distance with those in cluster IV, V and VI indicating the possibility to obtain heterotic progenies, by attempting the crosses, among the genotypes of these groups. (author)

  13. Cryopreservation of farm animal genetic materials in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Vietnam is considered as one of the world's ancient animal domestication areas. In total, 62 local breeds have been found in Vietnam with a density of 1.520 species/km2, high compared to the global overage of 0.098 species/km2. However, due to undirected natural selection, market demands, importation of exotic breeds and crossbreeding, local breeds are being exposed to danger and extinction. Despite having low productivity, Vietnamese local breeds adapt very well to hot and humid ecosystem and local husbandry habits. These breeds contain potential genes deciding valuable characteristics such as egg and milk quality and resistance against diseases. In this paper the focus is placed on ex situ conservation in Vietnam including: semen, embryo, somatic cell and DNA cryopreservation due to the ex-situ method is a very important components of the animal genetic conservation to prevent mishandling and mistakes. Cryopreserved germ cells can be saved permanently and, not withstanding any accidents in the storage system, remain available in exactly the same condition as at the time of their collections. This method could contribute not only to increase population size but also to avoid inbreeding depression in a species. Due to last some years, the procedures for preservation of semen, embryo and DNA, the techniques to extract DNA from blood, tissues and were improved. There have been several results as followed: Sperm cryo-preservation. In Pig: In the general, pig sperms have not been preserved. After collected, sperms are mainly kept for within 2 or 3 d and taken straight to artificial insemination. 2300 pig sperm doses from I native Pig, Yorkshire and Landrace have been preserved so far and some of them has been used to create IVF embryos in laboratories and are also frozen in straws. Embryo cryo-preservation In general, embryo preservation is hard and rare. There have only been several results as followed: - Frozen dairy cattle-HF embryo: 360 embryos of which

  14. A Songbird Animal Model for Dissecting the Genetic Bases of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    S. Carmen Panaitof

    2012-01-01

    The neural and genetic bases of human language development and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which language impairment represents a core deficit, are poorly understood. Given that no single animal model can fully capture the behavioral and genetic complexity of ASD, work in songbird, an experimentally tractable animal model of vocal learning, can complement the valuable tool of rodent genetic models and contribute important insights to o...

  15. Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Pakky Reddy, G.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market. Nonethel...

  16. Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Anke; Krüger, Monika; SCHMID, JAN

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection.

  17. Additional resource for diabetes diagnostics in animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vitalyevich Drozdov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary doctors often observe cases of unexplained elevated glucose and ketones in urine of domestic animals without any other signs of diabetes. We studies these effects from the standpoint of the phenomenon of interdependent conditions in animals and humans, described by T.V.Novosadyuk in 2000. She was the first to provide a theoretical and practical foundation for clinical cases of simultaneously developing similar diseases in domestic animals and their owners. During the last 5 years we studied health of humans in families where domestic animals are affected by the laboratory abnormalities described above. In vast majority of cases it has been found out that animal owners have diabetes mellitus of variable severity. At the same time there were no disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in animal owners in 11 cases. We recommended members of these families to undergo a specialized examination. In all of these cases latent diabetes mellitus was found in humans who had especially close relationships with animals. These findings led to initiation of treatment in humans. At the same time animals were treated with a collar with a linen sack attached containing Peganum Harmala 30 globules. Repeated laboratory tests were performed after one month of such treatment. Normalization of laboratory variables was observed in all of the cases. Based on the study results we developed an algorhythm of activities that helps to diagnose early and latent forms of diabetes mellitus in domestic animals and their owners. This algorhythm includes: - test for glucose and/or ketones in animal urine after correction of feeding and care defects. - blood and urine glucose tests in family members of animal owners. In cases of deviations from normal values we recommended them to consult appropriate specialists and begin treatment immediately. - animals are given collars with Peganum Harmala 30 globules in a linen sack attached. - granules are removed when

  18. Safety assessment of biotechnology used in animal production, including genetically modified (GM) feed and GM animals - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kleter, G.A.; Kok, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the large-scale commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the mid-nineties, it has continuously increased. This has occurred in particular in non-European countries from which these crops may be exported as commodities to Europe and other markets. Before genetically modified organisms (GMO) are allowed onto the market as animal feed and/or food, they have to undergo a regulatory safety assessment as required by the law in many nations, including that ...

  19. Genetics of schizophrenia: from animal models to clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Joober, Ridha; Boksa, Patricia; Benkelfat, Chawki; Rouleau, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Genetic epidemiological studies strongly suggest that additive and interactive genes, each with small effects, mediate the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. With the human genome working draft at hand, candidate gene (and ultimately large-scale genome-wide) association studies are gaining renewed interest in the effort to unravel the complex genetics of schizophrenia. In the absence of an unequivocally established biological theory for schizophrenia, identifying candidate genes to be t...

  20. Animal-based medicines: biological prospection and the sustainable use of zootherapeutic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo M. Costa-Neto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals have been used as medicinal resources for the treatment and relieve of a myriad of illnesses and diseases in practically every human culture. Although considered by many as superstition, the pertinence of traditional medicine based on animals cannot be denied since they have been methodically tested by pharmaceutical companies as sources of drugs to the modern medical science. The phenomenon of zootherapy represents a strong evidence of the medicinal use of animal resources. Indeed, drug companies and agribusiness firms have been evaluating animals for decades without paying anything to the countries from where these genetic resources are found. The use of animals' body parts as folk medicines is relevant because it implies additional pressure over critical wild populations. It is argued that many animal species have been overexploited as sources of medicines for the traditional trade. Additionally, animal populations have become depleted or endangered as a result of their use as experimental subjects or animal models. Research on zootherapy should be compatible with the welfare of the medicinal animals, and the use of their by-products should be done in a sustainable way. It is discussed that sustainability is now required as the guiding principle for biological conservation.Os animais são utilizados como recursos medicinais para o tratamento e alívio de um gama de doenças e enfermidades em praticamente toda cultura humana. A pertinência da medicina tradicional baseada em animais, embora considerada como superstição, não deve ser negada uma vez que os animais têm sido testados metodicamente pelas companhias farmacêuticas como fontes de drogas para a ciência médica moderna. O fenômeno da zooterapia representa uma forte evidência do uso medicinal de recursos animais. De fato, as indústrias farmacêuticas e de agronegócios há décadas vêm avaliando animais sem pagar tributos aos países detentores desses recursos gen

  1. Citrus Genetic Resources Grown on the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masashi; ヤマモト, マサシ; 山本, 雅史

    2014-01-01

    The Ryukyu Islands are located southwest part of Japan. Various local citrus are grown in this subtropical region. Since there are large geographical and climatic differences between the Ryukyu Islands and the main islands (Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku) of Japan, there are unique local citrus genetic resources on the Ryukyu Islands. Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa) is an indigenous mandarin species in this region. This species is clearly distinguished from the mandarin grown in China and India ba...

  2. Plant Genetic Resources for sustainability of agro industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery, the characterization and conservation of agro biodiversity are priority objectives of the European Union as part of strategies to preserve resources Genetic considered fundamental for sustainable development, community support, to encourage a balanced economic growth. ENEA has been involved for several years in the development of methodologies aimed at enhancing Local germplasm that can be of aid for the cultivation choices, for innovation of traditional production systems and for better use of the final product.

  3. Research and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present situation of forest tree genetic germplasm resources research and conservation in China is introduced which including the background, decision-making of conservation strategies and principles, the plan of area division and tree species classification, the sample strategy of germplasm conservation, the advances in conservation pattern and related technologies research, the achievements of germplasm conservation and utilization in China, and the problems to be solved. The recent achievements a...

  4. Choice of genetic resources needed for achievement of relevant breeding objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author points out the importance of exploration, conservation and documentation of genetic resources and reviews the current status of utilization of available genetic resources and the present breeding strategies

  5. Research on Intellectual Property Rights Protection of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition of agricultural plant genetic resources,this paper takes the two most important forms of intellectual property protection regarding agricultural plant genetic resources-patent rights and new plant variety rights as an example,to expound the current situation of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.It reveals the problems of intellectual property protection as follows:the awareness of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources is weak;the system of laws and regulations is not sound;the protection system is not perfect;the management system lacks standardization.It further puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions as follows:promote the protection awareness of agricultural plant genetic resources in whole society;enact special law system to protect agricultural plant genetic resources;improve the management system of agricultural plant genetic resources;strengthen the international protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.

  6. Development of useful genetic resources by proton-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop new, useful and high-valuable genetic resources through the overproduction of biodegradable plastics and the propagation of wheat using proton-beam irradiation. Useful host strain was isolated through the mutagenization of the Escherichia coli K-12 strain, followed by characterizing the genetic and physiological properties of the E. coli mutant strains. The selected E. coli mutant strain produced above 85g/L of PHB, showed above 99% of PHB intracellular content and spontaneously liberated intracellular PHB granules. Based on the results, the production cost of PHB has been estimated to approximately 2$/kg, leading effective cost-down. Investigated the propagation of wheat and its variation, a selectable criterion of wet pro of was established and genetic analysis of useful mutant was carried out

  7. Animal board invited review: genetic possibilities to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to

  8. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  9. Collection, conservation, exploitation and development of rice genetic resource of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Duc Bach; Tong, Hai; Nguyen, Hung; Phan, Huu Ton

    2015-01-01

    Genetic resources are important for the development of every country and for humanity. Collection, conservation and reasonable utilization of genetic resource is required mission. Understanding the importance of genetic resource, especially rice germplasm, since 2001, Center for conservation and development of crop genetic resources (CCD-CGR) of Hanoi University of Agriculture (Vietnam National University of Agriculture) has been collected, conserved and evaluated rice germplasm from differen...

  10. Study on genetic diversity and resource conservation of amphioxus(Branchiostoma balcheri Gray) population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hantao; GAO Yuanyuan; CHEN Xu; YE Fan; LIAN Yuwu

    2005-01-01

    Amphioxus is the ancestor of vertebrates 5×108 a ago, it is a typical transitional sample of evolution from invertebrates to vertebrates.Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) technologies were applied to detect the genetic variation of 3 bulking samples and individually sampled populations in nowadays Xiamen sea areas (Xiekou, Nanxian and Huangcuo) where the amphioxuses are alive. For the bulking sampled populations, 5 ISSR and 10 RAPD primers generated 357bands, of which 181 (50.7%) were polymorphic. Nei index and UPGMA statistical analysis indicated that amphioxuses in these 3areas could be divided into 2 groups. The genetic distance between animals in Nanxian and Huangcuo areas was 0.07 and classified into 1 group, while the population in Xiekou belonged to another group because its genetic distances in Nanxian and Huangcuo were 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. The result was in accordance with the morphological comparison among animals from those areas. For individually sampled population, Shannon' s index of genetic diversity was used to partition the diversity of the animals among these 3sea areas, and the results showed that the indices in populations ofXiekou, Nanxian and Huangcuo, were 0.583, 0.482 and 0.374,respectively. The linear regression equation analysis for amphioxus' genetic diversity versus the environment factors revealed that granularity/sorting coefficient and water depth were the most important factors that affect amphioxus genetic diversity. On the basis of the results, the suggestions for amphioxus resource conservation in Xiamen sea areas are put forward.

  11. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of sustainable breed conservation measures, including sustainable breeding strategies. The objectives of this thesis were to develop improved approaches to characterization of sheep resources, and sustainab...

  12. Animal nutrition and optimized utilization of locally available resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw is the most abundant among crop residues. Actually, rice straw is the most important roughage in Myanmar for ruminant feeding. Like other fibrous residues, it is a poor quality feed. The major cause of low productivity of livestock in tropical regions is the inadequate and poor quality of feed. The nutritional limitations of rice straw may be overcome by supplementation with concentrates, urea or green forage. Supplementation of rice straw with concentrate would improve the utilization of rice straw. Supplementation of by-product, which may increase intake and/or digestion, and/or utilization of the basal diet are the condition directly related to microbial activity, which is required to optimize rumen digestion. The microbes within the rumen grow efficiently when ammonia nitrogen in the rumen is adequate. In Myanmar, sesame meal is one of the common feed supplements for the draft cattle and crossbred dairy cows fed rice straw. Sesame meal is highly degradable (88.7%) in the rumen. Therefore, degradation of protein is a considerable factor when the protein sources are supplemented. Several processing treatments (heat, tannin, formaldehyde, etc.) have been used to increase the proportion of dietary protein, which is not degraded in the rumen. Protections of highly degradable feed protein by the heat treatment and formaldehyde have already been reported. However, little information is available about the effect of tannin included in tree foliages for the protein protection. Conventionally, tree foliages have been fed together with agricultural by-products, mainly crop-residues, containing low levels of nitrogen to enhance rumen microbial fermentation and hence the animal productivity. Tanniferous trees and shrubs are important in animal production because they can provide significant protein supplements. Forages containing leucocephala, Ziziphus mauritiana, Albizia chinensis, Manihot esculenta, Terminalia oblongata, etc. Tree legume forages offer a cheap

  13. Genetic diversity of flavonoid content in leaf of hawthorn resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorn (Cratageus spp.) are important medicinal plants. Flavonoids are the main active ingredient in hawthorn. With the help of hawthorn leaf flavonoids efficient detection system, vitexin, rhamnosylvitexin, hyperin, rutin and quercetin of 122 hawthorn resources was precisely measured.The flavonoid contents of 10 hawthorn species were explicited. The comparation of flavonoids revealed the abundant genetic diversity of hawthorn flavones. Large variable coefficient has been observed among 5 flavonoid monomer traits. The coefficients of variation were 44.17%, 132.2%, 157.08%, 113.91% and 31.05 for Vitexin, Rhamnosylvitexin, Hyperoside, Rutin and Quercetin respectively. The sum of these 5 flavonoid monomer contents represented the total flavonoids in hawthorn. The total coefficients of variation was 44.01%. Some high-content-flavone and valuable leaf resources were found. This research could provide accurate date for further production, breeding and the effective use of medicinal resources. (author)

  14. Optimisation of Resource Scheduling in VCIM Systems Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Duy Dao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Virtual Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (VCIM has been proposed for one and a half decade with purpose of overcoming the limitation of traditional Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM as it only works within an enterprise. VCIM system is a promising solution for enterprises to survive in the globally competitive market because it can exploit effectively locally as well as globally distributed resources. In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA based approach for optimising resource scheduling in the VCIM system is proposed. Firstly, based on the latest concept of VCIM system, a class of resource scheduling problems in the system is modelled by using agent-based approach. Secondly, GA with new strategies of handling constraint, chromosome encoding, crossover and mutation is developed to search for optimal solution for the problem. Finally, a case study is given to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach.

  15. GeneEd—A Genetics Educational Resource | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Science ... much more. GeneEd also provides lesson plans, genetic educational materials, ... teaching resources for educators seeking to increase genetic and genomic ...

  16. APPROACH FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN GRID ENVIRONMENTS USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Mirabedini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of ‘proper energy computation system’ is the best method to investigate the problem of energy deficiency, since energy consumption in computational resources is proportional with the work load in the applied program. Also, the best method to improve the use of resources and decrease in energy consumption is dynamic integration of virtual machines which can be a base for the integration of resources in independent systems through virtualization technology, so that it is possible to use resources and equipment for long time and consequently assuring quicker return of investment. Today, grid computation is a new technology connecting heterogeneous computational resources to each other; thus, this structure operates as an individual and integrated virtual machine. Then, it is possible to implement very complex applied programs requiring high processing capacity and huge amount of input data on this virtual machine. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to present an approach for resource management in grid environments using PSO and Genetic algorithms, and also ants colony to find the location of virtual machines.

  17. Genetic resources as the backbone of plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The defence against parasites has come to be regarded as probably the biggest problem in the production of the plants on which our own survival depends. The problem has always been there, but in our pure-bred cultivars extending over large areas it has assumed disaster proportions. The wild ancestors of many crop species evolved in balance with parasite species, their regions of genetic diversity coinciding. Domestication led to geographical dispersal and genetic differentiation of host and, presumably, of parasite species. Genetic heterogeneity may have been the saving grace of the primitive cultivars by which fairly stable populations lived for some 5000 to 10,000 years. We are now aware of the advantages and of the dangers of genetic homogeneity, and ''genetic vulnerability'' is now more than a catch phrase. We are responding to it in a variety of ways, each involving some use of new or increased genetic variation. They extend from the search for new oligogenic resistance sources, to multiple resistance, and to the various forms of ''horizontal'' or polygenic resistance. We turn to the genetic resources accumulated in the much neglected wild and primitive gene pools which helped our ancestors to survive epidemics. And we turn further towards the full circle by deliberately adopting heterogeneity in multilines of various descriptions and in varietal blends. The rate at which resistance sources are ''used up'' in the different systems now in use is discussed, in the light of the urgent need for economizing and preserving both the now used and the as yet unexplored resistance sources, on which the future stability of crop production will depend. (author)

  18. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide s...

  19. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.)

  20. Deficits in fine motor skills in a genetic animal model of ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Yu; Lei Gefei; Castellanos Francisco X; Forssberg Hans; Heijtz Rochellys

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. Methods We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for ...

  1. Variability of genetic characteristics in animals kept in the zone of Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locusses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic contamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  2. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  3. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  4. Development of useful genetic resources by proton-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is a development of new and high-value added genetic resources through the overproduction of biodegradable plastics derived from microorganism and the propagation of wheat using proton-beam irradiation. The usefulness and possible application of proton-beam was investigated using microorganism (Escherichia coli) through proton-beam irradiation. The accumulating pattern of intracellular biodegradable plastic (PHB) was also compared between wild type and newly constructed mutants. The E. coli mutant overproduced PHB up to 10 times compared to its isogenic wild type E. coli strain. Investigated the propagation of wheat and its variation, a selectable criterion of wet proof was established and genetic analysis of useful mutant was carried out

  5. Genetic Diversity of Indonesian Snake Fruits as Food Diversification Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Budiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the megabiodivesity, which is rich with germplasms including tropical fruit. Snake fruit (Salacca spp. is a native fruit of Indonesia with a scaly peel and sweet-tart taste. The genetic diversity of 17 accessions of Indonesian snake fruit was resolved using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction with 5 primers. The study demonstrated that the samples were grouped in six different clusters with coefficient of similarity ranged from 0.12 to 0.71. The value indicated the wide range of genetic variability among the tested plants. This variability was an important resources for the snake fruit breeding program in developing the consumer‘s preferred product which by the end supports the plant diversification program.

  6. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this pape

  7. Sharing the benefits of genetic resources: from biodiversity to human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Doris; Lasén-Díaz, Carolina

    2006-12-01

    Benefit sharing aims to achieve an equitable exchange between the granting of access to a genetic resource and the provision of compensation. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, is the only international legal instrument setting out obligations for sharing the benefits derived from the use of biodiversity. The CBD excludes human genetic resources from its scope, however, this article considers whether it should be expanded to include those resources, so as to enable research subjects to claim a share of the benefits to be negotiated on a case-by-case basis. Our conclusion on this question is: 'No, the CBD should not be expanded to include human genetic resources.' There are essential differences between human and non-human genetic resources, and, in the context of research on humans, an essentially fair exchange model is already available between the health care industry and research subjects. Those who contribute to research should receive benefits in the form of accessible new health care products and services, suitable for local health needs and linked to economic prosperity (e.g. jobs). When this exchange model does not apply, as is often the case in developing countries, individually negotiated benefit sharing agreements between researchers and research subjects should not be used as 'window dressing'. Instead, national governments should focus their finances on the best economic investment they could make; the investment in population health and health research as outlined by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health; whilst international barriers to such spending need to be removed. PMID:17038005

  8. Genetics and Genomics of Animal Behaviour and Welfare - Challanges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per; Buitenhuis, Bart; Kjaer, Joergen;

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the contribution of applied ethology to animal welfare science has concentrated on understanding the reactions of animals to their housing conditions. Domestication has had small effects on fundamental aspects of animal behaviour, and therefore, the needs of present day domesticated...... animals are closely related to the evolutionary history of the ancestors. However, the last decades have seen an unprecedented intensification of selection for increased production, which has significant side-effects on behaviour and welfare. Understanding the nature of such side-effects have therefore...... emerged as a central problem to animal welfare science. Modern genetics and genomics offer tools for such research, and this review outlines some of the available methods and how these have been, and could be, used to enrich animal welfare science. An outline is given on traditional genetic selection...

  9. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Gijs Kleter; Aramyan, Lusine H.; Valeeva, Natasha I.; Karin l. Zimmermann; Giddalury Pakki Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scopin...

  10. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scopin...

  11. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breeding animals, especially in the field: nutrition, access to water, ensuring the company of other animals and living space, and treatment. Animal welfare is a significant part of the process of retardation the transformation of resources natural and the most significant element contributing to its growth is the individual person directly involved in taking care of animals. Their duty resulting from ethical standards is to provide protection for animals.

  12. Future trends in Animal Breeding due to new genetic tecnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Ibañez, Miguel Angel

    2011-01-01

    The Darwin theory of evolution by natural selection is based on three principles: (a) variation; (b) inheritance; and (c) natural selection. Here, I take these principles as an excuse to review some topics related to the future research prospects in Animal Breeding. With respect to the first principle I describe two forms of variation different from mutation that are becoming increasingly important: variation in copy number and microRNAs. With respect to the second principle I comment on the ...

  13. Study on the Ownership of Plant Genetic Resources on Farmers’ Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou; WANG; Hongyan; SONG; Yuanyuan; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect Chinese farmers’ sharing benefits and make legal preparation for accession to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, this paper analyzed differences between state sovereignty and ownership of genetic resources and between natural resources and plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. Then, it studied the regulations of the United States, European Union and Indian on the ownership of plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. On the basis of the analysis and study, the authors stated that the sovereignty of plant genetic resources can not replace the ownership system. The plant genetic resources on farmers’ (community) land should be in the possession of farmers or communities, which should be confirmed by the State.

  14. From genetics to genomics in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovska Elena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical concepts in plant and livestock selection for economically important quantitative traits traditionally are based on phenotypic records, aiming at improvement of the traits by obtaining better genetic gain. The increase in genetic variation together with shortening of the generation interval is the major target of long term improvement of methods and tools for selection activities. The discoveries and implementations of biotechnology and molecular biology for selection purposes provide a stable background for generating of new knowledge and practical use in agricultural research and practice as well as to meet the growing demand for more and with better quality food and feed. The innovations in molecular knowledge related to practical selection aside with the quick quantification in breeding schemes allowed to reconsider the opportunities for sustainable development of selection methods for improvement of the traits of interest in agriculture, the quick invention and practical application of new high-throughput technologies for studying of the genomic variation, evolution, translation of proteins and metabolite determination altogether put in an open and communicative environment of information technologies provide a new holistic platform for better research and more knowledge for practical application of selection decisions.

  15. Genetic Engineering of Dystroglycan in Animal Models of Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sciandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In skeletal muscle, dystroglycan (DG is the central component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC, a multimeric protein complex that ensures a strong mechanical link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Several muscular dystrophies arise from mutations hitting most of the components of the DGC. Mutations within the DG gene (DAG1 have been recently associated with two forms of muscular dystrophy, one displaying a milder and one a more severe phenotype. This review focuses specifically on the animal (murine and others model systems that have been developed with the aim of directly engineering DAG1 in order to study the DG function in skeletal muscle as well as in other tissues. In the last years, conditional animal models overcoming the embryonic lethality of the DG knock-out in mouse have been generated and helped clarifying the crucial role of DG in skeletal muscle, while an increasing number of studies on knock-in mice are aimed at understanding the contribution of single amino acids to the stability of DG and to the possible development of muscular dystrophy.

  16. Developing an online orientation resource for users of institutional animal housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryman, Amy L; Alworth, Leanne C

    2015-08-01

    Institutions can share information and orientation materials easily and effectively using modern media and communications technology. For this reason the Office of Animal Care and Use at the University of Georgia developed an online orientation resource for users of its animal housing facilities. Here the authors describe the resource and the planning and project management that accompanied its development. The authors explain the rationale behind each of their decisions and describe select organizational methods that contributed to the success of the project. They describe their own experience, in the context of their institutional circumstances, for the benefit of other institutions that might consider developing a similar resource. PMID:26200086

  17. In vitro preservation of genetic resources: Techniques and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to depletion of the naturally occurring pools of germplasm, there is an urgent need to generate and preserve genetic resources by methods other than conventional. For this purpose, various in vitro methods, such as minimal medium and growth retardants, storage at low temperatures (2-10 deg. C), use of mineral oil, partial dehydration of tissues, etc., have been employed. However, these methods cannot be employed for the long-term conservation of germplasm. Cell cultures, on periodic transfer, undergo genetic erosion, resulting, as a consequence, in a heterogeneous population of cells. In this regard, freeze preservation of cultures in liquid nitrogen (-196 deg. C) has attracted much attention for the establishment of germplasm banks and for the international exchange of genetic stocks. During the last five years, considerable progress has been made in cryobiology, and entire plants have been regenerated from cryopreserved cells, meristems and embryos of a number of crop species. There are three areas where cryopreservation can be of immediate use: (1) recalcitrant seeds; (2) vegetatively propagated plants; (3) storage of selected cell lines. There are obvious merits, demerits and problems associated with every method, the most important problem being genetic instability during storage. Though some changes cannot be avoided, it is assumed that a judicious choice of the material (to avoid selection pressure), refinement of the protocol (particularly pre-freezing treatments) and the use of appropriate cryoprotectants can reduce the possibility of aberrations. It is envisaged that cryopreservation will be increasingly employed for the conservation of rare, elite and desirable cultures, for the preservation of the germplasm of vegetatively propagated crops and plants with recalcitrant seeds and also for the establishment of germplasm banks and for the international exchange of materials. (author)

  18. Cryopreservation of Mammalian Oocyte for Conservation of Animal Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Prentice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of the female portion of livestock genetics has become an international priority; however, in situ conservation strategies are extremely expensive. Therefore, efforts are increasingly focusing on the development of a reliable cryopreservation method for oocytes, in order to establish ova banks. Slow freezing, a common method for cryopreservation of oocytes, causes osmotic shock (solution effect and intracellular ice crystallization leading to cell damage. Vitrification is an alternative method for cryopreservation in which cells are exposed to a higher concentration of cryoprotectants and frozen with an ultra rapid freezing velocity, resulting in an ice crystal free, solid glass-like structure. Presently, vitrification is a popular method for cryopreservation of embryos. However, vitrification of oocytes is still challenging due to their complex structure and sensitivity to chilling.

  19. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  20. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R.; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiol...

  1. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE, INCLUDING GENETIC SELECTION, IN IMPROVING ANIMAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. BROOM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal producers have to predict future situations and be aware of changing public views. At present, those in the animal industry are often trying to fight off change rather than preparing for and pre-empting it. As a consequence, many animal producers have bad public images. It is better to be proactive than reactive. Producer groups should be aware of new developments in knowledge and in public attitudes to animal-related activities. They should inform their members about how to manage animals in such a way that the welfare of the animals is good and the people involved in animal care are well-respected in society. This is especially important also for those who design and manufacture housing and equipment and those who breed animals for they can have substantial effects on animal welfare. It is important for animal welfare scientists to provide objective information about the welfare of animals, so that decisions can be taken about how animals should be bred, housed and treated. Animals use a wide range of coping mechanisms and these involve high-level brain function, with associated good and bad feelings. Where welfare is poor, the best overall assessment of welfare is a function of how bad is the effect on the individual and the duration of that effect. Conventional breeding, cloning and transgenesis can all have effects on the welfare of the animals produced. Selection for fast growth and high feed conversion efficiency in broiler chickens and other meat producing animals leads to too high an incidence of leg and other disorders. Selection for high milk yield in dairy cows leads to poor welfare associated with leg disorders, mastitis and reproductive disorders. These effects should be evaluated using a range of animal welfare measures and if there are adverse effects of genetic engineering, the usage of the animals should not be permitted except for research. In the case of genetically modified or cloned animals, any effects on function

  2. Criteria for fairly allocating scarce health-care resources to genetic tests: which matter most?

    OpenAIRE

    Rogowski, Wolf H.; Scott D. Grosse; Schmidtke, Jörg; Marckmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The use of genetic tests is expanding rapidly. Given limited health-care budgets throughout Europe and few national coverage decisions specifically for genetic tests, decisions about allocating scarce resources to genetic tests are frequently ad hoc and left to lower-level decision makers. This study assesses substantive ethical and economic criteria to prioritize genetic services in a reasonable and fair manner. Principles for allocating health-care resources can be classified into four cate...

  3. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heringstad Bjørg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the genetic analysis of binary traits with one observation per animal, animal threshold models frequently give biased heritability estimates. In some cases, this problem can be circumvented by fitting sire- or sire-dam models. However, these models are not appropriate in cases where individual records exist on parents. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for a proper estimation of genetic (covariance components within an animal threshold model framework. Methods In the proposed algorithm, individuals are classified as either "informative" or "non-informative" with respect to genetic (covariance components. The "non-informative" individuals are characterized by their Mendelian sampling deviations (deviance from the mid-parent mean being completely confounded with a single residual on the underlying liability scale. For threshold models, residual variance on the underlying scale is not identifiable. Hence, variance of fully confounded Mendelian sampling deviations cannot be identified either, but can be inferred from the between-family variation. In the new algorithm, breeding values are sampled as in a standard animal model using the full relationship matrix, but genetic (covariance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents. Results When applied to simulated data sets, the standard animal threshold model failed to produce useful results since samples of genetic variance always drifted towards infinity, while the new algorithm produced proper parameter estimates essentially identical to the results from a sire-dam model (given the fact that no individual records exist for the parents. Furthermore, the new algorithm showed much faster Markov chain mixing properties for genetic parameters (similar to

  4. Genetic resources in the cultivated flora of the Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila T. SZABO

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect genetic resources formed during specific relations between plant life and human activity in a sample territory situated in the North-Eastern border of the Apuseni Mountains (Transylvania, Romania 416 cultivated plant species were identified and reliable ethnobotanical material was collected. The influence of different geographical regions of the world on the flora of the territory was characterized by an influence index. The influence index "I" of the American, African and Australian species on the spontaneous flora of the sample territory was very low, (I1 = 2,01, but on the cultivated flora it was very high (I2 = 58,48, reflecting the strong impact of foreign floras and agricultures. The cultivated flora of the territory was characterized according to following descriptors: geographical origin, life form, main traditional usage, main place of cultivation, frequency of cultivation, degree of domestication, ethnobotanical knowledge related to different species, local variability, territorial dynamics (related to genetic erosion or sedimentation and territorial distribution.

  5. Integration of socioeconomic and genetic aspects involved in the conservation of animal genetic resources = Integración de aspectos socioeconómicos y genéticos involucrados en la conservación de recursos genéticos animales

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Collado, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    El sector ganadero está siendo gradualmente dominado por sistemas intensivos y especializados en los que los factores de producción están controlados y en los que los caracteres productivos son los criterios principales para la selección de especies y razas. Entretanto, muchos de los bienes y servicios que tradicionalmente suministraba el ganado, tales como los fertilizantes, la tracción animal o materias primas para la elaboración vestimenta y calzado están siendo reemplazados por productos ...

  6. Dependency on floral resources determines the animals' responses to floral scents

    OpenAIRE

    Junker, Robert R; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Animal-pollinated angiosperms either depend on cross-pollination or may also reproduce after self-pollination—the former are thus obligately, the latter facultatively dependent on the service of animal-pollinators. Analogously, flower visitors either solely feed on floral resources or complement their diet with these, and are hence dependent or not on the flowers they visit. We assume that obligate flower visitors evolved abilities that enable them to effectively forage on flowers including m...

  7. Documentation for the spatial analysis system (SPAN) for resource use by animals

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, David A.; Lindberg, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Nearest-neighbor analyses have been used with mapped data f or tests of spatial dispersion and association i n plant and animal ecology. This paper full describes a computer software package developed to use Monte Carlo trials instead of chi-squared distributions for assigning probabilities to observed values of nearest neighbor statistics. The program can factor-out the unique geometry of resources in a sample plot,which can affect locations of animals, thus testing for direct patterns ...

  8. Stakeholder views on the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H

    2016-05-01

    This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. PMID:27256452

  9. Reducing the loss of genetic diversity associated with assisted colonization-like introductions of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaana KEKKONEN; Jon E BROMMER

    2015-01-01

    Translocations, especially assisted colonizations, of animals are increasingly used as a conservation management tool. In many cases, however, limited funding and other logistic challenges limit the number of individuals available for translocation. In conservation genetics, small populations are predicted to rapidly lose genetic diversity which can deteriorate population sur-vival. Thus, how worried should we be about the loss of genetic diversity when introducing small, isolated populations? Histori-cal species introductions provide a means to assess these issues. Here we review 13 studies of “assisted colonization-like” intro-ductions of animals, where only a small known number of founders established an isolated population without secondary contact to the source population. We test which factors could be important in retaining genetic diversity in these cases. In many cases, loss in heterozygosity (-12.1%) was detected, and more seriously the loss in allelic richness (-27.8 %). Number of founders seemed to have an effect but it also indicated that high population growth rate could help to retain genetic diversity, i.e. future management actions could be effective even with a limited number of founders if population growth would be enhanced. On the contrary, translocated organisms with longer generation times did not seem to retain more genetic diversity. We advocate that, where possible, future studies on translocated animals should report the loss of genetic diversity (both heterozygosity and allelic richness), which is essential for meta-analyses like this one for deepening our understanding of the genetic consequences of as-sisted colonization, and justifying management decisions [Current Zoology 61 (5): 827–834, 2015].

  10. Proposed draft permit guidance for genetically modified animal disease organisms and their vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of proposed draft guidance and represents the author's opinions only. They are presented below solely for the purpose of open discussion and comments on the subject of genetically modified arthropod regulations and should not be construed as representing actual or current regulations or opinions of the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). (author)

  11. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  12. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing. PMID:11955681

  13. SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR PROBLEMS IN WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BAYLAR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm methodology is a genetic process treated on computer which is considering evolution process in the nature. The genetic operations takes place within the chromosomes stored in computer memory. By means of various operators, the genetic knowledge in chromosomes change continuously and success of the community progressively increases as a result of these operations. The primary purpose of this study is calculation of nonlinear programming problems in water resources systems by Genetic Algorithm. For this purpose a Genetic Algoritm based optimization program were developed. It can be concluded that the results obtained from the genetic search based method give the precise results.

  14. Study for Trend of genetic Resource on Wild Yak in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bohui Yang; Ping Yan; Chunnian Liang; Xia Lang; Xiaoping Sun; Jian Guo; Xian Guo; Shengli Cheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, comprehensively studied inhabit environments, population size, population density and distribution regions on wild yak, the results showed that genetic resource of wild yak has been decreased from 1950' to 1980 ', after that, and its genetic resource began to show increasing trend in nature reserves due to protection measures strengthened.

  15. Importance of animal feed resources in developing countries and current constraints on their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequacy and poor utilization of animal feed resources are the main limiting factors on animal production in most developing countries. The bulk of ruminant foodstuffs consists of poor quality fodder, such as pasture and rangeland grass, crop residues and fibrous by-products. It is very rarely possible to use cereals as supplements, since most developing countries at present need to import cereals for human consumption. This has not prevented many development agencies from recommending that cereals and other concentrate feeds be imported to boost monogastric production, reproducing the model developed for temperate countries where there is a cereal surplus. In most cases, the types of feed available locally do not allow high levels of individual animal performance. However, this does not mean that it is impossible to improve animal production in developing countries. During the last two decades, much research on animal nutrition has been successfully conducted and the results are being applied in practice. The most significant of these concern the utilization by animals of sugar-cane and its by-products, the use of non-conventional animal feeds and the treatment of straw and other fibrous materials. In all cases, supplements are required. Livestock feeding systems could also be improved if it were possible to use more of those by-products which are at present exported. New livestock feeding strategies must be developed based on currently or potentially available local resources. It is more logical and profitable for developing countries to adapt animal production systems to available feed resources than vice versa. (author)

  16. GeneEd—A Genetics Educational Resource | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of ... GeneEd website as part of her lessons on genetics. A recently developed educational website about genetics— GeneEd. ...

  17. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed,and a fitness function is provided.Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm,the simulated annealing algorithm,the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm,respectively.The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation,and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability,which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate.

  18. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  19. Evaluation of Animal and Plant Resources Status Quo after the Reservoir Construction in Turks River and Protection Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess the status quo of animal and plant resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir.[Method] Through field investigation,document check and sample identification,the distribution of animal and plants resources in Turks River after the construction of the reservoir was studied and corresponding protection measures were proposed.[Result] Under the influence of reservoir,there were fifteen types of rare animals,one species of national primary protected animals,...

  20. Exploration of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis to Improve Animal Welfare by Means of Genetic Selection: Lessons from the South African Merino

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk Cloete; Denise Hough; Pieter Swart

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Breeding sheep that are robust and easily managed may be beneficial for both animal welfare and production. Sheep that are more readily able to adapt to stressful situations and a wide variety of environmental conditions are likely to have more resources available for a higher expression of their production potential. This review explores the utilization of one of the stress response pathways, namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, to locate potential sites where genet...

  1. [The popular zootherapy in Bahia State: registration of new animal species used as medicinal resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the use of animals as medicinal resources in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The data come from a processional evaluation of academic performance, since it was an exercise requested by the professor of the discipline Ethnobiology (2007.2 semester) to the students of the course Bahia State Teachers' Undergraduation of Feira de Santana State University. They were asked to make a brief survey, in their respective cities, on the use of animals as medicines. Forty-one students, from 21 cities of the country of Bahia State, have participated with data. A total of 95 animals (common names) were recorded, from which 17 are new additions to the list of medicinal animal species already published. The recording of the use of animals as folk medicines in the state of Bahia provides a significant contribution to the phenomenon of zootherapy, because it opens a space to debate about conservation biology, health public policies, sustainable management of natural resources, bioprospection, and patent. It is necessary to carry out more ethnozoological studies both to comprehend the true importance of zootherapy to the traditional communities and to develop some strategies of sustainable management and use of animal species, especially for those under risk of extinction. PMID:21503516

  2. The current status and future prospects of genetically modified farm animals in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forabosco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A transgenic farm animal is a genetically modified (GM animal with genetic material that has been engineered using recombinant technology. Over the past 25 years the European Union (EU has taken a process-based, case-by-case approach to risk assessment. Within the EU today GM organisms are authorized only if they have passed a rigorous safety assessment. Procedures for the release of GM organisms into the environment, and the requirements of evaluation and authorization, are set out in EU Directive 2001/18/EC and Regulation 1829/2003, respectively. Currently the EU’s official list of approved genetically modified food, feed and organisms contains 42 registered plants and two GM microorganisms, with the latter recently joining the list. No GM mammals, birds, insects, fish or derived food products of animal origin are on the EU market. The European Food Safety Authority, under the mandate of the EU Commission, is developing an environmental risk assessment procedure for mammals, birds, insects and fish with the aim of assessing the possible direct or indirect, as well as immediate or delayed, risks to human health and the environment. The EU market is closed to GM farm animals, but will soon open for those who pass the environmental risk assessment.

  3. Curating seeds and other genetic resources for ethnobiology. In: Salick,J.Konchar, K. and Nesbitt, M., editors. Curatring Biocultural Collections: A handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) is one of the largest genebanks in the world, currently safeguarding over 875,000 plant collections and 652,295 animal collections, most with agriculture emphasis. This number represents 7,474 different plant species of 1,274 genera. T...

  4. PROTECTING GENETIC RESOURCES AND TRADITIONAL FOREST RELATED KNOWLEDGE THROUGH FOREST CERTIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hin Fui Lim; Yusof Norshakila; Baharuddin Intan Nurulhani

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that there is a need to protect genetic resources and traditional forest related knowledge (TFRK) to enable sustainable management of natural resources, forest-dependent communities and development of value-added natural products. A number of international instruments are being implemented to ensure that genetic resources and TFRK are protected. Other than these international instruments agreed by the nation parties, the market-driven forest certification has eme...

  5. Genetic parameters for carcass traits and their live animal indicators in Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D H; Pollak, E J; Weaber, R L; Quaas, R L; Lipsey, R J

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate parameters required for genetic evaluation of Simmental carcass merit using carcass and live animal data. Carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were available from 5,750 steers and 1,504 heifers sired by Simmental bulls. Additionally, yearling ultrasound measurements of fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and estimated percentage of intramuscular fat were available on Simmental bulls (n = 3,409) and heifers (n = 1,503). An extended pedigree was used to construct the relationship matrix (n = 23,968) linking bulls and heifers with ultrasound data to steers and heifers with carcass data. All data were obtained from the American Simmental Association. No animal had both ultrasound and carcass data. Using an animal model and treating corresponding ultrasound and carcass traits separately, genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood. Heritability estimates for carcass traits were 0.48 +/- 0.06, 0.35 +/- 0.05, 0.46 +/- 0.05, and 0.54 +/- 0.05 for carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score, respectively. Heritability estimates for bull (heifer) ultrasound traits were 0.53 +/- 0.07 (0.69 +/- 0.09), 0.37 +/- 0.06 (0.51 +/- 0.09), and 0.47 +/- 0.06 (0.52 +/- 0.09) for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and intramuscular fat percentage, respectively. Heritability of weight at scan was 0.47 +/- 0.05. Using a bivariate weight model including scan weight of bulls and heifers with carcass weight of slaughter animals, a genetic correlation of 0.77 +/- 0.10 was obtained. Models for fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, and marbling score were each trivariate, including ultrasound measurements on yearling bulls and heifers, and corresponding carcass traits of slaughter animals. Genetic correlations of carcass fat thickness with bull and heifer ultrasound fat were 0.79 +/- 0.13 and 0.83 +/- 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations of

  6. Diverse plant and animal genetic records from Holocene and Pleistocene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Binladen, J.;

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including...... DNA sequences of extinct biota, including two species of ratite moa, and 29 plant taxa characteristic of the prehuman environment. Therefore, many sedimentary deposits may contain unique, and widespread, genetic records of paleoenvironments. Udgivelsesdato: 2003 May 2...

  7. Ecology-genetic consequences of the chronic irradiation of animals in Chernobyl alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation with the use of different molecular-genetic markers and the cytogenetic analysis of genetic-population consequences in different species of voles and experimental cattle herd reproduced in Chernobyl's alienation zone is carried out. The decrease in the number of animals with cytogenetic anomalies in bone marrow cells in voles, was revealed, that testified to the selection by the radioresistance. The obtained data allow us to make conclusion that the increase of ionizing radiation is a particular case of ecological changes leading to the microevolution events connected with the selection by the stability to new conditions of the reproduction of populations

  8. Research on Grid Resources Schedule Based on an Adaptive Distribute Parallel Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guangyuan Liu; Jingjun Zhang; Sen Su

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an improved adaptive parallel genetic algorithm is proposed to solve problems of grid resources distribution and matching, comparing with the traditional genetic algorithms, a new adaptive selection operator is introduced, which can prevent the premature convergence of genetic algorithm efficiently. Besides, in this paper, the migration strategy of the parallel genetic algorithm can prevent the population trapped in the local extreme. And a pc-cluster containing eight computers ...

  9. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    OpenAIRE

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.; Fischer, A.R.H.; HOUDEBINE, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic...

  10. Genetic Architecture of Tameness in a Rat Model of Animal Domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Frank W.; Carlborg, Orjan; Plyusnina, Irina; Besnier, Francois; Hedwig, Daniela; Lautenschläger, Susann; Lorenz, Doreen; McIntosh, Jenny; Neumann, Christof; Richter, Henning; Zeising, Claudia; Kozhemyakina, Rimma; Shchepina, Olesya; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Trut, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    A common feature of domestic animals is tameness-i.e., they tolerate and are unafraid of human presence and handling. To gain insight into the genetic basis of tameness and aggression, we studied an intercross between two lines of rats (Rattus norvegicus) selected over >60 generations for increased tameness and increased aggression against humans, respectively. We measured 45 traits, including tameness and aggression, anxiety-related traits, organ weights, and levels of serum components in >7...

  11. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the...

  12. Animal Models to Assess the Pathogenicity of Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hentges, D J; Petschow, B W; Dougherty, S. H.; Marsh, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    Two animal models are proposed to assess the colonising capacities and other virulence factors of genetically modified enteric microorganisms for humans. One is the streptomycin treated mouse which is exceedingly susceptible to colonisation with enteric pathogens. The other is the human intestinal microbiota associated mouse which, in ecological studies, responded in a manner similar to human infants to variations in diet. The latter model is recommended because of differences between human a...

  13. The ecology and evolution of animal medication : genetically fixed response versus phenotypic plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Choisy, Marc; de Roode, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Animal medication against parasites can occur either as a genetically fixed (constitutive) or phenotypically plastic (induced) behavior. Taking the tritrophic interaction between the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, its protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and its food plant Asclepias spp. as a test case, we develop a game-theory model to identify the epidemiological (parasite prevalence and virulence) and environmental (plant toxicity and abundance) conditions that predict the ...

  14. A Songbird Animal Model for Dissecting the Genetic Bases of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carmen Panaitof

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural and genetic bases of human language development and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD, in which language impairment represents a core deficit, are poorly understood. Given that no single animal model can fully capture the behavioral and genetic complexity of ASD, work in songbird, an experimentally tractable animal model of vocal learning, can complement the valuable tool of rodent genetic models and contribute important insights to our understanding of the communication deficits observed in ASD. Like humans, but unlike traditional laboratory animals such as rodents or non-human primates, songbirds exhibit the capacity of vocal learning, a key subcomponent of language. Human speech and birdsong reveal important parallels, highlighting similar developmental critical periods, a homologous cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuitry, and a critical role for social influences in the learning of vocalizations. Here I highlight recent advances in using the songbird model to probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and function of neural circuitry for birdsong and, by analogy, human language, with the ultimate goal of identifying any shared or human unique biological pathways underscoring language development and its disruption in ASD.

  15. Inclusion of genetically identical animals to a numerator relationship matrix and modification of its inverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuda Kazuhiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the field of animal breeding, estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values are routinely conducted by analyzing quantitative traits. Using an animal model and including the direct inverse of a numerator relationship matrix (NRM into a mixed model has made these analyses possible. However, a method including a genetically identical animal (GIA in NRM if genetic relationships between pairs of GIAs are not perfect, is still lacking. Here, we describe a method to incorporate GIAs into NRM using a K matrix in which diagonal elements are set to 1.0, off-diagonal elements between pairs of GIAs to (1-x and the other elements to 0, where x is a constant less than 0.05. The inverse of the K matrix is then calculated directly by a simple formula. Thus, the inverse of the NRM is calculated by the products of the lower triangular matrix that identifies the parents of each individual, its transpose matrix, the inverse of the K matrix and the inverse of diagonal matrix D, in which the diagonal elements comprise a number of known parents and their inbreeding coefficients. The computing method is adaptable to the analysis of a data set including pairs of GIAs with imperfect relationships.

  16. Genetic effects from environmental radioactive contamination for natural populations of plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the genetic effects from environmental radioactive contamination for natural populations of plants and animals are becoming particularly important issue. This is caused by the real existing situation of irradiation of natural communities on the sites of nuclear testing and uranium mining in the zone of influence of industrial enterprises of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Results obtained in studies of plants and animals allow indirectly evaluate the risk of manifestation of defects in humans. Studying the reaction of a population of organisms that are in their natural habitat to the chronic effect of ionizing radiation is of great interest in terms of environmental regulation of artificial radionuclides content in the external environment. Such regulations, along with radiation-hygienic characteristics are important in regulating the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. As a subject of study we've selected wild plant species - Agropyron castorem L., Festuca valesiace Gaudin, Stipa sareptana Beck, Artemisia gracilescens Krach, growing in areas with different levels (high, medium, background) of radionuclide contamination at 'Balapan' site, as well as rodents - Citellus erythrogenus Brandt, Allactaga saltator Ewersm, Allactaga major Kerr, inhabiting in similar areas of the site. Analysis of the spectrum of chromosome aberrations of plants was carried out by the standard technique, determination of genetic damage in germ and somatic cells of animals with 2 express-methods: counting of abnormal sperm heads and micronucleus test - cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood erythrocytes of animals. It is shown that in natural populations of the studied plants grown in radioactively contaminated sectors of technical ground 'Balapan' at the former STS significantly higher yield of induced chromosomal mutations was found. We revealed that in natural populations of three species of studied rodents inhabiting the radioactively contaminated territories

  17. Estimating animal resource selection from telemetry data using point process models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Devin S.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Kuhn, Carey E.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of animal resource selection functions (RSF) using data collected from relocations of individuals via remote telemetry devices have become commonplace. Increasing technological advances, however, have produced statistical challenges in analysing such highly autocorrelated data. Weighted distribution methods have been proposed for analysing RSFs with telemetry data. However, they can be computationally challenging due to an intractable normalizing constant and cannot be aggregated (i.e. collapsed) over time to make space-only inference.

  18. Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

    OpenAIRE

    Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J; Andreia J Amaral; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja; Fischer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional dat...

  19. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  20. Plant Genetic Resources and Food Security – Stakeholder Perspectives on the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) is a pivotal piece of recent legislation, providing a route map for the use of such resources for sustainable agriculture and food security. This book explains clearly the different interests and views at stake between all players in the global food chain. It touches upon many issues such as international food governance and policy, economic aspects of food and seed trade, conservation and sustainable u...

  1. Governing the management and use of pooled microbial genetic resources: Lessons from the global crop commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halewood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights lessons learned over the last thirty years establishing a governance structure for the global crop commons that are of relevance to current champions of the microbial commons. It argues that the political, legal and biophysical situation in which microbial genetic resources (and their users are located today are similar to the situation of plant genetic resources in the mid-1990s, before the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources was negotiated. Consequently, the paper suggests that it may be useful to look to the model of global network of ex situ plant genetic resources collections as a precedent to follow – even if only loosely – in developing an intergovernmentally endorsed legal substructure and governance framework for the microbial commons.

  2. Plant genetic resources conservation and use in light of recent policy developments

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Varaprasad and N. Sivaraj

    2010-01-01

    Plant genetic resources constitute our invaluable assets to meet the growing needs to increase crop production andproductivity. Plant genetic resources constitute a unique global heritage and their conservation and utilization is ofimmediate concern. Over six million accessions of crop germplasm are currently being conserved worldwide in gene banks.Despite its overall advantage and promotion by the international community, in-situ conservation is still inadequate.Various international convent...

  3. Drivers of conservation and utilization of pineapple genetic resources in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Achigan-Dako, Enoch G; Adjé, Charlotte Abike; N’Danikou, Sognigbé; Hotegni, Nicodème V Fassinou; Agbangla, Clément; Ahanchédé, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Valuation of farmer knowledge has been seen as a route to promote sustainable use of plant genetic resources. In pineapple production systems in Benin, inadequate knowledge of cultivation practices can lead to a number of inconveniences including abandon of some varieties and cultivars. To understand how farmer’s knowledge and cultivation practices impact the sustainable utilization of pineapple genetic resources, we surveyed 177 pineapple farmers in southern Benin. We assessed farmers’ knowl...

  4. The Protection of Traditional Knowledge Associated with Genetic Resources: The Role of Databases and Registers

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Tagle, Yovana

    2011-01-01

    "The Protection of Traditional Knowledge Associated with Genetic Resources: The Role of Databases and Registers" ABSTRACT Yovana Reyes Tagle The misappropriation of TK has sparked a search for national and international laws to govern the use of indigenous peoples knowledge and protection against its commercial exploitation. There is a widespread perception that biopiracy or illegal access to genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge (TK) continues despite national and...

  5. Knowledge Management Model and Strategy of Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Indra Sensuse; Lukman

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge management of genetic resources and traditional knowledge has become an urgent need since Indonesia has the second largest potential wealth of genetic resources in the world. Besides, there have been many researchers conducted related to that. However, the results of the studies are still managed by the research institutes and the researchers connected to the studies, and as the result, the access is limited for the public. On the other hand, the traditional knowledge which has ...

  6. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from domestic animals in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, W F; Yan, W C; Wang, T Q; Shao, X D; Zhai, K; Han, L F; Lv, C C

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that has a remarkable ability to infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. This study was aimed to determine the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates from domestic animals in Henan Province, central China. A total of 363 DNA samples, including 208 from hilar lymph nodes of pigs, 36 from blood samples of cats, 12 from tissues of aborted bovine fetuses and 107 from blood samples of dams with history of abortion in Henan Province, were examined for the presence of T. gondii by nested PCR based on B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were further genotyped by PCR-RFLP at 11 markers, including SAG1, (3'+ 5') SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. DNA samples from 9 pigs, 5 cats, and 4 dairy cows were T. gondii B1 gene positive. Nine samples were successfully genotyped at all genetic loci, of which 5 samples from pigs, and 2 from cats were identified as ToxoDB genotype #9, and 2 samples from cows belonged to ToxoDB genotype #225. To our knowledge, the present study is the second report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from cattle in China, and the first report of T. gondii ToxoDB#225 from cattle. PMID:26695215

  8. Knowledge Management Model and Strategy of Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Indra Sensuse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge management of genetic resources and traditional knowledge has become an urgent need since Indonesia has the second largest potential wealth of genetic resources in the world. Besides, there have been many researchers conducted related to that. However, the results of the studies are still managed by the research institutes and the researchers connected to the studies, and as the result, the access is limited for the public. On the other hand, the traditional knowledge which has existed in the society for centuries is not likely to be well-recorded, even there is no database for this; therefore the traditional knowledge related to genetic resources might disappear. This paper will discuss the knowledge management model and strategy which are suitable applying the management of genetic resources and traditional knowledge in Indonesia. The research objective is providing the availability of the knowledge management model and strategy of genetic resources and traditional knowledge in Indonesia. This research choose descriptive method, which applied “soft system methodology” by using data and information from research institutes. This knowledge management becomes essential as a means of mapping and defensive protection resources genetic owned by Indonesia.

  9. Impacts of the Nagoya Protocol on access to plant genetic resources and benefit sharing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol (NP is an international legal framework for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. It opened for signature on February1, 2011, and was proposed to be in force 90 days after the date when the fiftieth country or regional organization had ratified it. By October 2013, the protocol had been signed by 92 countries and ratified by 26 countries. The protocol is now expected to be in force before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 2014. The Nagoya Protocol will change the current situation of unordered access to and free development of genetic resources. It will provide a premise and guarantee for the principle of national sovereignty of genetic resources and implementation of equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization. Analyses show that although genetic resources indigenous to China have been widely utilized by other developed countries, with patents taken out on some products, utilization in China has been poor owing to a weak capacity for independent innovation and underdeveloped biotechnology. China currently lacks a policy and regulatory system for access and benefit sharing (ABS to its genetic resources. It is, therefore, a pressing matter for China to improve the implementation of the NP by strengthening national and local policies and regulations on ABS. There is also a need to increase investment to support basic research capacity and develop biological technology to fully utilize genetic resources in China

  10. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2012 - 31 January 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Urbánková, Soňa; Vyskočilová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2013), s. 546-549. ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : genetic database * microsatellite marker loci Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013

  11. Deficits in fine motor skills in a genetic animal model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to model some behavioral aspects of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, we examined whether an existing genetic animal model of ADHD is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children with ADHD. Methods We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs, the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for motor activity, gross motor coordination, and skilled reaching. Wistar (WIS rats were used as controls. Results Similar to children with ADHD, young adolescent SHRs displayed locomotor hyperactivity in a familiar, but not in a novel environment. They also had lower performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared to WIS rats, especially in the most sensitive measure of skilled performance (i.e., single attempt success. In contrast, their gross motor performance on a Rota-Rod test was similar to that of WIS rats. Conclusion The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying fine motor skill problems in children with ADHD.

  12. Conservation of forest genetic resources and sustainable forest management in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, J.; De, Vries; Gil, L.; Mátyás, C.; Rusanen, M.; L.Paule

    2004-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to enhance conservation of forest genetic resources and to promote sustainable forest management in Europe over the past decade. The need to enhance genetic conservation emerged from a concern about the impacts of environmental pollution and genetic erosion on forest ecosystems in the late 1980s. The concept of sustainable forest management, in a roader sense, gained ground in Europe after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992...

  13. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing pub

  14. History and future of genetically engineered food animal regulation: an open request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Modern biotechnology resulted from of a series of incremental improvements in the understanding of DNA and the enzymes that nature evolved to manipulate it. As the potential impact of genetic engineering became apparent, scientists began the process of trying to identify the potential unintended consequences. Restrictions to recombinant DNA experimentation were at first self-imposed. Collaborative efforts between scientists and lawyers formalized an initial set of guidelines. These guidelines have been used to promulgate regulations around world. However, the initial guidelines were only intended as a starting point and were motivated by a specific set of concerns. As new data became available, the guidelines and regulations should have been adapted to the new knowledge. Instead, other social drivers drove the development of regulations. For most species and most applications, the framework that was established has slowly allowed some products to reach the market. However, genetically engineered livestock that are intended for food have been left in a regulatory state of limbo. To date, no genetically engineered food animal is available in the marketplace. A short history and a U.S.-based genetic engineer's perspective are presented. In addition, a request to regulatory agencies is presented for consideration as regulation continues to evolve. Regulators appear to have shown preference for the slow, random progression of evolution over the efficiency of intentional design. PMID:26924471

  15. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchill, Gary A.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Airey, D.C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J.M.; Attie, A.D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W.D.; Belknap, J.K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K.W.; Buck, K.J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E.J.; Cheverud, J.M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M.N.; Cox, R.D.; Crabbe, J.C.; Crusio, W.E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschnepper, C.F.; Doerge, R.W.; Farber, C.R.; Forejt, J.; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S.J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.K.; de Haan, G; Hayes, N.L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H.C.; Iraqi, F.A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H.J.; Jjepsen, K.J.; Johnson, D.K.; Johnson, T.E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R.F; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J.M.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Lu, L.; Lusiss, A.; Manly, K.F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J.F.; Miller, D.R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B.A.; Mogil, J.S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D.G.; Mott, R; Nadeau, J.H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R.S.; O'Hara, B.F.; Osadchuk, A.V.; Page, G.P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Pan, H.J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Pomp, D.; Peirce, J.; Pravenec, M.; Prows, D.R.; Qi, Z.H.; Reeves, R.H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G.D.; Schadt, E.E.; Schalkwyk, L.C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.M.; Sillanpaa, M.J.; Siracusa, L.D.; Snoeck, H.W.; Spearow, J.L.; Deschepper, Christian F.; Jepsen, Karl J.; Lusis, Aldons; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Svenson, Karen; Threadgill, David; Toth, Linda A.; Valdar, William; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Warden, Craig; Whatley, Steve; Williams, Robert W.; Wiltshire, Tim; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Zou, Fei; Montagutelli, X.; Tarantino, LM; Toth, LA; de Villena, FPM; Yi, NJ; Zhang, DB; Williams, O.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are

  16. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  17. USE OF MOLECULAR GENETIC ENGINEERING IN THE STUDY OF ANIMAL PARASITES AND THEIR VECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. LoVerde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular genetics coupled with advances in immunology and parasite culture has become a powerful tool to study animal parasites and their vectors. Recombinant DNA techniques allow one to identify individual genes of DNA probes, amplify the nucleic acid of interest, and use this material to study: the role of the gene product in the biology of the organism; the evolution of parasites and their hosts; heterogeneity between species and within species; taxonomy and develop refined taxonomic tools; the immunology and biochemistry of host-parasite interactions; identification of specific cells or tissues that produce gene products; cytogenetics and localization of genes on chromosome in the study of animal parasites and their vectors will be presented.

  18. From animal models to human disease: a genetic approach for personalized medicine in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher-Martel, Vincent; Valdmanis, Paul N; Gould, Peter V; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease in adults. Classical ALS is characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis. Approximately 10 % of ALS patients have familial form of the disease. Numerous different gene mutations have been found in familial cases of ALS, such as mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), C9ORF72, ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), optineurin (OPTN) and others. Multiple animal models were generated to mimic the disease and to test future treatments. However, no animal model fully replicates the spectrum of phenotypes in the human disease and it is difficult to assess how a therapeutic effect in disease models can predict efficacy in humans. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS leads to a variety of responses to similar treatment regimens. From this has emerged the concept of personalized medicine (PM), which is a medical scheme that combines study of genetic, environmental and clinical diagnostic testing, including biomarkers, to individualized patient care. In this perspective, we used subgroups of specific ALS-linked gene mutations to go through existing animal models and to provide a comprehensive profile of the differences and similarities between animal models of disease and human disease. Finally, we reviewed application of biomarkers and gene therapies relevant in personalized medicine approach. For instance, this includes viral delivering of antisense oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA in SOD1, TDP-43 and C9orf72 mice models. Promising gene therapies raised possibilities for treating differently the major mutations in familial ALS cases. PMID:27400686

  19. Variability of various genetic characteristics of animals kept in the zone of ChAPS [Chernobyl' atomic power station] accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locuses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic comtamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  20. Animal movement constraints improve resource selection inference in the presence of telemetry error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Small, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors complicate the analysis of animal telemetry location data. Recent advancements address issues such as temporal autocorrelation and telemetry measurement error, but additional challenges remain. Difficulties introduced by complicated error structures or barriers to animal movement can weaken inference. We propose an approach for obtaining resource selection inference from animal location data that accounts for complicated error structures, movement constraints, and temporally autocorrelated observations. We specify a model for telemetry data observed with error conditional on unobserved true locations that reflects prior knowledge about constraints in the animal movement process. The observed telemetry data are modeled using a flexible distribution that accommodates extreme errors and complicated error structures. Although constraints to movement are often viewed as a nuisance, we use constraints to simultaneously estimate and account for telemetry error. We apply the model to simulated data, showing that it outperforms common ad hoc approaches used when confronted with measurement error and movement constraints. We then apply our framework to an Argos satellite telemetry data set on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Gulf of Alaska, a species that is constrained to move within the marine environment and adjacent coastlines.

  1. A Resource Scheduling Strategy in Cloud Computing Based on Multi-agent Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wuxue Jiang; Jing Zhang; Junhuai Li; Hui Hu

    2013-01-01

    Resource scheduling strategies in cloud computing are used either to improve system operating efficiency, or to improve user satisfaction. This paper presents an integrated scheduling strategy considering both resources credibility and user satisfaction. It takes user satisfaction as objective function and resources credibility as a part of the user satisfaction, and realizes optimal scheduling by using genetic algorithm. We integrate this scheduling strategy into Agent subsequently and propo...

  2. Technology assessment and resource allocation for predictive genetic testing: A study of the perspectives of Canadian genetic health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsiedel Edna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. Methods The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior lab directors and clinicians at publically funded Canadian predictive genetic testing facilities. Participants were drawn from British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Given the community sampled was identified as being relatively small and challenging to access, purposive sampling coupled with snowball sampling methodologies were utilized. Results Surveyed lab directors and clinicians indicated that predictive genetic tests were funded provincially by one of two predominant funding models, but they themselves played a significant role in how these funds were allocated for specific tests and services. They also rated and identified several factors that influenced allocation decisions and patients' decisions regarding testing. Lastly, participants provided recommendations regarding changes to existing allocation models and showed support for a national evaluation process for predictive testing. Conclusion Our findings suggest that largely local and relatively ad hoc decision making processes are being made in relation to resource allocations for predictive genetic tests and that a more coordinated and, potentially, national approach to allocation decisions in this context may be appropriate.

  3. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis. PMID:27524992

  4. Sheep resources of Ethiopia : genetic diversity and breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremichael, S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty percent of the world domestic animal breeds are classified as being “at risk” of extinction. Seventy percent of the mammalian breeds, for which no risk status data are available, are found in the developing world. This is a serious constraint to effective prioritization and planning of sustai

  5. Genetic animal models to decipher the pathogenic effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Dreumont, Natacha; Coelho, David; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Arnold, Carole

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are essential micronutrients that provide methyl groups for cellular methylations through the so-called one-carbon metabolism. Deficits in the absorption and transport or defects of the enzymes can lead to human pathogenesis comprising hematologic, neural, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular and developmental manifestations. One-carbon metabolism is a complex, multistep and multi-organ metabolism, and the understanding of the mechanisms at work have benefited from human inborn errors and population studies, as well as from nutritional animal models. Since 15 years, a wide variety of genetically engineered mice has been developed and has proved to be useful to decipher the underlying mechanisms. These genetically engineered mice target all the genes that are important for the intestinal absorption, cellular transport and metabolism of vitamin B12 and folate, which are detailed in this article. In conclusion, these mouse models represent valuable experimental paradigms for human pathogenesis. Since no animal model recapitulates the full spectrum of a human disease, researchers have to choose the one that is the most relevant for their specific needs, and this review may help in this respect. PMID:27178438

  6. A sustainable genetic algorithm for satellite resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, R. J.; Campbell, M. L.; Krenz, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid genetic algorithm is used to schedule tasks for 8 satellites, which can be modelled as a robot whose task is to retrieve objects from a two dimensional field. The objective is to find a schedule that maximizes the value of objects retrieved. Typical of the real-world tasks to which this corresponds is the scheduling of ground contacts for a communications satellite. An important feature of our application is that the amount of time available for running the scheduler is not necessarily known in advance. This requires that the scheduler produce reasonably good results after a short period but that it also continue to improve its results if allowed to run for a longer period. We satisfy this requirement by developing what we call a sustainable genetic algorithm.

  7. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  8. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  9. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org . PMID:27083180

  10. Genetic parameter estimates of yearling live animal ultrasonic measurements in Brangus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, A M; Perkins, T L; Brown, A H; Pohlman, F W; Johnson, Z B; Sandelin, B A

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for real-time ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle area (LMA), 12th rib backfat thickness (FT), percent intramuscular fat (IMF), and yearling weight (YW) for 1,299 yearling Brangus bulls and heifers. A single ultrasound technician performed all measurements. The number of observations was 1,298, 1,298, 1,215, and 1,170 for LMA, FT, IMF, and YW, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated for each trait using single- and multiple-trait derivative-free restricted maximal likelihood. Fixed effects were contemporary group (defined as same sex, same age within six months, and same environment), and days of age as a covariate. Correlations were estimated from two-trait models. Heritabilities for LMA, FT, IMF, and YW were 0.31, 0.26, 0.16, and 0.53, respectively. Genetic correlations between LMA and FT, LMA and IMF, LMA and YW, FT and IMF, FT and YW, and IMF and YW were 0.09, 0.25, 0.44, 0.36, 0.42, and 0.31, respectively. Yearling live animal ultrasonic measurements can be used as a selection tool in breeding cattle for the improvement of carcass traits. PMID:12542155

  11. Genetic diversity and construction of core collection in Chinese wheat genetic resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO ChenYang; DONG YuChen; WANG LanFen; YOU GuangXia; ZHANG HongNa; GE HongMei; JIA JiZeng; ZHANG XueYong

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity among 5029 accessions representing a proposed Chinese wheat core collection was analyzed using 78 pairs of fluorescent microsatellite (SSR) primers mapped to 21 chromosomes. A stepwise hierarchical sampling strategy with priority based on 4×105 SSR data-points was used to construct a core collection from the 23090 initial collections. The core collection consisted of 1160 accessions, including 762 landraces, 348 modern varieties and 50 introduced varieties. The core ac-counts for 23.1% of the 5029 candidate core accessions and 5% of the 23090 initial collections, but retains 94.9% of alleles from the candidate collections and captures 91.5% of the genetic variation in the initial collections. These data indicate that it is possible to maintain genetic diversity in a core col-lection while retaining fewer accessions than the accepted standard, i.e., 10% of the initial collections captured more than 70% of their genetic diversity. Estimated genetic representation of the core con-structed by preferred sampling (91.5%) is much higher than that by random sampling (79.8%). Both mean genetic richness and genetic diversity indices of the landraces were higher than those of the modern varieties in the core. Structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that the landraces and the modern varieties were two relatively independent subpopulations. Strong genetic differentia-tion associated with ecological environments has occurred in the landraces, but was relatively weak in the modern cultivars. In addition, a mini-core collection was constructed, which consisted of 231 ac-cessions with an estimated 70% representation of the genetic variation from the initial collections. The mini-core has been distributed to various research and breeding institutes for detailed phenotyping and breeding of genetic introgression lines.

  12. Migration Effects of Parallel Genetic Algorithms on Line Topologies of Heterogeneous Computing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiyuan; Guan, Senlin; Nakamura, Morikazu

    This paper investigates migration effects of parallel genetic algorithms (GAs) on the line topology of heterogeneous computing resources. Evolution process of parallel GAs is evaluated experimentally on two types of arrangements of heterogeneous computing resources: the ascending and descending order arrangements. Migration effects are evaluated from the viewpoints of scalability, chromosome diversity, migration frequency and solution quality. The results reveal that the performance of parallel GAs strongly depends on the design of the chromosome migration in which we need to consider the arrangement of heterogeneous computing resources, the migration frequency and so on. The results contribute to provide referential scheme of implementation of parallel GAs on heterogeneous computing resources.

  13. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  14. Prospects and Challenges for the Conservation of Farm Animal Genomic Resources, 2015-2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael William Bruford

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy, climate change and market demands. The last decade saw a step change in technological and analytical approaches to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR. These changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and the methodologies needed to exploit new, multidimensional data. The ESF Genomic Resources program final conference addressed these problems attempting to contribute to the development of the research and policy agenda for the next decade. We broadly identified four areas related to methodological and analytical challenges, data management and conservation. The overall conclusion is that there is a need for the use of current state-of-the-art tools to characterise the state of genomic resources in non-commercial and local breeds. The livestock genomic sector, which has been relatively well-organised in applying such methodologies so far, needs to make a concerted effort in the coming decade to enable to the democratisation of the powerful tools that are now at its disposal, and to ensure that they are applied in the context of breed conservation as well as development.

  15. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bäckman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  16. Genetic opportunities to enhance sustainability of pork production in developing countries: A model for food animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)

  17. Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Breeding Values of Milk Traits for Simmental Cattle in Croatia Using a Lactation Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kapš

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values for dairy traits in Simmental cattle in Croatia by developing an animal lactation model. Data consisted of 30761 first lactation records of cows born between 1985 and 2001. By including the pedigree there was a total of 48748 animals. The following effects were analyzed: age, season and year at first calving, days open, breeding organization, farm, animal, and genetic group. Adequacy of the models was tested by using F tests for fixed effects, and REML functions and ‘Mendelian sampling’ for the whole models. The best fit model was determined to have the following effects: age at first calving, days open, year x season interaction and breeding organization x year interaction as fixed, and animal and farm x year as random effects. By including genetic group the model was further improved. From this model, the following heritabilites were estimated: 0.34 ± 0.02, 0.30 ± 0.02, 0.29 ± 0.03 for milk, milk fat and protein yield, respectively. Further, phenotypic and genetic trends were analyzed. The genetic gain in milk traits has been low so far, but by using an appropriate animal model, the breeding value prediction is expected to be improved in terms of accuracy and precision.

  18. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  19. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): expanding genetic and genomic resources for the laboratory mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Judith A.; Eppig, Janan T.; Richardson, Joel E.; Davisson, Muriel T.; the Mouse Genome Database Group,

    2000-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) is a comprehensive public database of mouse genomic, genetic and phenotypic information (http://www.informatics.jax.org ). This community database provides information about genes, serves as a mapping resource of the mouse genome, details mammalian orthologs, integrates experimental data, represents standardized mouse nomenclature for genes and alleles, incorporates links to other genomic resources such as sequence data, and includes a variety of additional inf...

  20. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-01-01

    After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development...

  1. Construction of a New Molecular Barcode for Discriminating Plants and Animals with a Close Genetic Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li; ZHAO Xiao-feng; ZHU Yi-peng; DONG Heng; XU Ning-ying; CAO Jia-shu

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcodes have been proposed as a shortcut to provide species identification and as a way to accelerate the discovery of new species. A number of candidate gene regions have been suggested as possible barcodes for animals and plants, but for the identification of recently diverged species and/or varieties with only a few genetic differences it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. This study selected widely cultivated cruciferous vegetables as the primary samples, after failure of discrimination of each species using current DNA barcodes, we performed the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (F-AFLP) and successfully discriminated each species, subspecies, variety and their cultivar in 74 samples. Then the non-qualitative results obtained from F-AFLP were transformed into two-dimensional barcodes image file of each cultivar via the PDF417 software. This method was also successfully applied to the discrimination of 17 Chinese indigenous pig breeds. The barcode we constructed which greatly reduces the information storage space is genotypes-specific, and can be conveniently decoded into the original data and thereby be conveniently shared and referred to. We believe that it is possible to construct a new data sharing molecular barcode system that could discriminate the subspecies, varieties, cultivars and even individuals with close genetic relationships.

  2. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  3. Genetics of Adiposity in Large Animal Models for Human Obesity-Studies on Pigs and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, M; Szczerbal, I; Switonski, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of domestic mammals in the development of human biomedical sciences has been widely documented. Among these model species the pig and dog are of special importance. Both are useful for studies on the etiology of human obesity. Genome sequences of both species are known and advanced genetic tools [eg, microarray SNP for genome wide association studies (GWAS), next generation sequencing (NGS), etc.] are commonly used in such studies. In the domestic pig the accumulation of adipose tissue is an important trait, which influences meat quality and fattening efficiency. Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for pig fatness traits were identified, while gene polymorphisms associated with these traits were also described. The situation is different in dog population. Generally, excessive accumulation of adipose tissue is considered, similar to humans, as a complex disease. However, research on the genetic background of canine obesity is still in its infancy. Between-breed differences in terms of adipose tissue accumulation are well known in both animal species. In this review we show recent advances of studies on adipose tissue accumulation in pigs and dogs, and their potential importance for studies on human obesity. PMID:27288831

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 june 2011–31 july 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.;

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus, Ci...

  5. Plant genetic resources conservation and use in light of recent policy developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Varaprasad and N. Sivaraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources constitute our invaluable assets to meet the growing needs to increase crop production andproductivity. Plant genetic resources constitute a unique global heritage and their conservation and utilization is ofimmediate concern. Over six million accessions of crop germplasm are currently being conserved worldwide in gene banks.Despite its overall advantage and promotion by the international community, in-situ conservation is still inadequate.Various international conventions have addressed the topic of genetic erosion and declining use of agrobiodiversity inmodern agriculture. Concern about the future vulnerability of agricultural production, food security and environmentalstability has moved the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources to the top of the internationaldevelopment agenda. Implications and impact of global conventions/ treaties/ agreements such as Convention on BiologicalDiversity, Trade related intellectual property rights and Sanitary and phytosanitary agreements under WTO, Internationalplant protection convention, Global plan of action, International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agricultureConvention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora, Intergovernmental Committee onIntellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (ICGTK was set up in 2001, Internationalunion for protection of plant varieties, Global crop diversity trust and Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on plant geneticresource activities are discussed. The changing national scenario in light of the above global developments particularly theprovisions under Biological diversity Act and Protection of plant varieties and farmers’ rights act are discussed.The status of PGR conservation, documentation and utilization at global and national level is briefly discussed. Measures topromote PGR utilization including core development, prebreeding, gene

  6. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  7. The Pig PeptideAtlas: A resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselager, Marianne O; Codrea, Marius C; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W; Bennike, Tue B; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-02-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research. PMID:26699206

  8. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends

  9. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arias, M. C.; Atteke, C.; Augusto, S. C.; Bailey, J.; Bazaga, P.; Beheregaray, L. B.; Benoit, L.; Blatrix, R.; Born, C.; Brito, R. M.; Chen, H.-K.; Covarrubias, S.; de Vega, C.; Djiéto-Lordon, C.; Dubois, M.-P.; Francisco, F. O.; García, C.; Concalves, P. H. P.; González, C.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, C.; Hammer, M. P.; Herrera, C. M.; Itoh, H.; Kamimura, S.; Karaoglu, H.; Kojima, S.; Li, S.-L.; Ling, H. J.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; McKey, D.; Mezui-M’Eko, J.; Ornelas, J. F.; Park, R. F.; Pozo, M. I.; Ramula, S.; Rigueiro, C.; Sandoval-Castillo, J.; Santiago, L. R.; Seino, M. M.; Song, C.-B.; Takeshima, H.; Vasemägi, A.; Wellings, C. R.; Yan, J.; Du, Y.-Z.; Zhang, C.-R.; Zhang, T.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2013), s. 760-762. ISSN 1755-098X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular ecology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.626, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1755-0998.12121/pdf

  10. A Resource Scheduling Strategy in Cloud Computing Based on Multi-agent Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuxue Jiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource scheduling strategies in cloud computing are used either to improve system operating efficiency, or to improve user satisfaction. This paper presents an integrated scheduling strategy considering both resources credibility and user satisfaction. It takes user satisfaction as objective function and resources credibility as a part of the user satisfaction, and realizes optimal scheduling by using genetic algorithm. We integrate this scheduling strategy into Agent subsequently and propose a cloud computing system architecture based on Multi-agent. The numerical results show that this scheduling strategy improves not only the system operating efficiency, but also the user satisfaction.  

  11. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  12. Beyond botany to genetic resource preservation: the S. P. Vander Kloet Vaccinium L. collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. S. P. Vander Kloet, botanist, traveled the world examining and obtaining specimens to redefine infrageneric taxonomic units within Vaccinium L., family Ericaceae. Besides his botanical treatises, his legacy includes herbarium voucher specimens and ex situ genetic resource collections including a...

  13. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  14. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Churchill, G. A.; Airey, D. C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J. M.; Attie, A. D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W. D.; Belknap, J. K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K. W.; Buck, K. J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E. J.; Cheverud, J. M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M. N.; Cox, R. D.; Crabbe, J. C.; Crusio, W. E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschepper, C. F.; Doerge, R. W.; Farber, C. R.; Forejt, Jiří; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S. J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.; de Haan, G.; Hayes, N. L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H. C.; Iraqi, F. A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H. J.; Jansen, R. C.; Jepsen, K. J.; Johnson, D. K.; Johnson, T. E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R. F.; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J. M.; Lowenstein, P. R.; Lu, L.; Lusis, A.; Manly, K. F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J. F.; Miller, D. R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B. A.; Mogil, J. S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D. G.; Mott, R.; Nadeau, J. H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R. S.; O'Hara, B. F.; Osadchuk, A. V.; Page, G. P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, A. A.; Pan, H. J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Peirce, J.; Pomp, D.; Pravenec, Michal; Prows, D. R.; Qi, Z.; Reeves, R. H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G. D.; Schadt, E. E.; Schalkwyk, L. C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.; Sillanpää, M. J.; Siracusa, L. D.; Snoeck, H. W.; Spearow, J. L.; Svenson, K.; Tarantino, L. M.; Threadgill, D.; Toth, L. A.; Valdar, W.; de Villena, F. P.; Warden, C.; Whatley, S.; Williams, R. W.; Wiltshire, T.; Yi, N.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, M.; Zou, F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 1133-1137. ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : development of resources * common reference panel Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 24.695, year: 2004

  15. High-throughput approaches for characterization and efficient use of plant genetic resources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ovesná, J.; Janská, A.; Zelenková, S.; Maršík, Petr

    New York : CRC Press, 2011 - (Benkeblia, N.), s. 23-39 ISBN 978-1-4398-2504-4. - (Advances in Agroecology ) Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : genomics * proteomics * plant genetic resource Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781439825044

  16. Crop Resources Ethic in Plant Genetic Engineering and Fortune Transfer Between Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; LIANG Xueqing

    2006-01-01

    The relation between human and crop resources belongs to the ethic of resources exploitation. The purposes of discussing the ethic of crop resources are to protect the ecology and safety of crops, to gain sustainable development, furthermore, to choose and form the production structure that is favorable to saving crop resources and protecting the ecology of crops. Plant genetic engineering is the technology of molecule breeding of rearrangement of inheritance materials at the level of molecule directionally, of improving plant properties and of breeding high quality and yield varieties of crops. The prominent effects of the technology on the crop ecological system are human subjective factors increasing as well as violating the nature and intensifying the conflict between human being and nature.Therefore, in plant genetic engineering, crop resources exploitation should follow certain ethic principles. Under the theory of ethics of natural resources, by the means of biologioal statistics, the author systematically analyzed the possible model of crop resources transfer between generations as well as the transfer mode of magnitude of real materials and magnitude of value.

  17. The Contribution of Buckwheat Genetic Resources to Health and Dietary Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-06-01

    Despite several reports on the beneficial effects of buckwheat in prevention of human diseases, little attention has been devoted to the variability of biochemical and physiological traits in different buckwheat genetic resources. This review describes the biochemical evaluation of buckwheat genetic resources and the identification of elite genotypes for plant breeding and exploitation. The various types of bioactive compounds present in different varieties provide basic background information needed for the efficient production of buckwheat foods with added value. In this review, we will provide an integrated view of the biochemistry of bioactive compounds of buckwheat plants of different origin, especially of fagopyrin, proteins and amino acids, as well as of other phenolic compounds including rutin and chlorogenic acid. In addition to the genetic background, the effect of different growth conditions is discussed. The health effects of fagopyrin, phenolic acids, specific proteins and rutin are also presented. PMID:27252586

  18. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2012 – 31 May 2012

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Papoušek, Ivo; Marešová, Eva; Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Nowak, M.; Čížková, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2012), s. 972-974. ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P608 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Romanogobio * gudgeon * microsatellites * hybrid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.432, year: 2012 http:// tomato .biol.trinity.edu/manuscripts/12-5/mer-12-0021.pdf

  19. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Abercrombie, L. G.; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I. C.; Beldade, R.; Bernardi, G.; Boubou, A.; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F.; Bruford, M. W.; Buonamici, A.; Burnett, R. K.; Canal, D.; Cardenas, H; Caullet, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata luge...

  20. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009–30 September 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I.; Adebayo, Abisolaa; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R. C.; Bock, Dan G.; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P.; Catanéo, J.; Correa-Ramirez, M. M.; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunniso...

  1. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 october 2010-30 november 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, C; Agudelo, P.A.; Ba, K.; Barber, P.A.; Bisol, P.M.; Brouat, Carine; Burgess, T.I.; Calves, I.; Avila, M.C.; Chow, S; Cordes, L.; Da Silva, D.; Dalecky, Ambroise; De Meester, L; Doadrio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, ...

  2. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2011-30 september 2011

    OpenAIRE

    A'Hara, S.W.; Amouroux, P.; Argo, Emily.E.; Avand-Faghih, A.; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M.; Blatrix, R.; Blin, Aurelie; Bouktila, D.; Broome, A.; Burban, Christian; Capdevielle-Dulac, C.; Casse, N.; Chandra, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procon...

  3. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2012-31 May 2012

    OpenAIRE

    P. ABELLO; Ai, W. M.; Altmann, C.; Bernardi, G.; Bonato, Olivier; Burchhardt, K. M.; Chen, X.; Chen, Z J; Cizkova, D.; clouet, C.; Cubeta, M. A.; Garcia-Merchan, V.; Gauthier, Nathalie; Gibson, S.; Halacka, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 123 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brenthis ino, Cichla orinocensis, Cichla temensis, Epinephelus striatus, Gobio gobio, Liocarcinus depurator, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, Pelochelys cantorii, Philotrypesis josephi, Romanogobio vladykovi, Takydromus luyeanus and Takydromus viridipunctatus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: ...

  4. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Almany, G. R.; De Arruda, M. P.; Arthofer, W.; Atallah, Z. K.; Beissinger, S. R.; Berumen, M.L.; Bogdanowicz, S. M.; Brown, S. D.; Bruford, M.W.; Burdine, C.; Busch, J. W.; Campbell, N R; Carey, D; Carstens, B. C.; Chu, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, ...

  5. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  6. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and daily weight gain in Brangus animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, S A; Oliveira, J A; Costa, G Z; Fries, L A

    2011-05-01

    (Co)variance components were estimated for visual scores of conformation (CY), early finishing (PY) and muscling (MY) at 550 days of age (yearling), average daily gain from weaning to yearling (GWY), conformation (CW), early finishing (PW) and muscling (MW) scores at weaning, and average daily gain from birth to weaning (GBW) in animals forming the Brazilian Brangus breed born between 1986 and 2002 from the livestock files of GenSys Consultants Associados S/C Ltda. The data set contained 53 683; 45 136; 52 937; 56 471; 24 531; 21 166; 24 006 and 25 419 records for CW, PW, MW, GBW, CY, PY, MY and GWY, respectively. Data were analyzed by the restricted maximum likelihood method using single- and two-trait animal models. Direct heritability estimates obtained by single-trait analysis were 0.12, 0.14, 0.13 and 0.14 for CY, PY and MY scores and GWY, respectively. A positive association was observed between the same visual scores at weaning and yearling, with correlations ranging from 0.64 to 0.94. Estimated correlations between GBW and weaning and yearling scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.77. The genetic correlation between GBW and GWY was low (0.10), whereas correlations of 0.55, 0.37 and 0.47 were observed between GWY and CY, PY and MY, respectively. Moreover, GWY showed a weak correlation with CW (0.10), PW (-0.08) and MW (-0.03) scores. These results indicate that selection of the traits that was studied would result in a small response. In addition, selection based on average daily gain may have an indirect effect on visual scores as the correlations between GWY and visual scores were generally strong. PMID:22440022

  7. To eat and not be eaten: modelling resources and safety in multi-species animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Using mixed-species bird flocks as an example, we model the payoffs for two types of species from participating in multi-species animal groups. Salliers feed on mobile prey, are good sentinels and do not affect prey capture rates of gleaners; gleaners feed on prey on substrates and can enhance the prey capture rate of salliers by flushing prey, but are poor sentinels. These functional types are known from various animal taxa that form multi-species associations. We model costs and benefits of joining groups for a wide range of group compositions under varying abundances of two types of prey-prey on substrates and mobile prey. Our model predicts that gleaners and salliers show a conflict of interest in multi-species groups, because gleaners benefit from increasing numbers of salliers in the group, whereas salliers benefit from increasing gleaner numbers. The model also predicts that the limits to size and variability in composition of multi-species groups are driven by the relative abundance of different types of prey, independent of predation pressure. Our model emphasises resources as a primary driver of temporal and spatial group dynamics, rather than reproductive activity or predation per se, which have hitherto been thought to explain patterns of multi-species group formation and cohesion. The qualitative predictions of the model are supported by empirical patterns from both terrestrial and marine multi-species groups, suggesting that similar mechanisms might underlie group dynamics in a range of taxa. The model also makes novel predictions about group dynamics that can be tested using variation across space and time.

  8. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera. PMID:23356940

  9. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:23567982

  10. Diversity of albanian plant genetic resources inventory assesed by eurisco passport descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belul Gixhari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of diversity of Albanian National Inventory is carried out using import statistics by passport descriptors from Plant Genetic Resources database. Flora of Albania identified more than 3 250 species of plants, but only 2% of them are included in the National Inventory (NI of Albania in EURISCO catalogue. Albanian National Inventory of Plant Genetic Resources in EURISCO (2% of Albanian Flora includes 33 genera, 62 species and 2111 accession, where 54% of them are collected genetic materials. Detailed analysis shows that collected genetic material is the principal source of diversity of Albanian NI in EURISCO. Principal component analysis and comparisons of diversity indices show the descriptors as TAXON, CROPNAME, COLLGEM, GEODATA, NOGEODATA, COLLDATE > Y.2000, COLLDATA Y.2000, COLLCODE-GB, SAMPSTAT-100, COLLSRC-10, COLLSRC-20 and COLLSRC-40 present higher range of diversity and were the principal source of variation that contribute more than other on diversity degree of Albanian NI of PGR in EURISCO. Multivariate correlation analysis show very high positive correlation among COLLGEM and GEODATA, NO-GEODATA, COLLDATE, COLLCODE, SAMPSTAT-100, and COLLSRC-10 passport descriptors. There were higher relationships between collected genetic materials and GEODATA descriptors (latitude, longitude, elevation, COLLDATA, COLLCODE and COLLSRC.

  11. Uses of animals and alternatives in pre-college education in the United States: Need for leadership on educational resources and guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Lynette A.; Wood, M W; Massey, A.; M. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Throughout pre-college education in the United States, animals, animal specimens and animals as a topic are used as teaching resources. Residential or visiting pets play a role in humane education or cross-curricular instruction. Teachers acquire and utilise non-living specimens gathered from various sources. Field trips often are oriented around animals. Elementary school animal use is largely observational; in intermediate grades, animal dissection may be featured in general science instruc...

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. PMID:21429127

  13. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 April 2013-31 May 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Cecilia; Albaladejo, R G; Aparicio, A; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Berrebi, P; Boag, Peter T; Carbone, Ignazio; Conroy, Gabriel C; Cortesero, A M; Costa Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Costa, Diogo; Couto, Alvarina; De Girolamo, Mirko; Du, Hao; Fu, Shi-Jian; Garrido-Garduño, T; Gettová, L; Gilles, A; Guerreiro Hamoy, Igor; Herrera, C M; Heussler, Carina; Isidro, Eduardo; Josso, C; Krapf, Patrick; Lamont, Robert W; Le Ralec, A; Lopes, Susana; Luís, Carla; Luo, Hui; Mahéo, F; Marino, Ilaria A M; Mieuzet, L; Murray, Brent W; Ogbourne, Steven M; Pallavicini, Alberto; Parejo-Farnés, C; Patarnello, Tomaso; Paty, C; Pereira, Carolina; Pinho, Catarina; Pinto, Pablo; Poinsot, D; Powell, Adrienne; Putman, Alexander I; Santoro, André; Santos, Sidney; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Scott, Candace; Silvanira Barbosa, Maria; Šimková, A; Simon, J-C; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Steiner, Florian M; Sun, Zhengxin; Torboli, Valentina; Tredway, Lane P; Van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Vázquez-Domínguez, E; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Wei, Qi-Wei; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhang, Shu-Huan

    2013-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 234 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acipenser sinensis, Aleochara bilineata, Aleochara bipustulata, Barbus meridionalis, Colossoma macropomum, Delia radicum, Drosophila nigrosparsa, Fontainea picrosperma, Helianthemum cinereum, Liomys pictus, Megabalanus azoricus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Pleuragramma antarcticum, Podarcis hispanica type 1A, Sardinella brasiliensis and Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acipenser dabryanus, Barbus balcanicus, Barbus barbus, Barbus cyclolepis, Drosophila hydei, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila obscura, Drosophila subobscura, Fontainea australis, Fontainea fugax, Fontainea oraria, Fontainea rostrata, Fontainea venosa, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis carbonelli, Podarcis liolepis, Podarcis muralis and Podarcis vaucheri. PMID:23937578

  14. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009-31 January 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Aparicio, Gallego J; Atangana, Alain R; Beaulieu, Jean; Bruford, M W; Cain, Forrest; Campos, T; Cariani, A; Carvalho, M A; Chen, Nan; Chen, P P; Clamens, A-L; Clark, Ann M; Coeur D'Acier, A; Connolly, Paul; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Coughlan, James P; Cross, Thomas S; David, Bruno; DE Bruyn, Colin; DE Meyer, M; DE Ridder, Chantal; Delatte, H; Dettori, M T; Downer, S J; Dubreuil, Christine; Evans, K J; Fan, Bin; Ferrara, G; Gagné, André; Gaillard, Maria; Gigliarelli, L; Giovinazzi, J; Gomez, D R; Grünwald, N J; Hansson, Bengt; Huotari, T; Jank, L; Jousselin, E; Jungmann, L; Kaczmarek, M E; Khasa, Damase P; Kneebone, Jeff; Korpelainen, H; Kostamo, K; Lanfaloni, L; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Lucentini, L; Maes, G E; Mahaffee, W F; Meng, Zining; Micali, S; Milano, I; Mok, H F; Morin, L; Neill, T M; Newton, Craig H; Gigi Ostrow, D; Palomba, A; Panara, F; Puletti, M E; Quarta, R; Quilici, S; Ramos, A K B; Rigaud, Thierry; Risterucci, A M; Salomon, Matthew P; Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Sarver, Shane K; Sequeira, A S; Sforça, D A; Simiand, C; Smith, Brian; Sousa, A C B; Souza, A P; Stepien, C C; Stuckert, A J; Sulikowski, James; Tayeh, A; Tinti, F; Tsang, Paul C W; VAN Houdt, J K J; Vendramin, E; Verde, I; Virgilio, M; Wang, Huan L; Wang, L E; Wattier, Rémi A; Wellenreuther, Maren; Xie, Cong X; Zane, L; Zhang, Xiu J; Zhang, Yong; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Zucchi, M I

    2010-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primitivus, Elodea canadensis, Ephydatia fluviatilis, Galapaganus howdenae howdenae, Hoplostethus atlanticus, Ischnura elegans, Larimichthys polyactis, Opheodrys vernalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Phragmidium violaceum, Pistacia vera, and Thunnus thynnus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Allanblackia gabonensis, Allanblackia stanerana, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Dacus ciliatus, Dacus demmerezi, Bactrocera zonata, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, Ceratits catoirii, Dacus punctatifrons, Ephydatia mülleri, Spongilla lacustris, Geodia cydonium, Axinella sp., Ischnura graellsii, Ischnura ramburii, Ischnura pumilio, Pistacia integerrima and Pistacia terebinthus. PMID:21565062

  15. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 April 2012 - 31 May 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelló, P; Ai, Weiming; Altmann, Carolin; Bernardi, Giacomo; Bonato, Olivier; Burchhardt, Kathleen M; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Zhijian; Cížková, Dagmar; Clouet, Cécile; Cubeta, Marc A; Garcia-Merchan, V H; Gauthier, Nathalie; Gibson, Shane; Halačka, Karel; Hamdi, Faten; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hrbek, Tomas; Jackson, Alexis M; Lin, Chongwen; Lin, Si-Min; Macpherson, E; Macrander, Jason; Marešová, Eva; Mendel, Jan; Nowak, Michał; Orti, Guillermo; Palero, F; Papoušek, Ivo; Pascual, M; Schmitt, Thomas; Semmens, Brice X; Streito, Jean-Claude; Tian, En-Wei; Tseng, Shu-Ping; Veith, Michael; Vetešník, Lukáš; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Weyer, Jessica; Willis, Stuart; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Zhiming

    2012-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 123 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brenthis ino, Cichla orinocensis, Cichla temensis, Epinephelus striatus, Gobio gobio, Liocarcinus depurator, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, Pelochelys cantorii, Philotrypesis josephi, Romanogobio vladykovi, Takydromus luyeanus and Takydromus viridipunctatus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cichla intermedia, Cichla ocellaris, Cichla pinima, Epinephelus acanthistius, Gobio carpathicus, Gobio obtusirostris, Gobio sp. 1, Gobio volgensis, Macrolophus costalis, Macrolophus melanotoma, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Romanogobio albipinnatus, Romanogobio banaticus, Romanogobio belingi, Romanogobio kesslerii, Romanogobio parvus, Romanogobio pentatrichus, Romanogobio uranoscopus, Takydromus formosanus, Takydromus hsuehshanesis and Takydromus stejnegeri. PMID:22898144

  17. The old and new face of craniofacial research: How animal models inform human craniofacial genetic and clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Williams, Trevor; Artinger, Kristin Bruk

    2016-07-15

    The craniofacial skeletal structures that comprise the human head develop from multiple tissues that converge to form the bones and cartilage of the face. Because of their complex development and morphogenesis, many human birth defects arise due to disruptions in these cellular populations. Thus, determining how these structures normally develop is vital if we are to gain a deeper understanding of craniofacial birth defects and devise treatment and prevention options. In this review, we will focus on how animal model systems have been used historically and in an ongoing context to enhance our understanding of human craniofacial development. We do this by first highlighting "animal to man" approaches; that is, how animal models are being utilized to understand fundamental mechanisms of craniofacial development. We discuss emerging technologies, including high throughput sequencing and genome editing, and new animal repository resources, and how their application can revolutionize the future of animal models in craniofacial research. Secondly, we highlight "man to animal" approaches, including the current use of animal models to test the function of candidate human disease variants. Specifically, we outline a common workflow deployed after discovery of a potentially disease causing variant based on a select set of recent examples in which human mutations are investigated in vivo using animal models. Collectively, these topics will provide a pipeline for the use of animal models in understanding human craniofacial development and disease for clinical geneticist and basic researchers alike. PMID:26808208

  18. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  19. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2011-31 January 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M C; Arnoux, E; Bell, James J; Bernadou, Abel; Bino, Giorgia; Blatrix, R; Bourguet, Denis; Carrea, Cecilia; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Cunha, Haydée A; d'Alençon, E; Ding, Yi; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; Dumas, P; Eraud, C; Faivre, B; Francisco, F O; Françoso, E; Garcia, M; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Garnier, S; Gimenez, S; Gold, John R; Harris, D J; He, Guangcun; Hellemans, B; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Jing, Shengli; Kergoat, G J; Liu, Bingfang; McDowell, Jan R; McKey, D; Miller, Terrence L; Newton, Erica; Pagenkopp Lohan, Katrina M; Papetti, Chiara; Paterson, Ian; Peccoud, J; Peng, Xinxin; Piatscheck, F; Ponsard, Sergine; Reece, Kimberly S; Reisser, Céline M O; Renshaw, Mark A; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sauve, M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Solé-Cava, Antonio; Souche, E L; Van Houdt, J K J; Vasconcellos, Anderson; Volckaert, F A M; Wang, Shuzhen; Xiao, Jie; Yu, Hangjin; Zane, Lorenzo; Zannato, Barbara; Zemlak, Tyler S; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Lili

    2012-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 473 microsatellite marker loci and 71 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Barteria fistulosa, Bombus morio, Galaxias platei, Hematodinium perezi, Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (a.k.a. M. abdominalis Fab., M. grandii Goidanich or M. gifuensis Ashmead), Micropogonias furnieri, Nerita melanotragus, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sciaenops ocellatus, Scomber scombrus, Spodoptera frugiperda and Turdus lherminieri. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barteria dewevrei, Barteria nigritana, Barteria solida, Cynoscion acoupa, Cynoscion jamaicensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, Cynoscion nebulosus, Cynoscion striatus, Cynoscion virescens, Macrodon ancylodon, Menticirrhus americanus, Nilaparvata muiri and Umbrina canosai. This article also documents the addition of 116 sequencing primer pairs for Dicentrarchus labrax. PMID:22448966

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2012 - 31 March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris, Malvina; Arias, M C; Barthel, Brandon L; Bluhm, Burton H; Bried, Joël; Canal, D; Chen, X M; Cheng, P; Chiappero, Marina B; Coelho, Manuela M; Collins, Angela B; Dash, M; Davis, Michelle C; Duarte, Margarida; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Françoso, E; Galmes, M A; Gopal, Keshni; Jarne, Philippe; Kalbe, Martin; Karczmarski, Leszek; Kim, Hun; Martella, Mónica B; McBride, Richard S; Negri, Valeria; Negro, J J; Newell, Annakay D; Piedade, Ana F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Raggi, Lorenzo; Samonte, Irene E; Sarasola, J H; See, D R; Seyoum, Seifu; Silva, Mónica C; Solaro, C; Tolley, Krystal A; Tringali, Michael D; Vasemägi, A; Xu, L S; Zanón-Martínez, J I

    2012-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 171 microsatellite marker loci and 27 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bombus pauloensis, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii, Cercospora sojina, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, Hordeum vulgare, Lachnolaimus maximus, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Rhea americana, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, Schistocephalus solidus, Sousa plumbea and Tursiops aduncus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aquila heliaca, Bulweria bulwerii, Buteo buteo, Buteo swainsoni, Falco rusticolus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Halobaena caerulea, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Oceanodroma castro, Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, Puccinia triticina, Rhea pennata and Schistocephalus pungitii. This article also documents the addition of 27 sequencing primer pairs for Puffinus baroli and Bulweria bulwerii and cross-testing of these loci in Oceanodroma castro, Pelagodroma marina, Pelecanoides georgicus, Pelecanoides urinatrix, Thalassarche chrysostoma and Thalassarche melanophrys. PMID:22642264

  1. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

    2011-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

  2. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2011-31 July 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F Keith; Bell, James J; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Bonatto, S L; Cezilly, Frank; Collins, Sarah M; Dubreuil, Christine; Dufort, Matthew J; Eraud, Cyril; Fuseya, Reiko; Heap, E A; Jacobsen, N; Madders, M; McEwing, R; Michel, Andrew P; Mougeot, F; Ogden, R S; Orantes, Lucia C; Othman, A S; Parent, Eric; Pulido-Santacruz, P; Rioux-Paré, Rachel; Roberts, M F; Rosazlina, R; Sakamoto, Takashi; De-León, Pelayo Salinas; Sévigny, Jean-Marie; St-Onge, Philippe; Terraube, J; Tingay, R E; Tremblay, Réjean; Watanabe, Seiichi; Wattier, Rémi A

    2011-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne × purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne × purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata, Cryptocoryne elliptica, Cryptocoryne griffithii, Cryptocoryne minima, Cryptocoryne nurii and Cryptocoryne schulzei. This article also documents the addition of 24 sequencing primer pairs and 24 allele-specific primers or probes for Aphis glycines. PMID:21951598

  3. Reporting Race and Ethnicity in Genetics Research: Do Journal Recommendations or Resources Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela; Cho, Mildred K; Monahan, Keri; Nowak, Kamila

    2015-10-01

    Appeals to scrutinize the use of race and ethnicity as variables in genetics research notwithstanding, these variables continue to be inadequately explained and inconsistently used in research publications. In previous research, we found that published genetic research fails to follow suggestions offered for addressing this problem, such as explaining the basis on which these labels are assigned to populations. This study, an analysis of genetic research articles using race or ethnicity terms, explores possible features of journals that are associated with improved reporting of race and ethnicity in genetic research. A journal's expressed commitment to improving how race and ethnicity are used in genetic research, demonstrated by an editorial or in its instructions to authors, was the strongest predictor of following recommendations about reporting race and ethnicity. Journal impact factor had only a limited positive effect on attention to these issues, suggesting that editorial resources associated with higher impact factor journals are not sufficient to improve practices. Our findings reiterate that race and ethnicity variables are used inconsistently in genetic research, but also shed light on how journals might improve practices by highlighting the need for scientists to carefully scrutinize the use of these variables in their work. PMID:25407312

  4. Workshop COST E52 “Evaluation of beech genetic resources for sustainable forestry”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the COST Action E52 “Evaluation of Beech Genetic Resources for Sustainable Forestry” is to make predictions of the future distribution range of beech forest ecosystems under the assumption of certain scenarios of climate change, based on the analysis of the reaction pattern of European beech populations of defined origin (progenies of natural beech stands under changed climate situations in sets of pan European field trials. The results obtained will facilitate the joint evaluation of the genetic resources of beech for better economic utilization under observation of the requirements for a sustainable forest management. The MC5 and WGs meeting of the COST Action E52 has been held from the 17th to the 19th of April, 2008, in Florence (Italy. During this workshop oral presentations on beech have been given, and a selection of them is reported in the current issue of this journal.

  5. Herbarium collections and genetic resource documentation at the Agronomy Institute Cluj-Napoca

    OpenAIRE

    Attila T. SZABO

    1983-01-01

    The importance of voucher specimens in genetic resource documentation is briefly discussed and the scientific herbarium of the Agronomy Institute Cluj-Napoca is presented. The first centuria of this Herbarium was edited in 1880, the main collectors and organizers were B. Pater, I. Prodan, Al. Buia and A. Nyarady. The development of the herbarium was connected with the foundation of the first independent Experiment Station of Medicinal Plants (1904) and the organization of the Seed Testing Sta...

  6. Traditional Knowledge on Genetic Resources: Safeguarding the Cultural Sustenance of Indigenous Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Izatul Asma Wan Talaat; Norhayati Mohd Tahir; Mohd Lokman Husain

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge, generally defined as the long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities, constitutes a cumulative body of knowledge, know-how, practices, and representations maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with the natural environment. Recognition, protection and enforcement of the rights of indigenous communities to have continued access to biological genetic resources is quite related to the prin...

  7. Global Justice and the Shift in Property Rights for Plant Genetic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    de Goede, Ludo M.

    2014-01-01

    Although new technologies in plant breeding have the potential to reduce poverty and improve global food security, a shift in property regime for plant genetic resources (PGRs) prevents this potential from being realised. As the emergence of biotechnology has increased the value of PGRs, rents-seeking behaviour by the plant breeding industry spurred the emergence of intellectual property rights (IPRs) for improved plant varieties. Whereas this system is globally implemented through the TRIPS ...

  8. Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Climate Change Effects on Plant Ecosystems – Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding. A growing population and a considerable increase in living standards worldwide are increasing the demand on the primary production. At the same time, climate change is projected to lower the primary production due to increases in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]), rising temperatures and extreme climate events such as floods, storms and heatwaves. These prediction...

  9. Genetic diversity of marine animals in China: a summary and prospectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxia Cui; Huan Zhang; Linsheng Song; Feng You

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity can reflect the origin and evolution of species. It can also inform the practices of genetic conservation, breeding and genetic improvement, even stabilization of marine ecosystem. In the past two decades, accumulating studies have focused on the genetic diversity of major marine fish and shellfish in China. Here we summarize the achievements of this area and its application to taxonomy, germplasm identification, phylogenetic evolutionary biology, analysis of population gene...

  10. Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling with Dual-Resource Constraints to Minimize Tardiness Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksi, A. B. N.; Ma'ruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    In general, both machines and human resources are needed for processing a job on production floor. However, most classical scheduling problems have ignored the possible constraint caused by availability of workers and have considered only machines as a limited resource. In addition, along with production technology development, routing flexibility appears as a consequence of high product variety and medium demand for each product. Routing flexibility is caused by capability of machines that offers more than one machining process. This paper presents a method to address scheduling problem constrained by both machines and workers, considering routing flexibility. Scheduling in a Dual-Resource Constrained shop is categorized as NP-hard problem that needs long computational time. Meta-heuristic approach, based on Genetic Algorithm, is used due to its practical implementation in industry. Developed Genetic Algorithm uses indirect chromosome representative and procedure to transform chromosome into Gantt chart. Genetic operators, namely selection, elitism, crossover, and mutation are developed to search the best fitness value until steady state condition is achieved. A case study in a manufacturing SME is used to minimize tardiness as objective function. The algorithm has shown 25.6% reduction of tardiness, equal to 43.5 hours.

  11. A REVIEW ON INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA: ADAPTATION, STATUS AND SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet MEKURIAW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is endowed with different Indigenous cattle genetic resources with millions of people directly depending on them. However, despite the potentials of these diversified genetic resources, the huge loss of cattle genetic diversity is becoming a prominent challenge these days. The aim of this review is to show the current status and performance of some selected indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia for better understanding of the situation of these breeds for the collective efforts towards conserving and improving the breeds. Based on the review, there are persuasive evidences on the critical situation of the selected indigenous cattle breeds. The facts and figures of the past and current situation of the selected indigenous cattle of Ethiopia showed that the situation of these breeds is very critical. This situation therefore demands the need to devise strategies to conserve and improve the cattle breeds based on the challenges that threatens them. Use of new biological and information technologies is also imperative to facilitate the genetic restoration process. Besides, use of new biological and information technologies which can enhance the conservation and improvement program are crucial. Various ongoing development interventions like Artificial Insemination and introduction of genotypes into new environments that are exacerbating threat of the breeds should totally be avoided by revising and designing sound approaches for cattle Conservation and improvement programs. Strict regulations and by laws should also be in place for illegal movement of breeding cattle to the neighboring countries.

  12. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis. PMID:21564911

  13. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. PMID:22136175

  14. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  15. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostic Laboratory showing genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehnlen, M K; Kariyawasam, S; Lumadue, J A; Pierre, T A; Wolfgang, D R; Jayarao, B M

    2011-04-01

    We have examined the genetic variability of Mycoplasma bovis strains submitted to the Pennsylvania Animal Diagnostics Laboratory, University Park (PA-ADL), between December 2007 and December 2008. Of 4,868 total samples submitted for Mycoplasma testing, 302 were determined to be culture positive. Mycoplasma bovis (63.6%), Mycoplasma californicum (7.3%), Mycoplasma bovirhinis (2.7%), Mycoplasma bovigenitalium (0.7%), Mycoplasma alkalescens (4.9%), Mycoplasma putrefaciens (0.3%), and Mycoplasma dispar (1.3%) and unidentified Mycoplasma sp. (19.2%) were identified using PCR. Mycoplasma bovis represented the largest portion of the positive samples submitted. Each of the 192 M. bovis isolates was examined for variations in the BglII and MfeI restriction sites of the DNA using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and subsequently compared with the M. bovis type strain PG45 (ATCC 25523). Similarity between strains was calculated using the Dice similarity coefficient, which ranged from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. When clustering the isolates at greater than 95% similarity, it was determined that 11 distinct clusters were present. The results are consistent with the existence of at least 2 clonally distinct groups. No clear geographical, month of isolation, or source origination relationship was identified, indicating that a currently unclassified characteristic is responsible for the strain heterogeneity. These data indicate strong heterogeneity of M. bovis isolates submitted to PA-ADL. Additionally, multiple sites throughout Pennsylvania had isolates of separate clonal lineages present concomitantly, indicating the ability of multiple overlapping outbreaks to occur at a single location. Mycoplasma bovis represents the largest portion of Mycoplasma species isolated from PA-ADL samples. We propose that amplified fragment length polymorphism may serve as a valuable tool for molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from the United States. PMID:21426978

  16. International agreements on access to genetic resources, main obligations for Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández Salgar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources have acquired, in the last 20 years, strategic significance, not only due to their real or potential value, but also to their applications in several fields, such as research and industry. Different economic sectors have found in them a mechanism to meet the increasing demand, for example, in agriculture and pharmaceutical markets. On the other hand, it has become clear that these resources need to be used in such a way that sustainability and biodiversity be preserved. Other important issues have to do with their property. A rather polemical discussion has arisen in the international level regarding regulations that govern access to these resources in order to prevent impairing development and rather further the protection of biodiversity. This article aims at showing the international agreements so far reached on this matters, offering at the same time a clear overview of this subject.

  17. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-01-01

    Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breedin...

  18. Application of dense marker genotypes for long-term genetic gain in animal breeding schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huiming

    The thesis mainly focuses on comparing genetic gain from implementing varying selection methods in a fixed long time horizon. We also focused on evaluating how the increase in rate of inbreeding, loss of allelic diversity, and genetic variation in the population influence the long-term genetic gain....... The main finding was that optimum contribution selection using marker data to constrain the avarage co-ancestry, combined with weighting markers according to their frequencies, is a promising way to obtain large genetic gain while at the same time control indbreeding in a fixed long time horizon...

  19. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE, INCLUDING GENETIC SELECTION, IN IMPROVING ANIMAL WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    D.M. BROOM

    2013-01-01

    Animal producers have to predict future situations and be aware of changing public views. At present, those in the animal industry are often trying to fight off change rather than preparing for and pre-empting it. As a consequence, many animal producers have bad public images. It is better to be proactive than reactive. Producer groups should be aware of new developments in knowledge and in public attitudes to animal-related activities. They should inform their members about how to manage ani...

  20. ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linacre, A.; Gusmão, L.; Hecht, W.;

    2010-01-01

    trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and...... the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal...

  1. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwossen A Gebreyes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to

  2. Facilitating or Restraining Access To Genetic Resources? Procedural Dimensions In Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanson Chege Kamau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available States have the right to regulate access to biological resources subject to national legislations. Allowing, restricting or prohibiting access, however, requires a balance to avoid contravention of the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention requires that, in regulating access, the measures adopted do not become a hindrance to access. In many instances, however, this has been the case. Overreaction to previous cases of bio-piracy and over-enthusiasm to tap into the benefits from discovered genetic resources have caused many provider countries to either over-regulate or extremely complicate access procedures, thus deterring access. In some instances, over-regulation and complex procedures are to be blamed on the users’ reluctance to collaborate with providers in minimising or eliminating abuse. Also, the need to protect certain rights over genetic resources or of an intellectual (property character, for example, might at times complicate regulation. While it is appreciated that such issues must also be taken into account in addressing and creating a balance in access and benefit sharing, a discussion embracing all these aspects cannot be captured within the ambit of this article. Focus is therefore laid on the procedural dimensions of access in Kenya and suggestions for improvement.

  3. GDR (Genome Database for Rosaceae: integrated web resources for Rosaceae genomics and genetics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ficklin Stephen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. Description The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. Conclusions The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.

  4. Poultry research leads to breakthrough in genetic studies of animal domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    A Virginia Tech animal scientist, who in 1957 began breeding lines of White Plymouth Rock chickens based on their juvenile body weight, has provided scientists around the world with a model for exploring the molecular basis of traits like growth and reproduction - traits that molded the red jungle fowl into a farm animal roughly 8,000 years ago.

  5. Vicariance and dispersal across an intermittent barrier: population genetic structure of marine animals across the Torres Strait land bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirams, A. G. K.; Treml, E. A.; Shields, J. L.; Liggins, L.; Riginos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Biogeographic barriers, some transitory in duration, are likely to have been important contributing factors to modern marine biodiversity in the Indo-Pacific region. One such barrier was the Torres Strait land bridge between continental Australia and New Guinea that persisted through much of the late Pleistocene and separated Indian and Pacific Ocean taxa. Here, we examine the patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity for marine animals with present-day distributions spanning the Torres Strait. Specifically, we investigate whether there are concordant signatures across species, consistent with either vicariance or recent colonization from either ocean basin. We survey four species of reef fishes ( Apogon doederleini, Pomacentrus coelestis, Dascyllus trimaculatus, and Acanthurus triostegus) for mtDNA cytochrome oxidase 1 and control region variation and contrast these results to previous mtDNA studies in diverse marine animals with similar distributions. We find substantial genetic partitioning (estimated from F-statistics and coalescent approaches) between Indian and Pacific Ocean populations for many species, consistent with regional persistence through the late Pleistocene in both ocean basins. The species-specific estimates of genetic divergence, however, vary greatly and for reef fishes we estimate substantially different divergence times among species. It is likely that Indian and Pacific Ocean populations have been isolated for multiple glacial cycles for some species, whereas for other species genetic connections have been more recent. Regional estimates of genetic diversity and directionality of gene flow also vary among species. Thus, there is no apparent consistency among historical patterns across the Torres Strait for these co-distributed marine animals.

  6. Open Feedlots Listed in the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Animal Feeding Operations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, the Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) database does not allow facilities to be queried by watershed, therefore, this coverage was developed to assist with...

  7. An Efficient Approach of Creating New Genetic Resources in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is more and more important to create new genetic resources in hybrid rice breedding by using the tertiary and the forth gene pool through biotechnologic methods after the success of the utilization of inter-subspecific heterosis. We have established a simple procedure which is modified from that of Pena to transfer exogenous DAN into rice. When the recipient plant has undergone meiosis, exogenous DNA is injected into the upermost internode of a stem, the position just under the panicle base. In the next generation (D1), variants are found at a rate from 10-3to 10-1.

  8. Estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for birth weight of Brown Swiss calves in Turkey using an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, A; Ulutas, Z; Yilmaz Adkinson, A; Adkinson, R W

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the influence of genetic and environmental factors on Brown Swiss calf birth weight, and to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values. Data were collected on 1,761 Brown Swiss calves born from 1990 to 2005 in the Konuklar State Farm in Turkey. Mean birth weight for all calves was 39.3 ± 0.09 kg. Least squares mean birth weights for male and female Brown Swiss calves were 40.3 ± 0.02 and 39.0 ± 0.02 kg, respectively. Variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values for birth weight in Brown Swiss calves were estimated by restricted error maximum likelihood (REML)-best linear unbiased prediction(BLUP) procedures using an MTDFREML (multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood) program employing an animal model. Direct heritability (h(d)(2)), maternal heritability (h(m)(2)), total heritability (h(T)(2)), r(am) and c(am) estimates were 0.12, 0.09, 0.23, -0.58, and -0.06, respectively. The estimated maternal permanent environmental variance expressed as a proportion of the phenotypic variance (c(2)) was 0.05. Breeding values were estimated for the trait and used to evaluate genetic trends across the time period investigated. The genetic trend linear regression was not different from zero. No genetic trend for birth weight was expected, since there had been no direct selection pressure on the trait. Absence of a trend confirms that there was no change due to selection pressure on correlated traits. Genetic and environmental parameter estimates were similar to literature values indicating that effective selection methods used in more developed improvement programs would be effective in Turkey as well. PMID:22203217

  9. Genetic Modeling of GIS-Based Cell Clusters and Its Application in Mineral Resources Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a synthetic analysis method for multi-sourced geological data from geographic information system (GIS). In the previous practices of mineral resources prediction, a usually adopted methodology has been statistical analysis of cells delimitated based on thoughts of random sampiing. That might lead to insufficient utilization of local spatial information, for a cell is treated as a point without internal structure. We now take "cell clusters", i. e. , spatial associations of cells, as basic units of statistics, thus the spatial configuration information of geological variables is easier to be detected and utilized, and the accuracy and reliability of prediction are improved. We build a linear multi-discriminating model for the clusters via genetic algorithm. Both the right-judgment rates and the in-class vs. between-class distance ratios are considered to form the evolutional adaptive values of the population. An application of the method in gold mineral resources prediction in east Xinjiang, China is presented.

  10. Development of a cost-effective diversity-maximising decision-support tool for in situ crop genetic resources conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Aurelia F.; Drucker, Adam G.; Andersen, Sven Bode;

    2013-01-01

    This paper undertakes an exploration of the potential application of the Weitzman prioritisation approach to the conservation of plant genetic resources (PGR). Using a case study approach and assuming limited conservation resources, this approach is applied to calculate the maximum diversity whic...

  11. A simple algorithm to estimate genetic variance in an animal threshold model using Bayesian inference Genetics Selection Evolution 2010, 42:29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødegård, Jørgen; Meuwissen, Theo HE; Heringstad, Bjørg;

    2010-01-01

    relationship matrix, but genetic (co)variance components are inferred from the sampled breeding values and relationships between "informative" individuals (usually parents) only. The latter is analogous to a sire-dam model (in cases with no individual records on the parents). Results When applied to simulated......, residual variance on the underlying scale is not identifiable. Hence, variance of fully confounded Mendelian sampling deviations cannot be identified either, but can be inferred from the between-family variation. In the new algorithm, breeding values are sampled as in a standard animal model using the full...

  12. Comparison between sire-maternal grandsire and animal models for genetic evaluation of longevity in dairy cattle populations with small herds

    OpenAIRE

    Gorjanc, G.; Kovac, M.; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Survival analysis techniques for sire-maternal grand- sire (MGS) and animal models were used to test the genetic evaluation of longevity in a Slovenian Brown cattle population characterized by small herds. Three genetic models were compared: a sire-MGS model for bulls and an approximate animal model based on estimated breeding values (EBV) from the sire-MGS model for cows, an animal model, and an animal model based on the estimated variance components from the sire-MGS model. In addit...

  13. Intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    Intra-locus sexual conflict results when sex-specific selection pressures for a given trait act against the intra-sexual genetic correlation for that trait. It has been found in a wide variety of taxa in both laboratory and natural populations, but the importance of intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic organisms has rarely been considered. This is not so surprising given the conceptual and theoretical association of intra-locus sexual confl...

  14. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Marianela Denegri

    2012-01-01

    Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM) foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand o...

  15. The benefits of genetic diversity outweigh those of kin association in a territorial animal.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, S. W.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    The theories of kin selection and heterogeneous advantage have been central to studies of altruistic behaviour and the evolution of sex over the last 35 years. Yet they predict diametrically opposite effects of genetic diversity on population density. Close relatives gain inclusive fitness advantages by preferentially associating with and behaving altruistically towards one another. However, heterogeneous advantage, which predicts competition to be highest when genetic diversity is low, sugge...

  16. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.

  17. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: limitations and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

    2013-11-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of well-conducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. PMID:24164514

  18. Disentangling Rights to Genetic Resources Illustrated by Aquaculture and Forest Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Walløe Tvedt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores perceptions of the object of different types of right in genetic resources law. Aquaculture and forestry are used as examples, being areas of GR law that have been studied intensively at the FNI in recent years. The thesis explored here is that there are differences among how these right systems have been set up, and that these differences are highly relevant for the respective success of these systems. ‘Ownership’ is understood as a right that is enforceable amongst private parties. Regulating and specifying ownership is one of several elements of exercising sovereign rights of countries under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. The object for genetic resources contracts will be explored here. To what degree does the contract mechanism (Mutually Agreed Terms, MAT of the Nagoya Protocol (NP and the CBD capture or diverge from a substantial or functional understanding of the object of the right? Since a contract is binding only on the signatory parties, this mechanism allows for considerable flexibility. One basic element of such contractual discussion is that the subject matter is defined in the negotiation of the contract. There are institutional lessons to learn from details in the patent system, which it is argued here, are of value in the development of functional ABS systems.

  19. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  20. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWRs are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  1. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  2. Genetic Analysis of the Gdh and Bg Genes of Animal-Derived Giardia duodenalis Isolates in Northeastern China and Evaluation of Zoonotic Transmission Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Aiqin; Yang, Fengkun; Shen, Yujuan; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Rongjun; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Longxian; Ling, Hong; Cao, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations...

  3. A new mutant genetic resource for tomato crop improvement by TILLING technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozio Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, the availability of gene sequences of many plant species, including tomato, has encouraged the development of strategies that do not rely on genetic transformation techniques (GMOs for imparting desired traits in crops. One of these new emerging technology is TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes, a reverse genetics tool, which is proving to be very valuable in creating new traits in different crop species. Results To apply TILLING to tomato, a new mutant collection was generated in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar Red Setter by treating seeds with two different ethylemethane sulfonate doses (0.7% and 1%. An associated phenotype database, LycoTILL, was developed and a TILLING platform was also established. The interactive and evolving database is available online to the community for phenotypic alteration inquiries. To validate the Red Setter TILLING platform, induced point mutations were searched in 7 tomato genes with the mismatch-specific ENDO1 nuclease. In total 9.5 kb of tomato genome were screened and 66 nucleotide substitutions were identified. The overall mutation density was estimated and it resulted to be 1/322 kb and 1/574 kb for the 1% EMS and 0.7% EMS treatment respectively. Conclusions The mutation density estimated in our collection and its comparison with other TILLING populations demonstrate that the Red Setter genetic resource is suitable for use in high-throughput mutation discovery. The Red Setter TILLING platform is open to the research community and is publicly available via web for requesting mutation screening services.

  4. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Cacioppo, D; Tolone, M.; Riggio, V; Maizon, D.O.; Portolano, B

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EB...

  5. National Measures on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing – The Case of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphrodite Smagadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was not merely to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, but to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation. The Convention stresses the sovereignty that signatory states exert over the biological wealth within their jurisdiction and calls on them to enact national legislation that will contribute to fleshing out the provisions on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. The Philippines was the first country to enact such legislation and has thus accrued a decade of experience in this field. The first and much-analysed access and benefit sharing instrument enacted by the Government of the Philippines, was Executive Order 247 of 1995. However, due to problems experienced during the implementation of the Order, draft guidelines based on the 2001 Implementing Rules to the Wildlife Act have been drafted and are expected to correct the failures of the previous law. This article takes the example of the Philippines to assess the extent to which laws regulating the access and benefit sharing of biological resources can be effective in any country.

  6. Traditional Knowledge on Genetic Resources: Safeguarding the Cultural Sustenance of Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Izatul Asma Wan Talaat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, generally defined as the long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities, constitutes a cumulative body of knowledge, know-how, practices, and representations maintained and developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with the natural environment. Recognition, protection and enforcement of the rights of indigenous communities to have continued access to biological genetic resources is quite related to the principle of sustainable and use of biological diversity crucial not only for the continued sustenance of their culture but also to protect their knowledge, acquired over thousands of years of experimentation and experience, about the uses biological resources can be put to particularly in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. The signing of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992 has brought international intention to intellectual property laws to preserve, protect and promote their traditional knowledge. CBD recognises the value of traditional knowledge in protecting species, ecosystems and landscapes, which are inextricably associated to the sustainable conservation and use of natural resources. On the other hand, the subsequent adoption of the World Trade Organization (WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS in 1994 could be interpreted to contradict the agreements made under the CBD. This paper highlights the efforts to protect traditional knowledge in the midst of the dichotomy between CBD and TRIPS.

  7. Play, animals, resources: the need for a rich (and challenging) comparative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Gordon M

    2013-10-01

    Van de Vliert proposes a comprehensive explanation for differences in "freedoms" in diverse human populations based on climate and monetary resources. This intriguing approach, though derived from an evolutionary view covering all species, is based exclusively on human populations. This anthropocentric lens is challenged by ways of testing Van de Vliert's thesis more generally using playfulness as a surrogate for freedom. PMID:23985067

  8. Anatomical Distribution and Genetic Relatedness of Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli from Healthy Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Escherichia coli have been targeted for studying antimicrobial resistance in companion animals due to opportunistic infections and as a surrogate for resistance patterns in zoonotic organisms. The aim of our study examined antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from various anatomical ...

  9. Use of various genetic markers in differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis strains from animals and humans and for studying epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    van Soolingen, D.; de Haas, P E; HAAGSMA, J.; Eger, T.; Hermans, P W; Ritacco, V.; A. Alito; van Embden, J D

    1994-01-01

    One hundred fifty-three Mycobacterium bovis strains from cattle, various animal species from zoos and wild parks, and humans were analyzed for three different genetic markers for use in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis. M. bovis strains isolated from cattle were found to carry a single IS6110 element, whereas the majority of strains from other animals such as antelopes, monkeys, and seals harbored multiple IS6110 elements, suggesting that the reservoirs in cattle and wild animals are s...

  10. Estimates of Genetic Parameters of Production Traits for Khuzestan Buffaloes of Iran using Repeated-Records Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Baharizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo milk yield records were obtained from monthly records of the Animal Breeding Organization of Iran from 1992 to 2009 in 33 herds raised in the Khuzestan province. Variance components, heritability and repeatability were estimated for milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage. These estimates were carried out through single trait animal model using DFREML program. Herd-year-season was considered as fixed effect in the model. For milk production traits, age at calving was fitted as a covariate. The additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were also included in the model. The mean values (±SD for milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage were 2285.08±762.47 kg, 144.35±54.86 kg, 6.25±0.90%, 97.30±26.73 kg and 4.19±0.27%, respectively. The heritability (±SE of milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield and protein percentage were 0.093±0.08, 0.054±0.06, 0.043±0.05, 0.093±0.16 and zero, respectively. These estimates for repeatability were 0.272, 0.132, 0.043, 0.674 and 0.0002, respectively. Lower values of genetic parameter estimates require more data and reliable pedigree records.

  11. Isolation-induced behavioural changes in a genetic animal model of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Elfving, Betina; Fischer, Christina; Liebenberg, Nico; Lund, Sten; Wegener, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder displaying a range of symptoms including feelings of despair and social withdrawal. Social isolation may complicate the progression of depression and have effects on both behaviour and physiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social isolation on behavioural and metabolic parameters in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Line (FSL/FRL) rats. Rats were housed either individually (social isolati...

  12. Genetic Diversity of Intimin Gene of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Human, Animals and Raw Meats in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Xu

    Full Text Available Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC is considered to be an emerging enteropathogen that is more prevalent than typical EPEC in developing and developed countries. The major adherence factor, intimin, an outer membrane protein encoded by eae, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of aEPEC. This study investigated the distribution and polymorphisms of intimin subtypes of 143 aEPEC strains from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals, and raw meats in China. These aEPEC strains belonged to more than 71 different serotypes, which comprised 52 O serogroups and 24 H types. Sixty-eight different eae genotypes and 19 intimin subtypes were detected. Eighteen, eight, seven, and five intimin subtypes were identified from 86 diarrheal patients, 14 healthy carriers, 19 animals, and 24 raw meats strains, respectively. Intimin β1 was the most prevalent subtype in strains from diarrheal patients (34.88% and animals (47.37%. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of eae-β1 between diarrheal patients and healthy carriers (P = 0.004. Intimin-θ was more predominant among raw meat strains (50% than among diarrheal patients strains (12.79%, P = 0.0003, healthy carrier strains (7.14%, P = 0.007, or animal strains (15.79%, P = 0.020. The two predominant subtypes (eae-β1 and eae-θ had considerable polymorphisms with no significant differences among the four sources. PFGE analysis revealed 119 distinct patterns and the strains were clustered into 11 groups with similarity indices ranging from 63% to 100%. These results suggest that in China, aEPEC strains from different sources are highly heterogeneous. Animals and raw meats are important sources of genetically diverse intimin-harboring aEPEC, which might serve as important transmission vehicles of these bacteria.

  13. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EBVs obtained with alternative recording schemes showed different degrees of Spearman correlation with EBVs obtained using the monthly recording scheme. These correlations ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. A reduction in accuracy and intensity of selection could be anticipated if these alternative schemes are used; more research in this area is needed to reduce the costs of test-day recording.

  14. Ex situ regeneration of cross-pollinated MAP genetic resources in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušek, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The multiplication and/or regeneration of germplasm of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs is financially demanding, it requires space, time and well educated experienced staff. It is a group with very different demands on the cultivation and propagation. Many of these species are crosspollinated and entomophilous, in some of them still remain some attributes of wild plants, other species produce compounds, which may cause skin and other problems in humans. Perennial species produce small amounts of seed and their germination capacity is mostly lower in comparison with other crops. The two types of technical solving of multiplication and/or regeneration of genetic resources of allogamous medicinal and aromatic plants in Olomouc, where both stationary and mobile isolation cages are used, are presented in this manuscript.

  15. Plant genetic resources for the sustainability of agro-industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrieving, characterization and conservation of agro-biodiversity ' are the European Union's priority objectives in the context of the strategies to preserve the genetic resources deemed essential for sustainable development, for the support of the community and to encourage a balanced economic growth. A holistic, integrated strategy can create the most propitious conditions to retrieve, maintain, and use in a sustainable way and according to models of circular economy and continuous innovation, the potential of plant systems (also by-products and wastes) for the development of new sectors of economic and social interest through innovative processes with a low environmental impact, according with the European strategy to 2020 which gives priority to the development of the bio-economy.

  16. Changing values of Farm Animal Genomic Resources. From historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari eTamminen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of AnGRs and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD, the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of in-situ condition has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic club commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions.

  17. Animal model integration to AutDB, a genetic database for autism

    OpenAIRE

    Kollu Ravi; Swanwick Catherine; Wadhawan Rachna; Kumar Ajay; Basu Saumyendra N; Banerjee-Basu Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In the post-genomic era, multi-faceted research on complex disorders such as autism has generated diverse types of molecular information related to its pathogenesis. The rapid accumulation of putative candidate genes/loci for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ASD-related animal models poses a major challenge for systematic analysis of their content. We previously created the Autism Database (AutDB) to provide a publicly available web portal for ongoing collection, manual...

  18. Animal models to detect allergenicity to foods and genetically modified products: workshop summary.

    OpenAIRE

    Tryphonas, Helen; Arvanitakis, George; Vavasour, Elizabeth; Bondy, Genevieve

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory allergy and allergy to foods continue to be important health issues. There is evidence to indicate that the incidence of food allergy around the world is on the rise. Current estimates indicate that approximately 5% of young children and 1-2% of adults suffer from true food allergy (Kagan 2003). Although a large number of in vivo and in vitro tests exist for the clinical diagnosis of allergy in humans, we lack validated animal models of allergenicity. This deficiency creates serio...

  19. Image analysis platforms for exploring genetic and neuronal mechanisms regulating animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Asadulina, Albina

    2015-01-01

    An important aim of neuroscience is to understand how gene interactions and neuronal networks regulate animal behavior. The larvae of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii provide a convenient system for such integrative studies. These larvae exhibit a wide range of behaviors, including phototaxis, chemotaxis and gravitaxis and at the same time exhibit relatively simple nervous system organization. Due to its small size and transparent body, the Platynereis larva is compatible with whole-b...

  20. Grunting in genetically modified minipig animal model for Huntington ´s disease - a pilot experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 12-13. ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * mitochondria * DNA damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  1. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  2. Juridical and sociocultural problems on the definition of a law concerning property, usage and access to genetic resources in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, R

    1996-04-01

    The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which

  3. The Evaluation Criteria of Some Botanical Quantitative Characters of Peach Genetic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-rong; ZHU Geng-rui; FANG Wei-chao

    2006-01-01

    There were two peach descriptors systems: one from IPRGI in 1980 and the other from China in 1990. The former had only reference cultivars without quantity grades; the latter had only a list of some characteristics. This makes it difficult sharing of genetic resource information for breeders. To describe the main quantitative characteristics, a new system was established. Ten characteristics of 346-476 peach cultivars were investigated from 1986 to 2002 in the National Peach Genetic Collection in Zhengzhou City, China. These characteristics and their coefficients of variation were as follows: flower diameter 19.55%, vertical diameter of fruit 14.24%, cheek diameter of fruit 10.36%, suture diameter of fruit 11.44%, stone length 19.04%, stone width 10.86%, stone thickness 11.19%, leaf length 7.9%, leaf width 10.55%, and leaf stalk length 19.03%, respectively. Grade index and reference cultivars were given by statistical data for peach description.These grade indexes were recorded on 1-5 grades, and the third grade as a middle one occupied 39% or more of the distribution. In general, two reference cultivars for each grade were chosen, one is USA cultivar and the other is Chinese cultivar. This paper tried to use them as the reference cultivars, which are planted or used widely by Chinese breeders.

  4. Nigeria’s Cola Genetic Resources: The Need for Renewed Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Adenuga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic resource status of an economic crop such as Cola is a very relevant prerequisite for its improvement and advancing its research attention. This will, no doubt, also improve the adoption of these grossly under-utilized species of West African origin. Sterility, self and cross incompatibilities, unpleasantly tall trees and low nut yield are among the problems faced by growers of this crop. As the crop takes up to seven years to produce its first fruit, while some trees may not bear fruit within the first fifteen years of field establishment or even throughout life, many farmers have adopted other crops as their source of livelihood. This poses a great threat to the livelihood of the rural populace whose main occupation revolves around kola trading. Hand-pollinated experiments showed a yield of 3,000-10,000 nuts per tree per year, as against 250 nuts per tree per year usually obtained in open-pollinated plants. In Nigeria, recent efforts in Cola breeding and improvement include plant introduction, progeny trials, hybrid trials, clonal trials, root stock-scion compatibility trials and variability studies resulting in further plant selections. The highest diversity of Cola spp. has been observed in Nigeria ’s boundary with Cameroon. This review is intended to beam the searchlight on Cola breeding in Nigeria and the availability of genetic diversity that can be assembled and utilized for the improvement of this all-important tree crop.

  5. Evaluation and selection of the ship collaborative design resources based on AHP and genetic and simulated annealing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the design resources in the ship collaborative design is described and the hierarchical model for the evaluation of the design resources is established. The comprehensive evaluation of the co-designers for the collaborative design resources has been done from different aspects using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP),and according to the evaluation results,the candidates are determined. Meanwhile,based on the principle of minimum cost,and starting from the relations between the design tasks and the corresponding co-designers,the optimizing selection model of the collaborators is established and one novel genetic combined with simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to realize the optimization. It overcomes the defects of the genetic algorithm which may lead to the premature convergence and local optimization if used individually. Through the application of this method in the ship collaborative design system,it proves the feasibility and provides a quantitative method for the optimizing selection of the design resources.

  6. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Ole K.; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit; Kjær, Erik D.; Minn, Yazar; Finkeldey, Reiner; Nielsen, Knud B.; Graudal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal ...

  7. Phelan McDermid Syndrome: From Genetic Discoveries to Animal Models and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harony-Nicolas, Hala; De Rubeis, Silvia; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D

    2015-12-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome or 22q13.3 deletion syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by generalized developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent or delayed speech, seizures, autism spectrum disorder, neonatal hypotonia, physical dysmorphic features, and recurrent medical comorbidities. Individuals with Phelan-McDermid syndrome have terminal deletions of the chromosomal region 22q13.3 encompassing SHANK3, a gene encoding a structural component of excitatory synapses indispensable for proper synaptogenesis and neuronal physiology, or point mutations within the gene. Here, we review the clinical aspects of the syndrome and the genetic findings shedding light onto the underlying etiology. We also provide an overview on the evidence from genetic studies and mouse models that supports SHANK3 haploinsufficiency as a major contributor of the neurobehavioral manifestations of Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Finally, we discuss how all these discoveries are uncovering the pathophysiology of Phelan-McDermid syndrome and are being translated into clinical trials for novel therapeutics ameliorating the core symptoms of the disorder. PMID:26350728

  8. Association Between PRRSV ORF5 Genetic Distance and Differences in Space, Time, Ownership and Animal Sources Among Commercial Pig Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendal, T; Dewey, C; Friendship, R; Wootton, S; Young, B; Poljak, Z

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between genetic distance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) detected in Ontario swine herds, and the distance between the herds with respect to space, time, ownership and animal sources. PRRSV sequence data between September 2004 and August 2007 were obtained from the Animal Health Laboratory of the University of Guelph. Geographical coordinates were obtained from the Ontario Pork marketing board, and network information about ownership and animal suppliers was obtained using a telephone interview. The matrices of sequence, spatial, temporal and network distances were generated and were analysed using the Mantel test, and using linear-mixed models with P-values based on random permutations. A total of 438 PRRSV isolates from 329 premises and 232 ownerships were originally included; 57 of the isolates were considered vaccine type. The Mantel correlation test indicated that there was positive correlation between sequence distance and geographic distance (r = 0.11, P = 0.001), as well as sequence distance and temporal distance (r = 0.03, P = 0.03), with similar results reported after adjusting for the ownership distance. Mantel correlogram suggested existence of spatial correlation up to ~30 km distance. Multivariable linear-mixed model for association between genetic distance and space-time distance was characterized by the three-way interaction among space, time and ownership (P < 0.001). It suggested that positive association between sequence similarity and spatial proximity exists in herds under different ownerships, but its magnitude is very small. In contrast, for pairs of herds under identical ownership, the spatial association was more complex. This could be a consequence of interactions within ownerships, or alternatively decisions made about sampling of herds for diagnostic purposes. Of the networks evaluated, ownership (P < 0.001) and gilt supplier (P < 0

  9. Genetic diversity and antibiogram profile of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes isolated from human, animal, foods and associated environmental sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Dhaka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infectious diarrhoea particularly due to pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in developing countries, including India. Despite significant reports of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC pathotypes around the globe, studies which address genetic relatedness, antibiogram profile and their correlation with respect to their isolation from different sources are sparse. The present study determines isolation and identification of DEC pathotypes from different sources, their genetic characterisation, antibiogram profile and their correlation if any. Materials and methods: A total of 336 samples comprising diarrhoeic stool samples from infants (n=103, young animal (n=106, foods (n=68 and associated environmental sources (n=59 were collected from Bareilly region of India. All the samples were screened by using standard microbiological methods for the detection of E. coli. The identified E. coli were then confirmed as DEC pathotypes using polymerase chain reaction–based assays. Those DEC pathotypes identified as Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC were further confirmed using HEp-2 adherence assay. All the isolated DEC pathotypes were studied for their genetic diversity using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using disc diffusion method as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results and discussion: Of the four DEC pathotypes investigated, EAEC was found to be the predominant pathogen with an isolation rate of 16.5% from infants, 17.9% from young animals, 16.2% from foods and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. These EAEC isolates, on further characterisation, revealed predominance of ‘atypical’ EAEC, with an isolation rate of 10.7% from infants, 15.1% from young animals, 16.2% from foods, and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. On PFGE analysis, discrimination was evident within DEC pathotypes as 52 unique pulsotypes were

  10. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern of...

  11. Correlation between genetic variability and virulence factors in clinical strains of Malassezia pachydermatis of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Parisi, Annamaria; Rizzo, Antonietta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Mallardo, Karina; Fiorito, Filomena; Baroni, Adone; De Martino, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast belonging to the microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of dog and cat, but it can also act as pathogen, causing dermatitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats and determine a correlation between genotype and phenotype. For this purpose eleven strains of M. pachydermatis were molecularly classified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions, specific for fungal rRNA genes. Furthermore, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates identifying four different genotypes. Strains belonging to genotype 1 produced the highest amount of biofilm and phospholipase activity. The inflammatory response induced by M. pachydermatis strains in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat cells) was significantly different when we compared the results obtained from each strain. In particular, HaCat cells infected with the strains belonging to genotypes 1 and 2 triggered the highest levels of increase in TLR-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and MMP-9 expression. By contrast, cells infected with the strains of genotype 3 and those of genotype 4 did not significantly induce TLR-2 and cytokines. The results obtained might suggest a possible association between genotype and virulence factors expressed by M. pachydermatis strains. This highlights the need for a more accurate identification of the yeast to improve the therapeutic approach and to monitor the onset of human infections caused by this emergent zoonotic pathogen. PMID:27602421

  12. Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7% and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003, walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; p<0.001 and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19-7.15; p = 0.009 were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. CONCLUSION: This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats populations.

  13. Bone Marrow Transplantation in Mice as a Tool to Generate Genetically Modified Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transgenic mice can be used either as models of known inherited human diseases or can be applied to perform phenotypic tests of genes with unknown function. In some special applications of gene modification we have to create a tissue specific mutation of a given gene. In some cases however the gene modification can be lethal in the intrauterine life, therefore we should engraft the mutated cells in the postnatal life period. After total body irradiation transplantation of bone marrow cells can be a solution to introduce mutant hematopoietic stem cells into a mature animal. Bone marrow transplantation is a useful and novel tool to study the role of hematopoietic cells in the pathogenesis of inflammation, autoimmune syndromes and many metabolic alterations coupled recently to leukocyte functions.

  14. Development of Methods for Genetic Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance In Animal Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy

    distant from the Danish pig production. Fecal samples from wildlife and Massai cattle in Tanzania were screened for the presence of the 14 antibiotic resistance genes using the qPCR assays. The wildlife and cattle samples were collected in the Ngorongoro Conservational Area (NCA) (wildlife and cattle...... detected in the wildlife samples, regardless of the sampling site. Eight of the antibiotic resistance genes were detected in the samples, the most prevalent being tet(W) and blaCMY-2. Due to the nature of the blaCMY-2 antibiotic resistance spectrum, and the finding of this gene in 10 of 12 screened samples......Antibiotic drugs are important in treating bacterial infectious diseases in humans and animals. There are severe consequences when infectious bacteria become resistant to antibiotics such as treatment failure and even death. Since antibiotics were discovered, their use has been associated with a...

  15. The WAG/Rij strain: a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, Karine; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2011-06-01

    A great number of clinical observations show a relationship between epilepsy and depression. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy, including absence epilepsy, has a genetic basis. The review provides evidence that WAG/Rij rats can be regarded as a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression. WAG/Rij rats, originally developed as an animal model of human absence epilepsy, share many EEG and behavioral characteristics resembling absence epilepsy in humans, including the similarity of action of various antiepileptic drugs. Behavioral studies indicate that WAG/Rij rats exhibit depression-like symptoms: decreased investigative activity in the open field test, increased immobility in the forced swimming test, and decreased sucrose consumption and preference (anhedonia). In addition, WAG/Rij rats adopt passive strategies in stressful situations, express some cognitive disturbances (reduced long-term memory), helplessness, and submissiveness, inability to make choice and overcome obstacles, which are typical for depressed patients. Elevated anxiety is not a characteristic (specific) feature of WAG/Rij rats; it is a characteristic for only a sub-strain of WAG/Rij rats susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Interestingly, WAG/Rij rats display a hyper-response to amphetamine similar to anhedonic depressed patients. WAG/Rij rats are sensitive only to chronic, but not acute, antidepressant treatments, suggesting that WAG/Rij rats fulfill a criterion of predictive validity for a putative animal model of depression. However, more and different antidepressant drugs still await evaluation. Depression-like behavioral symptoms in WAG/Rij rats are evident at baseline conditions, not exclusively after stress. Experiments with foot-shock stress do not point towards higher stress sensitivity at both behavioral and hormonal levels. However, freezing behavior (coping deficits) and blunted response of 5HT in the frontal cortex to uncontrollable sound stress

  16. 76 FR 28209 - Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... of Agriculture and the National Genetic Resources Program Director of new and innovative approaches..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Nominations should be sent to J. Robert Burk, Executive Director, REE Advisory Board Office, USDA, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 3901-S, Washington, DC 20250-0321; Fasimile: (202)...

  17. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among spe

  18. Effects of climate change on plant-insect interactions and prospects for resistance breeding using genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritchard, J.; Broekgaarden, C.; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the components (elevated CO2, temperature and drought) of climate change and their direct and indirect effects on plant-insect interactions. The genetic resources (such as wild relatives and traditional, locally adapted landraces) important for increasing pest/disease resistan

  19. Genetic Conditions: A Resource Book and Instructional Guide to Human Heredity and Birth Defects for Kindergarten Through Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Designed for administrators, teachers, school nurses, and others involved in health education for kindergarten through adult education, the resource guide provides curriculum ideas for instruction in genetic conditions, heredity, and birth defects. Student learning objectives, content information, learning activities, and evaluation methods are…

  20. Genetic Adaptation of Influenza A Viruses in Domestic Animals and Their Potential Role in Interspecies Transmission: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Olga; De Nardi, Marco; van der Meulen, Karen; van Reeth, Kristien; Koopmans, Marion; Harris, Kate; von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Freidl, Gudrun; Meijer, Adam; Breed, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Kosmider, Rowena; Banks, Jill; Stärk, Katharina D C; Wieland, Barbara; Stevens, Kim; van der Werf, Sylvie; Enouf, Vincent; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Dundon, William; Cattoli, Giovanni; Capua, Ilaria

    2016-03-01

    In December 2011, the European Food Safety Authority awarded a Grant for the implementation of the FLURISK project. The main objective of FLURISK was the development of an epidemiological and virological evidence-based influenza risk assessment framework (IRAF) to assess influenza A virus strains circulating in the animal population according to their potential to cross the species barrier and cause infections in humans. With the purpose of gathering virological data to include in the IRAF, a literature review was conducted and key findings are presented here. Several adaptive traits have been identified in influenza viruses infecting domestic animals and a significance of these adaptations for the emergence of zoonotic influenza, such as shift in receptor preference and mutations in the replication proteins, has been hypothesized. Nonetheless, and despite several decades of research, a comprehensive understanding of the conditions that facilitate interspecies transmission is still lacking. This has been hampered by the intrinsic difficulties of the subject and the complexity of correlating environmental, viral and host factors. Finding the most suitable and feasible way of investigating these factors in laboratory settings represents another challenge. The majority of the studies identified through this review focus on only a subset of species, subtypes and genes, such as influenza in avian species and avian influenza viruses adapting to humans, especially in the context of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Further research applying a holistic approach and investigating the broader influenza genetic spectrum is urgently needed in the field of genetic adaptation of influenza A viruses. PMID:25630935

  1. From single nucleotide substitutions up to chromosomal deletions: genetic pause of leucism-associated disorders in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Katharina; Erhardt, Georg; Lühken, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Leucism is characterized by a complete or partial white skin and hair in combination with pigmented irides, which can be vivid blue or heterochromatic. This is due to a complete or partial lack of melanocytes. The underlying pathogenesis is a disturbed emigration or differentiation of neural crest-derived cells. Therefore, leucistic phenotypes can be associated with defects, which mainly impair sensory organs and nerves. In humans, a well-known example is the Waardenburg syndrome. Leucism-associated disorders were also described in mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, mink, cat, dog, pig, sheep, llama, alpaca, cattle and horse. In some of these species already identified causal mutations affect the genes EDN3, EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3, SILV and SOX10. Defect alleles represent different types of genetic variation, ranging from single nucleotide substitutions up to larger chromosomal deletions. Some of the defect alleles produce desired coat color patterns. In some but not all cases, available genetic tests enable breeders to avoid production of animals affected by a leucism-associated disorder. PMID:27529988

  2. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  3. Genetic animal models for evaluating the role of autophagy in etiopathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmayer, M Lenard; Yue, Zhenyu

    2012-12-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized pathologically by the formation of ubiquitin and SNCA/α-synuclein-containing inclusions (Lewy bodies), dystrophic midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) terminals, and degeneration of midbrain DAergic neurons. The vast majority of PD occurs sporadically, while approximately 5% of all PD cases are inherited. Genetic mutations of a few genes have been identified as causes of familiar PD, i.e., mutations in SNCA, PARK2/parkin, UCHL1, PARK7/DJ1, PINK1 and LRRK2, leading to DAergic cell death, but variable pathological changes. The evidence supports the hypothesis that several pathogenic mechanisms are likely involved at initial stages of the disease, and eventually they merge to cause parkinsonism. The current challenge facing PD research is to unravel the components in these pathways that contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Accumulating evidence has implicated dysfunctional autophagy, a regulated lysosomal pathway with a capacity for clearing protein aggregates and cellular organelles, as one of the pathogenic systems contributing to the development of idiopathic PD. PMID:22931754

  4. Expression profiling of a genetic animal model of depression reveals novel molecular pathways underlying depressive-like behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Blaveri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7 and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research.

  5. Genetically engineered flavonol enriched tomato fruit modulates chondrogenesis to increase bone length in growing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Pandey, Ashutosh; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Bhatia, Chitra; Bhambhani, Sweta; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Trivedi, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Externally visible body and longitudinal bone growth is a result of proliferation of chondrocytes. In growth disorder, there is delay in the age associated increase in height. The present study evaluates the effect of extract from transgenic tomato fruit expressing AtMYB12 transcription factor on bone health including longitudinal growth. Constitutive expression of AtMYB12 in tomato led to a significantly enhanced biosynthesis of flavonoids in general and the flavonol biosynthesis in particular. Pre-pubertal ovary intact BALB/c mice received daily oral administration of vehicle and ethanolic extract of wild type (WT-TOM) and transgenic AtMYB12-tomato (MYB12-TOM) fruits for six weeks. Animal fed with MYB12-TOM showed no inflammation in hepatic tissues and normal sinusoidal Kupffer cell morphology. MYB12-TOM extract significantly increased tibial and femoral growth and subsequently improved the bone length as compared to vehicle and WT-TOM. Histomorphometry exhibited significantly wider distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plate, increased number and size of hypertrophic chondrocytes in MYB12-TOM which corroborated with micro-CT and expression of BMP-2 and COL-10, marker genes for hypertrophic cells. We conclude that metabolic reprogramming of tomato by AtMYB12 has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth thus helping in achievement of greater peak bone mass during adolescence. PMID:26917158

  6. Automated, quantitative cognitive/behavioral screening of mice: for genetics, pharmacology, animal cognition and undergraduate instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Balci, Fuat; Freestone, David; Kheifets, Aaron; King, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We describe a high-throughput, high-volume, fully automated, live-in 24/7 behavioral testing system for assessing the effects of genetic and pharmacological manipulations on basic mechanisms of cognition and learning in mice. A standard polypropylene mouse housing tub is connected through an acrylic tube to a standard commercial mouse test box. The test box has 3 hoppers, 2 of which are connected to pellet feeders. All are internally illuminable with an LED and monitored for head entries by infrared (IR) beams. Mice live in the environment, which eliminates handling during screening. They obtain their food during two or more daily feeding periods by performing in operant (instrumental) and Pavlovian (classical) protocols, for which we have written protocol-control software and quasi-real-time data analysis and graphing software. The data analysis and graphing routines are written in a MATLAB-based language created to simplify greatly the analysis of large time-stamped behavioral and physiological event records and to preserve a full data trail from raw data through all intermediate analyses to the published graphs and statistics within a single data structure. The data-analysis code harvests the data several times a day and subjects it to statistical and graphical analyses, which are automatically stored in the "cloud" and on in-lab computers. Thus, the progress of individual mice is visualized and quantified daily. The data-analysis code talks to the protocol-control code, permitting the automated advance from protocol to protocol of individual subjects. The behavioral protocols implemented are matching, autoshaping, timed hopper-switching, risk assessment in timed hopper-switching, impulsivity measurement, and the circadian anticipation of food availability. Open-source protocol-control and data-analysis code makes the addition of new protocols simple. Eight test environments fit in a 48 in x 24 in x 78 in cabinet; two such cabinets (16 environments) may be

  7. Overview of genetic quality monitoring method on laboratory animals%常用实验动物遗传质量检测方法概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先菊; 王艳蓉; 魏强

    2013-01-01

    The experimental animal genetic quality can directly affect the reliability of experimental results,therefore monitoring and testing of genetic quality on laboratory animals had got attentions in different research fields both at home and abroad.This paper summaried the applications of genetic monitoring and testing methods of the laboratory animals,including the detection and identification on the different kinds of laboratory animals,and the current situation of genetic monitoring on laboratory animals at home and abroad.%实验动物的遗传质量可直接影响实验结果的可靠性,为此实验动物遗传质量的控制和监测愈加受到国内外不同研究领域的关注.本文就实验动物遗传检测方法的应用、不同类群实验动物的遗传检测和鉴定、国内外实验动物遗传检测的现状加以概述.

  8. Progress With Nonhuman Animal Models of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, John C

    2016-09-01

    Nonhuman animals have been major contributors to the science of the genetics of addiction. Given the explosion of interest in genetics, it is fair to ask, are we making reasonable progress toward our goals with animal models? I will argue that our goals are changing and that overall progress has been steady and seems likely to continue apace. Genetics tools have developed almost incredibly rapidly, enabling both more reductionist and more synthetic or integrative approaches. I believe that these approaches to making progress have been unbalanced in biomedical science, favoring reductionism, particularly in animal genetics. I argue that substantial, novel progress is also likely to come in the other direction, toward synthesis and abstraction. Another area in which future progress with genetic animal models seems poised to contribute more is the reconciliation of human and animal phenotypes, or consilience. The inherent power of the genetic animal models could be more profitably exploited. In the end, animal research has continued to provide novel insights about how genes influence individual differences in addiction risk and consequences. The rules of the genetics game are changing so fast that it is hard to remember how comparatively little we knew even a generation ago. Rather than worry about whether we have been wasting time and resources asking the questions we have been, we should look to the future and see if we can come up with some new ones. The valuable findings from the past will endure, and the sidetracks will be forgotten. PMID:27588527

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity in glandless cotton germplasm resources by using agronomic traits and molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhikun LI; Xingfen WANG; Yan ZHANG; Guiyin ZHANG; Liqiang WU; Jina CHI; Zhiying MA

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-one glandless cotton germplasm resources were firstly evaluated genetically by using nine agronomic traits,33 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and ten amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)primer combinations.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the agronomic traits showed that the first six principal components (PCs) explained a total of 86.352% of the phenotypic variation.A total of 329 alleles were amplified for 33 SSR primers,and 232 polymorphic bands in a total of 389 bands were obtained by using ten AFLP primer combinations.The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.80 and 0.18 for SSR primers and AFLP primer combinations,respectively.The DIST (average taxonomic distance) and DICE (Nei and Li's pairwise distance) coefficients ranged from 0.373 to 3.164 and 0.786 to 0.948,respectively,for agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data based on UPGMA analysis.This suggested that there was a higher diversity in the evaluated population for both agronomic traits and molecular markers.The Mantel's test showed that the correlation between the dendrograms based on agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data was non-significant.

  10. Induced Mutations Unleash the Potentials of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikelu Mba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The options for increasing food production by at least 70% over the next four decades so as to keep pace with a rapidly increasing human population are bedeviled by erratic climatic conditions, depleted arable lands, dwindling water resources and by the significant environmental and health costs for increasing the use of agrochemicals. Enhanced productivities through “smart” crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs is a viable option. However, the genetic similarities amongst crop varieties—which render entire cropping systems vulnerable to the same stresses—coupled with unvarying parental materials limit the possibilities for uncovering novel alleles of genes and, hence, assembling new gene combinations to break yield plateaux and enhance resilience. Induced mutation unmasks novel alleles that are harnessed to breed superior crop varieties. The historical antecedents, theoretical and practical considerations, and the successes of induced mutations in crop improvement are reviewed along with how induced mutagenesis underpins plant functional genomics. The roles of cell and molecular biology techniques in enhancing the efficiencies for the induction, detection and deployment of mutation events are also reviewed. Also, the integration of phenomics into induced mutagenesis and the use of pre-breeding for facilitating the incorporation of mutants into crop improvement are advocated.

  11. The Economics of Information, Studiously Ignored in the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Henry Vogel et. al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economics of information has been studiously ignored in the ten Conferences of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nevertheless, an academic literature exists which recognises genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as natural and artificial information. Its unambiguous prescriptions would widen the scope of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS and resolve almost all of the contentious issues identified by Kamau et al. One begins with retroactivity: because biological resources exhibit tangible and intangible aspects, the latter can be conceptualised as a set of natural information where value currently added in a patent is access to a subset not previously accessed. The economics quickly leads to a justification for a biodiversity cartel among countries of origin, wholly analogous to monopoly intellectual property rights. To achieve such a sea change in policymaking, the justification must be accompanied by a narrative that can penetrate the social sphere, much as Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights achieved through the World Intellectual Property Organisation. Several examples of bio-discoveries drawn from a popular medium are analysed in terms of the contentious issues of the Protocol and the distinct ABS that would eventuate under cartelisation. History also offers an analogy. The Parties’ eighteen years of resistance (1993-2011 to applying the economics of information to genetic resources is reminiscent to the twenty-seven years that the British Parliament rebuffed David Ricardo’s economic analysis of the Corn Laws (1815-1842.

  12. Storytellers as partners in developing a genetics education resource for health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Maggie; Tonkin, Emma; Skirton, Heather; Mcdonald, Kevin; Cope, Buddug; Morgan, Rhian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Advances in genetics are bringing unprecedented opportunities for understanding health and disease, developing new therapies and changes in healthcare practice. Many nurses and midwives lack competence and confidence in integrating genetics into professional practice. One approach to enhance understanding of genetics is to simulate clinical exposure through storytelling. Stories are acknowledged as a powerful learning tool, being understandable and memorable, stimulating critical thin...

  13. 国家啮齿类实验动物种子中心简介%A Brief Introduction to National Resource Center for Rodent Laboratory Animal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳秉飞

    2003-01-01

    National Resource Center (NRLARC) for Rodent Laboratory Animal was established in 1998, ratified by State Commission of Science and Technology. Subordinated to laboratory animal center For National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products. The major aims are: importing, collecting and conserving the variety of LA and strain of LA, studying new LA protection techniques, developing the new strain and varieties of LA and supplying the standard breeding of LA to several client both at home and abroad.

  14. The First Shared Online Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jane; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Christopher; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D.; Freire, Rafael; Hazel, Susan J.; Hood, Jennifer; Lloyd, Janice; Phillips, Clive J. C.; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There is a need for teaching Animal Welfare and Ethics in veterinary schools and we are developing online resources to meet this need. In this paper we describe how we prioritized the development of these resources by polling experts in the field. Abstract The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE) in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called ‘Human Continuum’ discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum. PMID:26479241

  15. Development of a novel genetically modified bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for detection of fluoroquinolones in animal-derived foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guyue; Dong, Xiaobing; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Hao, Haihong; Xie, Shuyu; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2014-12-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQNs) are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents widely used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The residues and antimicrobial resistance of such antibiotics are a major public health concern. To realize multianalyte detection of FQN residues, a genetically modified bacterium, Escherichia coli pK12 harboring plasmid pRecAlux3, was constructed in this study to develop a bioluminescent-bacteria-based assay for the detection of FQNs in animal-derived foods. This assay was based on the principle of induction of an SOS response by FQNs via inducing the recA-promoter-fused luciferase reporter gene existing on the plasmid pRecAlux3. E. coli pK12 was able to recognize 11 FQNs: difloxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, norfloxacin, danofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin. This method could be applied to 11 edible tissues, including milk, fish muscle, and the muscles, livers, and kidneys of cattle, chickens, and pigs, with a very simple and rapid sample extraction procedure using only phosphate-buffered saline. The limits of detection of the FQNs were between 12.5 and 100 μg kg(-1), all of which were lower than the maximum residue limits. Most of the recoveries of the FQNs were in the range from 60 to 120 %, and the interassay coefficients of variation were less than 30 %. This method, confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography, is reliable and can be used as both a screening test and a semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of FQN is known. PMID:25354889

  16. Mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions generates less inbreeding without compromising genetic gain in breeding schemes with truncation selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C

    2009-01-01

    they can be achieved without extra costs or practical constraints. MCAC mating merely uses pedigree information to pair the animals more appropriately and is clearly a worthy alternative to minimum-coancestry mating and probably any other mating criterion. We believe, therefore, that MCAC mating should......We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis...... by stochastic simulation and compared the mating criteria in hierarchical and factorial breeding schemes, where the animals were selected based on breeding values predicted by animal-model BLUP. Random mating was included as a reference-mating criterion. We found that MCAC mating generated 4% to 8% less...

  17. Animation company "Fast Forwards" production with HP Utility Data Center; film built using Adaptive Enterprise framework enabled by shared, virtual resource

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett Packard have produced a commercial-quality animated film using an experimental rendering service from HP Labs and running on an HP Utility Data Center (UDC). The project demonstrates how computing resources can be managed virtually and illustrates the value of utility computing, in which an end-user taps into a large pool of virtual resources, but pays only for what is used (1 page).

  18. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity...

  19. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M. A. M.; Schook, L B

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity...

  20. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's import

  1. Genetic evolution and utilization of wheat germplasm resources in Huanghuai winter wheat region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)

  2. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon-implications for genetic resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, A; Weber, J C; Sotelo Montes, C; Vidaurre, H; Vosman, B; Smulders, M J M

    2004-05-01

    Peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which are managed by indigenous and colonist farming communities, respectively. Gene diversity was 0.2629 for the populations in indigenous communities and 0.2534 in colonist communities. Genetic differentiation among populations ( G(st)) was 0.0377-0.0416 ( P<0.01) among populations along both rivers. There was no relation between genetic differentiation and the geographical location of populations along the rivers. Since natural seed dispersal by birds and rodents is thought to occur only across relatively short distances (100-200 m), it is likely that exchange of material by farmers and commercial traders is responsible for most of the 'long-distance' (over more than 20 km) gene flow among populations along the two rivers studied. This exchange of material may be important to counteract the effects of selection as well as genetic drift in small groups of trees in farmers' fields, much as in a metapopulation, and may account for the weak genetic differentiation between the two rivers ( G(st)=0.0249, P<0.01). A comparison with samples from other landraces in Peru and Brazil showed the existence of an isolation-by-distance structure up to 3,000 km, consistent with gene flow on a regional scale, likely mediated by trade in the Amazon Basin. Results are discussed with regard to practical implications for the management of genetic resources with farming communities. PMID:14985969

  3. Investigation on wild animal resource in Sunan and Subei counties%肃南肃北草原野生动物资源调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠; 王军; 张卫军; 郭金梅; 柴永青; 泽德; 那·巴特尔; 何毅; 杨鹏翼; 李青; 金赐福; 贾生福; 杨学兰; 孙晓云; 顾自林

    2011-01-01

    By 3-year investigation and study on wild animal resource in Sunan and Subei counties, the result indicated that the major wild terrestrial vertebrate on the grassland area in the Qilianshan Mountains and Mazongshah Mountains could be divided into 5 faunae, alpine desert animal fauna, alpine meadow animal faunal, desert animal fauna, marsh animal fauna and village-farmland animal faunal; More than 800 animal species embracing ungulate, carnivore, reptile, amphibian, fish, rodent, avifauna and insect were located in the area; Among the wild animals, 24 species were the national protective animal, accounting for 26 % of total wild animal and bird species in Sunan and Subei counties. Out of the protective animals, 10 species were the first class national protective animal; 24 species were the second class national protective animal.%通过对肃南、肃北草原野生动物资源3年的调查研究分析,结果表明,祁连山地及马鬃山区草原地带活动的主要陆生脊椎野生动物种群可划分为5个类群,高山寒漠动物群、高山草甸动物群、荒漠动物群、沼泽动物群和村庄农田动物群,有蹄类、食肉类、爬行类、两栖类、鱼类、啮齿类、鸟类及昆虫类约有800多种;国家级保护动物共有34种,占肃南、肃北鸟兽种数的26%.其中国家一级保护动物有10种;国家二级保护动物有24种.

  4. Genetic resources in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton): molecular and quantitative measures of genetic variation and differentiation among maternal lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Martinez, S.C.; Mariette, S.; Ribeiro, M.M.; Burban, C.; Raffin, A.; Chambel, M.R.; Ribeiro, C.A.M.; Aguiar, A; Plomion, C.; Alia, R.; Gil, L.; Vendramin, G G; Kremer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Pinus pinaster is a conifer native to western Europe and northern Africa. Following on-going breeding programmes, provenance and progeny trials were established in some of the countries of the species` range (France, Portugal and Spain) and quantitative traits were measured: growth, stem form, survival and pest and disease resistance, amongst others. Populations from the wide range of P. pinaster were recently screened with molecular markers in order to assess their genetic diversity. Data we...

  5. The Norwegian preeclampsia family cohort study: a new resource for investigating genetic aspects and heritability of preeclampsia and related phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Roten, Linda Tømmerdal; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Gundersen, Astrid Solberg; Fenstad, Mona Høysæter; Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin Melheim; Solberg, Per; Tappert, Christian; Araya, Elisabeth; Bærheim, Gunhild; Lyslo, Ingvill; Tollaksen, Kjersti; Bjørge, Line; Austgulen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication without curative treatment available. A Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort was established to provide a new resource for genetic and molecular studies aiming to improve the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Methods Participants were recruited from five Norwegian hospitals after diagnoses of preeclampsia registered in the Medical birth registry of Norway were verified according to the study’s inclusion crit...

  6. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among specialists around the world. In theory, the alternatives for the implementation of the equity principle vary. On the one hand, the role of private law can be emphasized by leaving freedom to contract...

  7. Assessment of sorghum genetic resources for genetic diversity and drought tolerance using molecular markers and agro-morphological traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty sorghum genotype were investigated for genetic diversity and drought tolerance. Diversity parameters were estimated using 16 simple sequence repeats markers. For assessment of drought tolerance, the genotype were field evaluated under normal and drought stress condition for two seasons in three environments, in Sudan. In total, 98 SSRs alleles were detected with an average of 6.1 alleles per locus. The estimated polymorphic information contents ranged from 0.33 to 0.86. The genetic similarity ranged from 0.00 to 0.88 with a low mean of 0.32. The dendrogram, generated from the UPGMA cluster analysis, showed two main clusters differentiated into nine sub-clusters with close relationship to morphological characters and pedigree information. Mantel statistics revealed a good fit of the cophenetic values to the original data set (r= 0.88). The overall mean genetic diversity was 0.67. Significant differences were detected among genotypes under both normal and drought stressed conditions for all measured traits. Based on the relative yield, the most drought-tolerant genotypes were Arfa Gadamak, Wad Ahmed, El-Najada, Korcola, ICSR 92003 And Sham Sham. Drought five days delay in flowering, and the earliest genotypes were PI 569695, PI 570446, PI 569953, Dwarf White Milo and PI 56995. (Author)

  8. The genetic and metabolic determinants of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes: recent insights from animal models and clinical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen Avramoglu, Rita; Laplante, Marc-André; Le Quang, Khai; Deshaies, Yves; Després, Jean-Pierre; Larose, Eric; Mathieu, Patrick; Poirier, Paul; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Sweeney, Gary; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Laakso, Markku; Uusitupa, Matti; Marette, André

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular complications (CVC) are the most common causes of death in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However the pathophysiological determinants and molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of CVC in T2D are poorly understood. We have undertaken the challenging task of identifying some of the genetic and clinical determinants of CVC through a unique multidisciplinary approach involving Canadian and Finnish investigators. We are studying novel animal models combining atherosclerosis, diet-induced obesity and T2D to understand the molecular basis of CVC in obesity-linked T2D. We are also conducting clinical studies to identify key determinants of CVC in T2D patients and to determine whether a lifestyle modification program targeting loss of visceral adipose tissue/ectopic fat could be associated with clinical benefits in these patients. Together, we strongly believe that we can fill some gaps in our understanding of the CVC pathogenesis in T2D and identify novel therapeutic targets and hope that this new knowledge may be translated into the design of effective clinical interventions to optimally reduce cardiovascular risk in T2D subjects. PMID:24500564

  9. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang ePurwantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing gold standards for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/.

  10. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with the Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwantini, Endang; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, João C; Tyler, Brett M; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4) is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO) terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO) project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing "gold standards" for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http

  11. Behavioral and genetic evidence for a novel animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-James Y

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to DSM-IV there are three subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, namely: ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-PI, ADHD predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (ADHD-HI, and ADHD combined type (ADHD-C. These subtypes may represent distinct neurobehavioral disorders of childhood onset with separate etiologies. The diagnosis of ADHD is behaviorally based; therefore, investigations into its possible etiologies should be based in behavior. Animal models of ADHD demonstrate construct validity when they accurately reproduce elements of the etiology, biochemistry, symptoms, and treatment of the disorder. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fulfill many of the validation criteria and compare well with clinical cases of ADHD-C. The present study describes a novel rat model of the predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-PI. Methods ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Several strains with varied genetic background were needed to determine what constitutes a normal comparison. Five groups of rats were used: SHR/NCrl spontaneously hypertensive and WKY/NCrl Wistar/Kyoto rats from Charles River; SD/NTac Sprague Dawley and WH/HanTac Wistar rats from Taconic Europe; and WKY/NHsd Wistar/Kyoto rats from Harlan. DNA was analyzed to determine background differences in the strains by PCR genotyping of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and 2625 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results Compared to appropriate comparison strains (WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats, SHR/NCrl showed ADHD-C-like behavior: striking overactivity and poor sustained attention. Compared to WKY/NHsd rats, WKY/NCrl rats showed inattention, but no overactivity or impulsiveness. WH/HanTac rats deviated significantly from the other control groups by being more active and less attentive than the WKY/NHsd and SD/NTac rats. We also found substantial

  12. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30oC in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  13. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  14. Intellectual Property Rights on Plant Genetic Resources: Perspective from Economics%Intellectual Property Rights on Plant Genetic Resources: Perspective from Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Caixia; Zhou Yanping

    2012-01-01

    Given the existence of transaction costs, the location of property rights is an important factor in determining the incentives for efficient levels of investment at various levels of the industry. This paper applies some of the economic theories of property rights and industrial structure to the issues concerning the con- servation of biodiversity. Although the expansion of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) systems into the area of genetic resources has increased private investment in R&D process of the agricul- ture, it does not generate enough incentives for in situ conservation of biodiversity. To solve this economic inefficiency, farmers' rights and other design of incentives and institutional arrangement should be reconsidered.

  15. World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses: Utilizing a Vast Genetic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that may exist in the Saccharum germplasm. Two collections of genetic material potentially useful to sugarcane br...

  16. Implementing the dynamic conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe: case studies and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many European countries have undertaken the static preservation of native elm genotypes in clone collections maintained ex situ. Less development has been devoted to the dynamic conservation of elm populations in situ. Case studies of elm conservation in France are given here as an illustration of methods employed at country level. We also briefly review the process used by the “European Forest Genetic Resources Programme” (EUFORGEN to monitor elm dynamic conservation in a pan-European perspective. Dynamic conservation methods were promoted by EUFORGEN through leaflets, strategies, Technical Guidelines and the geo-referenced database EUFGIS on Dynamic Conservation Units (DCUs. Because the network of DCUs needs to be representative of the partitioning of adaptive diversity across the species distribution range, a GIS-aided approach has been developed to position DCUs in environmental zones and identify conservation gaps. The two DCUs of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall. selected in riparian forests of two different climatic zones of France show that management oriented toward habitat protection is compatible with dynamic conservation, and that the species can still be conserved in situ in spite of Dutch Elm Disease (DED. Collaboration with habitat conservationists enabled the monitoring of losses to DED and the assessment of within-population diversity for flowering phenology. Collaboration with forest geneticists revealed that the diversity of the Garonne population was low, but that it contained rare DNA variants and adaptive traits. Since 1987, experimental restoration of countryside hedges has been carried out, using field elm clones (U. minor Mill. selected from the French national collection and tested for lower susceptibility to the agent of DED in artificial inoculation tests. Such plantations can be viewed as a very dynamic form of conservation if they permit the local gene pool to be reinforced with trees able to reach sexual

  17. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  18. Pre-natal genetic counselling in a resource limited country - a single center geneticist's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the needs related to prenatal genetic counselling in a developing country. Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted at the Prenatal-Genetic Counselling Clinic of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from October 2007 to September 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data was stored in the form of patient charts. Information was then extracted from the charts and entered into a structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 93 couples in the study, 49(53%) were in the self-referral group and 44(47%) were in the physician-referral group. Diagnosis was not given for previously affected children by the paediatrician or by obstetrician for recurrent miscarriages in 68(73%)cases. Besides, 20(22%) couples had voluntarily terminated a pregnancy without any tests because of the fear of having a diseased child. Eleven (12%) couples were looking for amniocentensis or chorionic villus sampling. Death in previous children was the main reason to seek genetic counselling and was seen in 57(61%) couples. Consanguinity was seen in 77(83%) couples. Conclusion: A clear deficiency of knowledge of genetics was seen among the non-genetic healthcare providers. Demand of antenatal genetic testing among the public was also seen, highlighting the need of diagnostic facility for genetic and metabolic disorders. However, this needs to be explored in the context of the existing healthcare infrastructure. (author)

  19. Genetic variations in marine natural population - Measurement and utility in resource management and conservation: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    A number of molecular and biochemical tools which can be applied to the identification of species and the detection of genetic variation within species have been developed in recent years. All these methods rely on the ability to distinguish between...

  20. Developing know-how for the improvement and sustainable management of teak genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Volkaert, Hugo; Lowe, Andrew; Davies, Samantha; Cavers, Stephen; Puthanveettil, Indira; Sudarsono, S.; Vanavichit, Apichart; Van der Straeten, Dominique; Wellendorf, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    The project had the following objectives: To trace and quantify genetic diversity of teak within its natural range, DNA markers were used to assay the current distribution of genetic diversity within and between populations, investigate its mating system and establish historical migration patterns. To evaluate the amount of contemporary gene flow through pollen and seed, hypervariable microsatellite DNA markers have been developed for parentage analysis. The molecular work was comp...

  1. Old-Growth Platycladus orientalis as a Resource for Reproductive Capacity and Genetic Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Lin; Lou, Anru

    2013-01-01

    Aims Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) is an old-growth tree species which distributed in the imperial parks and ancient temples in Beijing, China. We aim to (1) examine the genetic diversity and reproductive traits of old-growth and young populations of P. orientalis to ascertain whether the older populations contain a higher genetic diversity, more private alleles and a higher reproductive output compared with younger populations; (2) determine the relationships between the age of the p...

  2. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH): Design of a pharmacogenetic Resource for Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Walford, Geoffrey A.; Colomo, Natalia; Todd, Jennifer N.; Billings, Liana K.; Fernandez, Marlene; Chamarthi, Bindu; Warner, A. Sofia; Davis, Jaclyn; Littleton, Katherine R.; Hernandez, Alicia M.; Fanelli, Rebecca R.; Lanier, Amelia; Barbato, Corinne; Ackerman, Rachel J.; Khan, Sabina Q.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Genome-wide association studies have uncovered a large number of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes. In many cases the causal gene or polymorphism has not been identified, and its impact on response to anti-hyperglycemic medications is unknown. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH, NCT01762046) is a novel resource of genetic and biochemical data following glipizide and metformi...

  3. Genetic analysis of the Gdh and Bg genes of animal-derived Giardia duodenalis isolates in Northeastern China and evaluation of zoonotic transmission potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite that infects humans and many other mammals, mainly distributing in some areas with poor sanitation. The proportion of the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin differs in different geographical areas. In Mainland China, genetic data of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from animals are only limited in dogs and cats. The aim of the study was to provide information on the genetic characterizations of animal-derived G. duodenalis isolates (from rabbits, sheep and cattle at both loci in Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China, and to assess the potential for zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 61 G. duodenalis isolates from animal feces (dairy and beef cattle, sheep and rabbits in Heilongjiang Province were characterized at the gdh and bg loci in the present study. The gdh and bg gene sequences of sheep-derived G. duodenalis assemblage AI, and the gdh sequences of rabbit-derived G. duodenalis assemblage B had 100% similarity with those from humans, respectively. Novel subtypes of G. duodenalis were identified, with one and seven subtypes for assemblages A and E at the gdh locus, and two and three subtypes for assemblages B and E at the bg locus, respectively. Three pairs of the same bg sequences of assemblage E were observed in sheep and cattle. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first description of genetic characterizations of the gdh and bg genes of G. duodenalis from rabbits, sheep and cattle in Mainland China. Homology analysis of assemblages AI and B implied the possibility of zoonotic transmission. The novel subtypes of assemblages of G. duodenalis may represent the endemic genetic characteristics of G. duodenalis in Heilongjiang Province, China.

  4. Population genetics of Trypanosoma brucei circulating in Glossina palpalis palpalis and domestic animals of the Fontem sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Simo, Gustave; Njitchouang, Guy Roger; Melachio, Tresor Tito Tanekou; Njiokou, Flobert; Cuny, Gerard; Tazoacha, Asonganyi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human African Trypanosomiasis is still a public health threat in Cameroon. To assess Trypanosoma brucei strains circulating in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, we conducted a genetic structure study using microsatellites to assess genotypes circulating in both tsetse flies and domestic animals. Method: For this study, pyramidal traps were set up and 2695 tsetse flies were collected and 1535 (57%) living flies were dissected and their mid- guts collected. Furthermore, blood samp...

  5. Comparison of Population Genetic Structure of Two Seashore-Dwelling Animal Species, Periwinkle Littorina brevicula and Acorn Barnacle Fistulobalanus albicostatus from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Yuhyun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic structure of marine animals that inhabit the seashore is affected by numerous factors. Of these, gene flow and natural selection during recruitment have strong influences on the genetic structure of seashore-dwelling species that have larval periods. Relative contributions of these two factors to the genetic structure of marine species would be determined mainly by the duration of larval stage. The relationship between larval period and genetic structure of population has been rarely studied in Korea. In this study, genetic variations of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI were analyzed in two dominant species on rocky shore habitats in the Korean peninsula: periwinkle Littorina brevicula and acorn barnacle Fistulobalanus albicostatus. Both species are not strongly structured and may have experienced recent population expansion. Unlike periwinkle, however, barnacle populations have considerable genetic variation, and show a bimodal pattern of mismatch distribution. These results suggest that barnacle populations are more affected by local adaptation rather than gene flow via larval migration. The bimodal patterns of barnacle populations observed in mismatch distribution plots imply that they may have experienced secondary contact. Further studies on seashore-dwelling species are expected to be useful in understanding the evolution of the coastal ecosystem around Korean waters.

  6. An assessment of the Central-China pig genetic diversity using Weitzman approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhen Liu; Xiuying Guo; Baoyu Li; Ming Wang; Xi Wang; Keliang Wu

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of livestock breeds plays an important role in livestock production, but the significant loss of breeds is threatening genetic diversity of farm animal genetic resources (AnGR). The Weitzman approach which was accepted as a framework for assessment of genetic diversity on AnGR was exploited. In this study, several measurement indexes of genetic diversity, involving total genetic diversity, contributions of each breed to the total diversity, marginal diversities, conserva...

  7. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  8. Establishment of apical shoot meristem culture for in vitro conservation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Dağüstü N.; Bayraktaroğlu M.; Güden B.

    2011-01-01

    A high regeneration capacity is important for in vitro conservation of genetic resources and transformation studies. The research was conducted at Uludağ University, Agricultural Faculty, Field Crops Department, and Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory in 2011. Ten genotypes (T0910817-1, T0910950-2, T0910791-3, T0910182-2, T0910792-1, T0912285-1, T0911033-2, T091- 0791-1, T0910791-4 and T0910930-2) were used as plant materials. The apical shoot meristems of sunf...

  9. InterStoreDB: A Generic Integration Resource for Genetic and Genomic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher G.Love; Ambrose E.Andongabo; Jun Wang; Pierre W.C.Carion; Christopher J.Rawlings; Graham J.King

    2012-01-01

    Associating phenotypic traits and quantitative trait loci (QTL) to causative regions of the underlying genome is a key goal in agricultural research.InterStoreDB is a suite of integrated databases designed to assist in this process.The individual databases are species independent and generic in design,providing access to curated datasets relating to plant populations,phenotypic traits,genetic maps,marker loci and QTL,with links to functional gene annotation and genomic sequence data.Each component database provides access to associated metadata,including data provenance and parameters used in analyses,thus providing users with information to evaluate the relative worth of any associations identified.The databases include CropStoreDB,for management of population,genetic map,QTL and trait measurement data,SeqStoreDB for sequence-related data and AlignStoreDB,which stores sequence alignment information,and allows navigation between genetic and genomic datasets.Genetic maps are visualized and compared using the CMAP tool,and functional annotation from sequenced genomes is provided via an EnsEMBL-based genome browser.This framework facilitates navigation of the multiple biological domains involved in genetics and genomics research in a transparent manner within a single portal.We demonstrate the value of InterStoreDB as a tool for Brassica research.InterStoreDB is available from:http:llwww.interstoredb.org

  10. Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2014-06-01

    In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. PMID:24747808

  11. Hybridization of Stochastic Local Search and Genetic Algorithm for Human Resource Planning Management

    OpenAIRE

    Škraba Andrej; Stanovov Vladimir; Semenkin Eugene; Kofjač Davorin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The restructuring of human resources in an organization is addressed in this paper, because human resource planning is a crucial process in every organization. Here, a strict hierarchical structure of the organization is of concern here, for which a change in a particular class of the structure influences classes that follow it. Furthermore, a quick adaptation of the structure to the desired state is required, where oscillations in transitions between classes are not d...

  12. Blue Tigers, Black Tapirs, & the Pied Raven of the Faroe Islands: Teaching Genetic Drift Using Real-Life Animal Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robischon, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Genetic drift is a concept of population genetics that is central to understanding evolutionary processes and aspects of conservation biology. It is frequently taught using rather abstract representations. I introduce three real-life zoological examples, based on historical and recent color morphs of tigers, tapirs, and ravens, that can complement…

  13. When Two Worlds Collide: Ownership of Genetic Resources unde rthe Convention on Biological Diversity and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg K. Venbrux

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the biotechnology industry over the past two decades led many countries to recognize the vast economic potential of their genetic resources and indigenous knowledge. 1  Pharmaceutical companies and plant breeders increasingly rely upon these resources to engineer plantderived drugs, disease-resistant crops, and biotechnical production processes.2 With increasing demand for new biotechnological products, the global community is struggling to strike a balance between the interests of host countries, who seek remuneration for supplying genetic resources and traditional knowledge, and biotechnological inventors, who are pressing for free access, open markets, and stronger intellectual property rights protection.

  14. The First Shared Online Curriculum Resources for Veterinary Undergraduate Learning and Teaching in Animal Welfare and Ethics in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called ‘Human Continuum’ discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.

  15. 'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...

  16. Storytellers as partners in developing a genetics education resource for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Maggie; Tonkin, Emma; Skirton, Heather; McDonald, Kevin; Cope, Buddug; Morgan, Rhian

    2013-05-01

    Advances in genetics are bringing unprecedented opportunities for understanding health and disease, developing new therapies and changes in healthcare practice. Many nurses and midwives lack competence and confidence in integrating genetics into professional practice. One approach to enhance understanding of genetics is to simulate clinical exposure through storytelling. Stories are acknowledged as a powerful learning tool, being understandable and memorable, stimulating critical thinking, and linking theory to practice. Telling Stories, Understanding Real Life Genetics is a freely accessible website that sets people's stories within an education framework. The links between the stories and professional practice are made explicit and additional features support learning and teaching. Care of the storytellers within an ethical framework is of paramount importance. Storytellers are viewed as partners in the project. The challenges encountered include preserving the authentic voice and dignity of the storyteller. Project team members have also experienced 'professional shame' when negative experiences have been recounted, and the stories have had an impact on the team. The experience of working with storytellers has been positive. The storytellers want to be heard so that others will benefit from their stories. They serve as a reminder of why this work is important. PMID:22197414

  17. Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  18. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  19. Taxonomy of Plant Genetic Resources – Use of Morphological, Molecular and Phytochemical Data in Order to Verify Existing Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lohwasser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and it is essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples of the interaction of morphological, molecular and phytochemical data, investigations of a parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collection of the German genebank are demonstrated. 220 parsley and 300 opium poppy accessions were cultivated and described morphologically. In addition, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  20. Taxonomy of Plant Genetic Resources – Use of Morphological, Molecular and Phytochemical Data in Order to Verify Existing Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lohwasser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and it is essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples of the interaction of morphological, molecular and phytochemical data, investigations of a parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collection of the German genebank are demonstrated. 220 parsley and 300 opium poppy accessions were cultivated and described morphologically. In addition, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  1. Neuropeptide s alters anxiety but not depression-like behaviors in the flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, A.; Wegener, Gregers; Finger, B.;

    2010-01-01

    day FST. In selected animals effect of NPS on home cage activity was explored. Finally, brains from separate groups of naive animals were harvested; hippocampi, amygdalae and PVN punched out, and mRNA transcripts measured with the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (rt-qPCR). Results...... the effects of centrally administered NPS on depression- and anxiety-related behaviors, using a well validated animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats and their controls the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). Methods: Male and female were tested. Seven days following insertion...... of cannula, 0.25 or 1.0 nmol NPS, or vehicle/5 ml were infused into the lateral ventricle. 45 min after NPS infusion animals were tested on elevated plus maze (EPM). Five days later the animals were subjected to the two-day forced swim test (FST); NPS or vehicle were injected 45 min before the second...

  2. RNA-Seq approach for genetic improvement of meat quality in pig and evolutionary insight into the substrate specificity of animal carbonyl reductases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Jung

    Full Text Available Changes in meat quality traits are strongly associated with alterations in postmortem metabolism which depend on genetic variations, especially nonsynonymous single nucleotide variations (nsSNVs having critical effects on protein structure and function. To selectively identify metabolism-related nsSNVs, next-generation transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq was carried out using RNAs from porcine liver, which contains a diverse range of metabolic enzymes. The multiplex SNV genotyping analysis showed that various metabolism-related genes had different nsSNV alleles. Moreover, many nsSNVs were significantly associated with multiple meat quality traits. Particularly, ch7:g.22112616A>G SNV was identified to create a single amino acid change (Thr/Ala at the 145th residue of H1.3-like protein, very close to the putative 147th threonine phosphorylation site, suggesting that the nsSNV may affect multiple meat quality traits by affecting the epigenetic regulation of postmortem metabolism-related gene expression. Besides, one nonsynonymous variation, probably generated by gene duplication, led to a stop signal in porcine testicular carbonyl reductase (PTCR, resulting in a C-terminal (E281-A288 deletion. Molecular docking and energy minimization calculations indicated that the binding affinity of wild-type PTCR to 5α-DHT, a C(21-steroid, was superior to that of C-terminal-deleted PTCR or human carbonyl reductase, which was very consistent with experimental data, reported previously. Furthermore, P284 was identified as an important residue mediating the specific interaction between PTCR and 5α-DHT, and phylogenetic analysis showed that P284 is an evolutionarily conserved residue among animal carbonyl reductases, which suggests that the C-terminal tails of these reductases may have evolved under evolutionary pressure to increase the substrate specificity for C(21-steroids and facilitate metabolic adaptation. Altogether, our RNA-Seq revealed that selective ns

  3. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Chen, Tara Baxter, William M. Muir, Martien A. Groenen, Lawrence B. Schook

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X. As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity for tracing mammalian evolutionary history and defining signatures of selection resulting from both domestication and natural selection. Completion of the pig genome sequencing project will have significant impacts on both agriculture and human health. Following the pig whole genome sequence drafts, along with large-scale polymorphism data, it will be possible to conduct genome sweeps using association mapping, and identify signatures of selection. Here, we provide a description of the pig genome sequencing project and perspectives on utilizing genomic technologies to exploit pig genome evolution and the molecular basis for phenotypic traits for improving pig production and health.

  4. Building genetic networks using relatedness information: a novel approach for the estimation of dispersal and characterization of group structure in social animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Lee Ann; Browning, Lucy E; Holleley, Clare E; Savage, James L; Russell, Andrew F; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-04-01

    Natal dispersal is an important life history trait driving variation in individual fitness, and therefore, a proper understanding of the factors underlying dispersal behaviour is critical to many fields including population dynamics, behavioural ecology and conservation biology. However, individual dispersal patterns remain difficult to quantify despite many years of research using direct and indirect methods. Here, we quantify dispersal in a single intensively studied population of the cooperatively breeding chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) using genetic networks created from the combination of pairwise relatedness data and social networking methods and compare this to dispersal estimates from re-sighting data. This novel approach not only identifies movements between social groups within our study sites but also provides an estimation of immigration rates of individuals originating outside the study site. Both genetic and re-sighting data indicated that dispersal was strongly female biased, but the magnitude of dispersal estimates was much greater using genetic data. This suggests that many previous studies relying on mark-recapture data may have significantly underestimated dispersal. An analysis of spatial genetic structure within the sampled population also supports the idea that females are more dispersive, with females having no structure beyond the bounds of their own social group, while male genetic structure expands for 750 m from their social group. Although the genetic network approach we have used is an excellent tool for visualizing the social and genetic microstructure of social animals and identifying dispersers, our results also indicate the importance of applying them in parallel with behavioural and life history data. PMID:22335253

  5. A new nuclear DNA marker from ubiquitin ligase gene region for genetic diversity detection of walnut germplasm resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Suo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of more sensitive nuclear DNA markers for identification of species, particularly closely allied taxa has been a challenging task that has attracted interest from scientists in fields of biotechnological development and genetic diversity detection. In this study, the sequence of the ubiquitin ligase gene (UBE3 region of nuclear DNA was tested for applicability and efficacy in revealing genetic diversity of walnut resources, with an emphasis on inter- and intra-specific levels. Analysis on genetic relationship among the taxa was conducted with the neighbor-joining (NJ method. The number of variable bases in the UBE3 region was 20 sites. All nine taxa (species/variety/cultivars were distinguished using the UBE3 sequence. In addition, each taxon was characterized molecularly with a unique nucleotide molecular formula using ten variable base sites derived from the nuclear DNA UBE3 gene sequence. This study presents a good complementary methodology for developing new DNA markers for identification of genus Juglans.

  6. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes. PMID:26672790

  7. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): premier model organism resource for mammalian genomics and genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, J. A.; Bult, C. J.; J.A. Kadin; J.E. Richardson; Eppig, J T

    2010-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) is the community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and the authoritative source for phenotype and functional annotations of mouse genes. MGD includes a complete catalog of mouse genes and genome features with integrated access to genetic, genomic and phenotypic information, all serving to further the use of the mouse as a model system for studying human biology and disease. MGD is a major component of the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, http://www...

  8. Brainomics: Harnessing the CubicWeb semantic framework to manage large neuromaging genetics shared resources

    OpenAIRE

    Goyard, David; Grigis, Antoine; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Michel, Vincent; Frouin, Vincent; Di Mascio, Adrien

    2015-01-01

    In neurosciences or psychiatry, large mul-ticentric population studies are being acquired and the corresponding data are made available to the acquisition partners or the scientific community. The massive, heterogeneous and complex data from genetics, imaging , demographics or scores rely on ontologies for their definition, sharing and access. These data must be efficiently queriable by the end user and the database operator. We present the tools based on the CubicWeb open-source framework th...

  9. Analysis of Genetic Polymorphic SSR Markers in Germplasm Resources of the Natural Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju-qin; LI Fu-zhen; QIU Xin-mian; BAO Li-sheng; LU Yan-ting

    2008-01-01

    @@ Short sequence repeats (microsatellite,SSR) and expressed sequence tags-SSR (EST-SSR) markers were employed to analyze the genetic diversity of natural colored cotton varieties.About 490 pairs of SSR markers spanning the 26 chromosomes were selected from the cotton microsatellite database,they were composed of the NAU,BNL,MUSS,and CIR markers,and there was one marker every 5 cM on average.

  10. Germplasm resources for increasing the genetic diversity of global cultivated sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler G.; Marek Fredrick L.

    2011-01-01

    Genebanks are a rich source of genetic diversity that can be readily exploited for crop improvement. The USDA-ARS established a cultivated sunflower germplasm collection at the National Plant Germplasm System, North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station at Ames, Iowa in1948. A wild Helianthus germplasm collection was established at the USDA-ARS Bushland, Texas station in 1976. Presently, both collections are maintained and managed at Ames, Iowa. The g...

  11. Genetic resources in Musa bananas and improvement of their disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cultivated bananas belong to the genus Musa and it is the wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana which contributed to the origin of the sorts used as food. Most of these are triploids and possess a high degree of sterility. The sources of variation that are of importance for genetic improvement of the bananas are (1) hereditary differences between the cultivated clones; (2) difference between species and sub-species; (3) differences between the primitive cultivars derived from Musa acuminata, and (4) mutations that can be artiificially induced. The bananas are attacked by many diseases. Their vulnerability to certain diseases is highly significant in view of the extreme genetic uniformity of the commercial crops and the absence of resistant genes. In the past the wild species and the diploids used as food served as sources of resistance. However, efforts to induce resistance in the cultivated triploid bananas have not been successful. The use of mutagenic agents is proposed as a possible way of improving genetic variability in banana cultivation. (author)

  12. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate. PMID:26096581

  13. Hybrid Genetic Crossover Based Swarm Intelligence Optimization for Efficient Resource Allocation in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of wireless services, leads to ubiquitous personal connectivity in the world. The demand for multimedia interactivity is higher in the world which leads to the requirement of high data transmission rate. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is a future wireless service which is used to overcome the existing service problems such as development of subscriber pool and higher throughput per user. Although it overcomes the problems in existing services, resource allocation becomes one of the major issues in the MIMO-OFDM systems. Resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM is the optimization of subcarrier and power allocation for the user. The overall performance of the system can be improved only with the efficient resource allocation approach. The user data rate is increased by efficient allocation of the subcarrier and power allocation for each user at the base station, which is subject to constraints on total power and bit error rate. In this study, the problem of resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM system is tackled using hybrid artificial bee colony optimization algorithm based on a crossover operation along with Poisson-Jensen in equation. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology is better than the existing techniques.

  14. Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Rice as Animal Diets%转基因水稻作为动物饲粮的安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷瑞娟; 张敏红; 石俭省

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the major food crops for humans and animals. It is very necessary to evaluate the genetically modified rice safety, because some new and unpredictable material components may be produced due to the foreign gene and the physiological role of the receptors themselves. This article mainly reviews the substantial equivalence of genetically modified rice, toxicity, the foreign gene in vivo residual and the impact of all aspects of the animal as animal diets, etc.%水稻是人类和动物的主要粮食作物之一.由于转入的外源基因和受体植物自身的生理作用,转基因水稻会产生一些不可预知的新的物质成分,因此对转基因水稻进行安全性评价是非常必要的.本文主要从转基因水稻的实质等同性、毒性、外源基因在动物体内的残留及其作为动物饲粮对动物各方面造成的影响等方面进行概述和分析.

  15. The preservation of genetic resources of the vine requires cohabitation between institutional clonal selection, mass selection and private clonal selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roby Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonal selection allows control of virus diseases and selection of genotypes on agronomic, viticultural or enological criteria. Clonal selection has the major drawback that it impoverishes genetic diversity and exposes growers to environmental instability of clones (genotype X environment interaction. Clonal selection has become the almost unique way of propagating plant material for vineyards, hence threatening the genetic diversity of the grapevine. For major grapevine varieties, some genetic diversity is maintained in institutional collections. However, this way of conservation is insufficiently developed, it is expensive and remains fragile. A cost effective way to preserve intra-varietal diversity is to maintain a limited proportion of mass selection in vine propagation. Private clonal selection can also contribute, in a more limited way, in maintaining genetic resources. Another approach to carry out conservation and selection of grapevine is the methodology followed in Portugal. This strategy is exemplified with the conservation/selection of an ancient Portuguese variety. The work begins with the “ex situ” conservation of a representative sample of the intravarietal diversity of the variety, which, in practice, corresponds to a large field trial with hundreds of clones under an experimental design suitable for reducing random variation of quantitative traits. From evaluating those traits (yield and must quality traits, the intravarietal diversity is quantified and the range of the predicted genotypic effects for each of those traits is analyzed. Different mass selections (polyclonal selections are carried out for distribution and planting of new vineyards. These different mass selections provide high economic gains and also the preservation of diversity in a complementary manner to that which started the work on-farm conservation.

  16. Resource allocation based on genetic algorithm for multi-hop OFDM system with non-regenerative relaying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jie; XU Wen-jun; HE Zhi-qiang; NIU Kai; WU Wei-ling

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates resource allocation in multi-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system with amplifying-and-forwarding relaying to maximize the end-to-end capacity. Most existing methods for multi-hop system focus on power allocation or subcarrier selection separately, but joint resource allocation is rarely considered due to the absence of effective interaction schemes. In this work, a novel joint resource allocation methodology is proposed based on Partheno genetic algorithm (PGA), which produces excellent subcarrier allocation set (referred to as individual in PGA) with higher capacity by evolution operator generation by generation. In addition, an adaptive power allocation is also designed to evaluate the fitness of PGA and further enhance the system capacity. Both theoretical analysis and simulated results show the effectiveness of the proposed joint strategy. It outperforms the traditional method by as much as 40% capacity improvement for 3-hop relaying system when system power is high, and obtains much more capacity enhancement percent under conditions of low system power.

  17. Application of RAPD Markers in Laboratory Animal%RAPD技术在实验动物中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建珍; 马恩波

    2003-01-01

    With the sharp development of biomedicine, the protection and utilization of laboratory animal resources, and standardization of laboratory animal have been regarded as the theme of laboratory animal science. Many kinds of genetic markers were used in genetic background analysis, identification of species and strains, and breeding of laboratory animal, unlike morphological marker, cytological marker and isozyme marker, which revealed the difference at gene expressing level, molecular genetic markers used as an accurate and effective method reveal genetic variations of hereditary material, it plays an important role in many fields. The RAPD (Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA) method was firstly described in 1990, it has several distinct advantages over other techniques in that it is easy to perform and fast, and so was widely applied to taxonomy and identification of species, construction of genetic mapping, genetic relationships among species and population genetics. This paper summarized the application of RAPD markers in laboratory animal in recent 10 years.

  18. Detection and genetic characterization of foot‐and‐mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.; Hussain, M.;

    2012-01-01

    A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets...... in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15......%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative...

  19. Natural populations of plants and animals as test objects in ecological and genetic assessment of STS biota and population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic activities result in degradation of natural landscapes and biota impoverishment, disturb historical biocenoses relationships and thus unbalance the ecological system. Rare and few in number plant and animal species vanish and simplify the structure of plant and animal communities. Under unstable landscape conditions and growing impact of stress-inducing anthropogenic factors, populations of living organisms fall into several small isolated sub-populations that impoverishes the gene pool. (author)

  20. Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): Implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Shannon E.; King, T.L.; Faurby, S.; Dorcas, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture-recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007. We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult turtles in 2007. We found a constant adult survival of 0. 893 (SE = 0. 018, 95% confidence interval, 0. 853-0. 924) between 1992 and 2007. Using 18 microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic status of this population with five other bog turtle populations. The target population displayed allelic richness (4. 8 ?? 0. 5) and observed heterozygosity (0. 619 ?? 0. 064) within the range of the other bog turtle populations. Coalescent analysis of population growth rate, effective population size, and timing of population structuring event also indicated the genetics of the target population were comparable to the other populations studied. Estimates of effective population size were a proportion of the census size in all populations except the target population, in which the effective population size was larger than the census size (30 turtles vs. 11 turtles). We attribute the high genetic diversity in the target population to the presence of multiple generations of old turtles. This study illustrates that the demographic status of populations of long-lived species may not be reflected genetically if a decline occurred recently. Consequently, the genetic integrity of populations of long-lived animals experiencing rapid demographic bottlenecks may be preserved through conservation efforts effective in addressing demographic problems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Polymorphic microsatellite loci for Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew A; Powell, Thomas H Q; Lobo, Neil F; Noor, Mohamed A F; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2008-03-01

    Here, we report the isolation of 21 novel primers for amplification of microsatellite loci in Diachasma alloeum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Diachasma alloeum is a larval parasitoid of the apple maggot fly (Rhagoletis pomonella), which is an economically significant agricultural pest species and a textbook example of sympatric speciation via host-plant shifting. These microsatellite markers will prove useful both for assessing genetic relationships between different host-associated populations of D. alloeum, as well as for future R. pomonella biological control programmes. We also report the cross-species amplification of several loci for Diachasmimorpha mellea and Diachasma ferrugineum, parasitoids of R. pomonella and R. cingulata, respectively. PMID:21585796

  2. Variability of yield traits and disease resistance in winter triticale genetic resources accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kociuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.

  3. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae is genetically diverse in animals and appears to have crossed the host barrier to humans on (at least two occasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Mitchell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human and animal pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases. Since the first isolation of C. pneumoniae TWAR in 1965, all human isolates have been essentially clonal, providing little evolutionary insight. To address this gap, we investigated the genetic diversity of 30 isolates from diverse geographical locations, from both human and animal origin (amphibian, reptilian, equine and marsupial. Based on the level of variation that we observed at 23 discreet gene loci, it was clearly evident that the animal isolates were more diverse than the isolates of human origin. Furthermore, we show that C. pneumoniae isolates could be grouped into five major genotypes, A-E, with A, B, D and E genotypes linked by geographical location, whereas genotype C was found across multiple continents. Our evidence strongly supports two separate animal-to-human cross species transfer events in the evolutionary history of this pathogen. The C. pneumoniae human genotype identified in the USA, Canada, Taiwan, Iran, Japan, Korea and Australia (non-Indigenous most likely originated from a single amphibian or reptilian lineage, which appears to have been previously geographically widespread. We identified a separate human lineage present in two Australian Indigenous isolates (independent geographical locations. This lineage is distinct and is present in Australian amphibians as well as a range of Australian marsupials.

  5. Development of a SNP resource and a genetic linkage map for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Brent

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species with increasing economic significance for the aquaculture industry. The genetic improvement of cod will play a critical role in achieving successful large-scale aquaculture. While many microsatellite markers have been developed in cod, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is currently limited. Here we report the identification of SNPs from sequence data generated by a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST program, focusing on fish originating from Canadian waters. Results A total of 97976 ESTs were assembled to generate 13448 contigs. We detected 4753 SNPs that met our selection criteria (depth of coverage ≥ 4 reads; minor allele frequency > 25%. 3072 SNPs were selected for testing. The percentage of successful assays was 75%, with 2291 SNPs amplifying correctly. Of these, 607 (26% SNPs were monomorphic for all populations tested. In total, 64 (4% of SNPs are likely to represent duplicated genes or highly similar members of gene families, rather than alternative alleles of the same gene, since they showed a high frequency of heterozygosity. The remaining polymorphic SNPs (1620 were categorised as validated SNPs. The mean minor allele frequency of the validated loci was 0.258 (± 0.141. Of the 1514 contigs from which validated SNPs were selected, 31% have a significant blast hit. For the SNPs predicted to occur in coding regions (141, we determined that 36% (51 are non-synonymous. Many loci (1033 SNPs; 64% are polymorphic in all populations tested. However a small number of SNPs (184 that are polymorphic in the Western Atlantic were monomorphic in fish tested from three European populations. A preliminary linkage map has been constructed with 23 major linkage groups and 924 mapped SNPs. Conclusions These SNPs represent powerful tools to accelerate the genetic improvement of cod aquaculture. They have been used to build a genetic linkage map that can be applied to

  6. The new CRISPR-Cas system: RNA-guided genome engineering to efficiently produce any desired genetic alteration in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruggia, Davide; Montoliu, Lluis

    2014-10-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is the newest targeted nuclease for genome engineering. In less than 1 year, the ease, robustness and efficiency of this method have facilitated an immense range of genetic modifications in most model organisms. Full and conditional gene knock-outs, knock-ins, large chromosomal deletions and subtle mutations can be obtained using combinations of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and DNA donors. In addition, with CRISPR-Cas compounds, multiple genetic modifications can be introduced seamlessly in a single step. CRISPR-Cas not only brings genome engineering capacities to species such as rodents and livestock in which the existing toolbox was already large, but has also enabled precise genetic engineering of organisms with difficult-to-edit genomes such as zebrafish, and of technically challenging species such as non-human primates. The CRISPR-Cas system allows generation of targeted mutations in mice, even in laboratories with limited or no access to the complex, time-consuming standard technology using mouse embryonic stem cells. Here we summarize the distinct applications of CRISPR-Cas technology for obtaining a variety of genetic modifications in different model organisms, underlining their advantages and limitations relative to other genome editing nucleases. We will guide the reader through the many publications that have seen the light in the first year of CRISPR-Cas technology. PMID:25092533

  7. Lilium floral fragrance: A biochemical and genetic resource for aroma and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy S; Schwieterman, Michael L; Kim, Joo Young; Cho, Keun H; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid Lilium (common name lily) cultivars are among the top produced domestic fresh cut flowers and potted plants in the US today. Many hybrid Lilium cultivars produce large and showy flowers that emit copious amounts of volatile molecules, which can negatively affect a consumer's appreciation or limit use of the plant product. There are few publications focused on the biochemistry, genetics, and/or molecular regulation of floral volatile biosynthesis for Lilium cultivars. In an initial pursuit to provide breeders with molecular markers for floral volatile biosynthesis, a total of five commercially available oriental and oriental-trumpet hybrid Lilium cultivars were selected for analytical characterization of floral volatile emission. In total, 66 volatile molecules were qualified and quantitated among all cultivars. Chemical classes of identified volatiles include monoterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes, phenylpropanoids, benzenoids, fatty-acid-derived, nitrogen-containing, and amino-acid-derived compounds. In general, the floral volatile profiles of the three oriental-trumpet hybrids were dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes, while the two oriental hybrids were dominated by monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes and phenylpropanoids, respectively. Tepal tissues (two petal whirls) emitted the vast majority of total volatile molecules compared to the reproductive organs of the flowers. Tepal volatile profiles were cultivar specific with a high degree of distinction, which indicates the five cultivars chosen will provide an excellent differential genetic environment for gene discovery through comparative transcriptomics in the future. Cloning and assaying transcript accumulation from four floral volatile biosynthetic candidates provided few immediate or obvious trends with floral volatile emission. PMID:26654856

  8. Improving animal productivity through meeting nutrient deficiencies with multi-nutrient blocks, enhancing utilization efficiency of alternate feed resources, and controlling internal parasites: A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is crucially important for provision of animal-based food products for the population, and as a source of income for many resource-poor farmers in developing countries. With the increase in human population and economic growth of many Asian countries, the demand for livestock products is likely to double in the coming 20 years. However, the main constraint to livestock development in these countries is the scarcity and fluctuation in the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. Increased populations and industrialization are making arable land scarce and in addition a large area of the available arable land is being degraded due to human activities. For sustainable development of the livestock sector it is essential for RCA (Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific) member countries to secure sufficient supplies of balanced feeds from resources which do not compete with human food. The conventional feeds such as soya bean, groundnut, rapeseed meals etc. are either not available or are available at very high cost. Most of the RCA member states have recognized the need to efficiently utilize locally available feed resources such as tree and shrub leaves, agro-industrial by-products and other lesser-known and new plants adapted to the harsh conditions and capable of growing in poor, marginal and degraded soils. A severe setback impacted to the livestock industry during the nineties by the financial crisis in Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea and Malaysia has played an important role in highlighting the importance of research and development in this area. Another important limiting factor for enhancing animal productivity in tropical countries is the heavy internal parasitic load in livestock. The development of economically viable and environmentally friendly strategies and their strategic use for controlling internal parasites were also identified by the participating countries as one of the priority areas to be

  9. Investigation Report on Linzhi Native Pig as a New Genetic Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hong; MIMACHIREN; LI Xiang-yun; REN Zhan-jun; DONWANG; DEJIYANGZHOG; CHANG Guo-bing

    2002-01-01

    Linzhi Native Pig is an unique local breed recently discovered in the hinterland of Tibet. Its geological distribution, natural environment and ecological conditions have been explored. Using random sampling in typical colony of classification and standard animal-scientific and biogenetic techniques, we examined its contour features, size and weight, reproductive performances, carcass characters, meat quality, freshkeeping features and the frequency distribution in the 19 structural gene loci encoding enzymes and proteins;according to folklores and Tibetan, Chinese and English history books, the materials and literature of Tibetan Studies, we have analyzed its origin; by visiting and requesting eminent Lamaists, practitioners of Tibetan medicine, farmers and herdsmen who self or relatives once treated with products from Linzhi Native Pigs, we recorded and summarized its application as a Tibetan medicinal material. Our findings make certain that Linzhi Native Pig holds great potential value in economy and culture.

  10. Population genetics of multi-drug resistant (MDR) IncA/C plasmid in Salmonella enterica isolated from animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food animals harboring Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica are a potential source for acquisition of zoonotic pathogens. Plasmids (small, self-replicating, extra-chromosomal DNA) are often associated with antimicrobial resistance and plasmids carrying MDR genes have been found to be a maj...

  11. Economic principles for resource allocation decisions at national level to mitigate the effects of disease in farm animal populations

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, K. S.; HÄSLER, B.; K. D. C. Stärk

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper originated in a project to develop a practical, generic tool for the economic evaluation of surveillance for farm animal diseases at national level by a state veterinary service. Fundamental to that process is integration of epidemiological and economic perspectives. Using a generalized example of epidemic disease, we show that an epidemic curve maps into its economic equivalent, a disease mitigation function, that traces the relationship between value losses avoided and mi...

  12. An F2 pig resource population as a model for genetic studies of obesity and obesity-related diseases in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla Vibeke Sichlau; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Fredholm, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity and...... obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F...

  13. When Two Worlds Collide: Ownership of Genetic Resources unde rthe Convention on Biological Diversity and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Greg K. Venbrux

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth of the biotechnology industry over the past two decades led many countries to recognize the vast economic potential of their genetic resources and indigenous knowledge. 1  Pharmaceutical companies and plant breeders increasingly rely upon these resources to engineer plantderived drugs, disease-resistant crops, and biotechnical production processes.2 With increasing demand for new biotechnological products, the global community is struggling to strike a balance betwe...

  14. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG)5 primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: → The host-origin library developed by (GTG)5-PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. → Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. → High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. → Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  15. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Linglin, E-mail: full1103@yahoo.com.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Shuai Jiangbing [Zhejiang Entry and Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Li Jianrong, E-mail: lijianrong@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2011-10-15

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG){sub 5} primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG){sub 5}-PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: > The host-origin library developed by (GTG){sub 5}-PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. > Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. > High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. > Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Genetic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Health Conditions Explore the signs ...

  17. Resource shifts in Malagasy dung beetles: contrasting processes revealed by dissimilar spatial genetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka; Wirta, Helena; Nyman, Toshka; Rahagalala, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    The endemic dung beetle subtribe Helictopleurina has 65 species mostly in wet forests in eastern Madagascar. There are no extant native ungulates in Madagascar, but three Helictopleurus species have shifted to the introduced cattle dung in open habitats in the past 1500 years. Helictopleurus neoamplicollis and Helictopleurus marsyas exhibit very limited cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 haplotype diversity and a single haplotype is present across Madagascar, suggesting that these species shifted to cattle dung in a small region followed by rapid range expansion. In contrast, patterns of molecular diversity in Helictopleurus quadripunctatus indicate a gradual diet shift across most of southern Madagascar, consistent with somewhat broader diet in this species. The three cattle dung-using Helictopleurus species have significantly greater geographical ranges than the forest-dwelling species, apparently because the shift to the currently very abundant new resource relaxed interspecific competition that hinders range expansion in the forest species. PMID:18778273

  18. Genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats: an animal model to study the neurobiology of alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Economidou, Daina; Cippitelli, Andrea; Cucculelli, Marino; Ubaldi, Massimo; Soverchia, Laura; Anbarasu, Lourdusami; Massi, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    The present article provides an up-to-date review that summarize almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking leading to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock s...

  19. Potential Large Animal Models for Gene Therapy of Human Genetic Diseases of Immune and Blood Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Thomas R.; Adler, Rima L.; Hickstein, Dennis D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system—red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets—manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutatio...

  20. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF CASHEW ( Anacardium occidentale L GENETIC RESOURCES IN BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabi Sika K

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate producers’ knowledge level on cashew tree production and its socio - cultural importance, present an ethnobotanical study has been conducted from January to March 2013 in three ecological zones of Benin. A total of 347 cashew producers of seven ethnic groups have been interviewed from 21 villages. Data were collected by using participatory research approach through group discussions followed by individual investigations. The results of this study show ed that farmers have very good knowledge about the fructification , the length of the flowering period, the different varieties grown and their level of productivity through time. Traditionally, many varieties are recognized and diverse criteria such as the color, the form and the shape of the apple, the form and the shape of the nut were used by the producers for the identification and the description of the cashew varieties. Besides the shape of the nut and the plant productivity are the two main selection criteria of cas hew varieties for the installment of their plantations. On the other hand, the leaf, the bark and the roots are used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of some diseases. Cashew is the second important cash crop after cotton in the study area bec ause of its contribution to the income of the producers. These findings are important for the management and exploitation of cashew genetic reso urces for a better production in Benin

  1. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Online Health Resources For Health Professionals Competency & Curricular Resources Genetics 101 Genomic Medicine and Health Care ... Role of the NHGRI in the Federal Legislative Process Genome Statute and Legislation Database Human Subjects Research ...

  2. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Online Health Resources For Health Professionals Competency & Curricular Resources Genetics 101 Genomic Medicine and Health Care ... of DNA. Think of it as a shuffling process, called recombination. The single chromosome in a reproductive ...

  3. The use of whole food animal studies in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops: Limitations and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Parrott, Wayne; Bondy, Genevieve; Walker, Kate

    2013-01-01

    There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to...

  4. Comparison between a sire model and an animal model for genetic evaluation of fertility traits in Danish Holstein population

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sun; Madsen, P.; Nielsen, U S; Zhang, Y.; Lund, M.S.; Su, G.

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from 1995 to 2004. The traits in the analysis were days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, days from first to last insemination, number of inseminations per conception, and n...

  5. Grunting in a Genetically Modified Minipig Animal Model for Huntington’s Disease –  
Pilot Experiments


    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 61-65. ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. Liblice, 08.11.2015-10.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington’s disease * grunting * transgenic pigs Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.165, year: 2014

  6. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  7. Comparison between a sire model and an animal model for genetic evaluation of fertility traits in Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S;

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between a sire model, a sire-dam model, and an animal model were carried out to evaluate the ability of the models to predict breeding values of fertility traits, based on data including 471,742 records from the first lactation of Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination years from...... (EBV) from the animal model and the sire-dam model were close to 1 for all the traits, and those between the animal model and the sire model ranged from 0.95 to 0.97. Model ability to predict sire breeding value was assessed using 4 criteria: 1) the correlation between sire EBV from 2 data subsets...... (DATAA and DATAB); 2) the correlation between sire EBV from training data (DATAA or DATAB) and yield deviation from test data (DATAB or DATAA) in a cross-validation procedure; 3) the correlation between the EBV of proven bulls, obtained from the whole data set (DATAT) and from a reduced set of data...

  8. The Triticeae genetic resources of central Italy: collection, evaluation and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiri, O; Torricelli, R; Silveri, D D; Papa, R; Barcaccia, G; Negri, V

    2001-01-01

    One hundred and six landraces belonging to 7 species of the Triticeae tribe were collected in central Italy by DBVBA (Perugia University), DIBIAGA (Ancona University) and ARSSA (Abruzzo Region Agricultural Development Agency) in different individual and joint missions. A few accessions were supplied by private and other public organisations. Triticum dicoccum Schubler is the most widespread species, followed by T. aestivum L., T. monococcum L., T. spelta L., T. turgidum var. durum Desf., Secale cereale L. and Hordeum vulgare L. Besides the presence of landraces reproduced by farmers over generations, information related to on-farm management and to qualitative/organoleptic traits as well as information related to their local names, uses, traditions and social context was gathered during the missions. The majority of the accessions was characterised by morphological and phenological traits and molecular markers. This work shows the presence of morpho-phenologic and genetic differences among landraces and the importance of some species in the agricultural systems and food customs of the investigated area. Particularly for emmer three well distinct landraces are present, "Farro Italia Centrale", "Farro della Garfagnana" and "Farro Italia Meridionale". Other interesting and traditional landraces are the "Solina" common wheat in Abruzzo and the "Orzo mondo" naked barley in Marche. Most of the populations are still cultivated in marginal lands and under low input or organic agronomic conditions; nevertheless, in many cases, they are found near modern varieties in conventional agriculture systems. Moreover, the in situ (on-farm) conservation of Triticeae landraces in central Italy is strictly linked to elderly farmers. PMID:12152333

  9. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, João C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology () project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way. PMID:25346727

  10. Genetic Resources for Advanced Biofuel Production Described with the Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy eTorto-Alalibo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO: http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat, can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  11. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified (GM) maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Türkeç, Aydın; Turkec, Aydin; Stuart J Lucas; Karlık, Elif; Karlik, Elif

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g.kg-1 (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. RESULTS: With this aim, 83 food and feed products – none labelled as containing GM material – were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) f...

  12. Applications of SNP in animal and plant genetic breeding%SNP在动植物遗传育种中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲娟娟; 于敏; 董蕾; 王征

    2011-01-01

    单核苷酸多态性(Single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)作为第三代分子标记,具有数量多、分布广、代表性强和遗传稳定性好等特点.目前已经在人、家畜、作物和蔬菜的遗传多样性分析、基因作图、分子标记辅助育种和功能基因组学的研究中得到了广泛的应用.基于PCR技术为基础,结合电泳技术、荧光、质谱等方法建立的对未知基因和已知基因SNP的检测方法,必将在人类的遗传分析和动植物的遗传育种起到重要作用.%Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), as a third generation molecular marker, has many characteristics, such as large quantity, widely spread, strong representation and genetic stability. It is widely used in the genetic diversity, gene mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional genomics research of human beings, livestock, crops and vegetables. Based on PCR technique and combined with electrophoresis, fluorescence, and spectrometry techniques, researchers have set up many methods for detecting SNPs of unknown and known genes, which will play an important role in genetic analysis of human beings and genetic breeding of animals and plants.

  13. Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R Patel

    Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.

  14. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  15. The Relationship between Conservation Policy and Aquatic Genetic Resources. In: T.R. Tiersch and C.C. Green (eds.) Cryopreservation in Aquatic Species, 2nd Edition. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally there is an increased awareness of how important genetic resources are for all forms of agriculture. This awareness has resulted in questions concerning the policies countries and the international community should pursue to ensure the sustainable use of diverse genetic resources. For aquac...

  16. The female guinea pig, a useful model for the genetic hazard of radiation in man; preliminary results on germ cell radiosensitivity in foetal, neonatal and adult animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the radiosensitivities of the resting oocyte of guinea pig in its two different states, the 'large' resting and 'contracted' oocyte, also extending the investigations to the radiosensitivity of the female germ cells at earlier stages during intrauterine life. Irradiation induced a dose-dependent decrease in the total number of oocytes, and this effect was more pronounced in animals irradiated as adults (target cells: contracted resting oocytes). Our results also suggested that the LD50 of the large guinea pig resting oocyte should be around 4 Gy, a value similar to that obtained recently for the equivalent human oocyte. This confirms the high radioresistance of the guinea pig oocyte and the consequent suitability of this species for further detailed studies in relation to genetic hazards in man. (author)

  17. The institutional design of forest certification standards initiatives and its influence on the role of science: the case of forest genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Graeme; Bull, Gary Q

    2003-09-01

    In the 1990s a wide array of non-governmental certification initiatives emerged as a way to promote the sustainable management of resources in sectors such as fisheries and forestry. In this paper, we examine two related questions about these initiatives: how does the institutional design of certification initiatives affect the way science is used in the development of certification standards and in whose interest is science employed? Using the empirical case of forest certification and the specific standards various initiatives have created to address the management of forest genetic resources, we show how structural aspects of decision-making processes affects the standards adopted and the rationalization for their appropriateness. Two basic models of decision-making-stakeholder participation and technical expertise-are discussed in relation to three certification initiatives active in North America-the Canadian Standards Association, the Sustainable Forestry Initiative and the Forest Stewardship Council. By examining the standards these initiatives set for the management of forest genetic resources, we illustrate how two dimensions of science-uncertainty and the logic of cause and effect-are used to rationalize cautious and rigid versus flexible and discretionary standards for the management of forest genetic resources. Our findings indicate that the design or structure of certification decision-making processes, and their embedded balance of authority, mediate the form of standards initiatives will justify on the basis of science. PMID:12927151

  18. Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Strategic supplementation of feeds with legume forages and non-conventional plant resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification and evaluation of potential plant resources and their dissemination among rural farmers have been attempted. The work was done in three phases. In the first phase, laboratory evaluation of proximate components, in vitro digestibility and energy contents was carried out. Fifteen plant species were evaluated in this phase. Some of the plant species (Sesbania, Dhaincha, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were promising, containing relatively large amounts of protein (18 - 34%) and having high digestibility values (53 - 60%). Some species contained reasonably good levels of metabolizd energy (6.5- 8.5 MJ/kg). In the second phase, four promising species (Sesbania, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were offered as supplements to lactating and growing cattle, in four in vivo feeding trials carried out on-station. Supplementation with Sesbania gave significantly (P <0.01) higher milk yields, resulting from increased feed intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF). Lathyrus also gave similar results in terms of milk yield and digestibility but had little effect on feed intake. Leucaena supplementation also significantly (P <0.05) increased milk yield but not feed intake or digestibility. Crotalaria gave a significant (P <0.05) increase in live-weight gain of growing calves. In the third phase, Sesbania, Lthyrus and Leucaena forages were grown by rural smallholders for feeding to their cattle. The forages were fed to lactating cows as supplements to straw-based diets. All the forage supplements resulted in increased milk yield compared to the control diets, however, Sesbania gave the best result in terms of output. The practice of cultivating legume forages and feeding to cattle receiving straw diets created enormous interest among the farmers as the increase in milk yield was cost effective. (author)

  19. How do HIV and AIDS impact the use of natural resources by poor rural populations? The case of wild animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Shackleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.

  20. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... complete a post exposure monitoring and management plan. Testing may include live-animal testing using a... testing of genetically susceptible animals in the flock that cannot be evaluated by a live animal test... investigation which may include additional testing of the suspect animal and or animals that have...

  1. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant

  2. The study to understand the genetics of the acute response to metformin and glipizide in humans (SUGAR-MGH: design of a pharmacogenetic resource for type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Walford

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have uncovered a large number of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes. In many cases the causal gene or polymorphism has not been identified, and its impact on response to anti-hyperglycemic medications is unknown. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH, NCT01762046 is a novel resource of genetic and biochemical data following glipizide and metformin administration. We describe recruitment, enrollment, and phenotyping procedures and preliminary results for the first 668 of our planned 1,000 participants enriched for individuals at risk of requiring anti-diabetic therapy in the future.All individuals are challenged with 5 mg glipizide × 1; twice daily 500 mg metformin × 2 days; and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test following metformin. Genetic variants associated with glycemic traits and blood glucose, insulin, and other hormones at baseline and following each intervention are measured.Approximately 50% of the cohort is female and 30% belong to an ethnic minority group. Following glipizide administration, peak insulin occurred at 60 minutes and trough glucose at 120 minutes. Thirty percent of participants experienced non-severe symptomatic hypoglycemia and required rescue with oral glucose. Following metformin administration, fasting glucose and insulin were reduced. Common genetic variants were associated with fasting glucose levels.SUGAR-MGH represents a viable pharmacogenetic resource which, when completed, will serve to characterize genetic influences on pharmacological perturbations, and help establish the functional relevance of newly discovered genetic loci to therapy of type 2 diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01762046.

  3. Managing genetic diversity and society needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Mariante

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Most livestock are not indigenous to Brazil. Several animal species were considered domesticated in the pre-colonial period, since the indigenous people manage them as would be typical of European livestock production. For over 500 years there have been periodic introductions resulting in the wide range of genetic diversity that for centuries supported domestic animal production in the country. Even though these naturalized breeds have acquired adaptive traits after centuries of natural selection, they have been gradually replaced by exotic breeds, to such an extent, that today they are in danger of extinction To avoid further loss of this important genetic material, in 1983 Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources among its priorities. In this paper we describe the effort to genetically characterize these populations, as a tool to ensure their genetic variability. To effectively save the threatened local breeds of livestock it is important to find a niche market for each one, reinserting them in production systems. They have to be utilized in order to be conserved. And there is no doubt that due to their adaptive traits, the Brazilian local breeds of livestock can play an important role in animal production, to meet society needs.

  4. The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM is an important issue in the negotiations of access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources. The consultation in regard with need for and modalities of GMBSM were initiated after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol. This paper reviews the development and the main content of the GMBSM and analyzes positions both from provider and user countries. African groups were not able to lead negotiations of these issues due to constraints in capacity, although it is in support of the GMBSM. Some provider countries such as Brazil did not provide their support because of the concern that the GMBSM is likely to be an obstacle to these countries’ sovereign rights. Representative for user countries delayed the process by raising many technical questions. These negotiations indicate that the GMBSM may become a focus of the Conference of Parties serving as the Meetings of Nagoya Protocol, or even have the potential to be a new supplementary protocol. Regardless of this result, the process will be difficult. Participation proposals for the GMBSM negotiations at diplomatic, legal and technical aspects are also provided as follows: (1 strengthening position coordination among major partners, in particular African group; (2 conducting legal research and evaluate the consistency between the GMBSM and other international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the Antarctic Treaty; (3 carrying out a series of domestic studies to provide support for participation of the GMBSM debate and negotiations.

  5. Estudos traducionais de neuropsiquiatria e esquizofrenia: modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento Translational neuropsychiatry of genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Gottschalk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas psiquiátricos são subjetivos por natureza e tendem a se sobrepor entre diferentes desordens. Sendo assim, a criação de modelos de uma desordem neuropsiquiátrica encontra desafios pela falta de conhecimento dos fundamentos da fisiopatologia e diagnósticos precisos. Modelos animais são usados para testar hipóteses de etiologia e para representar a condição humana tão próximo quanto possível para aumentar nosso entendimento da doença e avaliar novos alvos para a descoberta de drogas. Nesta revisão, modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento de esquizofrenia são discutidos com respeito a achados comportamentais e neurofisiológicos e sua associação com a condição clínica. Somente modelos animais específicos de esquizofrenia podem, em último caso, levar a novas abordagens diagnósticas e descoberta de drogas. Argumentamos que biomarcadores moleculares são importantes para aumentar a tradução de animais a humanos, já que faltam a especificidade e a fidelidade necessárias às leituras comportamentais para avaliar sintomas psiquiátricos humanos.Psychiatric symptoms are subjective by nature and tend to overlap between different disorders. The modelling of a neuropsychiatric disorder therefore faces challenges because of missing knowledge of the fundamental pathophysiology and a lack of accurate diagnostics. Animal models are used to test hypotheses of aetiology and to represent the human condition as close as possible to increase our understanding of the disease and to evaluate new targets for drug discovery. In this review, genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia are discussed with respect to behavioural and neurophysiological findings and their association with the clinical condition. Only specific animal models of schizophrenia may ultimately lead to novel diagnostic approaches and drug discovery. We argue that molecular biomarkers are important to improve animal to human

  6. Estudos traducionais de neuropsiquiatria e esquizofrenia: modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento Translational neuropsychiatry of genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas psiquiátricos são subjetivos por natureza e tendem a se sobrepor entre diferentes desordens. Sendo assim, a criação de modelos de uma desordem neuropsiquiátrica encontra desafios pela falta de conhecimento dos fundamentos da fisiopatologia e diagnósticos precisos. Modelos animais são usados para testar hipóteses de etiologia e para representar a condição humana tão próximo quanto possível para aumentar nosso entendimento da doença e avaliar novos alvos para a descoberta de drogas. Nesta revisão, modelos animais genéticos e de neurodesenvolvimento de esquizofrenia são discutidos com respeito a achados comportamentais e neurofisiológicos e sua associação com a condição clínica. Somente modelos animais específicos de esquizofrenia podem, em último caso, levar a novas abordagens diagnósticas e descoberta de drogas. Argumentamos que biomarcadores moleculares são importantes para aumentar a tradução de animais a humanos, já que faltam a especificidade e a fidelidade necessárias às leituras comportamentais para avaliar sintomas psiquiátricos humanos.Psychiatric symptoms are subjective by nature and tend to overlap between different disorders. The modelling of a neuropsychiatric disorder therefore faces challenges because of missing knowledge of the fundamental pathophysiology and a lack of accurate diagnostics. Animal models are used to test hypotheses of aetiology and to represent the human condition as close as possible to increase our understanding of the disease and to evaluate new targets for drug discovery. In this review, genetic and neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia are discussed with respect to behavioural and neurophysiological findings and their association with the clinical condition. Only specific animal models of schizophrenia may ultimately lead to novel diagnostic approaches and drug discovery. We argue that molecular biomarkers are important to improve animal to human

  7. Algorithm of Multi-Agent Genetic Based on Cloud Computing Resource Scheduling%基于云计算资源调度的多Agent遗传算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷凡; 牛丽

    2014-01-01

    针对标准遗传算法在云计算资源调度的应用中往往会出现负载不均的问题,本文提出了一种基于云计算资源调度的多Agent遗传算法,首先引入蚁群算法,利用蚂蚁变换方向的影响权重对标准遗传算法的信息素关联进行优化,然后优化了原算法的信息素更新方式,最后利用小生境方法限制种群个体的繁衍,以达到种族多样化的优化。仿真试验结果表明,本文提出的基于云计算资源调度的多Agent遗传算法在CPU利用率和内存利用率上比标准遗传算法具有更优秀的性能。%Often have the problem of uneven load for the standard genetic algorithm in cloud computing resource schedul⁃ing, the paper presents a cloud-based resource scheduling multi-Agent genetic algorithm, the first ant colony algorithm, us⁃ing ants change the direction of the impact of weight of association pheromone standard genetic algorithm optimization, and then optimize the way pheromone update the original algorithm, the last way to limit the use of niche breeding populations of individuals, in order to achieve optimal racial diversity. Simulation results show that cloud-based computing resource scheduling multi-Agent genetic algorithm proposed in this paper on the CPU utilization and memory utilization than the standard genetic algorithm has better performance.

  8. Conservation of livestock genetic resources by targeted on-farm management: a case study of Hinterwälder Cattle in the Southern Black Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wanke, Diethild; Boehncke, Engelhard

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. All EU countries are obliged to conserve livestock genetic resources (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio, 1992). In-situ conservation is regarded as the most favourable approach. For rare and endangered livestock breeds extensive and organic farming systems seem appropriate. Council Regulation (EC) No 1804/1999 on organic farming recommends keeping indigenous breeds and strains that have adapted to local conditions....

  9. Use of multiple-trait animal models for genetic evaluation of milk, fat and protein lactation yields of dairy cattle in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coenraets

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of computation time between single-trait and multiple-trait evaluations showed that with the use of the canonicat transformation associated with multiple diagonalization of (covariance matrices, multiple-trait analysis for milk, fat and protein yields is not more expensive than three single-trait analyzes. Rank correlations between breeding values for 54,820 cows with records (for their 1,406 sires estimated with the single-trait and multiple-trait models were over .98 (.99 in fat yield and over .99 (.99 in milk and protein yields. The relative gain expressed as reduction in mean prediction error variance was 3% (1% in milk yield, 6% (3% in fat yield, and .4% (.2% in protein yield for cows (for sires. Relative genetic gains were 3% (1%, 6% (2% and .5% (.2% respectively in milk, fat and protein yields for cows (for sires. The use of multiple-trait models bas therefore the advantages of improved precision and reduced selection bics. Multiple-trait analysis could be extended for the analyzes of test-day records. Results show that this or similar multiple-trait animal model could be implemented immediately in Belgium at low computing cost, using the proposed algorithme and could be the first step to new, more advanced evaluation methods.

  10. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which ar

  11. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions :A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lizhen; Zheng, Yu; Luo, Haiyan; Yao, Qingqun

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute (TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS) as an example, this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform, analyzed existing problems, and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  12. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  13. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  14. Genetic Diversity in ex-situ Conserved Lens culinaris for Botanical Descriptors, Biochemical and Molecular Markers and Identification of Landraces from Indigenous Genetic Resources of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tayyaba Sultana; Abdul Ghafoor

    2008-01-01

    Lentil, one of the oldest legumes was Investigated for diversity based on botanical descriptors, total seed proteins,isozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. About one fourth of accessions were heterogeneous for botanical descriptors and a seed protein profile. The germplaem collected from the province of Baluchistan revealed the prevalence of indigenous landraces as high diversity was observed for all of the techniques. Diversity explored through various techniques revealed validity Irrespective of the sample size or geographic pattern, RAPD being the best choice for Investigating both inter- and intra-accession variation In lentil. Although all of the techniques were able to resolve genetic diversity In lentil, isozymes and seed proteins gave low levels of genetic diversity, suggesting that more investigation into isozymes of specific proteins is required. RAPD is the best option for determining inter- and Intra-accession variation, and will be required to extend germplasme and primers to continue the study of botanical descriptors.

  15. 闽南文化中本土动画创作资源的开发与利用%Development and Utilization of Local Animation Creative resources in Minnan Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the development dilemma of local animation creative resources in Minnan culture, this paper argued that local animation creation should fully exploit the available resources and learn advanced design concept and design thinking from the west so as to create the animation works with its own characteristics which can be recognized by society and market.%  针对闽南本土动画发展面临的困境,指出本土动画创作要充分挖掘闽南文化中可利用的资源,学习西方先进的设计理念和设计思维,创作出社会和市场所认可的具有自身特色的动画作品。

  16. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) constructed by using an interspecific hybrid resource family.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanjiang; Karsi, Attila; Li, Ping; Cao, Dongfeng; Dunham, R

    2003-01-01

    Catfish is the major aquaculture species in the United States. The hybrid catfish produced by crossing channel catfish females with blue catfish males exhibit a number of desirable production traits, but their mass production has been difficult. To introduce desirable genes from blue catfish into channel catfish through introgression, a genetic linkage map is helpful. In this project, a genetic linkage map was constructed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A total of 607 AFL...

  17. The preservation of genetic resources of the vine requires cohabitation between institutional clonal selection, mass selection and private clonal selection

    OpenAIRE

    Roby Jean-Philippe; Leeuwen Cornelis van; Gonçalves Elsa; Graça Antonio; Martins Antero

    2014-01-01

    Clonal selection allows control of virus diseases and selection of genotypes on agronomic, viticultural or enological criteria. Clonal selection has the major drawback that it impoverishes genetic diversity and exposes growers to environmental instability of clones (genotype X environment interaction). Clonal selection has become the almost unique way of propagating plant material for vineyards, hence threatening the genetic diversity of the grapevine. For major grapevine varieties, some gene...

  18. Networking sampling of Araucaria araucana (Mol. K. Koch in Chile and the bordering zone of Argentina: implications for the genetic resources and the sustainable management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín LM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria araucana, a southern South American tree species, is considered a representative symbol of Chilean forest biodiversity due to its endemicity and longevity. An expedition to Chile and its border zone with Argentina was carried out with the aim of determining the current state of this species and to establish a tree network to study its genetic variability. Eight locations were selected across the range of distribution of the species and several experimental plots were established based on the heterogeneity within each location. Field trips revealed a high fragmentation in Araucaria forests showing low or non-existent regeneration in most of its distribution area. Experimental plots allowed the identification of severely altered areas. Moreover, 371 trees were catalogued, 193 males and 178 females. The tree network established will be very useful in future evaluations of both the ecological status of the species and its genetic resources, allowing the development of conservation strategies.

  19. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  20. Analysis of the Germplasm Resources and Genetic Relationships Among Hybrid Cymbidium Cultivars and Native Species with RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-mei; YE Qing-sheng; ZHU Gen-fa

    2007-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker was assessed to detect the genetic relationships among 48hybrid Cymbidium cultivars from Japan, Korea, China, and USA, and 2 species of native Cymbidium. Twenty primers were screened from 100 random decamer primers, and a total of 258 DNA bands were amplified, 253 of which (98.1%) were polymorphic. The average number of polymorphic DNA bands amplified by each primer was 12.6. All culfivars were distinguishable when a number of primers were considered. Genetic similarities among the cultivars and species were estimated based on the amount of band sharing ranging from 0.364-0.817 with an average of 0.581. According to the data,a dendrogram of genetic relationship, which was constructed using the UPGMA method, showed that all the tested cultivars and native species were classified into five cluster groups with the similarity coefficient of 0.592. It revealed that the genetic relationships among tested accessions were to some extent related with their origin, flower colour, branch type, and genealogy. It further indicated that the RAPD technique is a useful tool for studying the genetic relationships among hybrid Cymbidium cultivars.

  1. Genetic composition of laboratory stocks of the self-fertilizing fish Kryptolebias marmoratus: a valuable resource for experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarenkov, Andrey; Ring, Brian C; Elder, John F; Bechler, David L; Avise, John C

    2010-01-01

    The hermaphroditic Mangrove Killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is the world's only vertebrate that routinely self-fertilizes. As such, highly inbred and presumably isogenic "clonal" lineages of this androdioecious species have long been maintained in several laboratories and used in a wide variety of experiments that require genetically uniform vertebrate specimens. Here we conduct a genetic inventory of essentially all laboratory stocks of the Mangrove Killifish held worldwide. At 32 microsatellite loci, these stocks proved to show extensive interline differentiation as well as some intraline variation, much of which can be attributed to post-origin de novo mutations and/or to the segregation of polymorphisms from wild progenitors. Our genetic findings also document that many of the surveyed laboratory strains are not what they have been labeled, apparently due to the rather frequent mishandling or unintended mixing of various laboratory stocks over the years. Our genetic inventory should help to clarify much of this confusion about the clonal identities and genetic relationships of laboratory lines, and thereby help to rejuvenate interest in K. marmoratus as a reliable vertebrate model for experimental research that requires or can capitalize upon "clonal" replicate specimens. PMID:20877576

  2. 中国重要海洋动物遗传多样性的研究进展%Genetic diversity of marine animals in China: a summary and prospectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔朝霞; 张峘; 宋林生; 尤锋

    2011-01-01

    海洋动物遗传多样性的研究不仅可以揭示物种的起源与进化历史,而且为遗传资源的保存、海水养殖动物育种和遗传改良及整个海洋生态环境的修复和稳定等工作提供理论依据.本文概述了近十几年来我国重要海洋动物(主要包括鱼类、虾蟹类和贝类)遗传多样性研究所取得的成果,具体阐述其在种质鉴定、系统进化、群体遗传结构分析和良种培育等方面的应用,以期进一步推动海洋动物遗传多样性研究,加快优良种质的培育,促进海水养殖业的健康发展,实现海洋生物资源的合理开发和可持续利用.%Genetic diversity can reflect the origin and evolution of species. It can also inform the practices of genetic conservation, breeding and genetic improvement, even stabilization of marine ecosystem. In the past two decades, accumulating studies have focused on the genetic diversity of major marine fish and shellfish in China. Here we summarize the achievements of this area and its application to taxonomy, germplasm identification, phylogenetic evolutionary biology, analysis of population genetic structure, genetic breeding and so on. We hope to provide new insights into research on genetic diversity of marine animals, and promote the healthy development of the aquaculture industry in order to achieve the management and sustainable use of marine animals.

  3. Current status of protection of forest genetic resources in China%中国林木遗传资源保护现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵罕; 宗亦臣; 郑勇奇

    2014-01-01

    Complex and diverse geographical conditions formed unique geographical areas,and also gave birth to many forest types and rich forest genetic resources. As a basis for strategic resources of the country,China has more than 8 000 kinds of woody plants,including 1 000 kinds of economically important species,seven endemic families,239 genera and about 1 100 unique endemics. For comprehensive understanding and analysis of forest genetic resources conservation sta-tus,in-situ,ex-situ,and facilitiesconservation status,damage and loss status of resource and related laws and regulations were summarized,current problems were analyzed,and preliminary proposal were put for more rational and effective pro-tection of forest genetic resources.%复杂多样的地理条件形成了各具特色的地理区域,同时也孕育了我国众多的森林类型和极为丰富的林木遗传资源。作为国家的基础性战略资源,我国拥有木本植物8000多种,其中具有重要经济价值的树种约1000种,同时具有7个特有科、239个特有属和约1100个特有种。为对我国林木遗传资源保存状况进行全面的了解和分析,对我国林木遗传资源的原地、异地及设施保存状况,资源破坏、流失状况及相关的法律法规进行了总结,对目前存在的问题进行了分析,并提出了初步的建议,为合理、有效的保护林木遗传资源提供了参考。

  4. Genetic and phenotypic variation in resource acquisition and allocation: testing a fundamental model for life-history evolution

    OpenAIRE

    King, Elizabeth Griep

    2010-01-01

    One of the major goals of research in evolutionary biology is explaining the biological diversity of organismal life histories. One major explanation of this diversity is that limited resources acquired by an organism must be allocated to various life processes, leading to trade-offs between these processes. In this dissertation, I use a model system-the trade-off between flight capability and reproduction in wing dimorphic insects-to investigate variation in the acquisition of resources an...

  5. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of microsatellite markers for two nonviviparous mangrove species, Acanthus ilicifolius and Lumnitzera racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q F; Lian, C L; Tao, J M; Hogetsu, T

    2008-03-01

    Eight and nine of microsatellite loci were isolated from two nonviviparous mangrove species, Acanthus ilicifolius and Lumnitzera racemosa, respectively. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to eight in A. ilicifolius and two to nine in L. racemosa. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.200 to 0.875 in A. ilicifolius and from 0.025 to 0.350 in L. racemosa. These loci would be effective for analysing genetic diversity and population genetic structure of these two mangrove species. PMID:21585797

  6. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Knowledge Base Browse AVMA Policies Browse by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources ... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Disease Risks for ...

  7. " Animal, trop animal "

    OpenAIRE

    Potestà, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  8. Explaining spatial heterogeneity in population dynamics and genetics from spatial variation in resources for a large herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L Contasti

    Full Text Available Fine-scale spatial variation in genetic relatedness and inbreeding occur across continuous distributions of several populations of vertebrates; however, the basis of observed variation is often left untested. Here we test the hypothesis that prior observations of spatial patterns in genetics for an island population of feral horses (Sable Island, Canada were the result of spatial variation in population dynamics, itself based in spatial heterogeneity in underlying habitat quality. In order to assess how genetic and population structuring related to habitat, we used hierarchical cluster analysis of water sources and an indicator analysis of the availability of important forage species to identify a longitudinal gradient in habitat quality along the length of Sable Island. We quantify a west-east gradient in access to fresh water and availability of two important food species to horses: sandwort, Honckenya peploides, and beach pea, Lathyrus japonicas. Accordingly, the population clusters into three groups that occupy different island segments (west, central, and east that vary markedly in their local dynamics. Density, body condition, and survival and reproduction of adult females were highest in the west, followed by central and east areas. These results mirror a previous analysis of genetics, which showed that inbreeding levels are highest in the west (with outbreeding in the east, and that there are significant differences in fixation indices among groups of horses along the length of Sable Island. Our results suggest that inbreeding depression is not an important limiting factor to the horse population. We conclude that where habitat gradients exist, we can anticipate fine-scale heterogeneity in population dynamics and hence genetics.

  9. An appropriate method for extracting the insect repellent citronellol from an indigenous plant (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her) for potential use by resource-limited animal owners

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, B. M.; C.M.E. McCrindle

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary needs appraisals in rural, peri-urban and urban areas have indicated a need for affordable and accessible veterinary health care. It was also found that farmers and animal owners used indigenous plants for treating animals. In Africa, insects such as Culex, Culicoides and Stomoxys may transmit diseases, cause irritation to animals or prevent wound healing. Insect repellents used topically are generally safer and cheaper than insecticides. Using readily available commercial sources ...

  10. Desafíos éticos de la manipulación genética y la investigación con animales Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodríguez Yunta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación con animales existen cuestionamientos éticos tanto en su uso como modelos de enfermedades humanas y el ser requisito previo para ensayos en humanos, como en la introducción de modificaciones genéticas. Algunos de estos cuestionamientos se refieren a que no representan completamente la condición humana como modelo; que realizar pruebas de toxicidad causan grave daño a los animales; que se altera su naturaleza mediante modificaciones genéticas y el riesgo de introducir organismos genéticamente modificados. El uso de animales en investigación para beneficio humano impone la responsabilidad moral de respetarlo, no haciéndoles sufrir innecesariamente, puesto que se está trabajando con seres vivos con capacidad de sentir.Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling.

  11. Genetic variation of mini- and microsatellites and a clonal structure in Enterocytozoon bieneusi population in foxes and raccoon dogs and population differentiation of the parasite between fur animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Yu, Qinlei; Yang, Yuqi; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal hosts and birds. Previous genotypic surveys were limited to measure the polymorphisms at the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that evolved slowly. Data on population structure are available only on E. bieneusi isolates from primates. This study explored the genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of four mini- and microsatellites and performed a population genetic analysis in 39 E. bieneusi isolates of potentially zoonotic ITS genotype D from farmed foxes and raccoon dogs in China. Sequence polymorphisms facilitated determination of six, two, four, and five genotypes at markers MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7, respectively. Patterns of phylogeny revealed different levels of diversity within and among the genetic markers. Clear genotypic and phylogenetic divergences between E. bieneusi isolates of ITS genotype D from fur animals and humans were observed at individual markers. Complete linkage disequilibrium and very limited recombination in subsequent population genetic analysis supported a clonal structure for E. bieneusi population from fur animals (FID). Phylogenetic analysis, genetic network, and measures of F ST and gene flow demonstrated population differentiation of FID from two known human E. bieneusi populations HID (with a clonal structure) and HIA (with an epidemic structure). The data indicated an ideal resolving power of MLST compared to the previously widely used ITS genotyping and confirmed the clonal nature and population differentiation of E. bieneusi in various hosts. PMID:27095568

  12. DT2008: A Promising New Genetic Resource for Improved Drought Tolerance in Soybean When Solely Dependent on Symbiotic N2 Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Sulieman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit is one of the major constraints for soybean production in Vietnam. The soybean breeding research efforts conducted at the Agriculture Genetics Institute (AGI of Vietnam resulted in the development of promising soybean genotypes, suitable for the drought-stressed areas in Vietnam and other countries. Such a variety, namely, DT2008, was recommended by AGI and widely used throughout the country. The aim of this work was to assess the growth of shoots, roots, and nodules of DT2008 versus Williams 82 (W82 in response to drought and subsequent rehydration in symbiotic association as a means to provide genetic resources for genomic research. Better shoot, root, and nodule growth and development were observed in the cultivar DT2008 under sufficient, water deficit, and recovery conditions. Our results represent a good foundation for further comparison of DT2008 and W82 at molecular levels using high throughput omic technologies, which will provide huge amounts of data, enabling us to understand the genetic network involved in regulation of soybean responses to water deficit and increasing the chances of developing drought-tolerant cultivars.

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity and genetic relationship of wild hawthorn resources in Xinjiang by ISSR markers%新疆野生山楂资源遗传多样性及亲缘关系的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欢; 廖康; 刘娟; 赵世荣; 孙琪; 曹倩

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide some theoretical basis and technical support for protection and utilization of wild hawthorn resources, genetic diversity and genetic relationship of 63 samples from three varieties of wild hawthorn resources in Xinjiang were analyzed by ISSR molecular marker technology. The results showed that 233 bands were ampliifed with 12 primers by the ISSR-PCR ampliifcation, in which had 221 polymorphism bands, percent of polymorphism loci was 94.4%, and average 19.42 polymorphism bands were ampliifed by every primer. The results of analysis by the software of POPGENE1.32 showed that percentage of polymorphic loci, observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, Nei’s genetic diversity and Shannon information index of Junggar hawthorn were higher than other two kinds of wild hawthorn, and the indexes of Crabapple hawthorn were lower than Junggar hawthorn and Altai hawthorn. The Nei’s genetic identities of three kinds of wild hawthorn were 0.862 2-0.904 4, and the average value was 0.890 2. The genetic distances of three kinds of wild hawthorn were 0.100 5-0.148 3, and the average value was 0.116 6. In the three kinds of wild hawthorn, genetic variation of Junggar hawthorn were more rich than the others, followed by Altai hawthorn, and Crabapple hawthorn had the less genetic variation. The genetic relationship between Altai hawthorn and Crabapple hawthorn was closer, but that was farther between Crabapple hawthorn and Junggar hawthorn.%为给新疆野生山楂资源的保护与利用提供理论依据和技术支持,采取新疆3种野生山楂共计63份材料,利用ISSR标记技术,对其遗传多样性和亲缘关系进行分析。结果表明,12条引物共扩增出233条带,其中多态性条带221条,多态性位点率为94.4%,平均每个引物获得19.42个扩增带。POPGENE1.32分析结果表明:3种野生山楂材料的多态性位点率、观测等位基因数、有效等位基因数、Nei’s基因多样性

  14. Multiobjective water resources systems analysis using genetic algorithms--application to Chou-Shui River Basin, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, J T; Cheng, W C; Chen, L

    2003-01-01

    Multipurpose operation is adopted by most reservoirs in Taiwan in order to maximize the benefits of power generation, water supply, irrigation and recreational purposes. A multiobjective approach can be used to obtain trade-off curves among these multipurpose targets. The weighting method, in which different weighting factors are used for different purposes, was used in this research work. In Taiwan, most major reservoirs are operated by rule curves. Genetic algorithms with characteristics of artificial intelligence were applied to obtain the optimal rule curves of the multireservoir system under multipurpose operation in Chou-Shui River Basin in central Taiwan. The model results reveal that different shapes of rule curves under different weighting factors on targets can be efficiently obtained by genetic algorithms. Pareto optimal solutions for a trade-off between water supply and hydropower were obtained and analyzed. PMID:15137155

  15. Conservation Genetic Resources for Effective Species Survival (ConGRESS): Bridging the divide between conservation research and practice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoban, S. M.; Arntzen, J. W.; Bertorelle, G.; Bryja, Josef; Fernandes, M.; Frith, K.; Gaggiotti, O. E.; Galbusera, P.; Godoy, J. A.; Hauffe, H. C.; Hoelzel, A. R.; Nichols, R. A.; Pérez-Espona, S.; Primmer, C. R.; Russo, I.-R.; Segelbacher, G.; Siegismund, H. R.; Sihvonen, M.; Sjögren-Gulve, P.; Vernesi, C.; Vila, C.; Bruford, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2013), s. 433-437. ISSN 1617-1381 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Capacity-building * Conservation planning * Data * Decision-making * Management * Online resource * Policy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2013

  16. Plant germplasm centers and microbial culture collections: A users guide to key genetic resources for plant pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This feature article discusses the importance and current situations of collections of living microbes and plants. Methods for preservation and resources of collections were presented. Issues, such as correct identification of materials, regulatory and safety aspects of collection management and uti...

  17. Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...

  18. Sorghum Mutant Library as a Genetic Resource to Improve Biomass Yield and BioEnergy Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the dwindling of mineral energy resources and soaring fuel price, agriculture sector is called to provide bioenergy in addition to the traditional role of providing humanity with food, fiber, and feed. Freshwater is likely a major challenge for developing biofuels because the trend of global ...

  19. What is the future of animal biotechnology?

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L Van Eenennaam

    2006-01-01

    Animal biotechnology encompasses a broad range of techniques for the genetic improvement of domesticated animal species, although the term is increasingly associated with the more controversial technologies of cloning and genetic engineering. Despite the many potential applications of these two biotechnologies, no public or private entity has yet delivered a genetically engineered food-animal product to the global market, and the sale of milk or meat from cloned animals and their offspring is...

  20. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367161