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Sample records for animal foods protein

  1. HOUSEHOLD DECISION ANALYSIS ON ANIMAL PROTEIN FOOD CONSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM D.I YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtahidah Anggriani Ummul Muzayyanah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption pattern in Indonesia has change. Consumption of animal protein food is increasing as income increase. Animal protein foods are come from fish products and livestock products. The aim of this study is to analyze household decision on animal protein food consumption based on socioeconomics determinant of the households. Household expenditure data were used in this study. Discrete choice model is used to measure household decision in consuming these foods. Socioeconomics determinants are measured by Binary Logistic regression to know the influence of these to the household’s decision. Marginal effect value from binary logistic regression analysis showed that households tend to increase consuming animal protein food from livestock products varies from 0.5 to 6.09 times associated to socioeconomic factors of the households. Further research need to analyze nutritional status of the household’s members.

  2. The protein efficiency ratios of 30:70 mixtures of animal:vegetable protein are similar or higher than those of the animal foods alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Montalvo, I; Sousa, V; Sotelo, A

    1996-02-01

    Animal foods in general are considered to be foods with high protein qualities, although their qualities are not always similar because of differences in essential amino acids. The purpose of this study was to compare the protein quality of different animal foods and of their mixtures with vegetable foods, mainly cereals, at the 30:70 animal:vegetable protein proportion with experiments performed under the same conditions. The animal foods were eggs, beef, pork, barbecued lamb, chicken, ham, sausage and milk powder. The vegetable foods used in the mixtures were rice, lime-treated corn flour, wheat flour and cooked black beans. The protein concentrations in the raw and cooked materials were analyzed. The protein efficiency ratios (PER) and digestibilities were determined in Fisher 344 weanling rats. Based on the corrected PER, the foods with the best protein quality were egg (3.24), sirloin beef (3.16), lamb (3.11) and chicken breast (3.07), which were significantly different (P < 0.05) from milk powder (2.88) and beef liver and beef round (2.81 and 2.70, respectively). The ham (2.63) and the pork loin (2.57) had a similar protein quality to that of casein (2.50). The lowest protein quality was found in sausages (2.14). In most of the mixtures of animal and vegetable protein (30:70), the PER was similar to or higher than that of the animal food alone. Beans were the vegetable food that showed the lowest response to the addition of animal food. The conclusion of the study is that some 30:70 mixtures of animal:vegetable protein, such as chicken, beef round and pork with cereals could be utilized for regular meals because of their high PER and low cost.

  3. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  4. Development of an energy-protein for animal food based crop residues pear (Pyrus communis

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    Néstor Julián Pulido-Suárez,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pear (Pyrus communis is a fruit from the species of deciduous, widely consumed worldwide for its high quality energ y. However, pear itself does not provide the amount of protein required for cattle feeding, so alternatives to improve its nutritional quality have been studied. On these grounds, the objective of this study was to evaluate the parameters of solid state fermentation, and compositional energ y value of a protein food based on pears (Pyrus communis with apparent physical damage. A completely random design was used to evaluate three treatments; these correspond to percentages of inclusion of calcium carbonate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 formulation based on already established (40 % pear, 25 % rice flour, 25 % wheat bran and 10 % urea, the parameters evaluated were: pH, ashes (CZ, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF, and they were recorded at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. As a result, it was found that the pH dropped gradually for each treatment and at each sampling period; however, there were no significant differences. The lower value at the end of the process is recorded T2 (0.25 with 4.66, followed by T3 (0.50 with 4.50, the ash reached values of up to 6 % with T3, and T2 (0.50 reached the highest percentages in fiber and crude protein. Finally, decreasing the fermentation variables ensures a food with no presence of undesirable microorganisms and stable over time.

  5. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ADDITIVES AND INGREDIENTS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMAL PROTEINS

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    N. A. Drozdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we focus on the features of the collagen structure. In particular, we report the correlation between the amount of proline and hydroxyproline and the temperature of denaturation, as well as the changes of collagen structure after thermal treatment. After cooling, denaturated collagen forms dense jellies which may absorb a large amount of water. The influence of pH on the denaturalion temperature, solubility andthe strength characteristics of collagen-containing proteins are described. The review also describes the data on the influence of various food additives and chemicals (acids, alkalis, salts i.a. phosphates, hydrocolloids on the collagen protein structure and technological properties. The effect of acids, alkalis, salts on the properties of collagen dependson the nature and strength of the ions and their affinity for the collagen ions. The interactions between the collagen proteins and hydrocolloids result in the synergetic effect. Phosphates and collagen form solid structures.

  6. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... CVM could further evaluate the issue. FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM scientists studied ...

  7. Fisheries productivity and its effects on the consumption of animal protein and food sharing of fishers' and non-fishers' families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Mikaelle Kaline Bezerra; de Melo, Clarissy Dinyz; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana Macedo

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the consumption of animal protein and food sharing among fishers' and non-fishers' families of the northeastern Brazilian coast. The diet of these families was registered through the 24-hour-recall method during 10 consecutive days in January (good fishing season) and June (bad fishing season) 2012. Fish consumption was not different between the fishers' and non-fishers' families, but varied according to fisheries productivity to both groups. Likewise, food sharing was not different between the two groups, but food was shared more often when fisheries were productive. Local availability of fish, more than a direct dependency on fisheries, determines local patterns of animal protein consumption, but a direct dependency on fisheries exposes families to a lower-quality diet in less-productive seasons. As such, fisheries could shape and affect the livelihoods of coastal villages, including fishers' and non-fishers' families.

  8. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

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    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  9. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; Della Malva, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria

    2017-05-09

    Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation) of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  10. Food safety and quality assurance : foods of animal origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Keith L; Hinton, Michael H; Hubbert, William T; Hagstad, Harry V; Spangler, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    The second edition of Food Safety and Quality Assurance is a basic reference for veterinarians, extension specialists, and others who help food-animal producers throughout the food chain to provide...

  11. Aspects of the animal food nutritional and nutraceutical value

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Lorenzo Secchiari

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this paper deals in the description of Italian zootechny with regard to animal food production and their quality. The last is well documented by the presence of a large number of certificated origin marks (53 POD e 11 PGI). Firstly, nutritional quality of food has been described, with particular emphasis for Glucides, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins and Mineral elements contents and their metabolic role, in the most important food of animal origin: milk, meat, fish and eggs. After, ...

  12. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins

  13. Cytokines: applications in domestic food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, F

    1991-01-01

    Cytokines such as human, bovine, and porcine interferons and human and bovine interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 have been used in vivo in cattle and pigs. Colony-stimulating factors and tumor necrosis factor alpha have been evaluated in vitro in food animals. Studies to evaluate cytokines in domestic food animals have shown that specific and nonspecific immunomodulation is possible in immunosuppressed or pathogen-exposed animals. Cytokine prophylaxis or therapy in food animals may have the greatest potential for control of respiratory disease and mastitis.

  14. Animal identification: links to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, D J; Thaler, A M

    2001-08-01

    Improvements in food safety in the United States of America are currently limited by the lack of an open, reliable and uniform animal identification system. Public health would benefit from the development of such a system because this would permit accountability for an prevention of food safety hazards, including residues and harmful pathogens. In addition, the public would benefit because data collection and long-term research studies are currently hampered by the lack of animal identification. Understanding of the ecology of food-borne pathogens in the production and handling period before slaughter needs to be improved. Animal identification will permit packers and consumers to reward producers for using food safety-related production practices. Food animal producers do not regularly receive an economic advantage for voluntarily undertaking food safety-related production practices. As a result, the original source of many food animals that enter official establishments is unknown. However, the hazard analysis and critical control point system allows some producers to offer identified animals under verified production control programmes or to enter into agreements with packers with regard to the food safety status of animals.

  15. Nutritional importance of animal source foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H

    2003-11-01

    Animal source foods can provide a variety of micronutrients that are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities from plant source foods alone. In the 1980s, the Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program identified six micronutrients that were particularly low in the primarily vegetarian diets of schoolchildren in rural Egypt, Kenya and Mexico: vitamin A, vitamin B-12, riboflavin, calcium, iron and zinc. Negative health outcomes associated with inadequate intake of these nutrients include anemia, poor growth, rickets, impaired cognitive performance, blindness, neuromuscular deficits and eventually, death. Animal source foods are particularly rich sources of all six of these nutrients, and relatively small amounts of these foods, added to a vegetarian diet, can substantially increase nutrient adequacy. Snacks designed for Kenyan schoolchildren provided more nutrients when animal and plant foods were combined. A snack that provided only 20% of a child's energy requirement could provide 38% of the calcium, 83% of the vitamin B-12 and 82% of the riboflavin requirements if milk was included. A similar snack that included ground beef rather than milk provided 86% of the zinc and 106% of the vitamin B-12 requirements, as well as 26% of the iron requirement. Food guides usually recommend several daily servings from animal source food groups (dairy products and meat or meat alternatives). An index that estimates nutrient adequacy based on adherence to such food guide recommendations may provide a useful method of quickly evaluating dietary quality in both developing and developed countries.

  16. Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

    The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

  17. Optimization of growth and bacteriocin activity of the food bioprotective Carnobacterium divergens V41 in an animal origin protein free medium

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    Anne BRILLET-VIEL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of Carnobacterium divergens V41 growth and bacteriocin activity in a culture medium deprived of animal protein, needs for food bioprotection, was performed by using a statistical approach. In a screening experiment, twelve factors (pH, temperature, carbohydrates, NaCl, yeast extract, soy peptone, sodium acetate, ammonium citrate, magnesium sulphate, manganese sulphate, ascorbic acid and thiamine were tested for their influence on the maximal growth and bacteriocin activity using a two-level incomplete factorial design with 192 experiments performed in microtiter plate wells. Based on results, a basic medium was developed and three variables (pH, temperature and carbohydrates concentration were selected for a scale-up study in bioreactor. A 23 complete factorial design was performed, allowing the estimation of linear effects of factors and all the first order interactions. The best conditions for the cell production were obtained with a temperature of 15°C and a carbohydrates concentration of 20 g/l whatever the pH (in the range 6.5-8, and the best conditions for bacteriocin activity were obtained at 15°C and pH 6.5 whatever the carbohydrates concentration (in the range 2-20 g/l. The predicted final count of C. divergens V41 and the bacteriocin activity under the optimized conditions (15°C, pH 6.5, 20 g/l carbohydrates were 2.4 x 1010 CFU/ml and 819200 AU/ml respectively. C. divergens V41 cells cultivated in the optimized conditions were able to grow in cold-smoked salmon and totally inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (< 50 CFU g-1 during five weeks of vacuum storage at 4° and 8°C.

  18. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo (Brazil); Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  19. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  20. Nitrofurans' residues in food of animal origin

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    Smajlović Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrofurans are synthetic broad-spectrum antimicobial agents that are often used in commercial animal production because of their excellent antibacterial and pharmacokinetic properties. However, nitrofurans and their metabolites have been shown to have potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic characteristics which has led to a ban on the use of nitrofurans in preventive and therapeutic treatment of animals used for food production. Metabolites of nitrofurans that can be determined after their application are: a metabolite of furazolidone, furaltadone metabolite, a metabolite of nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone metabolite. The presence of residues of nitrofuran antibiotics in meat, fish and shrimps, and milk and eggs originating from countries outside the European Union is monitored and recorded by the RASFF system of the European Union. Furthermore, since nitrofurans are used in some countries as prophylactic agents and growth promoters, it is necessary to carry out constant control of various types of food of animal origin, in order to reduce to the minimum potential carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these supstances for the health of consumers. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is no permanent control of nitrofurans in food of animal origin. The provisions of the „Regulation on the maximum allowable amounts of veterinary drugs and pesticides in products of animal origin", published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina state the prohibiting of the use of certain veterinary drugs in animals intended for human consumption, including nitrofurans. The European Union has established the minimum required limit (MRLP for performance which is 1 μg/kg of nitrofurans for edible tissues of animal origin. Taking all this into account, methods for nitrofurans detection should be accreditated and validated, both for screening and confirmatory methods, and further research into the presence of nitrofurans in food of animal origin in Bosnia

  1. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  2. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  3. Plant protein for food: opportunities and bottlenecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proteins represent a key issue for the future regarding worldwide food security. Besides animal sources, plant proteins represent an opportunity to mainly contribute to protein demand. Whether some plant protein sources could appear as deficient in some essential amino acids, mixtures from different sources could represent opportunities to further propose adapted supply regarding specific demand. Such opportunities includes legumes as well as by-products of oil processing, i.e. canola and sunflower cakes. The nutritional benefits of such new sources are still under investigation considering benefits and limits like allergenicity. Finally, consumer behavior and acceptability remains the final bottleneck for developing new protein sources.

  4. Protein folding pathology in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruys, Erik

    2004-10-01

    Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals, AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAI, AApoAII, localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Abeta and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to amyloid fibrils on small beta-sheeted fragments, the 'amyloid enhancing factor' (AEF), is known and the AEF has been shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein, whereas in the prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. Abeta-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis

  5. 21 CFR 501.18 - Misbranding of animal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misbranding of animal food. 501.18 Section 501.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.18 Misbranding of...

  6. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. PMID:26567196

  8. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  9. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. (a) Definitions—(1) Protein derived from mammalian tissues means any protein-containing portion of mammalian animals, excluding: Blood and blood products; gelatin...

  10. Pet food recalls and pet food contaminants in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2012-03-01

    Most pet foods are safe, but incidents of chemical contamination occur and lead to illness and recalls. There were 11 major pet food recalls in the United States between 1996 and 2010 that were due to chemical contaminants or misformulations: 3 aflatoxin, 3 excess vitamin D3, 1 excess methionine, 3 inadequate thiamine, and 1 adulteration with melamine and related compounds and an additional 2 warnings concerning a Fanconilike renal syndrome in dogs after ingesting large amounts of chicken jerky treat products. This article describes clinical findings and treatment of animals exposed to the most common pet food contaminants.

  11. Nuclear techniques in animal production and health and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''5 1 Cr, 32 P and 35 S) and stable ( 15 N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases

  12. Aspects of the animal food nutritional and nutraceutical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Lorenzo Secchiari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper deals in the description of Italian zootechny with regard to animal food production and their quality. The last is well documented by the presence of a large number of certificated origin marks (53 POD e 11 PGI. Firstly, nutritional quality of food has been described, with particular emphasis for Glucides, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins and Mineral elements contents and their metabolic role, in the most important food of animal origin: milk, meat, fish and eggs. After, the presence of nutraceutical substances in the same foods has been discussed. In particular the attention has been focused on the metabolic role of ω-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA and Rumenic Acid (C 18:2 cis 9 trans 11, the most important isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. In conclusion has been underlined the importance of nutraceutical substances of animal origin in human balanced diet. Furthermore the fundamental role of Italian zootechny to assure animal food safety and quality has been confirmed.

  13. Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Gough

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrPSc. Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals.

  14. Methods for Differentiating Prion Types in Food-Producing Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Kevin C.; Rees, Helen C.; Ives, Sarah E.; Maddison, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrPSc). Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals. PMID:26580664

  15. Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

  16. Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L A; Todd, K M; Morris, R C; Sebastian, A

    2000-10-01

    Hip fracture, a major health problem in elderly persons, varies in incidence among the populations of different countries and is directly related to animal protein intake, a finding that suggests that bone integrity is compromised by endogenous acid production consequent to the metabolism of animal proteins. If that is so, vegetable foods might provide a countervailing effect, because they are a rich source of base (bicarbonate) in the form of metabolizable organic anions, which can neutralize protein-derived acid and supply substrate (carbonate) for bone formation. We analyzed reported hip fracture incidence (HFI) data among countries (N = 33) in women aged 50 years and older, in relation to corresponding country-specific data on per capita consumption of vegetable and animal foods as reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. HFI varied directly with total (r = +.67, p animal (r = +.82, p protein intake and inversely with vegetable protein intake (r = .37, p animal protein consumption, and invariably, vegetable protein (VP) consumption exceeded the country's corresponding intake of animal protein (AP): VP/AP > 1.0. By contrast, among the countries in the highest tertile of HFI, animal protein intake exceeded vegetable protein intake in nearly every case (10 of 11 countries). Among all countries, HFI correlated inversely and exponentially with the ratio of vegetable/animal protein intake (r = -.84, p protein intake, vegetable food consumption was an independent negative predictor of HFI. All findings were similar for the subset of 23 countries whose populations are predominantly Caucasian. The findings suggest that the critical determinant of hip fracture risk in relation to the acid-base effects of diet is the net load of acid in the diet, when the intake of both acid and base precursors is considered. Moderation of animal food consumption and an increased ratio of vegetable/animal food consumption may confer a protective effect.

  17. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Tiziana Mentasti; Mauro Vasconi; Vittorio Maria Moretti

    2015-01-01

    Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain proces...

  18. Carbon Footprints for Food of Animal Origin: What are the Most Preferable Criteria to Measure Animal Yields?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Flachowsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing efforts to determine the origin of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activities (including food consumption and to identify, apply and exploit reduction potentials. Low emissions are generally the result of increased efficiency in resource utilization. Considering climate related factors, the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and laughing gas are summarized to so-called carbon footprints (CF. The CF for food of animal origin such as milk, eggs, meat and fish depend on a number of influencing factors such as animal species, type of production, feeding of animals, animal performance, system boundaries and outputs of production. Milk and egg yields are more clearly defined animal yields or outcomes of production than food from the carcasses of animals. Possible endpoints of growing/slaughter animals are body weight gain, carcass weight gain (warm or cold, meat, edible fractions or edible protein. The production of edible protein of animal origin may be considered as one of the main objectives of animal husbandry in many countries. On the other hand, the efficiency of various lines of production and the CF per product can also be easily compared on the basis of edible protein. The pros and contras of various outputs of animal production under special consideration of edible protein are discussed in the paper.

  19. [A NEW APPROACH FOR FOOD PREFERENCE TESTING IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, S V

    2015-10-01

    An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed.

  20. Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore,

  1. Diet and Diabetic Kidney Disease: Plant Versus Animal Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, Ranjani N; Vorland, Colby J; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this review is to present an overview of the evidence on the effectiveness of plant-based diets in delaying progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The ideal quantity of dietary protein has been a controversial topic for patients with DKD. Smaller studies have focused on protein source, plant versus animal, for preventing progression. Limited evidence suggests that dietary patterns that focus on plant-based foods, those that are lower in processed foods, or those that are lower in advanced glycation end products (AGE) may be useful in prevention of DKD progression. Increasing plant-based foods, incorporating diet patterns that limit processed foods, or potentially lowering AGE contents in diets may be beneficial for dietary management of DKD. However, dietary studies specifically targeted at DKD treatment are sparse. Further, large trials powered to assess outcomes including changes in kidney function, end-stage kidney disease, and mortality are needed to provide more substantial evidence for these diets.

  2. Immunomodulatory and anticancer protein hydrolysates (peptides) from food proteins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, Meram; Yu, Wenlin; Wu, Jianping

    2018-04-15

    Bioactive peptides are oligopeptides that consist of 2-20 amino acids that can exert beneficial effects on human health in addition to basic nutritional effects. Food derived protein hydrolysates or peptides with immunomodulatory and anticancer activities have been reported from a variety of food protein sources such as milk, egg, fish, rice, soybean, pea, chlorella, spirulina, oyster and mussel. In vitro hydrolysis of food proteins using commercial proteolytic enzymes is the most commonly employed process for the production of immunomodulatory and anticancer food protein hydrolysates. The immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of food derived protein hydrolysates or peptides are related to the amino acid composition, sequence and length. Most immunomodulatory and anticancer food protein hydrolysates or peptides were tested using cell culture and animal models, while a few involved clinical trials. This review provides a comprehensive overview of immunomodulatory and anticancer food derived protein hydrolysates or peptides, their production and mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of drugs in food animals: benefits and risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... The volume discusses the prevalence of human pathogens in foods of animal origin. It also addresses the transfer of resistance in animal microbes to human pathogens and the resulting risk of human disease...

  4. Effects of xenobiotics and phytotoxins on reproduction in food animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of natural toxicants and anthropogenic compounds on reproduction in food animals is significant in its economic impact. Confounding factors such as stress, nutritional status, season of the year, animal species involved, genetic variability, disease conditions, management factors, etc...

  5. 77 FR 72254 - New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 500, 520, 522, 524, 529, 556, and 558 [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1067] RIN 0910-AG17 New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  6. Genomics for food safety and sustainable animal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlizius, B.; Wijk, van H.J.; Merks, J.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing concern in society about the safety of animal-derived food, the health and welfare of farm animals and the sustainability of current animal production systems. Along farm animal, breeding genomics may contribute to a solution for these concerns. The use of genomic analysis tools,

  7. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  8. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions in living animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Gary D.; Sharma, Vijay; Pica, Christina M.; Dahlheimer, Julie L.; Li, Wei; Ochesky, Joseph; Ryan, Christine E.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2002-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions control transcription, cell division, and cell proliferation as well as mediate signal transduction, oncogenic transformation, and regulation of cell death. Although a variety of methods have been used to investigate protein interactions in vitro and in cultured cells, none can analyze these interactions in intact, living animals. To enable noninvasive molecular imaging of protein-protein interactions in vivo by positron-emission tomography and fluorescence imaging, we engineered a fusion reporter gene comprising a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein for readout of a tetracycline-inducible, two-hybrid system in vivo. By using micro-positron-emission tomography, interactions between p53 tumor suppressor and the large T antigen of simian virus 40 were visualized in tumor xenografts of HeLa cells stably transfected with the imaging constructs. Imaging protein-binding partners in vivo will enable functional proteomics in whole animals and provide a tool for screening compounds targeted to specific protein-protein interactions in living animals.

  9. The need for animal source foods by Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwibo, Nimrod O; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2003-11-01

    Food intake and dietary patterns in Kenyan households have been studied since the 1920s. Reports on breastfeeding, nutrient intake, micronutrient deficiencies and the impacts of malaria and intestinal parasites on nutritional status are reviewed. Diets are mainly cereal-based, with tubers and a variety of vegetables and fruits when available. White maize, sorghum and millet are high in phytate and fiber, which inhibit the absorption of micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Communities growing cash crops have little land for food crops. Although households may own cattle, goats and poultry, commonly these are not consumed. Adults in nomadic communities consume more meat than nonpastoralists. Lakeside and oceanside communities do not consume adequate amounts of fish. Poor households have a limited capacity to grow and purchase food, therefore they have more nutrient deficiencies. Early weaning to cereal porridge deprives the infant of protein and other nutrients from human milk. Other milk is consumed only in small amounts in sweetened tea. Older children eat adult diets, which are extremely bulky and hard to digest. Anemia is mainly due to iron deficiency, malaria and intestinal parasites. In general, Kenyan children have inadequate intakes of energy, fat and micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, iron, riboflavin and vitamins A and B-12. The multiple micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to early onset of stunting and poor child development, whereas lack of calcium together with vitamin D deficiency are responsible for the resurgence of rickets. There is an urgent need to increase the intake of animal source foods by Kenyan children.

  10. The use of drugs in food animals: benefits and risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; however, their use has also raised public health safety concerns. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals provides an overview of why and how drugs are used in the major food-producing animal industries--poultry, dairy, beef, swine, and aquaculture...

  11. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  12. Food protein chemistry: an introduction for food scientists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Regenstein, J. M; Regenstein, Carrie; Kochen, Beth

    1984-01-01

    ... Protein Chemistry An Introductio n for Food Scientist s Joe M. Regenstein Department and Institute Cornell Ithaca, of Poultry of Food University New York and Avian Science Sciences Carrie E. Re...

  13. Animals and trees: food for thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, K.

    1979-01-01

    In many areas of Africa, combining tree-growing with animal rearing is advantageous, as the trees provide shade, animal fodder and timber for fuel and building, while grazing animals reduce the fire hazard from ground vegetation and improve soil fertility through droppings. Acacia albida, Prosopis cineraria, P. chilensis, leucaena leucocephala and Ailanthus excelsa are discussed as promising fodder trees, and an appendix is included with notes on 21 other trees for fodder or the production of medicines.

  14. All about Food Chains. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Whether animals are herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores, each one is part of an eternal food chain that carries on from one generation to the next. In this videotape, students learn more about terms like "predator,""pre-consumer" and "producer," as well as the cycles of food chains and food webs and how they support…

  15. Investigation into the animal species contents of popular wet pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Isabella R; Atterbury, Robert; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-03-10

    The use of the generic term "meat and animal derivatives" in declared ingredient lists of pet foods in the European Union is virtually universal. In the wake of the 2013 "horse meat scandal" in the human food chain, we examined the presence and authenticity of animal sources (cow, chicken, pig and horse) of proteins in a range of popular wet pet foods in the United Kingdom. Seventeen leading dog and cat foods were sampled for the relative presence of DNA from each of the four animal species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. No horse DNA was detected. However, there was detection at substantial levels of unspecified animal species in most products tested. In 14 out of 17 samples, bovine, porcine and chicken DNA were found in various proportions and combinations but were not explicitly identified on the product labels. Of the 7 products with prominent headline descriptions containing the term "with beef", only 2 were found to contain more bovine DNA (>50%) than pig and chicken DNA combined. There is a need for the pet food industry to show greater transparency to customers in the disclosure of the types of animal proteins (animal species and tissue types) in their products. Full disclosure of animal contents will (a) allow more informed choices to be made on purchases which are particularly important for pets with food allergies, (b) reduce the risk of product misinterpretation by shoppers, and (c) avoid potential religious concerns.

  16. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T; Levin, Simon A; Robinson, Timothy P; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-05-05

    Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg(-1), 148 mg⋅kg(-1), and 172 mg⋅kg(-1) for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health.

  17. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Levin, Simon A.; Robinson, Timothy P.; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg−1, 148 mg⋅kg−1, and 172 mg⋅kg−1 for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health. PMID:25792457

  18. The opportunity cost of animal based diets exceeds all food losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, Alon; Eshel, Gidon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2018-04-10

    Food loss is widely recognized as undermining food security and environmental sustainability. However, consumption of resource-intensive food items instead of more efficient, equally nutritious alternatives can also be considered as an effective food loss. Here we define and quantify these opportunity food losses as the food loss associated with consuming resource-intensive animal-based items instead of plant-based alternatives which are nutritionally comparable, e.g., in terms of protein content. We consider replacements that minimize cropland use for each of the main US animal-based food categories. We find that although the characteristic conventional retail-to-consumer food losses are ≈30% for plant and animal products, the opportunity food losses of beef, pork, dairy, poultry, and eggs are 96%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. This arises because plant-based replacement diets can produce 20-fold and twofold more nutritionally similar food per cropland than beef and eggs, the most and least resource-intensive animal categories, respectively. Although conventional and opportunity food losses are both targets for improvement, the high opportunity food losses highlight the large potential savings beyond conventionally defined food losses. Concurrently replacing all animal-based items in the US diet with plant-based alternatives will add enough food to feed, in full, 350 million additional people, well above the expected benefits of eliminating all supply chain food waste. These results highlight the importance of dietary shifts to improving food availability and security. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Biogeochemistry: Food for early animal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H.

    2017-08-01

    A revised timeline for when algae became ecologically important among plankton in the ancient oceans reveals a link between chemical changes in those waters and the emergence of animals in marine ecosystems. See Letter p.578

  20. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  1. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reperant, L. A.; Brown, I. H.; Haenen, O. L.; de Jong, M. D.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.-F.; Kuiken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known

  2. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  3. Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal Origin?A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; S?dekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The growing world population has led to a higher demand for more and better quality food. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and other non-renewable resources. Proteins of animal origin are very valuable sources of essential nutrients, but their production consumes resources and causes emissions. The aim of this study was to calculate exemplarily the land use for production of edible animal protein from different animal species and cate...

  4. HEALTH SUITABILITY CRITERIA OF FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kirbiš

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Criteria of health suitability of food of animal origin are presence of causing agents of zoonosis and alimentary diseases, presence of environmental pollutants and substances, used in the veterinary treatments, radioactive contamination and senzoric changes. Hygienic irrevocability is guaranteed by a conscientious veterinary-sanitary inspection, strict discipline of breeders of slaughter animals and producers of milk but also by well-informed consumers and especially those who are professionally involved in the preparation of food.

  5. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  6. Animal rights and welfare advocacy for enhanced food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical conditions of the Nigerian environment favours domestic and wild animal production. It, therefore, not only offers ample investment opportunities in the livestock sub-sector of the economy, but also guarantees food security for the nation. This study examined basic animal welfare rights, and ascertained selected ...

  7. Food animal supply and consumption pattern in Akwa Ibom State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-year retrospective study (1994-1996) of food animal supply and consumption in Akwa Ibom State was carried out, based on records kept at the Veterinary Services Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. This was complemented with visits to appraise operational areas and interviews of the operators. The animals ...

  8. Other Sources of Animal Protein in Ogun State, Nigeria | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inadequate animal protein intake is widely orchestrated among Nigerians especially Ogun State indigenes. This led to investigating other sources of animal protein in the rural and suburban areas of the state that could bridge inadequate supply from the conventional sources of animal protein. Structured questionnaires ...

  9. Allergenic Proteins in Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies can be defined as immunologically mediated hypersensitivity reactions; therefore, a food allergy is also known as food hypersensitivity. The reactions are caused by the immune system response to some food proteins. The eight most common food allergens are proteins from milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soya, wheat, fish and shellfish. However, many other foods have been identified as allergens for some people, such as certain fruits or vegetables and seeds. It is now recognized that food allergens are an important food safety issue. A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system reacts to otherwise harmless substances in certain foods. For these reasons, one of the requirements from the European Union is that allergenic food ingredients should be labelled in order to protect allergic consumers. According to the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations, about 8 % of children and 4 % of adults suffer from some type of food allergy. Food allergies often develop during infant or early childhood ages, affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines. In some cases, the allergy may persist in adult age, for example, coeliac disease, which is an abnormal immune response to certain proteins present in gluten, a type of protein composite found in wheat and barley. Almost all allergens are proteins, and highly sensitive analytical methods have been developed to detect traces of these compounds in food, such as electrophoretic and immunological methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purpose of this review is to describe the allergenic components of the most common causes of food allergies, followed by a brief discussion regarding their importance in the food industry and for consumer safety. The most important methods used to detect allergenicity in food will also be discussed.

  10. Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-30

    Clostridium difficile is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that causes diarrhea and sometimes serious intestinal illnesses. In recent years, C. difficile infections have been increasing in number and severity, including among some people outside healthcare settings. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Michael Jhung discusses his recent study that looked at a new, increasingly prevalent strain of C. difficile in people and compared it to a strain historically found in animals to see whether the two might be linked. The study is published in the July 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 6/30/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/3/2008.

  11. Application of hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin in processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Lene; Broge, Eva Honnens de Lichtenberg; Bejerholm, Camilla; Jensen, Kirsten

    2016-03-01

    With increasing consumer interest in functional foods, proteins from slaughterhouse side streams can offer interesting application opportunities in this respect. Worldwide, increasing numbers of people are suffering from hypertension and protein deficiency. Hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin may show ACE-inhibitory activity, which is central to the treatment of hypertension. Furthermore, the protein content of, for example, meat products increases markedly through the addition of hydrolyzed proteins, and these protein-rich products are of interest to those suffering from protein deficiency. Through a series of analyses, six selected hydrolysates were analyzed for their application potential in the Danish meat product saveloy. Hydrolyzed pig rectum and bovine diaphragm showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activities, and these activities were maintained in the processed saveloys. The ACE-inhibitory activities could not readily be explained by the amino acid profile. The content of N-compounds in the saveloys increased with increasing addition of hydrolysate, with little difference between the added hydrolysates. A sensory panel assessed the saveloys with added porcine rectum (8%), bovine diaphragm (8%), and bovine heart (4% and 8%) as having the strongest off-flavors (chemical flavor). No increase in salty taste resulting from the addition of hydrolysates was detected in the saveloys. Finally, the consumers found the saveloys too mild in flavor and recommended the addition of more spices.

  12. PARATUBERCULOSIS AND FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sarli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratubercolosis (MAP is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (or paratubercolosis,a chronic infectious enteritis in cattle, sheep and goats. Infected animals shed viable MAP in their milk, faeces and semen. MAP may have a role in development of Crohn’s disease,a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in humans, via the consumption of contamined milk and milk products, meat and contamined water supplies. For some authors pasteurization is not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and it has been cultured from raw or pasteurizated milk and isolated from cheese. MAP has not isolated from retail beef to date, although limited testing has been carried out. Probably MAP may be involved in other chronic diseases like Type-1 Diabetes. Which is the possible public health consequence of periodically use by susceptible individuals is uncertain.

  13. Clostridium difficile in Food and Animals: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Van Broeck, J; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous in the environment, and the bacterium is able to colonise the intestinal tract of both animals and humans. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for toxigenic C. difficile, even without showing any signs of disease, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. Therefore, animals could play an essential role as carriers of the bacterium. In addition, the presence of the spores in different meats, fish, fruits and vegetables suggests a risk of foodborne transmission. This review summarises the current available data on C. difficile in animals and foods, from when the bacterium was first described up to the present.

  14. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... human food or animal food/feed (including pet food). The Agency has received a request for an extension... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0238] Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of the Comment...

  15. Where are the food animal veterinarian shortage areas anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Hennessy, David A; O'Connor, Annette M

    2012-05-01

    In 2010 the United States implemented the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) to address perceived regional shortages in certain veterinary occupations, including food animal practice. With county as the unit of analysis, this paper describes a pair of models to evaluate factors associated with being designated a private practice shortage area in 2010. One model is used to explain food animal veterinarian location choices so as to provide an objective evaluation of comparative shortage. The other model seeks to explain the counties chosen as shortage areas. Model results are then used to evaluate the program. On the whole the program appears to perform quite well. For several states, however, VMLRP shortage designations are inconsistent with the food animal veterinarian location model. Comparative shortage is generally more severe in states that have no VMLRP designated private practice shortage counties than in states that do. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1985-01-01

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  17. Is the Inclusion of Animal Source Foods in Fortified Blended Foods Justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E. Noriega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fortified blended foods (FBF are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC, especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1 epidemiological; (2 ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3 ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4 ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed.

  18. Importance of Animals in Agricultural Sustainability and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption: (1) Such use must be accomplished in accordance with an appropriate medical rationale; and (2) If... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  20. Non-food applications of Jatropha protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how to gain more value per hectare Jatropha curcas by utilizing Jatropha protein for various applications. Specifically, this research investigated the extractability and functional properties of Jatropha protein for non-food/technical applications. Jatropha press cake and leaves are the potential sources of protein. Jatropha proteins can be extracted from Jatropha seed press cake or leaves, with or without detoxification to remove the toxic phorbol esters...

  1. The environmental cost of protein food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Soret, Samuel; Harwatt, Helen; Wien, Michelle; Sabaté, Joan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the resource efficiency and environmental impacts of producing one kilogram of edible protein from two plant- and three animal-protein sources. Primary source data were collected and applied to commodity production statistics to calculate the indices required to compare the environmental impact of producing 1 kg of edible protein from kidney beans, almonds, eggs, chicken and beef. Inputs included land and water for raising animals and growing animal feed, total fuel, and total fertilizer and pesticide for growing the plant commodities and animal feed. Animal waste generated was computed for the animal commodities. Desk-based study at the Department of Nutrition and Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Loma Linda University. None. To produce 1 kg of protein from kidney beans required approximately eighteen times less land, ten times less water, nine times less fuel, twelve times less fertilizer and ten times less pesticide in comparison to producing 1 kg of protein from beef. Compared with producing 1 kg of protein from chicken and eggs, beef generated five to six times more waste (manure) to produce 1 kg of protein. The substitution of beef with beans in meal patterns will significantly reduce the environmental footprint worldwide and should also be encouraged to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases. Societies must work together to change the perception that red meat (e.g. beef) is the mainstay of an affluent and healthy diet.

  2. Food allergy: What do we learn from animal models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Wijk, F. van; Penninks, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes selected articles on animal models of food allergy published in 2003. The research areas that are covered include mechanistic studies, the search for new therapies, as well as screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens. Recent findings

  3. Consumer perceptions of food products from cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears...

  4. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among food animals: Principles and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of antimicrobial agents are in the production of food animals used for therapy and prophylactics of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents causes problems in the therapy of infections through the selection for resistance among bacteria pa...

  5. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

  6. 21 CFR 530.21 - Prohibitions for food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions for food-producing animals. 530.21... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals § 530.21 Prohibitions for...

  7. Protein oxidation in muscle foods: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Heinonen, Marina; Baron, Caroline P.

    2011-01-01

    insight into the reactions involved in the oxidative modifications undergone by muscle proteins. Moreover, a variety of products derived from oxidized muscle proteins, including cross-links and carbonyls, have been identified. The impact of oxidation on protein functionality and on specific meat quality...... in this topic has led to highlight the influence that Pox may have on meat quality and human nutrition. Recent studies have contributed to solid scientific knowledge regarding basic oxidation mechanisms, and in advanced methodologies to accurately assess Pox in food systems. Some of these studies have provided......Protein oxidation in living tissues is known to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of relevant degenerative diseases, whereas the occurrence and impact of protein oxidation (Pox) in food systems have been ignored for decades. Currently, the increasing interest among food scientists...

  8. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rosa Sussel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo. Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3 with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly placed in a pond (180 m2, 1.5 m deep, 10% water renewal per day. After 63 days of cultivation, total count and individual biometrics from 20% of each experimental unit were taken. Mean weight, total length, survival, feed conversion, biomass weight gain and proximate body composition were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications. The reduction in the formulation cost achieved by increasing levels of vegetable protein compensated the slight decrease in biomass gain. Besides that, inclusion of vegetable protein resulted in greater fat deposition, suggesting future exploration of A. altiparanae as a functional food.

  9. Use of Proteomic Methodology in Optimization of Processing and Quality Control of Food of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Gašo-Sokač

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food of animal origin, namely meat, seafood, milk and milk products, is the main protein source in human nutrition. These types of food are very complex mixtures that contain proteins and other components, and proteomic techniques enable simultaneous study of several hundred up to several thousand proteins. The use of proteomic methodology for quality control and quality assessment in production as well as for the optimization and development of new manufacturing processes is presented. Newly developed, faster and more selective methods for sample preparation followed by more sensitive mass spectrometry for identification of less abundant proteins are discussed. These techniques will help to understand variations in production, and to find markers for food quality criteria. Furthermore, biologically active peptides in food of animal origin have recently been the focus of proteomic and peptidomic investigations. Isolation and production of biologically active proteins and peptides, including the low abundance ones, will also be a focus of future research. The use of proteomics, peptidomics and metabonomics for the determination of product quality and the detection of adulterations in meat production, seafood identification and in the production of milk and milk products is also discussed.

  10. Non-food applications of Jatropha protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how to gain more value per hectare Jatropha curcas by utilizing Jatropha protein for various applications. Specifically, this research investigated the extractability and functional properties of Jatropha protein for non-food/technical applications. Jatropha

  11. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... framework for a novel food in a regulatory context. Once admitted, edible insects require proper rules to assure consumers and stakeholders of their benefits and safety. This overview highlights the need to develop clearer legislation to govern the future production and consumption of new food in Europe...

  12. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  13. Animal DNA identification in food products and animal feed by real time polymerase chain reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Мар’янівна Іщенко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Approbation of diagnostic tests for species identification of beef, pork and chicken by real time polymerase chain reaction method was done. Meat food, including heat treated and animal feed, was used for research. The fact of inconsistencies was revealed for product composition of some meat products that is marked by manufacturer 

  14. Pea proteins based food products as meat replacers: the Profetas concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.; Meerdink, G.

    2001-01-01

    Profetas (Protein Foods, Environment, Technology and Society) is a Dutch trans-disciplinary research programme, aiming to develop more sustainable food systems. The central theme of the programme is the question: is a transition feasible from a diet based primarily on animal proteins to a diet based

  15. Food for Thought: The Translation of Culinary References in Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar González-Vera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food has traditionally been a cultural symbol reflecting historical roots in every country. It is precisely those cultural bonds that have made the translation of culinary references so difficult. The translation of food-related terms requires translators to consider, on the one hand, the cultural associations embedded in these terms, their meaning and function in the ST and, on the other hand, the translatability of the terms in the TT. As a socio-cultural phenomenon, food plays a fundamental role in the process of globalization in which we are immersed. We cannot disregard the fact that cultures are merging and that the introduction of new food terminology in our lexicon provides irrefutable evidence of globalization and acculturation. This paper focuses on the analysis of the role of food and its translation in the process of globalization. It analyses the relationship between food and culture in animated films like the Shrek saga, The princess and the frog, or Brave -films where food is not the focal point, but where it serves different purposes, such as acculturation, recreation of cultural identities and stereotypes, or humour. The analysis includes a study of the translation techniques applied in the dubbed versions of these films and their relationship to the process of domestication and foreignization in order to assess the social implications in texts aimed at a young audience.

  16. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing demand in proteins to feed the ever-growing world population has necessitated the industrialization and transportation of livestock using different means of transportation across several ecological zones with different climatic conditions. The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are ...

  17. Tissue protein metabolism in parasitized animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, L.E.A.; Steel, J.W.; Jones, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection of mammals, particularly of the small intestine of the sheep, on protein metabolism of skeletal muscle, liver, the gastrointestinal tract and wool are described. These changes have been integrated to explain poor growth and production in the sheep heavily infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The rates of both synthesis and catabolism of muscle protein are depressed, but nitrogen is lost from this tissue because the depression of synthesis exceeds that of catabolism. Anorexia is the major cause of these changes. Although the effect on liver protein synthesis is unclear, it is probable that the leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract stimulates an early increase in the rate of synthesis of these proteins, but this eventually declines and is insufficient to correct developing hypoalbuminaemia. Changes in the intestinal tract are complex. Exogenous nitrogen is reduced by anorexia, but the flow of nitrogen through the tract from abomasum to faeces is above normal because of the increase of endogenous protein from leakage of plasma protein and, presumably, from exfoliated epithelial cells. There is evidence that protein metabolism of intestinal tissue, particularly in the uninfected distal two-thirds, is increased. Synthesis of wool protein is decreased. As the result of anorexia, intestinal loss of endogenous protein and an increased rate of intestinal protein metabolism there is a net movement of amino nitrogen from muscle, liver and possibly skin to the intestine of the heavily infected sheep. Thus, the availability of amino nitrogen for growth and wool production is reduced. (author)

  18. The Potential of Animal By-Products in Food Systems: Production, Prospects and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Alao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of animal by-products has continued to witness tremendous growth over the last decade. This is due to its potential to combat protein malnutrition and food insecurity in many countries. Shortly after slaughter, animal by-products are separated into edible or inedible parts. The edible part accounts for 55% of the production while the remaining part is regarded as inedible by-products (IEBPs. These IEBPs can be re-processed into sustainable products for agricultural and industrial uses. The efficient utilization of animal by-products can alleviate the prevailing cost and scarcity of feed materials, which have high competition between animals and humans. This will also aid in reducing environmental pollution in the society. In this regard, proper utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta can result in cheaper feed, reduction in competition and lower cost of production. Over the years, the utilization of animal by-products such as rumen digesta as feed in livestock feed has been successfully carried out without any adverse effect on the animals. However, there are emerging gaps that need to be further addressed regarding the food security and sustainability of the products. Therefore, the objective of this review highlights the efficacy and effectiveness of using animal by-products as alternative sources of feed ingredients, and the constraints associated with their production to boost livestock performance in the industry at large.

  19. Consumer perceptions of food products from cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears...... probable, the next step is to combine transgenics with cloning, then the potential for controversy will be amplified....

  20. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  1. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  2. Concept of protection of food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijačević Zora M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently valid regulations (Official Gazette 26/2002 define the requirements for the quality of milk and milk products. The same legislature defines also the concept of composite products, that is, products in which part of the fat or proteins have been substituted with fat or proteins of different origin. A composite product must include the term composite in its name, and the part of the declaration which lists the contents of total proteins and fat must specify the part of plant proteins and fat in total proteins and fat of milk products. With the growth of the population and the concern for health, new requirements have been set, and consumers expect a food article to meet not only the nutritive requirements, but also to have certain functional characteristics, or that it is not burdened with components which have a negative effect on health (the presence of cholesterol, sodium chloride, a high percentage of saturated fatty acids. The complete substitution of one milk component results in a completely new product. A change in the traditional composition of a certain food article must be clearly declared, so as not to confuse consumers and to provide them with the possibility of choice. In our market, there have lately appeared products that are marked as imitations, alternatives, diet cheese, vegetable cheese. Modified products which do not meet the traditional identity standards must be marked as imitations, in case they are nutritionally inferior with respect to the traditionally standardized food articles, or as substitutes or alternatives, in the event that they are a nutritive equivalent to the traditional food articles. The lack of legal regulations for this category of product leads to the irregular declaration of such products, and consequently provides false information about the characteristics of such articles to the consumer. It is necessary to regulate this area with the respective laws in order to protect the consumer.

  3. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other

  4. A System Analysis of the Demand for Animal Protein in Rural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to quantitatively analyze the demand for animal proteins in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study examined the Effects of household's socio-demographic characteristics as well as price and expenditure elasticities of the share of meat and fish demand in the households' food basket. The study ...

  5. The fundament of food, crop protein production, is threatened by climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Income growth, urbanization, and changes in lifestyles and food preferences combined with continuing population growth lead to increasing demand for plant protein production worldwide. All the proteins we eat are produced by crops, including the proteins we get from animals, which initially come...

  6. Microalgae as a safe food source for animals: nutritional characteristics of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Navarro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible microalgae are marine or fresh water mesophilic species. Although the harvesting of microalgae offers an abundance of opportunities to the food and pharmaceutical industries, the possibility to use extremophilic microalgae as a food source for animals is not well-documented. Objective: We studied the effects of dietary supplementation of a powdered form of the acidophilic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis on growth and health parameters of laboratory rats. Method: Four randomly organized groups of rats (n=6 were fed a standard diet (Diet 1, control or with a diet in which 0.4% (Diet 2, 1.25% (Diet 3, or 6.25% (Diet 4 (w/w of the standard diet weight was substituted with dried microalgae powder, respectively. The four groups of animals were provided ad libitum access to feed for 45 days. Results: C. onubensis biomass is rich in protein (44.60% of dry weight and dietary fiber (15.73%, and has a moderate carbohydrate content (24.8% and a low lipid content (5.4% in which polyunsaturated fatty acids represent 65% of the total fatty acid. Nucleic acids are present at 4.8%. No significant difference was found in growth rates or feed efficiency ratios of the four groups of rats. Histological studies of liver and kidney tissue revealed healthy organs in control and C. onubensis-fed animals, while plasma hematological and biochemical parameters were within healthy ranges for all animals. Furthermore, animals fed a microalgae-enriched diet exhibited a statistically significant decrease in both blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The blood triglyceride content and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels decreased by about 50% in rats fed Diet 4. Conclusions: These data suggest that C. onubensis may be useful as a food supplement for laboratory animals and may also serve as a nutraceutical in functional foods. In addition, microalgae powder-supplemented diets exerted a significant hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic

  7. Local fall-out and the animal food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [fr

  8. Special low protein foods for phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena, Maria João; Almeida, Manuela Ferreira; van Dam, Esther

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Special low protein foods (SLPF) are essential in the nutritional management of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). The study objectives were to: 1) identify the number of SLPF available for use in eight European countries and Turkey and 2) analyse the nutritional composition of SLPF...

  9. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen

  10. 78 FR 20326 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration-Human and Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0126] Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration--Human and Animal Food; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  11. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (5): discrepancies between ingredients and labeling in commercial pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Mueller, Ralf S

    2018-01-22

    Elimination dietary trials for the diagnosis of adverse food reactions (food allergies) in dogs and cats are often conducted with commercial pet foods while relying on their label to select those not containing previously-eaten ingredients. There are concerns that industrial pet foods might contain unlisted food sources that could negate the usefulness of performing food trials. Furthermore, unidentified ingredients might cause clinical reactions in patients hypersensitive to such items. We searched two article databases on July 7, 2017 and January 12, 2018 for relevant articles, and we screened abstracts from the leading international veterinary dermatology congresses for suitable material. Additional citations were found in the selected papers. In all, we extracted data from 17 articles and one abstract. The studies varied both in the number of pet foods tested (median: 15; range: 1 to 210) and that of ingredients specifically evaluated (median: 4; range: 1 to 11). Studies most often employed either PCR to detect DNA or ELISA to identify proteins from one or more vegetal or animal species; two studies used mass spectrometry to increase the number of detectable proteins. The various methods found ingredients that were not on the label in 0 to 83% (median: 45%) of tested diets; this percentage varied between 33 and 83% in pet foods with "novel/limited" ingredients proposed for elimination diets. Similarly, ingredients were found to be missing from the label in 0 to 38% (median: 1%) of tested foods. Finally, six studies evaluated, among others, several hydrolysate-containing pet foods: mislabeling with unlabeled or missing ingredients was found only in one diet. The mislabeling of pet foods appears rather common, even in those with "novel" or "limited" ingredients proposed for elimination diets. Unexpected added ingredients are more frequently detected than those missing from the label. There is insufficient information to determine if the presence of a

  12. Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal Origin—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Flachowsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F’s. Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions. Therefore, this study´s objective was to calculate some examples of the land use (arable land and grassland for production of edible animal protein taking into consideration important animal species/categories, levels of plant and animal yields, the latter estimated with and without co-products from agriculture, and the food/biofuel industry in animal feeding. There are large differences between animal species/categories and their potential to produce edible protein depending on many influencing variables. The highest amounts per kilogram body weight are produced by growing broiler chicken followed by laying hens and dairy cows; the lowest yields in edible protein and the highest land need were observed for beef cattle. This review clearly indicates that the production of food of animal origin is a very complex process, and selective considerations, i.e., focusing on single factors, do not provide an assessment that reflects the complexity of the subject.

  13. Land Use for Edible Protein of Animal Origin-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-03-18

    The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F's). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions. Therefore, this study´s objective was to calculate some examples of the land use (arable land and grassland) for production of edible animal protein taking into consideration important animal species/categories, levels of plant and animal yields, the latter estimated with and without co-products from agriculture, and the food/biofuel industry in animal feeding. There are large differences between animal species/categories and their potential to produce edible protein depending on many influencing variables. The highest amounts per kilogram body weight are produced by growing broiler chicken followed by laying hens and dairy cows; the lowest yields in edible protein and the highest land need were observed for beef cattle. This review clearly indicates that the production of food of animal origin is a very complex process, and selective considerations, i.e., focusing on single factors, do not provide an assessment that reflects the complexity of the subject.

  14. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-05

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties.

  15. Model systems to study immunomodulation in domestic food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J A; Flaming, K P

    1990-01-01

    Development of immunomodulators for use in food producing animals is an active area of research. This research has generally incorporated aspects of immunosuppression in model systems. This methodology is appropriate because most of the research has been aimed at developing immunomodulators for certain economically significant diseases in which immunosuppression is believed to be an important component of their pathogenesis. The primary focus has been on stress-associated diseases (especially bovine respiratory disease), infectious diseases in young animals, and mastitis. The model systems used have limitations, but they have demonstrated that immunomodulators are capable of significantly increasing resistance to these important infectious disease syndromes. As our understanding of molecular immunology increases and as more potential immunomodulators become available, the use of relevant model systems should greatly aid advancement in the field of immunomodulation.

  16. Potency Of Bacteriocin For Animal Health And Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.

  17. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Woolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online

  18. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Peter J; Fu, Leeann L; Basu, Avik

    2011-04-22

    Indispensible amino acids (IAAs) are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online at http://www.foodwiki.com/vprotein.

  19. Food safety implications of ochratoxin A in animal-derived food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sofia C; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2012-06-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is an important mycotoxin with potential to reach the human food chain through carry-over of contaminated, mostly cereal-based, feed into animal-derived products. Certain population groups, such as infants and children, are intensive and relatively restricted consumers of some animal-derived products, particularly milk and other dairy products, which may become contaminated with OTA. This review examines the literature on the occurrence of OTA in animal-derived products and discusses the public health and food safety implications of consumption of these products. The risk of OTA contamination of meat, milk, blood and derived products is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 510.110 - Antibiotics used in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in food-producing animals. 510... Rulings and Decisions § 510.110 Antibiotics used in food-producing animals. (a) The Food and Drug... has requested an evaluation of the public health aspects of the use of antibiotics in veterinary...

  1. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments... food for human or animal consumption. As required by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), FDA... provide procedures for administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption under the...

  2. 78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...) entitled ``Criteria Used to Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that... detention of food for human or animal consumption which were established to implement changes to the FD&C...

  3. 21 CFR 501.3 - Identity labeling of animal food in package form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling of animal food in package form... § 501.3 Identity labeling of animal food in package form. (a) The principal display panel of a food in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity. (b...

  4. Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Mylrea, G E; Kahn, S

    2010-12-01

    In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen's impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with 'in-transition' economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010-2011 in a review of the OLE Terrestrial Animal/Health Code chapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginata was thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East.

  5. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bellagamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain processing conditions induces two important chemical changes, racemization of amino acids and formation of cross-linked amino acid. These changes are associated with appreciable reduction of protein digestibility and nutritional value. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of heat treatment on amino acid racemization in processed animal proteins of poultry origin and related nutritional implications by evaluation of their in vitro digestibility. The results reported confirm the detection of racemized amino acids in processed animal proteins, especially D-aspartic acid, as realistic indicators of thermal treatments during PAP manufacturing. In our results, the severe (115°C and prolonged heat treatment (180 minutes revealed a D-Asp content of 28.1%. Prolongation of temperature treatment (20, 30 and 180 min, at 115°C significantly (P<0.05 affects in vitro protein digestibility, which decrease from 86.0%, in no-treated sample, to 78.3% and 79.1% after 20 and 30 min, respectively, and to 76.3% after 180 min. The processing conditions applied during PAPs preparations and the racemization of proteins amino acids may reasonably be involved in the loss of protein quality.

  6. Effect of high plant protein cowpeas ( Vigna unguculata ) and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent trends in weight loss diets have been formulated that led to a substantial increase in protein intake. It has however been established that high protein intake impacts negatively on already compromised kidney, while its effect on a healthy kidney remains unclear. Our aim therefore was to study the effect of animal ...

  7. Evaluation of single cell protein for nutrition of farm animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oslage, H.J.; Schulz, E.

    1981-08-01

    For the production of microorganisms with high content of protein technologies on the basis of carbon rich substrates have been developed during the past years. Thus, signification of Single Cell Protein (SCP) for nutrition of farm animals has changed. While, in former times, yeasts were added only in small portions (1-2%) as vitamin supplementation today it is the aim to use microbial biomass as a protein component. The use of SCP as a feedstuff requires a careful physiological and toxicological evaluation as well as extensive investigations of possible use and frontiers of those products for farm animals. Topic of this work were bacteria, bred on methanol as well as yeasts, grown on alcanes and on whey/lactic acid respectively. SCP is preferently used as a feedstuff for poultry, pigs, calves and fishes. Digestibility and utilisation of protein is good till very good, for the a.m. animals, digestibility being between 75-93% and net protein utilisation (NPU) being between 60-76%. In rations of young animals (chicken, piglets and calves) contents of 5-10% SCP have been proved to be without any negative effect on acceptance, body gain, feed utilisation and mortality. For older animals SCP can be used as the only protein source beside the basic feedstuffs.

  8. Effects of chronic intake of vegetable protein added to animal or fish protein on renal hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroji; Fujita, Hiroki; Shimotomai, Takashi; Kagaya, Eri; Narita, Takuma; Kakei, Masafumi; Ito, Seiki

    2002-01-01

    To examine whether chronic intake of vegetable protein added to animal protein diet affects renal hemodynamics or not, we studied effects of three kinds of diets containing various amounts of animal and vegetable protein with 1-week dietary program in each on renal hemodynamics. The crossover design of different amounts of vegetable protein added to the constant amount of animal protein was applied to two groups of 7 healthy individuals after the control dietary program. Renal function and 24 hours' urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) were examined on every 7th day of three consecutive 1-week dietary programs. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR; sodium thiosulphate clearance) and renal plasma flow (RPF) significantly decreased after decreasing the intake of animal protein by one third with keeping the amount of vegetable protein constant. The results when substituting vegetable protein for some of the animal protein in the diet without changing the total amount of protein were identical. The filtration fraction and AER did not change over the study periods regardless of dietary composition. The lack of an effect a 1-week intake of vegetable protein added to animal protein on GFR and RPF suggests that vegetable protein may be excluded from lists of restriction in low protein diet therapy in patients with renal insufficiency. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Lisitsyn; I. M. Chernukha; O. I. Lunina

    2017-01-01

    The number of people with food hypersensitivity, namely food intolerance and food allergies, grows every year. Food intolerance is classified into following types: enzymopathy; leaky gut syndrome; psychogenic food intolerance; detoxification insufficiency and true food intolerance. Food allergens mainly are glycoproteins, haptensor polypeptides. Most cases of food allergy are IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Recent discoveries in medicine, detailing and classification of food hypersensitivity...

  10. Oral sensitization to food proteins: A Brown Norway rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Spanhaak, S.; Houben, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although several in vivo antigenicity assays using parenteral immunization are operational, no adequate enteral sensitization models are available to study food allergy and allergenicity of food proteins. Objective: This paper describes the development of an enteral model for food

  11. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  12. The safety assessment of foods from transgenic and cloned animals using the comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L

    2005-04-01

    The comparative approach to food safety assessment is based on the idea that the safety of a new food can largely be determined by its comparison to the benchmark of commonly consumed foods already in the food supply (also called the 'conventional counterpart'). Any differences between the new food and its conventional counterpart are evaluated to determine their relevance to human health and safety. In this way it is possible to conclude whether a new food is 'as safe as' conventional food already in the food supply. This approach, first developed primarily for use in the safety assessment of food from transgenic plants, is now generally accepted for food from both transgenic and cloned animals as well. This article outlines the basic principles behind the comparative approach, discusses some of the potential food safety concerns associated with transgenic and cloned animals, and describes important elements of the comparative approach and how these might be applied to assessing the safety of food from animals.

  13. Review: Optimizing ruminant conversion of feed protein to human food protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A

    2017-11-20

    Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets. Greenhouse gas emission intensity is reduced by increased productivity per animal; recent research has developed at least one effective inhibitor of methane production in the rumen. There is widespread over-feeding of protein to dairy cattle; milk and component yields can be maintained, and sometimes even increased, at lower protein intake. Group feeding dairy cows according to production and feeding diets higher in rumen-undegraded protein can improve milk and protein yield. Supplementing rumen-protected essential amino acids will also improve N efficiency in some cases. Better N utilization reduces urinary N, which is the most environmentally unstable form of excretory N. Employing nutritional models to more accurately meet animal requirements improves nutrient efficiency. Although smallholder enterprises, which are concentrated in tropical and semi-tropical regions of developing countries, are subject to different economic pressures, nutritional biology is similar at all production levels. Rather than milk volume, nutritional strategies should maximize milk component yield, which is proportional to market value as well as food value when milk nutrients are consumed directly by farmers and their families. Moving away from Holsteins toward smaller breeds such as Jerseys, Holstein-Jersey crosses or

  14. Hydrolyzed collagen (gelatin decreases food efficiency and the bioavailability of high-quality protein in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cantelli Daud BORDIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although deficient in all indispensable amino acids, gelatin is used in protein-restricted diets. Food efficiency and protein quality of casein and gelatin mixtures in low protein diets in Wistar rats were investigated. Methods The rats were treated with protein-restricted diets (10.0 and 12.5% containing casein (control diets, casein with gelatin mixtures (4:1 of protein content, and gelatin as sources of protein. The food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, relative and corrected protein efficiency ratio, true protein digestibility, and hepatic parameters were estimated. Results After 28 days of the experiment, food efficiency of 10.0% casein/gelatin diet decreased when compared to that of 10.0% casein diet, and the protein efficiency ratio of the casein/gelatin mixtures (10.0%=2.41 and 12.5%=2.03 were lower than those of the casein (10.0%=2.90 and 12.5%=2.32. After 42 days of the experiment, the weight of the liver of the animals treated with 10.0 and 12.5% casein/gelatin diets, and the liver protein retention of the 12.5% casein/gelatin diet group of animals were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion Gelatin decreases food efficiency and high-quality protein bioavailability in protein-restricted diets.

  15. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p animal welfare

  16. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  17. The Protein 4.1 family: hub proteins in animals for organizing membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Anthony J; Lu, Hui-Chun; Bennett, Pauline M

    2014-02-01

    Proteins of the 4.1 family are characteristic of eumetazoan organisms. Invertebrates contain single 4.1 genes and the Drosophila model suggests that 4.1 is essential for animal life. Vertebrates have four paralogues, known as 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, which are additionally duplicated in the ray-finned fish. Protein 4.1R was the first to be discovered: it is a major mammalian erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, essential to the mechanochemical properties of red cell membranes because it promotes the interaction between spectrin and actin in the membrane cytoskeleton. 4.1R also binds certain phospholipids and is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte transmembrane proteins that span multiple functional classes; these include cell adhesion molecules, transporters and a chemokine receptor. The vertebrate 4.1 proteins are expressed in most tissues, and they are required for the correct cell surface accumulation of a very wide variety of membrane proteins including G-Protein coupled receptors, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, as well as the classes identified in erythrocytes. Indeed, such large numbers of protein interactions have been mapped for mammalian 4.1 proteins, most especially 4.1R, that it appears that they can act as hubs for membrane protein organization. The range of critical interactions of 4.1 proteins is reflected in disease relationships that include hereditary anaemias, tumour suppression, control of heartbeat and nervous system function. The 4.1 proteins are defined by their domain structure: apart from the spectrin/actin-binding domain they have FERM and FERM-adjacent domains and a unique C-terminal domain. Both the FERM and C-terminal domains can bind transmembrane proteins, thus they have the potential to be cross-linkers for membrane proteins. The activity of the FERM domain is subject to multiple modes of regulation via binding of regulatory ligands, phosphorylation of the FERM associated domain and

  18. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonnikov Dmitry A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

  19. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... guidance for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  20. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  1. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    .... FDA-2009-F-0525] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid AGENCY...) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to... to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj of Finland. DATES: This rule is effective February 9...

  2. Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF...... foods. The dietary role of edible spiders needs to be further explored. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN19918531....

  3. Agency perspectives on food safety for the products of animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, H J; Jones, K M; Rudenko, L

    2012-08-01

    Animal biotechnology represents one subset of tools among a larger set of technologies for potential use to meet increasing world demands for food. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer continue to make positive contributions in food animal production. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performed a comprehensive risk assessment to identify potential food consumption or animal health risks associated with animal cloning, an emerging ART. At that time, FDA concluded that animal cloning posed no unique risks either to animal health or to food consumption, and food from animal clones and their sexually reproduced offspring required no additional federal regulation beyond that applicable to conventionally bred animals of the species examined. At this time, no new information has arisen that would necessitate a change in FDA's conclusions on food from animal clones or their sexually reproduced offspring. Use of recombinant DNA technologies to produce genetically engineered (GE) animals represents another emerging technology with potential to impact food animal production. In its regulation of GE animals, FDA follows a cumulative, risk-based approach to address scientific questions related to the GE animals. FDA evaluates data and information on the safety, effectiveness and stability of the GE event. FDA carries out its review at several levels (e.g. molecular biology, animal safety, food safety, environmental safety and claim validation). GE animal sponsors provide data to address risk questions for each level. This manuscript discusses FDA's role in evaluation of animal cloning and GE animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. [Production of human proteins in the blood of transgenic animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    The human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene has been microinjected into rabbit embryos. A line of transgenic rabbits has thus been established. Human alpha 1-antitrypsin was found in the blood of transgenic animals at the concentration of 1 mg/ml plasma. The human protein was active and separable from its

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Animal with Plant Protein Intake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to compare the preference, acceptability and consumption of animal and plant protein intakes in Adamawa State, northern eastern, Nigeria. Eight thousand well-structured questionnaires were administered across eight Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the northern zone of Adamawa State for a ...

  6. Animal Agriculture as Panacea for Increased Protein Intake in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's population is expected to increase from 6 billion to more than 7.5 billion by 2020. This burgeoning population may require a doubling of animal protein and a corresponding doubling of feed grains demand. Nigeria is currently the most populous black nation in the world with the threat of nutritional deficiency ...

  7. Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serratosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the

  8. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. Th...

  9. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons; Emily D. Dolan; Pamela Reid; Margaret R. Slater; Hugh Mulligan; Emily Weiss

    2018-01-01

    Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-m...

  10. Natural and artificial radioactivity in commercial food for domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The levels of natural radioactivity throughout the planet and their eventual consequences are studied by Environmental Radioprotection. Over the past years, the international agencies concerned with radiation protection have debated over the practices conducted so far, regarding the protection of the fauna and ora, which believed that the recommendations implemented for human beings assured that other species were also protected. Thus, assessments of the activity concentration of different radionuclides in the environment, as well as the absorbed doses for species from different ecosystems, due to internal and external exposures, are needed. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world and annually produces over 2 million tons of feed. The present work has investigated the radioactivity levels in commercial brands of dry dog and cat food, using high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results have shown activity concentrations for artificial radionuclides below the detector's Minimum Detectable Activity and also, low concentration levels for the natural radionuclides, varying from 0,9 ± 0,3 Bq/kg up to 5,1 ± 0,7 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, from 1,2 ± 0,4 Bq/kg up to 11,1 ± 1,0 Bq/kg for 232 Th and from 156 ± 7 Bq/kg up to 410± 19 Bq/kg for 40 K. In order to verify the mineral content in pet food, EDXRF technique was applied and, using multivariate statistics, correlations between the mineral and radionuclide content were verified. The good correlation observed between concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and calcium could be associated with meat and bone our used in feed manufacturing. The internal dose for some organs were inferred by Monte Carlo method and the results were no higher than 1 μGy/day. In summary, results have shown that the activity levels found in the pet food are low enough to conclude that the brands evaluated carry no radiological risks for the animals that consume them. (author)

  11. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  12. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    .... FDA-2012-F-1100] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5))), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2273) has been filed by DSM...

  13. 78 FR 77384 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    .... FDA-2013-F-1539] DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a petition proposing that the food additive... U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2276) has been filed by DSM...

  14. 76 FR 71248 - Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... aid to consumers in avoiding food allergies and other adverse reactions potentially caused by added... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 501 [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0025] Animal Food Labeling; Declaration of Certifiable Color Additives AGENCY: Food and...

  15. Food and animal characteristics relevant to the prediction of forage consumption and nutrient use in productive ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, J.D.; Eayres, H.; Emmans, G.C.; Hou, X.Z.; Illius, A.W.; Jessop, N.S.; Matthewman, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    A general model is presented of the relationships between animal and food characteristics which help lead to predictions of food consumption and animal performance. It is an important part of this scheme that equal weight is given to the description of food and animal characteristics. The results of some experiments are given suggesting that ruminants can select between feeds to meet their nutrient needs and that, in growing animals, the physical capacity to bite is an important determinant of grazing efficiency and ecology. Studies with growing lambs of the energetic efficiency of growth suggest that variation in the energy cost of protein accretion may be a more important determinant of overall energetic efficiency of growth than is conventionally supposed. In lactating animals that also exercise, milk protein and lactose yields fall during exercise and this effect is difficult to counteract by protein and/or starch supplementation of straw diets. Studies of forage substitution by supplements have not revealed differences in substitution rate with age in sheep. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Food Addiction and Binge Eating: Lessons Learned from Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of “eating addiction” are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways. However, while the drug addiction process has been highly characterised, eating addiction is a nascent field. In fact, there is still a great controversy over the concept of “food addiction”. This review aims to summarize the most relevant animal models of “eating addictive behaviour”, emphasising binge eating disorder, that could help us to understand the neurobiological mechanisms hidden under this behaviour, and to improve the psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment in patients suffering from these pathologies. PMID:29324652

  17. Food Addiction and Binge Eating: Lessons Learned from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta G. Novelle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered “addictive” under normal circumstances, people can become “addicted” to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of “eating addiction” are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways. However, while the drug addiction process has been highly characterised, eating addiction is a nascent field. In fact, there is still a great controversy over the concept of “food addiction”. This review aims to summarize the most relevant animal models of “eating addictive behaviour”, emphasising binge eating disorder, that could help us to understand the neurobiological mechanisms hidden under this behaviour, and to improve the psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment in patients suffering from these pathologies.

  18. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  19. Trends in recombinant protein use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifre, Laia; Arís, Anna; Bach, Àlex; Garcia-Fruitós, Elena

    2017-03-04

    Recombinant technologies have made possible the production of a broad catalogue of proteins of interest, including those used for animal production. The most widely studied proteins for the animal sector are those with an important role in reproduction, feed efficiency, and health. Nowadays, mammalian cells and fungi are the preferred choice for recombinant production of hormones for reproductive purposes and fibrolytic enzymes to enhance animal performance, respectively. However, the development of low-cost products is a priority, particularly in livestock. The study of cell factories such as yeast and bacteria has notably increased in the last decades to make the new developed reproductive hormones and fibrolytic enzymes a real alternative to the marketed ones. Important efforts have also been invested to developing new recombinant strategies for prevention and therapy, including passive immunization and modulation of the immune system. This offers the possibility to reduce the use of antibiotics by controlling physiological processes and improve the efficacy of preventing infections. Thus, nowadays different recombinant fibrolytic enzymes, hormones, and therapeutic molecules with optimized properties have been successfully produced through cost-effective processes using microbial cell factories. However, despite the important achievements for reducing protein production expenses, alternative strategies to further reduce these costs are still required. In this context, it is necessary to make a giant leap towards the use of novel strategies, such as nanotechnology, that combined with recombinant technology would make recombinant molecules affordable for animal industry.

  20. Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals...... animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption...... or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food...

  1. Efficacy of Food Proteins as Carriers for Flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.; Vincken, J.P.; Hijden, H.T.W.M.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Enrichment of flavonoids in food is often limited by their off-tastes, which might be counteracted by the use of food proteins as carriers of flavonoids. Various milk proteins, egg proteins, and gelatin hydrolysates were compared for their binding characteristics to two flavan-3-ols. Among the

  2. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flachowsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF, water (water footprint, WF and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF during the production process. The wide range of different land and water inputs per unit feed between various studies largely influences the results. Further influencing factors are species and categories of animals that produce edible protein, their yields and the feeding of animals. Coproducts with no or low humanly edible fractions and grassland as feed contribute to a lower need for arable land and lower LF, WF and CF. The most efficient land use or the lowest LF per kilogram of edible protein was estimated for higher milk and egg yields; the highest LF values were calculated for beef, followed by pork. The lowest WF and CF were calculated for edible protein of chicken meat and eggs. Edible protein from ruminants is mostly characterized by a higher CF because of the high greenhouse gas potential of methane produced in the rumen. A key prerequisite for further progress in this field is the harmonization of data collection and calculation methods. Alternatives to partial or complete replacement of protein of terrestrial animals, such as marine animals, insects, cell cultures, single-cell proteins or simulated animal products from plants, as well as changing eating patterns and reducing food losses are mentioned as further potential ways for more efficient feed production. For all those dealing with plant or animal breeding and cultivation and all those who are working along the whole food production chain, it is a major challenge to enhance the production of more food for more people with, at the same time, less, limited resources and

  4. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Pacheco, Laura; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2016-01-01

    One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly improved PDCAAS, animal growth, nitrogen retention, and PER primarily

  5. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Pacheco, Laura; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2016-01-01

    Background One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. Objective The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas. Design To comparatively assess differences in protein quality among maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, EAA compositions and in vivo studies with weanling rats were performed. The experimental diets based on regular or soybean-fortified food products were compared with a casein-based diet. Food intake, weight gains, PER, dry matter and protein digestibility, BV, NPU, and PDCAAS were assessed. The soybean-fortified tortillas contained 6% of defatted soybean flour, whereas the yeast-leavened bread flour contained 4.5% of soybean concentrate. Results The soybean-fortified tortillas and bread contained higher amounts of lysine and tryptophan, which improved their EAA scores and PDCAAS. Rats fed diets based on soybean-fortified maize or wheat tortillas gained considerably more weight and had better BV and NPU values compared with counterparts fed with respective regular products. As a result, fortified maize tortillas and wheat flour tortillas improved PER from 0.73 to 1.64 and 0.69 to 1.77, respectively. The PER improvement was not as evident in rats fed the enriched yeast-leavened bread because the formulation contained sugar that decreased lysine availability possibly to Maillard reactions. Conclusions The proposed enrichment of cereal-based foods with soybean proteins greatly improved PDCAAS, animal

  6. In vivo protein quality of selected cereal-based staple foods enriched with soybean proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Acevedo-Pacheco

    2016-10-01

    improved PDCAAS, animal growth, nitrogen retention, and PER primarily in both maize and wheat flour tortillas. Therefore, these foods can help to diminish protein malnutrition among children who greatly depend on cereals as the main protein dietary source.

  7. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Rosa Sussel; Elisabete Maria Macedo Viegas; Mariana Machado Evangelista; Giovani Sampaio Gonçalves; Fernando André Salles; Ligia Uribe Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo). Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm) were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3) with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly pla...

  9. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

    OpenAIRE

    Sussel,Fábio Rosa; Viegas,Elisabete Maria Macedo; Evangelista,Mariana Machado; Gonçalves,Giovani Sampaio; Salles,Fernando André; Gonçalves,Ligia Uribe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo). Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm) were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m³) with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly pla...

  10. Nutritional quality of rice bran protein in comparison to animal and vegetable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Wook; Chee, Kyu-Man; Cho, Seong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Rice bran protein (RBP) was prepared by alkali extraction and isoelectric precipitation from defatted rice bran. The protein quality of RPB was evaluated and compared to two vegetable proteins [soy protein (ISP) and rice endosperm protein (REP)] and two animal proteins [whey protein (WPI) and casein]. RPB contained 74.93% of protein and its pepsin digestibility and KOH solubility were 89.8% and 91.5%, respectively. In Sprague-Dawley rats, RBP showed protein efficiency ratio, net protein ratio, net protein utilisation, and biological value of 2.39, 3.77, 70.7, and 72.6, which were comparable to the qualities of animal proteins. The true digestibility of RBP (94.8%) was significantly higher than that of REP (90.8%), ISP (91.7%) and WPI (92.8%) and the same as that of casein. Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of RBP was 0.90. These results suggest that rice bran protein appears to be a promising protein source with good biological values and digestibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Silkworm feeding as the source of the animal protein for human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.

    Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have

  12. 21 CFR 501.100 - Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other delivery of a food which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed... shipment or delivery into interstate commerce is the operator of the establishment where such food is to be... keep a copy of such agreement until 2 years after the final shipment or delivery of such food from such...

  13. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods...

  14. MORC Proteins: Novel Players in Plant and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Koch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microrchidia (MORC proteins comprise a family of proteins that have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are defined by two hallmark domains: a GHKL-type ATPase and an S5 fold. MORC proteins in plants were first discovered via a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants compromised for resistance to a viral pathogen. Subsequent studies expanded their role in plant immunity and revealed their involvement in gene silencing and transposable element repression. Emerging data suggest that MORC proteins also participate in pathogen-induced chromatin remodeling and epigenetic gene regulation. In addition, biochemical analyses recently demonstrated that plant MORCs have topoisomerase II (topo II-like DNA modifying activities that may be important for their function. Interestingly, animal MORC proteins exhibit many parallels with their plant counterparts, as they have been implicated in disease development and gene silencing. In addition, human MORCs, like plant MORCs, bind salicylic acid and this inhibits some of their topo II-like activities. In this review, we will focus primarily on plant MORCs, although relevant comparisons with animal MORCs will be provided.

  15. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and often detrimental to their health and productivity. In spite of the numerous recommendations and guidelines by many countries on the welfare of animal transport order and ...

  16. Bacteriophages and their derivatives for the treatment and control of food-producing animal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carla; Costa, Ana Rita; Silva, Filipe; Oliveira, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the world is facing an increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Simultaneously, the banning of some existing antibiotics and the lack of development of new antimicrobials have created an urgent need to find new alternatives against animal infections. Bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment, with high host specificity and harmless to animals. For these reasons, phages and their derivatives are being considered valuable antimicrobial alternatives and an opportunity to reduce the current use of antibiotics in agri-food production, increasing animal productivity and providing environmental protection. Furthermore, the possibility of combining phage genetic material with foreign genes encoding peptides of interest has enabled their use as vaccine delivery tools. In this case, besides bacterial infections, they might be used to prevent viral infections. This review explores current data regarding advances on the use of phages and phage-encoded proteins, such as endolysins, exolysins and depolymerases, either for therapeutic or prophylactic applications, in animal husbandry. The use of recombinant phage-derived particles or genetically modified phages, including phage vaccines, will also be reviewed.

  17. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food... be amended to provide for the safe use of seed meal from a variety of bioengineered safflower in... Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of seed meal...

  18. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gameel, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  19. Animal husbandry and food production in China and Europe: A shared moral problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijboom, F.L.B.; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In China and Europe many millions of animals are used for food production. For both regions animal food production is considered to be important for both the internal market, but also for export. In spite of these similarities there are many differences. First, while in Europe there currently is a

  20. Plant Proteins Are Smaller Because They Are Encoded by Fewer Exons than Animal Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Ramírez-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein size is an important biochemical feature since longer proteins can harbor more domains and therefore can display more biological functionalities than shorter proteins. We found remarkable differences in protein length, exon structure, and domain count among different phylogenetic lineages. While eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 amino acid residues (aa, average protein sizes in plant genomes are smaller than those of animals and fungi. Proteins unique to plants are ∼81 aa shorter than plant proteins conserved among other eukaryotic lineages. The smaller average size of plant proteins could neither be explained by endosymbiosis nor subcellular compartmentation nor exon size, but rather due to exon number. Metazoan proteins are encoded on average by ∼10 exons of small size [∼176 nucleotides (nt]. Streptophyta have on average only ∼5.7 exons of medium size (∼230 nt. Multicellular species code for large proteins by increasing the exon number, while most unicellular organisms employ rather larger exons (>400 nt. Among subcellular compartments, membrane proteins are the largest (∼520 aa, whereas the smallest proteins correspond to the gene ontology group of ribosome (∼240 aa. Plant genes are encoded by half the number of exons and also contain fewer domains than animal proteins on average. Interestingly, endosymbiotic proteins that migrated to the plant nucleus became larger than their cyanobacterial orthologs. We thus conclude that plants have proteins larger than bacteria but smaller than animals or fungi. Compared to the average of eukaryotic species, plants have ∼34% more but ∼20% smaller proteins. This suggests that photosynthetic organisms are unique and deserve therefore special attention with regard to the evolutionary forces acting on their genomes and proteomes.

  1. Production of single cell protein (SCP) from food and agricultural waste by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Teresa; Pellizzeri, Vito; Calabrese, Giorgio; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-03-01

    Food waste is the single-largest component of the waste stream, in order to protect and safeguard the public health, useful and innovative recycling methods are investigated. The conversion of food wastes in value-added products is becoming a more economically viable and interesting practice. Food waste, collected in the distribution sector and citrus industries, was characterised for its potential as a raw material to use in fermentation processes. In this study, the production of single-cell protein (SCP) using food waste as a substrate was investigated. The purpose of this study has been to produce SCP from mixtures of food waste using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main fermentation test was carried out using a 25 l bioreactor. The utilisation of food waste can allow us to not only to reduce environmental pollution, but also to obtain value-added products such as protein supply for animal feed.

  2. Control and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that cause infections in humans is a threat to public health. The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals in the form of veterinary medicine and feed additives may lead to the emergence or spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin. In Japan, the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals is regulated by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and Feed Safety Law to minimise the risk of emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Since December 2003, all antimicrobials used in food-producing animals have been subjected to risk assessment by the Food Safety Commission. In addition, an antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme has been in place since 2000 to monitor the evolution of resistance to different antimicrobials in bacteria in food-producing animals.

  3. Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Cristina; Menozzi, Davide; Aramyan, Lusine H.; Valeeva, Natasha I.; Pakky, R.; Zimmermann, Karin L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market. Nonethel...

  4. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  5. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    .... FDA-2008-F-0151] Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in feed and...: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed the regulations for food additives...

  6. 77 FR 56175 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use in dry dog... is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2275) has been filed by Arcadia Biosciences, Inc., 202...

  7. Effect of soy protein/animal protein ratio on calcium metabolism of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gun Ae; Hwang, Hye Jin

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the effects of a ratio of soy protein to animal protein on bone metabolism of rats. Experimental groups were a high soy protein group (200 g of soy protein and 0 g of casein per kilogram of diet; HSoy), a middle soy protein group (100 g of soy protein and 100 g of casein per kilogram of diet; MSoy), a low soy protein group (50 g of soy protein and 150 g of casein per kilogram of diet; LSoy), and a no soy protein group (0 g of soy protein and 200 g of casein per kilogram of diet; NSoy). Calcium excretion and retention, biochemical parametrically related calcium metabolism, and bone mineral density were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS software. Urinary excretion of calcium was significantly high in the LSoy and NSoy groups, and there was no difference in absorption of calcium across experimental groups. Calcium retention was significantly higher in the HSoy and MSoy groups than in the LSoy and NSoy groups. Experimental groups showed no differences in the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The casein group (NSoy) showed a remarkably lower degree of serum osteocalcin concentration. The concentration of deoxypyridinoline in urine showed an increasing tendency, i.e., HSoy and MSoy protein/soy proteins, its concentration increases. Wet weight of the femur appeared to be significantly greater in the MSoy and LSoy groups than in the NSoy group. Ash content of the femur and bone density were highest in the MSoy group, with the ratio of 1:1 between soy protein and animal protein. This study indicated that deoxypyridinoline concentration was lower and the density of osteocalcin was higher in the MSoy group than in the NSoy group, and that calcium retention was high and bone mineral density was the highest in the MSoy group. The ratio of soy to animal protein that seemed to have the most positively significant effect on calcium metabolism was 1:1.

  8. Metallothioneins, Unconventional Proteins from Unconventional Animals: A Long Journey from Nematodes to Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu and non-essential (Cd and Hg trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1 homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2 detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3 free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation.

  9. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  10. Vegetable foods: a cheap source of proteins and peptides with antihypertensive, antioxidant, and other less occurrence bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M C; Puchalska, P; Esteve, C; Marina, M L

    2013-03-15

    Despite less explored than foods from animal origin, plant derived foods also contain biologically active proteins and peptides. Bioactive peptides can be present as an independent entity in the food or, more frequently, can be in a latent state as part of the sequence of a protein. Release from that protein requires protein hydrolysis by enzymatic digestion, fermentation or autolysis. Different methodologies have been used to test proteins and peptides bioactivities. Fractionation, separation, and identification techniques have also been employed for the isolation and identification of bioactive proteins or peptides. In this work, proteins and peptides from plant derived foods exerting antihypertensive, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, antithrombotic, and immunostimulating capacities or ability to reduce food intake have been reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 13638 - Ensuring the Safety of Imported Foods and Animal Feed: Comparability of Food Safety Systems and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... enhance the safety of imported foods and animal feed and lessons learned through equivalence... feed and fulfill its public health mission in a global age, it must embrace new approaches that take... third party provisions)? Maintaining Comparability Status 1. For cases where a country's food safety...

  12. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Yamatani, Shoich; Watahara, Masashi; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  14. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  15. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 mai 2016 ... Primary animal health workers in Laos learn to use smartphones in their practice. A smartphone application developed with IDRC support is helping primary animal health workers (PAHWs) in Laos PDR to quickly and accurately answer questions and treat poultry. The app is also helping farmers raise ...

  16. Conversion of Food waste to Single Cell Protein using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization of food waste into products like single cell protein is an alternative solution to global protein shortage and to alleviate pollution problems. This investigation was carried out with food wastes such as orange, pineapple, banana, watermelon and cucumber waste as growth media for A. niger using standard ...

  17. THE NATIONAL AUTHORITY FOR ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY, THE MAIN BODY INVOLVED IN FOOD SAFETY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRUTA-ELENA ISPAS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to present the role, functions and responsibilities of the National Authority for Animal Health and Food Safety as the main body involved in food safety in Romania. It will be also exposed the Regulation 178/2002 of the European Parliament and the Council, the general food ”law” in Europe, and Law 150/2004, which transposed into Romanian legislation Regulation 178/2002.

  18. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects.

  19. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Pasin, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals) that drive the relationship with T2DM risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on T2DM risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein) consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or T2DM risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or T2DM risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects. PMID:27455320

  20. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  1. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  2. The TALE face of Hox proteins in animal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir eMerabet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes are major regulators of embryonic development. One of their most conserved functions is to coordinate the formation of specific body structures along the anterior-posterior (AP axis in Bilateria. This architectural role was at the basis of several morphological innovations across bilaterian evolution. In this review, we traced the origin of the Hox patterning system by considering the partnership with PBC and Meis proteins. PBC and Meis belong to the TALE-class of homeodomain-containing transcription factors and act as generic cofactors of Hox proteins for AP axis patterning in Bilateria. Recent data indicate that Hox proteins acquired the ability to interact with their TALE partners in the last common ancestor of Bilateria and Cnidaria. These interactions relied initially on a short peptide motif called hexapeptide (HX, which is present in Hox and non-Hox protein families. Remarkably, Hox proteins can also recruit the TALE cofactors by using specific PBC Interaction Motifs (SPIMs. We describe how a functional Hox/TALE patterning system emerged in eumetazoans through the acquisition of SPIMs. We anticipate that interaction flexibility could be found in other patterning systems, being at the heart of the astonishing morphological diversity observed in the animal kingdom.

  3. Therapeutic evaluation of grain based functional food formulation in a geriatric animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Deepa; Joshi, Neena; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of wholesome grain based functional food formulation, on clinical and biochemical parameters in 24-30 months old Wistar albino geriatric rats, corresponding to human age 60-75 years. Animals were randomly divided into five, groups. Experimental diets were compared to the basal rat diet (Group I). Four food, formulation were-wheat based (Group II), finger millet based (Group III), wheat based, diet + fenugreek seed powder (Group IV), finger millet based diet + fenugreek powder, (Group V). These five types of diets were fed to the experimental rats for 6 weeks. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The results showed that, feed intake was influenced by the type of feed. Diets supplemented with, fenugreek (Group IV) caused a significant increase in serum hemoglobin. The total serum protein values were significantly highest in Group III. Total serum albumin was found to be lower in Group I and highest in Group II. The concentration of BUN was highest in Group I and the lowest in control diet. Serum cholesterol and glucose were significantly reduced in Group IV. Several hematological and serum mineral values were influenced by the type of diet. The type of diet did not influence the organs weight. A moderate hypoglycemic and hypercholesterolemic effect was observed in composite mix fed rats. This study clearly justifies the recommendation to use wholesome grain based functional foods for geriatric population.

  4. Food Import Demand: Meat, Dairy Products, Eggs and Live Animals in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Chomo

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop effective food import policies, it is necessary to understand the responsiveness of consumers to factors affecting import demand. These factors include consumer response to changes in import prices and income. In this study the authors develop economic models of import demand for three main product groups in Oman: meats, dairy and eggs, and live animals. These product groups have been identified as major sources of protein for the Omani population. In addition, these products have a history of domestic production and potential for reducing dependence on food imports. The results indicate that the estimated price elasticity of demand for meat products is elastic, which implies that an increase in price Will result in a decrease in revenues for meat import businesses However, the estimated price elasticity for imported dairy and egg products is inelastic. This implies that an increase in import price will result in an increase in revenues for dairy and egg import businesses. The estimated income elasticities for meat products and dairy and egg products were found to be less than one, suggesting that they are normal goods. A one percent increase in per capita incomes Will result in a less than one percent increase in demand for imported meat, dairy, and egg products These results have economic implications for growth and development of businesses in these important food import sectors.

  5. Protein dietary reference intakes may be inadequate for vegetarians if low amounts of animal protein are consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniskern, Megan A; Johnston, Carol S

    2011-06-01

    The health benefits of vegetarian diets are well-recognized; however, long-term adherence to these diets may be associated with nutrient inadequacies, particularly vitamins B12 and D, calcium, iron, zinc, and protein. The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) expert panels recommended adjustments to the iron, zinc, and calcium DRIs for vegetarians to account for decreased bioavailability, but no adjustments were considered necessary for the protein DRI under the assumption that vegetarians consume about 50% of protein from animal (dairy/egg) sources. This study examined dietary protein sources in a convenience sample of 21 young adult vegetarian women who completed food logs on 4 consecutive days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day). The daily contribution percentages of protein consumed from cereals, legumes, nuts/seeds, fruits/vegetables, and dairy/egg were computed, and the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score of the daily diets was calculated. The calculated total dietary protein digestibility score for participants was 82 ± 1%, which differed significantly (P bioavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  7. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance.

  8. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  9. Safety of Novel Protein Sources (Insects, Microalgae, Seaweed, Duckweed, and Rapeseed) and Legislative Aspects for Their Application in Food and Feed Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the

  10. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intensified Protein Structuring for more sustainable foods : Development of the up-scaled Couette Cell for the production of meat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.

    2016-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for protein-rich food of an ever growing population, plant-based proteins are being utilized in meat products as replacements for animal-based proteins. Legumes such as soy can serve as an alternative protein source, by featuring both high protein content (36%) and

  12. Food preference, keeper ratings, and reinforcer effectiveness in exotic animals: the value of systematic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalema, Diann E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Kelling, Angela S

    2011-01-01

    Food preference describes the behavior of selecting between items for consumption; reinforcer effectiveness is the functional effect of that item in controlling behavior. Food preference and reinforcer effectiveness were examined in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). A pairwise comparison between food items was used to assess food preference. High-, moderate-, and low-preference items were selected and tested for reinforcer effectiveness. High-preference items controlled behavior more effectively than less-preferred items. Caregiver ratings of food preferences were also collected for each subject, but these reports did not necessarily coincide with actual subject preferences. Caregiver ratings correlated with the food preferences of only 1 individual of each species; thus, preferences of 1 nonhuman animal may be falsely generalized to all animals of that species. Results suggest that food choice and reinforcer effectiveness should be investigated empirically and not rely on anecdotal reports.

  13. Nutritional strategies to combat Salmonella in mono-gastric food animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, A C; Wierup, M

    2012-04-01

    Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils

  14. The Food Production Environment and the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance in Human Pathogens of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Lekshmi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain. Human infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are increasing. Considering the human health risk due to emerging antibiotic resistance in food animal–associated bacteria, many countries have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the application in animals of antibiotics critically important in human medicine. Concerted global efforts are necessary to minimize the use of antimicrobials in food animals in order to control the development of antibiotic resistance in these systems and their spread to humans via food and water.

  15. Multiresidue analysis of antibiotics in food of animal origin using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastovska, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are the most important drugs administered in veterinary medicine. Their use in food-producing animals may result in antibiotic residues in edible tissues, which are monitored to protect human and animal health, support the enforcement of regulations, provide toxicological assessment data, and resolve international trade issues. This chapter provides basic characterization of the most important classes of antibiotics used in food-producing animals (aminoglycosides, amphenicols, β-lactams, macrolides and lincosamides, nitrofurans, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines), along with examples of practical liquid chromatographic-(tandem) mass spectrometric methods for analysis of their residues in food matrices of animal origin. The focus is on multiresidue methods that are favored by regulatory and other food testing laboratories for their ability to analyze residues of multiple compounds in a time- and cost-effective way.

  16. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    over- and under- nutrition), the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate guidelines and recommendations. Although it is often suggested ...

  17. Industrial food animal production and global health risks: exploring the ecosystems and economics of avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Otte, Joachim; Roland-Holst, David; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo; Rushton, Jonathan; Graham, Jay P; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2009-03-01

    Many emerging infectious diseases in human populations are associated with zoonotic origins. Attention has often focused on wild animal reservoirs, but most zoonotic pathogens of recent concern to human health either originate in, or are transferred to, human populations from domesticated animals raised for human consumption. Thus, the ecological context of emerging infectious disease comprises two overlapping ecosystems: the natural habitats and populations of wild animals, and the anthropogenically controlled habitats and populations of domesticated species. Intensive food animal production systems and their associated value chains dominate in developed countries and are increasingly important in developing countries. These systems are characterized by large numbers of animals being raised in confinement with high throughput and rapid turnover. Although not typically recognized as such, industrial food animal production generates unique ecosystems -- environments that may facilitate the evolution of zoonotic pathogens and their transmission to human populations. It is often assumed that confined food animal production reduces risks of emerging zoonotic diseases. This article provides evidence suggesting that these industrial systems may increase animal and public health risks unless there is recognition of the specific biosecurity and biocontainment challenges of the industrial model. Moreover, the economic drivers and constraints faced by the industry and its participants must be fully understood in order to inform preventative policy. In order to more effectively reduce zoonotic disease risk from industrial food animal production, private incentives for the implementation of biosecurity must align with public health interests.

  18. Better feed for animals means better food for people | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-08

    Nov 8, 2013 ... The team is supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint initiative of IDRC and Foreign Affairs, Trade and ... These crops deliver essential nutrients such as Vitamin A, which prevents stunting and immune deficiency and reduces susceptibility to malaria, blindness, ...

  19. EDITORIAL CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joint 'FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives'. The most recent meeting of this committee was held at the FAO headquarters in Rome between February 4th and 12th in the year. 2004. The proceedings of this meeting are available as the Sixty-second Report of FAO/WHO. (WHO Technical Series No. 925).

  20. Toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kough, John; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on the toxicological evaluation of proteins introduced into GM crops to impart desired traits. In many cases, introduced proteins can be shown to have a history of safe use. Where modifications have been made to proteins, experience has shown that it is highly unlikely that modification of amino acid sequences can make a non-toxic protein toxic. Moreover, if the modified protein still retains its biological function, and this function is found in related proteins that have a history of safe use (HOSU) in food, and the exposure level is similar to functionally related proteins, then the modified protein could also be considered to be “as-safe-as” those that have a HOSU. Within nature, there can be considerable evolutionary changes in the amino acid sequence of proteins within the same family, yet these proteins share the same biological function. In general, food crops such as maize, soy, rice, canola etc. are subjected to a variety of processing conditions to generate different food products. Processing conditions such as cooking, modification of pH conditions, and mechanical shearing can often denature proteins in these crops resulting in a loss of functional activity. These same processing conditions can also markedly lower human dietary exposure to (functionally active) proteins. Safety testing of an introduced protein could be indicated if its biological function was not adequately characterized and/or it was shown to be structurally/functionally related to proteins that are known to be toxic to mammals. PMID:24164515

  1. Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... transportation than others (Broom, 2003; Ferlazzo, 2003). Road transport conditions are known to influence the physiological responses of animals either as a result of psychological stress or physical fatigue (Lambooij et al.,. 1985; Brandshaw et al., 1996). The causes of road tran- sport stress are classified ...

  2. Advances in proteomics for animal and food sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal production and health (APH) are important sectors to the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the EU and in other continents. APH are highly competitive sectors with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit country to country variations, on s...

  3. Using smartphones to improve animal health and food security ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... Project staff and participating PAHWs set out to test the effectiveness of smartphone-based knowledge mobilization technology for building the capacity of PAHWs in animal farming practices. The app's language and navigation panel were simplified after local consultations. The prototype application is now ...

  4. Designing foods: animal product options in the marketplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ... of Animal Products Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the created cannot be files XML from however, formatting, recomposed typesetti...

  5. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Dolan, Emily D.; Reid, Pamela; Slater, Margaret R.; Mulligan, Hugh; Weiss, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Recent research has called into question the value of the food guarding assessment as a predictive tool for determining the safety of shelter dogs. This study examined the effect of eliminating the food guarding assessment in nine U.S. animal shelters. It was found that when the food guarding assessment was removed, bites or other injuries to staff or adopters did not increase. However, dogs exhibiting food guarding behavior were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized than dogs in the general population. Based on previous research and this study’s findings, the authors recommend that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. Abstract Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs) and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment. PMID:29419746

  6. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein engineering and its applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Swati; Rafiq, Aasima; Sharma, Savita

    2017-07-24

    Protein engineering is a young discipline that has been branched out from the field of genetic engineering. Protein engineering is based on the available knowledge about the proteins structure/function(s), tools/instruments, software, bioinformatics database, available cloned gene, knowledge about available protein, vectors, recombinant strains and other materials that could lead to change in the protein backbone. Protein produced properly from genetic engineering process means a protein that is able to fold correctly and to do particular function(s) efficiently even after being subjected to engineering practices. Protein is modified through its gene or chemically. However, modification of protein through gene is easier. There is no specific limitation of Protein Engineering tools; any technique that can lead to change the protein constituent of amino acid and result in the modification of protein structure/function is in the frame of Protein Engineering. Meanwhile, there are some common tools used to reach a specific target. More active industrial and pharmaceutical based proteins have been invented by the field of Protein Engineering to introduce new function as well as to change its interaction with surrounding environment. A variety of protein engineering applications have been reported in the literature. These applications range from biocatalysis for food and industry to environmental, medical and nanobiotechnology applications. Successful combinations of various protein engineering methods had led to successful results in food industries and have created a scope to maintain the quality of finished product after processing.

  8. Small-Scale Food Animal Production and Antimicrobial Resistance: Mountain, Molehill, or Something in-between?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Trueba, Gabriel; Zhang, Lixin; Johnson, Timothy J

    2017-10-16

    Small-scale food animal production is widely practiced around the globe, yet it is often overlooked in terms of the environmental health risks. Evidence suggests that small-scale food animal producers often employ the use of antimicrobials to improve the survival and growth of their animals, and that this practice leads to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can potentially spread to humans. The nature of human-animal interactions in small-scale food animal production systems, generally practiced in and around the home, likely augments spillover events of AMR into the community on a scale that is currently unrecognized and deserves greater attention. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2116.

  9. What Makes a Prion: Infectious Proteins From Animals to Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLea, K S

    2017-01-01

    While philosophers in ancient times had many ideas for the cause of contagion, the modern study of infective agents began with Fracastoro's 1546 proposal that invisible "spores" spread infectious disease. However, firm categorization of the pathogens of the natural world would need to await a mature germ theory that would not arise for 300 years. In the 19th century, the earliest pathogens described were bacteria and other cellular microbes. By the close of that century, the work of Ivanovsky and Beijerinck introduced the concept of a virus, an infective particle smaller than any known cell. Extending into the early-mid-20th century there was an explosive growth in pathogenic microbiology, with a cellular or viral cause identified for nearly every transmissible disease. A few occult pathogens remained to be discovered, including the infectious proteins (prions) proposed by Prusiner in 1982. This review discusses the prions identified in mammals, yeasts, and other organisms, focusing on the amyloid-based prions. I discuss the essential biochemical properties of these agents and the application of this knowledge to diseases of protein misfolding and aggregation, as well as the utility of yeast as a model organism to study prion and amyloid proteins that affect human and animal health. Further, I summarize the ideas emerging out of these studies that the prion concept may go beyond proteinaceous infectious particles and that prions may be a subset of proteins having general nucleating or seeding functions involved in noninfectious as well as infectious pathogenic protein aggregation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thresholds of allergenic proteins in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Knulst, Andre C.

    2005-01-01

    Threshold doses or Estimated Eliciting Doses (EEDs) represent an important new field of research in food allergy. Clinicians and regulators have embraced some toxicological concepts such as LOAEL and NOAEL and applied them to an area of significant clinical uncertainty and interest. The impact of intrinsic human factors (e.g., asthma and exercise) and extrinsic event factors (e.g., season, location and especially dose of allergen) on a future allergic reaction in the community needs to be considered carefully when interpreting results of clinical and research low-dose food challenges. The ongoing cooperation of food allergy research groups in medicine, food science and government will surely deliver results of the highest importance to the wider communities of allergology, food science and technology and the increasing number of allergic consumers

  11. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  12. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme D. Coles

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  13. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Longer Food Chains in Pelagic Ecosystems: Trophic Energetics of Animal Body Size and Metabolic Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Richard; Dowling, Natalie; Cohen, Joel E

    2016-07-01

    Factors constraining the structure of food webs can be investigated by comparing classes of ecosystems. We find that pelagic ecosystems, those based on one-celled primary producers, have longer food chains than terrestrial ecosystems. Yet pelagic ecosystems have lower primary productivity, contrary to the hypothesis that greater energy flows permit higher trophic levels. We hypothesize that longer food chain length in pelagic ecosystems, compared with terrestrial ecosystems, is associated with smaller pelagic animal body size permitting more rapid trophic energy transfer. Assuming negative allometric dependence of biomass production rate on body mass at each trophic level, the lowest three pelagic animal trophic levels are estimated to add biomass more rapidly than their terrestrial counterparts by factors of 12, 4.8, and 2.6. Pelagic animals consequently transport primary production to a fifth trophic level 50-190 times more rapidly than animals in terrestrial webs. This difference overcomes the approximately fivefold slower pelagic basal productivity, energetically explaining longer pelagic food chains. In addition, ectotherms, dominant at lower pelagic animal trophic levels, have high metabolic efficiency, also favoring higher rates of trophic energy transfer in pelagic ecosystems. These two animal trophic flow mechanisms imply longer pelagic food chains, reestablishing an important role for energetics in food web structure.

  15. [Study on recent status of development of genetically modified animals developed not for food purposes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Osamu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) animals can be classified into two groups, those developed for food purposes and those developed not for food purposes. We investigated the recent status of development of GM animals developed not for food purposes. Among the GM animals developed not for food purposes, GM fish, chickens, and pigs were selected because many articles have been published on these organisms. Relevant articles published between 2008 and 2011 were surveyed using PubMed and transgenic fish, chicken, or pig as keywords. Then, studies on organisms that could potentially contaminate the food chain with products from these GM animals were selected and analyzed. Fifteen articles on GM fish were found. These articles were classified into four categories: bioreactor (n = 4), resistance to microorganisms (n = 6), resistance to environmental stresses (n = 1), and detection of chemicals (n = 4). Zebrafish were used in 8 of the articles. Six, three, and three articles were reported from Taiwan, Canada and China. Seven articles on GM chickens were found. These articles were classified into two categories: bioreactor (n = 5), and resistance to pathogens (n = 2). Two articles were reported from Japan and Korea, each. As for GM pigs, 43 articles were found. These articles were classified into three categories: xenotransplantation (n = 36), bioreactor (n = 6), and environmental cleanup (n = 1). Nineteen, seven, six, and five articles were reported from USA, Germany, Korea and Taiwan, respectively. Understanding the recent development of GM animals produced not for food purpose is important for assuring the safety of food.

  16. Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate SL.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

  17. Raw food diets in companion animals: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, Daniel P.; Joffe, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Feeding of raw meat-based diets to pets has become an increasingly popular trend amongst pet owners. Owners, who desire to provide the best for their pets, seek veterinary opinions about food options. This paper reviews and applies standards of evidence-based medicine to grade the available scientific literature that addresses the nutritional benefits or risks, infectious disease risks, and public health implications of raw, meat-based pet diets. Although there is a lack of large cohort studi...

  18. Animal Protein intake and the Effect of age on the level of Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the items such as eggs, milk and poultry meat were not consumed in reasonable quantities due to poor economic situation of the family. The results suggested that except for the fathers, other groups such as mothers and children were consuming animal protein below the quantity required by them. JARD Vol.

  19. Food for Thought... on the Economics of Animal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    BOTTINI Annamaria; HARTUNG Thomas

    2009-01-01

    "Money makes the world go around". We all have heard this, but in the field of alternative methods, we use to talk about ethics, scientific progress, politics, animal welfare or consumer and environment safety. In this series of articles, however, we have occasionally come to issues which were difficult to separate from economical reasoning. Most obviously, the article on globalisation [Bottini et al. 2007] showed the resonance of a major economical trend and recent developments in the field ...

  20. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and protein by hydrolysis of the protein and feeding to industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds.

  1. Remote temperature monitoring and electronic identification in food animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, G.L.; Holm, D.M.; Sanders, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Two radiotelemetric systems were developed for remote monitoring of body temperature in livestock. A battery-powered transmitter system was developed as a laboratory tool for remote continuous monitoring of ear-canal temperatures in animals used in vaccine trials and in studies of livestock diseases. An automated data-recording and processing system was also developed. Pilot studies in cattle indicate that the system will be a valuable quantitative tool for vaccine testing and animal experiments. A second telemetry system was developed for widescale use in the livestock industry. It relies on an implantable passive (no batteries) transponder that is energized by an external source of microwaves to transmit temperature and decimal digit identification to a remote receiver. The animal identification feature, coupled with computers, offers the livestock producer unprecedented capabilities for efficient management of his operation. The temperature feature of transponders can aid in disease detection and control, disease diagnosis, and stress and ovulation detection. Its use for identifying temperature markers in disease and stress-tolerent breeding stock may be valuable in selective breeding programs.

  2. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...

  3. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Animal Welfare, Resource Use, and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.

    2000-01-01

    Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)

  4. Non-animal approaches for toxicokinetics in risk evaluations of food chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Ans; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to review the availability and predictive value of non-animal toxicokinetic approaches and to evaluate their current use in European risk evaluations of food contaminants, additives and food contact materials, as well as pesticides and medicines. Results

  5. Food Chains. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The food chain provides a clear example of how life continues year after year. Students learn how the cycle of energy starts with the sun,…

  6. Is antimicrobial administration to food animals a direct threat to human health? A rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna Mae; Beller, Elaine; Glasziou, Paul; Clark, Justin; Ranakusuma, Respati W; Byambasuren, Oyungerel; Bakhit, Mina; Page, Stephen W; Trott, Darren; Mar, Chris Del

    2018-04-13

    Large quantities of antimicrobials are given to food animals, especially in feed, potentially risking increased antimicrobial resistance in humans. However, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, for studies on interventions which limited antimicrobial use in food animals, in any setting and context, to reduce antimicrobial resistance 1) in those food animals; and 2) in humans. We validated our strategy by testing whether it identifies known relevant studies. Data from included studies were extracted into pre-designed and pilot-tested forms. We included 104 articles containing 93 studies. Heterogeneity (from different animal species, environs, antimicrobial classes, interventions, administration routes, sampling, and methods), was considerable, precluding meta-analysis. The evidence was therefore synthesised narratively. 89 studies (3 directly, 86 indirectly) addressed the question whether limiting antimicrobial exposure in food animals led to decreased antimicrobial resistance in those animals. The evidence was adequate to conclude this, although the magnitude of the effect could not be quantified; 4 studies (1 directly, 3 indirectly) examined the question of whether withdrawal of antibiotics changed resistance of potential pathogens in retail food for human consumption, and in bacteria of humans themselves. The direct (observational) study of broiler hatchery in ovo antimicrobial injection found a credible effect in terms of size reduction and time sequences. Limiting antimicrobial use in food animals reduces antimicrobial resistance in food animals, and probably reduces antimicrobial resistance in humans. The magnitude of the effect cannot be quantified. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  8. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scopin...

  9. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone

  10. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  11. An approach to including protein quality when assessing the net contribution of livestock to human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Knaus, W; Zollitsch, W

    2016-11-01

    The production of protein from animal sources is often criticized because of the low efficiency of converting plant protein from feeds into protein in the animal products. However, this critique does not consider the fact that large portions of the plant-based proteins fed to animals may be human-inedible and that the quality of animal proteins is usually superior as compared with plant proteins. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess changes in protein quality in the course of the transformation of potentially human-edible plant proteins into animal products via livestock production; data from 30 Austrian dairy farms were used as a case study. A second aim was to develop an approach for combining these changes with quantitative aspects (e.g. with the human-edible feed conversion efficiency (heFCE), defined as kilogram protein in the animal product divided by kilogram potentially human-edible protein in the feeds). Protein quality of potentially human-edible inputs and outputs was assessed using the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and the digestible indispensable amino acid score, two methods proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to describe the nutritional value of proteins for humans. Depending on the method used, protein scores were between 1.40 and 1.87 times higher for the animal products than for the potentially human-edible plant protein input on a barn-gate level (=protein quality ratio (PQR)). Combining the PQR of 1.87 with the heFCE for the same farms resulted in heFCE×PQR of 2.15. Thus, considering both quantity and quality, the value of the proteins in the animal products for human consumption (in this case in milk and beef) is 2.15 times higher than that of proteins in the potentially human-edible plant protein inputs. The results of this study emphasize the necessity of including protein quality changes resulting from the transformation of plant proteins to animal proteins when

  12. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    portions of pooled samples of the foodstuff. The results showed significant variation in heavy metal concentration among ... Urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods … 86 serve breakfast and lunch packages. In the ... portion of the food samples were homogenized, stored in pre-cleaned polythene containers and ...

  13. High-Protein Foods and Physical Activity Protect Against Age-Related Muscle Loss and Functional Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlee, M Loring; Mustafa, Jabed; Singer, Martha R; Moore, Lynn L

    2017-12-12

    Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models). Analyses were adjusted for such factors as age, education, height, smoking, and fruit and grain consumption). Higher intakes of protein-source foods (red meat, poultry, fish, dairy, and soy, nuts, seeds and legumes) were associated with higher %SMM over 9 years, particularly among women. Men and women with higher intakes of foods from animal sources had a higher % SMM regardless of activity; beneficial effects of plant-based protein foods were only evident in physically active adults. Active subjects with higher intakes of animal or plant protein-source foods had 35% lowest risks of functional decline. Among less active individuals, only those consuming more animal protein-source foods had reduced risks of functional decline (HR: 0.7l; 95% CI: 0.50-1.01). Higher intake of animal-protein foods, alone and especially in combination with a physically active lifestyle, was associated with preservation of muscle mass and functional performance in older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food and wild animal carcasses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, A; Gariano, G R; Gallina, S; Bianchi, D M; Orusa, R; Domenis, L; Cavallerio, P; Fossati, L; Serra, R; Decastelli, L

    2015-12-01

    Following the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in food-producing animals, both livestock and wildlife, and derived products, are considered potential sources of MRSA in humans. There is a paucity of data on MRSA in foods in Italy, and the data regarding wild animals are particularly scarce. A total of 2162 food samples collected during official monitoring activities in 2008 were analyzed for the detection of S. aureus. Also, samples from 1365 wild animals collected by the National Reference Center for Wild Animal Diseases in 2003-2009 were subjected to anatomopathological examination. S. aureus isolates were processed for phenotypic and molecular methicillin resistance determinations. S. aureus was found in 2.0% of wild animal carcasses and in 3.2% of wild boar lymph nodes: none showed methicillin resistance. The prevalence of S. aureus in food was 17.1%. Two MRSA strains, both from bulk tank milk (prevalence 0.77%) were isolated: the strains were resistant to tetracycline, had spa-type t899, and were negative for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. The low prevalence of MRSA suggests that the risk of transmission to humans via food is limited. However, attention should be paid to the cattle food chain, which may be a potential route of transmission of LA-MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food-grade protein-based nanoparticles and microparticles for bioactive delivery: fabrication, characterization, and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Joye, Iris J; McClements, David Julian

    2015-01-01

    Proteins can be used to fabricate nanoparticles and microparticles suitable for use as delivery systems for bioactive compounds in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and other products. Food proteins originate from various animal or vegetal sources and exhibit a wide diversity of molecular and physicochemical characteristics, e.g., molecular weight, conformation, flexibility, polarity, charge, isoelectric point, solubility, and interactions. As a result, protein particles can be assembled using numerous different preparation methods, from one or more types of protein or from a combination of a protein and another type of biopolymer (usually a polysaccharide). The final characteristics of the particles produced are determined by the proteins and/or polysaccharides used, as well as the fabrication techniques employed. This chapter provides an overview of the functional properties of food proteins that can be used to assemble nanoparticles and microparticles, the fabrication techniques available to create those particles, the factors that influence their stability, and their potential applications within the food industry. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, animal feed and food products of animal origin, in Portugal - Genetic analysis of isolates with reduced susceptibility/resistance to third generation cephalosporins and cephamycins

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Lurdes; Manageiro, Vera; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Ferreira, Eugénia; Correia, Ivone; Themudo, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Teresa; Caniça, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is a widely distributed foodborne pathogen and one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans. An epidemiologic study was conducted on 1600 Salmonella spp isolates recovered from poultry, swine, other animal species, animal feed and food products of animal origin, over the period of 2009-2013, to determine their serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility to a panel of ten antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, trimethopri...

  17. A protein diet score, including plant and animal protein, investigating the association with HbA1c and eGFR - the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Sluik, Diewertje; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score...... with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns...... Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope -0...

  18. Occurrence of Staphylococcal Ocular Infections of Food Producing Animals in Nsukka Southeast, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Ositadinma Udegbunam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal ocular infections of food animals have been somewhat under diagnosed probably due to the ubiquitous nature of staphylococcal organisms. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of staphylococcal ocular infections of food producing animals in Nsukka Southeast, Nigeria, and to determine the antibiogram of the isolated staphylococci. A total of 5,635 food producing animals were externally examined for signs of clinical ocular conditions. Animals that showed clinical eye lesions were further examined using pen light to assess the entire globe and the pupillary reflex. Blindness was assessed using menace blink reflex, palpebral reflex and obstacle methods. Isolation and identification of staphylococcal isolates from ocular swabs were done by standard methods. Antibiogram of the isolates was determined by disc diffusion method. Sixty-three (1.1% of the examined animals showed signs of ocular condition. Thirty-one (49.2% of the cultured swabs yielded Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Isolation rates from different animal species were caprine (60%, ovine (33.3%, bovine (12.5%, and porcine (0%. Resistance of the isolates was 100% to ampicillin/cloxacillin, 90% to tetracycline, 80% to streptomycin, 71% to chloramphenicol, 20% to erythromycin, 16% to gentamicin, and 0% to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Twenty-five (81% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. This study has shown that antibiotic-resistant staphylococci are associated with a sizeable percentage of ocular infections of food producing animals and should be considered during diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Dynamic rheology of food protein networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small amplitude oscillatory shear analyses of samples containing protein are useful for determining the nature of the protein matrix without damaging it. Elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and loss tangent (the ratio of viscous modulus to elastic modulus) give information on the strength of the netw...

  20. Differential Generalized Inverse Demand System estimation (DGIDS for animal protein in rural areas in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Ghorbani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Management will make a decision on the future market when economic interrelationships are considered as biological relationships. This paper presents a Differential Generalized Inverse demand system to explore the market of foods containing animal protein and the relationships between different strains of food market existing in the market are discussed in detail. Statistics needed to support the company's affairs and the livestock Statistical Yearbook of Agriculture from 1974 to 2011 was used. Inverse demand system estimated generalized differential (GIDS and test compound coefficients show that the best model for studying the demand for food containing protein villages in the country is the IAIDS model. The results showed that compensation cross elasticity indices estimated in the inverse demand substitution indicates IAIDS milk and eggs as well as meat and poultry. Quantitative Elasticity indices following theoretical foundations based on compensation were negative. This means increase in the price of any commodity its consumption drops. Meat and milk are essential products for rural consumers. The results of using the Allen elasticity of substitution also show that poultry is the best substitute for milk and vice versa. Also, poultry is the best substitute for red meat and red meat is the best substitute for eggs.

  1. The Impact of Excluding Food Guarding from a Standardized Behavioral Canine Assessment in Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many shelters euthanize or restrict adoptions for dogs that exhibit food guarding while in the animal shelter. However, previous research showed that only half the dogs exhibiting food guarding during an assessment food guard in the home. So, dogs are often misidentified as future food guarders during shelter assessments. We examined the impact of shelters omitting food guarding assessments. Nine shelters conducted a two-month baseline period of assessing for food guarding followed by a two-month investigative period during which they omitted the food guarding assessment. Dogs that guarded their food during a standardized assessment were less likely to be adopted, had a longer shelter stay, and were more likely to be euthanized. When the shelters stopped assessing for food guarding, there was no significant difference in the rate of returns of food guarding dogs, even though more dogs were adopted because fewer were identified with food guarding behavior. Additionally, the number of injuries to staff, volunteers, and adopters was low (104 incidents from a total of 14,180 dogs and did not change when the food guarding assessment was omitted. These results support a recommendation that shelters discontinue the food guarding assessment.

  2. Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Dina Fine; Smith, Tyler J S; Nachman, Keeve E

    2013-10-16

    The administration of antimicrobial drugs to food animals at low doses for extended durations for growth promotion and disease prevention has been linked to the global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Internationally, multiple jurisdictions have responded by restricting antimicrobial use for these purposes, and by requiring a veterinary prescription to use these drugs in food animals. Opponents of these policies have argued that restrictions have been detrimental to food animal production where they have been adopted. We surveyed the antimicrobial use policies of 17 political jurisdictions outside of the United States with respect to growth promotion, disease prevention, and veterinary oversight, and reviewed the available evidence regarding their production impacts, including measures of animal health. Jurisdictions were included if they were a top-five importer of a major U.S. food animal product in 2011, as differences between the policies of the U.S. and other jurisdictions may lead to trade barriers to U.S. food animal product exports. Jurisdictions were also included if information on their policies was publicly available in English. We searched the peer-reviewed and grey literatures and corresponded with jurisdictions' U.S. embassies, regulators, and local experts. Jurisdictions were categorized by whether they prohibit use of antimicrobials for growth promotion and/or use of antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. Of the 17 jurisdictions surveyed, six jurisdictions have prohibited both types of use, five jurisdictions have prohibited one use but not the other use, and five jurisdictions have not prohibited either use, while information was not available for one jurisdiction. Data on the production impacts of these prohibitions were limited, although available data, especially from Denmark and Sweden, suggest that restrictions on growth promotion use can be implemented with minimal production consequences. A majority of leading U.S. trade

  3. Analytical methods used for the authentication of food of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ouissam; Zadravec, Manuela; Baeten, Vincent; Mikuš, Tomislav; Lešić, Tina; Vulić, Ana; Prpić, Jelena; Jemeršić, Lorena; Pleadin, Jelka

    2018-04-25

    Since adulteration can have serious consequences on human health, it affects market growth by destroying consumer confidence. Therefore, authentication of food is important for food processors, retailers and consumers, but also for regulatory authorities. However, a complex nature of food and an increase in types of adulterants make their detection difficult, so that food authentication often poses a challenge. This review focuses on analytical approaches to authentication of food of animal origin, with an emphasis put on determination of specific ingredients, geographical origin and adulteration by virtue of substitution. This review highlights a current overview of the application of target approaches in cases when the compound of interest is known and non-target approaches for screening issues. Papers cited herein mainly concern milk, cheese, meat and honey. Moreover, advantages, disadvantages as well as challenges regarding the use of both approaches in official food control but also in food industry are investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conversion of Food waste to Single Cell Protein using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-13

    Mar 13, 2018 ... ABSTRACT: The utilization of food waste into products like single cell protein is an alternative solution to global protein shortage ... as orange, pineapple, banana, watermelon and cucumber waste as growth media for A. niger using standard techniques. ..... Waste to Wealth- Value Recovery from. Agrofood.

  5. Performance assessment of food safety management systems in animal-based food companies in view of their context characteristics: A European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Kirezieva, K.; Hagelaar, G.; Rovira, J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrently the question arises if efforts in food safety management system (FSMS) have resulted in effective systems in animal-based food production systems. The aim of this study was to gain an insight in the performance of FSMS in European animal-based food production companies in view of their

  6. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vangelis Economou,1 Panagiota Gousia2 1Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Food-Water Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to

  7. Electrospinning of food proteins and polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-microfibrous structures of biopolymers with a wide range of compositions, morphologies, mechanical properties and bioactivities could be developed using electrospinning technology. This review focuses on the processing, properties, functionalization and potential applications of electrospun...... biopolymers. Biopolymers include proteins (gelatin, collagen, elastin, silk, soy zein, gliadin, hordein, amaranth, casein, wheat, whey, marine sources proteins), and polysaccharides (chitosan, starch, alginate, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, pullulan, dextran, cyclodextrins)....

  8. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  9. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. The questions of the survey included items on production status and future production plans, functionality labeling, promotion plans, establishment of definition, the role of the government, consumer perception, and selection of products. The results show that both industry representatives and consumers believe that legislation and the provision of scientific evidence should be improved for the development of a functional animal-based foods market. The results obtained from this study will contribute to consumer trust by supplying correct information and can be utilized in the industry as basic data for the development of functional animal-based food products.

  10. Preferences for food safety and animal welare - a choice experiment study comparing organic and conventional consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid

    Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non-traded ...... that organic consumers have a higher willingness to pay for animal welfare than other consumers, but they are not willing to pay more than conventional consumers when it comes to their willingness to pay for avoiding campylobacter.......Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...

  11. Notes on sample preparation of food: food of plant and animal origins, and daily meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of food sample preparation to determine their specific radioactivity, analogous to chemical residue analysis, is laid down in the relevant sets of regulations. Several procedural steps of sample preparation of single food and composite food are dealt with. The sample size necessary for gamma spectroscopy and Sr-89/Sr-90 analysis, and the incineration step to enrich radionuclides are explained. Finally, enrichment by freeze drying of the high-volatile radionuclide I-131 is considered. (orig.) [de

  12. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  13. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Eagar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  14. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  15. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal versus vegetable protein sources in the diet on the development of behavior in laying hens. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with four diets, each containing one of four processed animal proteins

  16. Food protein-based phytosterol nanoparticles: fabrication and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wen-Jun; Ou, Shi-Yi; Lin, Wei-Feng; Tang, Chuan-He

    2016-09-14

    The development of food-grade (nano)particles as a delivery system for poorly water soluble bioactives has recently attracted increasing attention. This work is an attempt to fabricate food protein-based nanoparticles as delivery systems for improving the water dispersion and bioaccessibility of phytosterols (PS) by an emulsification-evaporation method. The fabricated PS nanoparticles were characterized in terms of particle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading amount (LA), and ξ-potential. Among all the test proteins, including soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), SC was confirmed to be the most suitable protein for the PS nano-formulation. Besides the type of protein, the particle size, EE% and LA of PS in the nanoparticles varied with the applied protein concentration in the aqueous phase and organic volume fraction. The freeze-dried PS nanoparticles with SC exhibited good water re-dispersion behavior and low crystallinity of PS. The LA of PS in the nanoparticles decreased upon storage, especially at high temperatures (e.g., >25 °C). The PS in the fabricated nanoparticles exhibited much better bioaccessibility than free PS. The findings would be of relevance for the fabrication of food-grade colloidal phytosterols, with great potential to be applied in functional food formulations.

  17. Dietary sources of animal and plant protein intake among Flemish preschool children and the association with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Henauw Stefaan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the intake of animal, plant and food group-specific protein, and to investigate their associations with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors in Flemish preschoolers. Methods Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from 661 preschoolers aged 2.5-6.5 y (338 boys and 323 girls. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between animal, plant, and food group-specific protein intake and socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results Animal proteins (mean 38 g/d were the main source of total protein (mean 56 g/d, while mean plant protein intake amounted to 18 g/d. The group of meat, poultry, fish and eggs was the main contributor (51% to animal protein intake, followed by milk and milk products (35%. Bread and cereals (41% contributed most to the plant protein intake, followed by low-nutritious, energy-dense foods (21%. With higher educated fathers and mothers as reference, respectively, preschoolers with lower secondary and secondary paternal education had lower animal, dairy-, and meat-derived protein intakes, and those with lower secondary and secondary maternal education consumed less plant, and bread and cereal-derived proteins. Compared to children with high physical activity levels, preschoolers with low and moderate physical activity had lower animal and plant protein intakes. Significantly higher potatoes and grains-, and fish- derived proteins were reported for children of smoking mothers and fathers, respectively, compared to those of non-smoking mothers and fathers. Conclusions The total protein intake of Flemish preschoolers was sufficient according to the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Parental level of education and smoking status might play a role in the sources of children's dietary proteins.

  18. Bioconversion of Radiation Processed Dried Tomato Pomace to High Protein Animal Fee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Diaa El-Din, M.; El-Niely, H. F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing expansion of agro-industrial activity over the last 50 years has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of organic residues all over the world that they have become a threat to the environment. Bioconversion of these wastes seems to be a practical and promising alternative for increasing their nutritional value, transforming them into animal feed and thus producing a value added product. Radiation processing has the capability to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria, insects and parasites, thereby increasing the utilization and sustainable management of waste organic matter from food production and processing while contributing to improve food quality and reducing the environmental impact of the wastes. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation treatment at 25 kGy and fermentation process by Aspergillus niger, on crude and soluble protein, amino acid profile, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of dried tomato pomace (DTP), the by-product of the tomato canning industry. The study has also, investigated the effect of supplementation of 30% of raw or processed DTP meal in food of male Albino rats for six weeks on body and liver weight evaluation and the effect on blood lipid pattern. The work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of DTP at 25 kGy and fermentation process has increased the nutritional value of treated DTP meal and improved the plasma and liver lipid pattern of rats. Therefore, the combination treatment has beneficial effects on recycling of DTP and permits it to be included in monogastric animals' food without any health hazard or nutritional problem

  19. Multiple Food-Animal-Borne Route in Transmission of Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella Newport to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of transmission routes of Salmonella among various food-animal reservoirs and their antibiogram is crucial for appropriate intervention and medical treatment. Here, we analyzed 3728 Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport isolates collected from various food-animals, retail meats and humans in the United States between 1996 and 2015, based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC toward 27 antibiotics. Random Forest and Hierarchical Clustering statistic was used to group the isolates according to their MICs. Classification and Regression Tree (CART analysis was used to identify the appropriate antibiotic and its cut-off value between human- and animal-population. Two distinct populations were revealed based on the MICs of individual strain by both methods, with the animal population having significantly higher MICs which correlates to antibiotic-resistance (AR phenotype. Only ∼9.7% (267/2763 human isolates could be attributed to food–animal origins. Furthermore, the isolates of animal origin had less diverse antibiogram than human isolates (P < 0.001, suggesting multiple sources involved in human infections. CART identified trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to be the best classifier for differentiating the animal and human isolates. Additionally, two typical AR patterns, MDR-Amp and Tet-SDR dominant in bovine- or turkey-population, were identified, indicating that distinct food-animal sources could be involved in human infections. The AR analysis suggested fluoroquinolones (i.e., ciprofloxacin, but not extended-spectrum cephalosporins (i.e., ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, is the adaptive choice for empirical therapy. Antibiotic-resistant S. Newport from humans has multiple origins, with distinct food-animal-borne route contributing to a significant proportion of heterogeneous isolates.

  20. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for investigation of the genetic association of Clostridium difficile isolates from food, food animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jane W; Tulenko, Mary M; Shutt, Kathleen A; Thompson, Angela D; Weese, J Scott; Songer, J Glenn; Limbago, Brandi M; Harrison, Lee H

    2011-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Diarrheal disease in food animals due to C. difficile infection has been well documented. Recently, reports of C. difficile infections in patients with no known risk factors for disease have raised concern of community acquisition through food animals and food. In this study, multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was performed on a collection of 97C. difficile isolates of human, animal and food origin belonging to either the North American pulsed-field type (NAP) 1 or NAP7/NAP8. MLVA discriminated between NAP1 and NAP7/NAP8 populations. Three clusters of food, food animal and human NAP1 isolates were highly related by MLVA. These data suggest the possibility of either laboratory contamination or widespread distribution of clonal C. difficile populations. Community-associated NAP1 isolates were unrelated to NAP1 food and food animal isolates. Two MLVA loci were absent and 1 was invariant in all NAP7/NAP8 isolates. Therefore, MLVA discrimination was not sufficient to make assessments regarding the genetic associations among food, food animal and human isolates belonging to the NAP7/NAP8 pulsovar. Rigorous epidemiologic and laboratory investigations that employ highly discriminatory genotyping methods are necessary to compare C. difficile isolates from food and food animals to those from humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Invited review: Resource inputs and land, water and carbon footprints from the production of edible protein of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this review is to analyze crucial factors in the output from the production of proteins in food of animal origin, such as milk, meat and eggs. We then consider inputs such as land, water, fuel, minerals and feed, as well as characterize emissions. Finally, we estimate footprints for land (land footprint, LF), water (water footprint, WF) and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., carbon footprint, CF) during the production process. The wide range of different land a...

  2. 78 FR 64428 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... approach applied to define a low- risk activity and low-risk activity/animal food combinations to determine... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 507 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-1043] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for...

  3. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed Ingredients AGENCY: Food and... amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the safe use of...

  4. Background on international activities on protein quality assessment of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, G Sarwar

    2012-08-01

    The subject of protein quality assessment of foods and diets was addressed at the Codex Committee on Vegetable Proteins (1982-1989), FAO/WHO (1989, 2001) and WHO/FAO (2002) expert reviews. These international developments are summarized in this manuscript. In 1989, a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Protein Quality Evaluation reviewed knowledge of protein quality assessment of foods, and specifically evaluated amino acid score corrected for protein digestibility, the method recommended by the Codex Committee on Vegetable Proteins. The report of the Consultation published in 1991 concluded that the Protein Digestibility-corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) method was the most suitable approach for routine evaluation of protein quality for humans. The Consultation recognized that the amino acid scoring pattern proposed by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) for preschool children was at that time the most suitable pattern for calculating PDCAAS for all ages except infants in which case the amino acid composition of human milk was recommended to be the basis of the scoring pattern. The rat balance method was considered as the most suitable practical method for predicting protein digestibility by humans. Since its adoption by FAO/WHO (1991), the PDCAAS method has been criticised for a number of reasons. The FAO/WHO (2001) Working Group on analytical issues related to protein quality assessed the validity of criticisms of the PDCAAS method. While recognizing a distinct regulatory use of protein quality data, the Working Group recommended that the PDCAAS method may be inappropriate for the routine prediction of protein quality of novel and sole source foods which contain high levels of anti nutritional factors; and that for regulatory purposes, the method should be revised to permit values of >100 for high quality proteins. In evaluating the recommendations of the Working Group, the WHO/FAO (2002) Expert Consultation on Protein and Amino Acid Requirements endorsed the PDCAAS method

  5. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food: effect on protein and amino acid digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernsbekk, M T; Tauson, A-H; Kraugerud, O F; Ahlstrøm, Ø

    2017-10-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein ingredients and extruded foods was determined with mink (Neovison vison). The extruded dog foods included a control diet with protein from PM and grain, and two diets where MSC or SPH provided 25% of the dietary CP. Nutrient composition of the protein ingredients varied, dry matter (DM) was 944.0, 358.0 and 597.4 g/kg, CP was 670.7, 421.2 and 868.9 g/kg DM, crude fat was 141.4, 547.8 and 18.5 g/kg DM and ash was 126.4, 32.1 and 107.0 g/kg DM for PM, MSC and SPH respectively. The content of essential AA (g/100 g CP) was more than 10.0 percentage units lower in SPH than in PM and MSC. The ATTD of CP differed (p  0.05) for MSC and SPH. In the extruded diets, the expected higher ATTD of CP and AA from replacement of PM with MSC or SPH was not observed. The ATTD of CP was determined to be 80.3%, 81.3% and 79.0% for the PM, MSC and SPH extruded foods respectively. Furthermore, the ATTD of several AA was numerically highest for the PM diet. Possibly, extrusion affected ATTD of the diets differently due to different properties and previous processing of the three protein ingredients. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Important Regulatory Aspects in the Receipt of Animal Products by Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials.

  7. Animating Domain-Specific Complex Knowledge : An Analysis of Organic Food Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication...... to communicate domain-specific knowledge of organic foods to a lay audience....

  8. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  9. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association.......The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant...

  10. DAE-BRNS symposium on nuclear applications in agriculture, animal husbandry and food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The DAE-BRNS-Symposium on Nuclear Applications in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Food Preservation was held at New Delhi during March 16-18, 1994. The symposium covered the role of nuclear and allied techniques in agriculture and animal husbandry research. Apart for use in producing induced mutations which are random in nature and for food preservation these techniques are also widely used in studies of agricultural and animal sciences like soil-water-fertilizer micro nutrients plant interactions. Besides these, nuclear techniques are used for exploring ground water resources and planning its optimum utilization, uptake, translocation, distribution and persistence of pesticide in soil plant system and animal nutrition, health, reproduction and productivity. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  11. Single cell protein production of Chlorella sp. using food processing waste as a cultivation medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D.; Ulhidayati, A.; Musthofa, I. A.; Wardani, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various food processing wastes on the production of single cell protein by Chlorella sp. Three various food processing wastes i.e. tofu waste, tempeh waste and cheese whey waste were used as cultivation medium for Chlorella sp. growth. Sea water was used as a control of cultivation medium. The addition of waste into cultivation medium was 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. The result showed that the highest yield of cell mass and protein content was found in 50% tofu waste cultivation medium was 47.8 × 106 cell/ml with protein content was 52.24%. The 50% tofu waste medium showed improved cell yield as nearly as 30% than tempeh waste medium. The yield of biomass and protein content when 30% tempeh waste was used as cultivation medium was 37.1 × 106 cell/ml and 52%, respectively. Thus, food processing waste especially tofu waste would be a promising candidate for cultivation medium for single cell production from Chlorella sp. Moreover, the utilization of waste can reduce environmental pollution and increase protein supply for food supplement or animal feed.

  12. From beef to beans: Eating motives and the replacement of animal proteins with plant proteins among Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Jallinoja, Piia; Latvala, Terhi

    2016-11-01

    A better understanding of the motives underlying the adoption of sustainable and healthy diets is needed for designing more effective policies. The aim of the study was to examine how eating motives were associated with self-reported changes in the consumption of beef, beans, and soy products, i.e., changes related to reducing animal and increasing plant proteins. The study analysed a survey of an adult population living in Finland (N = 1048). The eating motives were measured with the Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS), which distinguishes between 15 eating motives. Six clusters of consumers based on self-reported changes in food choices were identified with latent class analysis (LCA). Four clusters had established food consumption patterns ("Beef only", "Beef and beans", "Beef, beans, and soy products", and "No beef"), one was undergoing a change, and one had attempted a change earlier. ANOVA with planned contrasts revealed that the motives relating to natural concerns, health, and weight control were higher, and convenience and price lower, among those who had an established diet including beans and soy products, as compared to those who consumed only beef. Those undergoing a dietary change expressed a higher endorsement of natural concerns as well as health, sociability, social image, and price motives than those with an established diet including beans and soy products. The results suggest that eating motives play an important role in changing towards more sustainable food consumption patterns in which meat/beef is replaced with plant proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Detection of genetically modified organisms in food and animal feed by polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-chang; Yang, Ming-jie; Yang, Xing-fen; Huang, Jun-ming

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the foods and animal feed samples in Guangzhou market. The presence of GMO were investigated by PCR detection of camv 35S promoter and nos terminator, and the presence of RoundUp Ready Soybean (RRS), Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard in GMO-positive samples were further determined by PCR detecting their specific DNA fragments respectively. One corn soup sample, two soybean samples, one potato fries sample as well as two animal feed samples were revealed to be GMO-positive in twenty-two food samples and three animal feed samples, and the presence of RRS in the GMO-positive soybean samples and the two positive animal feed samples were verified by PCR detection of a 129 bp RRS-specific DNA fragment, however, no Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard specific PCR products were obtained with the GMO-positive corn soup and animal feed DNA samples used as PCR templates. Genetically modified organism presented in foods and animal feeds even though they were not been labelled.

  14. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Eagar

    2012-08-01

    Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  15. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  16. The radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the α,α'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The α,α'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the α,α'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasised. (author)

  17. Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1979-03-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the α,α'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The α,α'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and pathogenic toxins. All of the available data strongly suggest that the α,α'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized

  18. Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1981-12-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the α,α'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The α,α'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the α,α'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized

  19. Review of urban and suburban experiences of animal breeding as an alternative of food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Seija Flórez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban and suburban animal production in tropical countries is a valid strategy to improve human nutrition, family consumption, income generation, savings and living conditions. Through case studies experiences of breeding animal (pigs, aquaculture, dairy, poultry, rabbits and bees were reviewed in some cities around the world to help in solving problems of food supply in urban and suburban areas. It should highlight the constraints (political, legal, health and environmental and intervention strategies to find solutions to problems. It was concluded that the positive experiences from around the world can introduce considerations of sustainability in urban and suburban animal breeding.

  20. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Manipulation of Proteins in Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolouie, Haniye; Hashemi, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    -functional characteristics of processed foods and/or the physico-chemical properties of protein-based films. At the same time, some proteins are responsible for reduction in quality and nutritional value, and/or causing allergic reactions in the human body. This study is a review of the influences of different types...... of plasma on the conformation and function of proteins with food origin, especially enzymes and allergens, as well as protein-made packaging films. In enzyme manipulation with plasma, deactivation has been reported to be either partial or complete. In addition, an activity increase has been observed in some...... factors, including treatment power, time, and gas type, as well as the nature of the substance and the treatment environment....

  1. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  2. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively...... and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies....... with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude...

  3. Quality control on dairy farms with emphasis on public health, food safety, animal health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer concern about livestock production methodologies is increasing over the last decades due to various outbreaks of food-borne zoonoses and animal diseases. Quality assurance programmes in the different production chains have been installed by industry to counteract the problems occurring. The

  4. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBDG

    animal source foods can play in preventing and combating obesity and certain non-communicable diseases ... (sodium) and total energy, has been linked to overweight, obesity and subsequent diseases of lifestyle ... namely high blood pressure, excess body weight, high cholesterol, diabetes and physical inactivity. In.

  5. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; Pelt W van; Langelaar M; Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWS; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with

  6. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburgh S; van Oosterom R; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; van der Giessen A; van Pelt W; Langelaar M; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    Het rapport 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' beschrijft welke zoonosen in Nederland zijn opgenomen in een monitoringsprogramma, hoe vaak ze voorkomen, en wat er gedaan wordt aan onderzoek en bestrijding. Alle lidstaten van de

  7. New methodologies in screening of antibiotic residues in animal-derived foods: Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Cheng, Guyue; Ahmed, Saeed; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Xu; Hao, Haihong; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are leading medicine asset for fighting against microbial infection, but also one of the important causes of death worldwide. Many antibiotics used as therapeutics and growth promotion agents in animals can lead to antibiotic residues in animal-derived food which harm the health of people. Hence, it is vital to screen antibiotic residues in animal derived foods. Typical methods for screening antibiotic residues are based on microbiological growth inhibition and immunological analyses. However these two methods have some disadvantages, such as poor sensitive, lack of specificity and etc. Therefore, it is necessary to develop simple, more efficient and high sensitive screening methods of antibiotic residues. These assays have been introduced for the screening of numerous food samples. Biosensors are emerging methods, applied in screening antibiotic residues in animal-derived foods. Two types of biosensors, whole-cell based biosensors and surface plasmon resonance-based sensors have been extensively used. Their advantages include portability, small sample requirement, high sensitivity and good specificity over the traditional screening methods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Should we reject animal source foods to save the planet? A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the next 40 years, the global livestock industry will have to considerably increase production in order to supply the population with animal-source foods, yet the industry must concurrently improve the three metrics of sustainability – economic viability, environmental stewardship and social responsibility. Environmental ...

  9. With Protein Foods, Variety Is Key: 10 Tips for Choosing Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many egg whites as you want. Eat plant protein foods more often Try beans and peas (kidney, pinto, black, or white beans; split peas; chickpeas; hummus), soy products (tofu, tempeh, veggie burgers), nuts, ...

  10. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  11. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  12. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  13. Nitrogen retention and water balance in animals fed medium protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amount of nitrogen, in contrast to control animals that lost 2.4% nitrogen via the faeces. Inadequate drinking caused decreased excretion of urea. The improved nitrogen retention coupled with high rates of urea recycling enhances nutrients digestion and consequently the animals' absorptive capabilities. . (Afr. J. Biomed.

  14. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

    2005-01-01

    Digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala, and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94%). The presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fiber, and high concentrations of antinutritional factors in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, are responsible for poor digestibility of protein. The effects of the presence of some of the important antinutritional factors on protein and amino digestibilities of food and feed products are reviewed in this chapter. Food and feed products may contain a number of antinutritional factors that may adversely affect protein digestibility and amino acid availability. Antinutritional factors may occur naturally, such as glucosinolates in mustard and rapeseed protein products, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, phytates in cereals and oilseeds, and gossypol in cottonseed protein products. Antinutritional factors may also be formed during heat/alkaline processing of protein products, yielding Maillard compounds, oxidized forms of sulfur amino acids, D-amino acids, and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative). The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soybeans, kidney beans, or other grain legumes can cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 50%) in rats and pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in cereals, such as sorghum, and grain legumes, such as fababean (Vicia faba L.), can result in significantly reduced protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 23%) in rats, poultry, and pigs. Studies involving phytase supplementation of production rations for swine or poultry have provided indirect evidence that normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes

  16. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Keeve E; Smith, Tyler J S

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of hormones in breast cancer etiology, following reports that heightened levels of endogenous hormones and exposure to exogenous hormones and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals through food and the environment are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Seven hormone drugs (testosterone propionate, trenbolone acetate, estradiol, zeranol, progesterone, melengestrol acetate, and bovine somatotropin) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food animals. There is concern that these drugs or their biologically active metabolites may accumulate in edible tissues, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for consumers. To date, the potential for human exposure to residues of these compounds in animal products, as well as the risks that may result from this exposure, is poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss the existing scientific evidence examining the toxicological significance of exposure to hormones used in food animal production in relation to breast cancer risk. Through a discussion of U.S. federal regulatory programs and the primary literature, we interpret the state of surveillance for residues of hormone drugs in animal products and discuss trends in meat consumption in relation to the potential for hormone exposure. Given the lack of chronic bioassays of oral toxicity of the seven hormone compounds in the public literature and the limitations of existing residue surveillance programs, it is not currently possible to provide a quantitative characterization of risks that result from the use of hormonal drugs in food animal production, complicating our understanding of the role of dietary hormone exposure in the population burden of breast cancer.

  17. Food Processing: The Influence of the Maillard Reaction on Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Food Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Teodorowicz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR. Maillard reaction products (MRPs contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus influence consumers’ choices. However, in recent years, MRPs have been linked to the increasing prevalence of diet- and inflammation-related non-communicable diseases including food allergy. Although during the last years a better understanding of immunogenicity of MRPs has been achieved, still only little is known about the structural/chemical characteristics predisposing MRPs to interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs. This report provides a comprehensive review of recent studies on the influence of the Maillard reaction on the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food proteins.

  18. Food Processing: The Influence of the Maillard Reaction on Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Food Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; van Neerven, Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-08-04

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus influence consumers' choices. However, in recent years, MRPs have been linked to the increasing prevalence of diet- and inflammation-related non-communicable diseases including food allergy. Although during the last years a better understanding of immunogenicity of MRPs has been achieved, still only little is known about the structural/chemical characteristics predisposing MRPs to interact with antigen presenting cells (APCs). This report provides a comprehensive review of recent studies on the influence of the Maillard reaction on the immunogenicity and allergenicity of food proteins.

  19. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  20. An Overview on Recent Progress in Electrochemical Biosensors for Antimicrobial Drug Residues in Animal-Derived Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Yaqub, Mustansara; Rahim, Abdur; Catanante, Gaelle; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2017-01-01

    Anti-microbial drugs are widely employed for the treatment and cure of diseases in animals, promotion of animal growth, and feed efficiency. However, the scientific literature has indicated the possible presence of antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food, making it one of the key public concerns for food safety. Therefore, it is highly desirable to design fast and accurate methodologies to monitor antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food. Legislation is in place in many countries to ensure antimicrobial drug residue quantities are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) defined on the basis of food safety. In this context, the recent years have witnessed a special interest in the field of electrochemical biosensors for food safety, based on their unique analytical features. This review article is focused on the recent progress in the domain of electrochemical biosensors to monitor antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food. PMID:28837093

  1. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: pitfalls in the diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibas, George V; Tsabouri, Sophia; Makris, Michael; Priftis, Kostas N

    2014-11-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) represents the severe end of the spectrum of gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity; its acute episodes can culminate in severe dehydration and hypovolemic shock, and its chronic form entails considerable morbidity associated with feeding difficulty and failure to thrive. Nevertheless, awareness for this syndrome remains rather low. Many factors hamper the establishment of FPIES diagnosis. Such factors pertain to the pathophysiological mechanism of the syndrome, causal food proteins, clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, differential diagnosis considerations, and prevailing perceptions which may require critical appraisal. Throughout this review, we will present and discuss these issues and put the focus on factors that could lead to under-diagnosis of FPIES, cause numerous acute episodes, and substantially increase the diseases morbidity and financial burden. We will also address other issues that are clinically relevant to FPIES. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli of sequence type ST131 in animals and foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platell, Joanne L; Johnson, James R; Cobbold, Rowland N; Trott, Darren J

    2011-11-21

    Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has recently emerged as a globally distributed cause of extraintestinal infections in humans. Diverse factors have been investigated as explanations for ST131's rapid and successful dissemination, including transmission through animal contact and consumption of food, as suggested by the detection of ST131 in a number of nonhuman species. For example, ST131 has recently been identified as a cause of clinical infection in companion animals and poultry, and both host groups have been confirmed as faecal carriers of ST131. Moreover, a high degree of similarity has been shown among certain ST131 isolates from humans, companion animals, and poultry based on resistance characteristics and genomic background and human and companion animal ST131 isolates tend to exhibit similar virulence genotypes. However, most ST131 isolates from poultry appear to possess specific virulence genes that are typically absent from human and companion animal isolates, including genes associated with avian pathogenic E. coli. Since the number of reported animal and food-associated ST131 isolates is quite small, the role of nonhuman host species in the emergence, dissemination, and transmission of ST131 to humans remains unclear. Nevertheless, given the profound public health importance of the emergent ST131 clonal group, even the limited available evidence indicates a pressing need for further careful study of this significant question. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between plant proteins/enzymes and other food components, and their effects on food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenyan; Zhao, Guanghua; Ning, Yong

    2017-05-24

    Plant proteins are the main sources of dietary protein for humans, especially for vegetarians. There are a variety of components with different properties coexisting in foodstuffs, so the interactions between these components are inevitable to occur, thereby affecting food quality. Among these interactions, the interplay between plant proteins/enzymes from fruits and vegetables, cereals, and legumes and other molecules plays an important role in food quality, which recently has gained a particular scientific interest. Such interactions not only affect the appearances of fruits and vegetables and the functionality of cereal products but also the nutritive properties of plant foods. Non-covalent forces, such as hydrogen bond, hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction, and van der Waals forces, are mainly responsible for these interactions. Future outlook is highlighted with aim to suggest a research line to be followed in further studies.

  4. Strategies to enable the adoption of animal biotechnology to sustainably improve global food safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizard, Mark; Hallerman, Eric; Fahrenkrug, Scott; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina; Gibson, John; de Loos, Frans; Wagner, Stefan; Laible, Götz; Han, Jae Yong; D'Occhio, Michael; Kelly, Lisa; Lowenthal, John; Gobius, Kari; Silva, Primal; Cooper, Caitlin; Doran, Tim

    2016-10-01

    The ability to generate transgenic animals has existed for over 30 years, and from those early days many predicted that the technology would have beneficial applications in agriculture. Numerous transgenic agricultural animals now exist, however to date only one product from a transgenic animal has been approved for the food chain, due in part to cumbersome regulations. Recently, new techniques such as precision breeding have emerged, which enables the introduction of desired traits without the use of transgenes. The rapidly growing human population, environmental degradation, and concerns related to zoonotic and pandemic diseases have increased pressure on the animal agriculture sector to provide a safe, secure and sustainable food supply. There is a clear need to adopt transgenic technologies as well as new methods such as gene editing and precision breeding to meet these challenges and the rising demand for animal products. To achieve this goal, cooperation, education, and communication between multiple stakeholders-including scientists, industry, farmers, governments, trade organizations, NGOs and the public-is necessary. This report is the culmination of concepts first discussed at an OECD sponsored conference and aims to identify the main barriers to the adoption of animal biotechnology, tactics for navigating those barriers, strategies to improve public perception and trust, as well as industry engagement, and actions for governments and trade organizations including the OECD to harmonize regulations and trade agreements. Specifically, the report focuses on animal biotechnologies that are intended to improve breeding and genetics and currently are not routinely used in commercial animal agriculture. We put forward recommendations on how scientists, regulators, and trade organizations can work together to ensure that the potential benefits of animal biotechnology can be realized to meet the future needs of agriculture to feed the world.

  5. Economic approach to environmental sustainability of protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2006-01-01

    Intensive animal production systems in Europe, particularly in the Netherlands result in a series of environmental problems mainly due to manure surplus. This study aims to make contributions to identifying the solutions to the problems related to protein production and consumption. The first

  6. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  7. Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by rice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2013-05-14

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided.

  8. Combination of existing and alternative technologies to promote oilseeds and pulses proteins in food applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chéreau Denis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous world population growth induces a total protein demand increase based mainly on plant sources. To meet these global nutritional challenges, existing and innovative dry and wet fractionation processes will have to be combined to better valorise plant protein fraction from pulses and oilseeds. The worldwide success of soy protein isolates originate from the intrinsic qualities of soybean proteins but also from a continuous R&D effort since mid-twenty century. Therefore, the soy protein development model can be applied to protein isolates from diverse pulses and oilseeds meals as rapeseed which has already been recognised as novel food protein in Europe. To boost the delivery of plant proteins, agrofood-industries and academics must pool their respective expertise. Innovative and issue solving R&D projects have to be launched to better valorise pulses and oilseed proteins by (i creating oil extraction processes which preserve native proteins structure; (ii developing novel protein extraction processes from lab up to industrial pilot scale; (iii producing plant protein isolates having comparable foaming, emulsifying or gelling functionality than animal; and (iv generating hydrolysed proteins with high digestibility adapted to human nutrition. It is also essential to initiate research programs to innovate in wet and dry fractionations of plants or to design in vitro models to evaluate proteins digestibility and allergenicity. The increased awareness regarding plant protein valorisation resulted in the creation by agro-industries and academics of the open platform IMPROVE which propose a combination of competencies and equipment to boost market uptake of Plant Based Proteins.

  9. [Techniques and possibilities of traceability of food: genotyping of the domestic animal population as an innovative contribution to food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, G

    2004-07-01

    Traceability of meat has become a very important aspect of quality assurance of food. DNA analyses could be used for identification and verification of farm animals and animal derived products. A prerequisite is the collection of qualified samples from entire populations of production animals or from regionally or specially characterised animal populations. The expenditure for conventional carrying out collection, preservation, cataloguing, and storage would be enormous. Therefore we have developed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive method for the collection using the ear tagging process and for preservation of samples at room temperature. A similar collection technology can also be used for sampling of carcasses, meat and meat products. Isolation of DNA from these tissue samples can be preformed using a new single step technology. For identifying individuals microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms are analysed. Comparison of DNA fingerprints or SNP signatures allows to traceback samples collected from products to the animals they are coming from. If the system will be established on a nationwide basis the total costs would be less than 0.05 EUR per kilogram meat sold.

  10. Protein Enrichment of Familiar Foods as an Innovative Strategy to Increase Protein Intake in Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, J; de Roos, N M; de Groot, L C P G M

    2017-01-01

    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to reach a protein intake of 1.2 gram per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d). Intervention study with one treatment group (no control group). Dietary assessment was done before and at the end of a 10-day intervention. Two care facilities in Gelderland, the Netherlands: a residential care home and a rehabilitation center. 22 elderly subjects (13 women, 9 men; mean age 83.0±9.4 years). We used a variety of newly developed protein enriched regular foods and drinks, including bread, soups, fruit juices, and instant mashed potatoes. Dietary intake was assessed on two consecutive days before and at the end of the intervention, using food records filled out by research assistants. Energy and macronutrient intake was calculated using the 2013 Dutch food composition database. Changes in protein intake were evaluated using paired t-tests. Protein intake increased by 11.8 g/d (P=0.003); from 0.96 to 1.14 g/kg/d (P=0.002). This increase is comparable to protein provided by one standard portion of ONS. The intake of energy and other macronutrients did not change significantly. At the end of the intervention more elderly reached a protein intake level of 1.2 g/kg/d than before (9 vs 4). Protein intake significantly increased during breakfast (+3.7 g) and during the evening (+2.2 g). Including familiar protein enriched foods and drinks in the menu helped to meet protein recommendations in institutionalized elderly.

  11. Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein isolate and comparison of its physico-chemical properties with commercial animal and plant protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ângela A; Favaro, Simone P; Miranda, Cesar H B; Neves, Valdir A

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has a well-conserved protein arrangement and lower thermostability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mild and neutral pH. BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or in the development of new products of its own. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. An assessment of antimicrobial consumption in food producing animals in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitema, E.S.; Kikuvi, G.M.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are useful for control of bacterial infections in food animals and man. Their prudent use in these animals is important to control any possible development and transfer of resistance between animals and man. The objective of this study was to generate quantitative information...... to evaluate antimicrobial usage patterns by animal species, route of administration, antimicrobial class and type of use from 1995 to 1999 in Kenya. Theses data are essential for risk analysis and planning and can be helpful in interpreting resistance surveillance data, and evaluating the effectiveness...... of prudent use efforts and antimicrobial resistance mitigation strategies. Data on quantities of active substance classes were collected from the official records of the Pharmacy and Poisons Board of the Ministry of Health and analysed in MS Excel 2000 program. The mean antimicrobial consumption for the 5...

  13. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein micro-structuring as a tool to texturize protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Peters, J.P.C.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Structuring protein foods to control the textural properties receives growing attention nowadays. It requires decoupling of the product properties such as water holding capacity and the mechanical properties from the actual protein concentration in the product. From an application point of view,

  15. Protein enrichment of familiar foods as an innovative strategy to increase protein intake in institutionalized elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective
    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to

  16. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length...... of hospital stay. RESULTS: In IG, 76% versus 70% CG patients reached ≥75% of their energy requirements (P = 0.57); 66% IG versus 30% CG patients reached ≥75% of their protein requirements (P = 0.001). The risk ratio for achieving ≥75% of protein requirements: 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.7); number...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....

  17. Proper context: Comparison studies demonstrate that United States food-animal production antimicrobial uses have minimal impact on antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (US) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses "substantially drive" antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comparison...

  18. Multi-functional application of Moringa oleifera Lam. in nutrition and animal food products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falowo, Andrew B; Mukumbo, Felicitas E; Idamokoro, Emrobowansan M; Lorenzo, José M; Afolayan, Anthony J; Muchenje, Voster

    2018-04-01

    Research on the use of various parts of the Moringa oleifera Lam. plant (M. oleifera) as a nutritional and neutraceutical resource for human and animal diets has increased in recent years, emanating from the widespread use of the plant in traditional cuisines and medicinal remedies in several regions of the world. Analytical studies have identified M. oleifera as an important source of essential nutrients; rich in protein, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, with a relatively low amount of antinutrients. It is also a rich source of other bio active compounds including flavonoids and phenolic compounds; with several studies detailing demonstrated in vitro and in vivo functional properties, most substantially, antioxidant activities. Moringa oleifera consumption has been reported to improve the health status, feed conversion efficiency, growth performance and product quality of several livestock species, at dietary inclusion rates generally not exceeding 5% of total dry matter intake. Fortification of processed foods with M. oleifera has been reported to increase nutritional value, some organoleptic properties, oxidative stability and product shelf life; with a notable need for further analytical and consumer studies in the development of these products. There is a paucity of literature detailing clinical studies, nutrient bioavailability, toxicity and the mode of action of the bioactive compounds to which the health claims associated with M. oleifera consumption are attributed. Many of these are not yet fully understood; therefore more research in these areas is required in order to fully utilize the potential benefits of this plant in human and livestock nutrition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  20. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  1. REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FOOD SAMPLES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes by using Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 24 samples of food of animal origin without incubation were detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in 15 samples (swabs. Nine samples were negative. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in food of animal origin without incubation. This could prevent infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and also could benefit food manufacturing companies by extending their product’s shelf-life as well as saving the cost of warehousing their food products while awaiting pathogen testing results. The rapid real-time PCR-based method performed very well compared to the conventional method. It is a fast, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future.

  2. Virulence gene profiles of Arcobacter species isolated from animals, foods of animal origin, and humans in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, M Soma; Tumati, S R; Chinnam, B K; Kothapalli, V S; Sharif, N Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to detect putative virulence genes in Arcobacter species of animal and human origin. A total of 41 Arcobacter isolates (16 Arcobacter butzleri , 13 Arcobacter cryaerophilus , and 12 Arcobacter skirrowii ) isolated from diverse sources such as fecal swabs of livestock (21), raw foods of animal origin (13), and human stool samples (7) were subjected to a set of six uniplex polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Arcobacter putative virulence genes ( ciaB , pldA , tlyA , mviN , cadF , and cj1349 ). All the six virulence genes were detected among all the 16 A. butzleri isolates. Among the 13 A. cryaerophilus isolates, cadF, ciaB , cj1349, mviN , pldA , and tlyA genes were detected in 61.5, 84.6, 76.9, 76.9, 61.5, and 61.5% of isolates, respectively. Among the 12 A. skirrowii isolates, cadF, ciaB , cj1349, mviN , pldA , and tlyA genes were detected in 50.0, 91.6, 83.3, 66.6, 50, and 50% of isolates, respectively. Putative virulence genes were detected in majority of the Arcobacter isolates examined. The results signify the potential of Arcobacter species as an emerging foodborne pathogen.

  3. Validation of a Salmonella loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in animal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domesle, Kelly J; Yang, Qianru; Hammack, Thomas S; Ge, Beilei

    2018-01-02

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has emerged as a promising alternative to PCR for pathogen detection in food testing and clinical diagnostics. This study aimed to validate a Salmonella LAMP method run on both turbidimetry (LAMP I) and fluorescence (LAMP II) platforms in representative animal food commodities. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s culture-based Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method was used as the reference method and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was also performed. The method comparison study followed the FDA's microbiological methods validation guidelines, which align well with those from the AOAC International and ISO. Both LAMP assays were 100% specific among 300 strains (247 Salmonella of 185 serovars and 53 non-Salmonella) tested. The detection limits ranged from 1.3 to 28 cells for six Salmonella strains of various serovars. Six commodities consisting of four animal feed items (cattle feed, chicken feed, horse feed, and swine feed) and two pet food items (dry cat food and dry dog food) all yielded satisfactory results. Compared to the BAM method, the relative levels of detection (RLODs) for LAMP I ranged from 0.317 to 1 with a combined value of 0.610, while those for LAMP II ranged from 0.394 to 1.152 with a combined value of 0.783, which all fell within the acceptability limit (2.5) for an unpaired study. This also suggests that LAMP was more sensitive than the BAM method at detecting low-level Salmonella contamination in animal food and results were available 3days sooner. The performance of LAMP on both platforms was comparable to that of qPCR but notably faster, particularly LAMP II. Given the importance of Salmonella in animal food safety, the LAMP assays validated in this study holds great promise as a rapid, reliable, and robust method for routine screening of Salmonella in these commodities. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of

  5. Households across All Income Quintiles, Especially the Poorest, Increased Animal Source Food Expenditures Substantially during Recent Peruvian Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L.; Behrman, Jere R.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. Objective To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. Methods The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Results Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Conclusions Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF

  6. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  8. High beverage sugar as well as high animal protein intake at infancy may increase overweight risk at 8 years: a prospective longitudinal pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.M.; Kool, L.M.; van Baar, N.M.; van der Zee, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Combined effects of early exposure to beverage sugar and animal protein and later life overweight risk have not been studied. Methods. A prospective longitudinal study was initiated in 2001 with 226 infants between 4 and 13 months of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a 2 day food

  9. Effect of dietary vegetable and animal proteins on atherothrombosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawashita, Naoko; Naemura, Aki; Shimizu, Muneshige; Morimatsu, Fumitake; Ijiri, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Junichiro

    2006-06-01

    It is believed that vegetable and fish, but not animal, proteins prevent thrombosis. The present study compared the effect of long-term intake of purified vegetable and animal proteins (casein, pork, egg white, chicken, white and red fish, soybean, and potato) and powders from whole vegetable and animal meats (soybean, pork, chicken, and horse mackerel) on thrombotic tendency. Western-style high-fat diets with various proteins were given to mice deficient in apolipoprotein-E and low-density lipoprotein receptor for 8 or 12 wk. Thrombotic tendency was assessed by a laser-induced thrombosis test, severity of atherosclerosis was assessed by morphometric analysis of the aortic lesions, and reactivity of platelets was measured by a shear-induced platelet function test. There was no difference in thrombotic tendency between the vegetable and animal protein diets with the exception of pork protein, which showed a prothrombotic effect. The latter was not observed in animals kept on a high-protein diet. Thrombotic tendency was not affected by preparation of dietary powders from whole pork, chicken, or horse mackerel meats and casein (control), all of which contained the same percentages of protein and lipid. In contrast, soybean powder showed an antithrombotic effect, which was mainly due to an inhibition of atherogenesis rather than to platelet inhibition. Neither the purified animal nor the vegetable protein diet affected thrombotic tendency. Soybean powder inhibited atherothrombosis mainly by inhibiting the atherosclerotic process.

  10. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    2009-01-01

    International audience; GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal fo...

  11. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary......By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...

  12. Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Guerra, Beatriz; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2018-04-08

    Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS) are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical "last resort" antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Enterobacter , which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients), carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS. Nevertheless, it has already been detected in isolates recovered from humans, companion animals, livestock, wild animals, and food. Five carbapenemases with major clinical importance-namely KPC ( Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) (class A), IMP (imipenemase), NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase), VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase) (class B), and OXA-48 (oxacillinase, class D)-have been reported in NTS. Carbapenem resistance due to the production of extended spectrum- or AmpC β-lactamases combined with porin loss has also been detected in NTS. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (which are frequently located on self-transferable plasmids), together with co- and cross-selective adaptations, could have been involved in the development of carbapenem resistance by NTS. Once acquired by a zoonotic bacterium, resistance can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans through the food chain. Continuous surveillance of resistance to these "last resort" antibiotics is required to establish possible links between reservoirs and to limit the bidirectional transfer of the encoding genes between S. enterica and other commensal or pathogenic bacteria.

  13. [Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp isolated animal food for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Adriana; Reginatto, Gabriel A; Ruiz Español, Ayelen; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Burrone, María Soledad

    2016-03-01

    To analyze all information available on antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella species isolated from foods of animal origin that are used for human consumption in Latin America. A systematic review of observational epidemiological studies conducted in Latin America between 2003 and 2014 was carried out using the PubMed and LILACS databases. Studies conducted as part of analyses of outbreaks or cases of human infection were not included. Three reviewers independently participated in the study selection. Additionally, the studies included underwent quality assessment. A total of 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies included were conducted in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Salmonella spp. isolates were obtained mainly from animal-based foods derived from cattle, swine, and poultry, revealing that Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis were the most frequently isolated serotypes (17 and 11 studies, respectively). In 23 studies, Salmonella spp. showed resistance to more than one antibiotic, including nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and cephalosporins. Salmonella spp. isolates obtained mainly from animal-based foods for human consumption in the countries analyzed often show resistance to several antibiotics. It is important that more countries in Latin America carry out and publish studies on Salmonella spp. resistance in order to establish and monitor adequate control strategies.

  14. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of Campylobacter species in foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the prevalence and evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Campylobacter species isolated from foods of animal origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 samples (comprising 150 chicken meat, 50 chevon and 80 milk were collected from retail meat markets, slaughter houses and dairy farms and analyzed for isolation of Campylobacter species. A total of 29 isolates comprising 23 Campylobacter jejuni and 6 Campylobacter coli were recovered, characterized biochemically and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. These isolates were then tested for antibiotic resistance pattern through disc diffusion method, and MIC was assessed by MIC strips. The antibiotic resistance assessment was performed against 8 antibiotics viz. ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and norfloxacin. Results: The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat, chevon and milk samples were observed 17.33%, 6% and 0%, respectively. All the isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole but sensitive to erythromycin. All the isolates showed different resistance pattern for the rest of the antibiotics. MIC results revealed that all the isolates were within prescribed concentrations for sensitivity for the antibiotics tested. Conclusions: The foods of animal origin are source of Campylobacter infections to human beings. Thus, the development of antibiotic-resistant strains emphasizes the requirement of better surveillance and monitoring of the foods of animal origin and the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine require careful regulation.

  15. Carotenoid deposition in plant and animal foods and its impact on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2017-06-13

    Over the past decades, an enormous body of literature dealing with the natural deposition of carotenoids in plant- and animal-based foods has accumulated. Prominent examples are the large solid-crystalline aggregates in carrots and tomatoes or the lipid-dissolved forms in dairy products and egg yolk. Latest research has identified lipid-dissolved forms in a rare number of plant foods, such as tangerine tomatoes and peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes Kunth). In addition, liquid-crystalline forms were assumed in so-called tubular chromoplasts of numerous fruits, e.g., in papaya, mango, and bell pepper. The bioavailability of carotenoids from fresh and processed foods strongly depends on their genuine deposition form, since their effective absorption to the human organism requires their liberation from the food matrix and subsequent solubilization into mixed micelles in the small intestine. Consequently, a broad overview about the natural array of carotenoid deposition forms should be helpful to better understand and modulate their bioavailability from foods. Furthermore, naturally highly bioavailable forms may provide biomimetic models for the improved formulation of carotenoids in food supplements. Therefore, this review paper presents scientific evidence from human intervention studies associating carotenoid deposition forms with their bioavailability, thus suggesting novel technological and dietary strategies for their enhanced absorption.

  16. Differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Claps, Alessia; Dahdah, Lamia; Brindisi, Giulia; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Martelli, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    To assess all the possible differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), both in acute and chronic presentation, reviewing the data reported in published studies. There is an increase of reported cases of FPIES in recent years. As the disease presents with nonspecific symptoms, it can be misunderstood in many ways. The differential diagnosis includes, in acute presentations, the following: sepsis, other infectious diseases, acute gastrointestinal episodes, surgical emergencies, food allergies. In its chronic forms, FPIES may mimic malabsorption syndromes, metabolic disorders, primary immunodeficiencies, neurological conditions, coagulation defects, and other types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. A thorough clinical evaluation, including symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings, is necessary to lead the clinicians toward the diagnosis of FPIES. The major reason for delayed diagnosis appears to be the lack of knowledge of the disease.

  17. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP, but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein and BP. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN. Results: More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P < 0.001; however, after adjustment for potential confounders this relationship remained only for plant protein (P = 0.04. The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65–0.96]; P for trend = 0.004 and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67–0.94]; P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  18. A nutribusiness strategy for processing and marketing animal-source foods for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward W; Seetharaman, Koushik; Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional benefits of animal source foods in the diets of children in developing countries indicate a need to increase the availability of such foods to young children. A nutribusiness strategy based on a dried meat and starch product could be used to increase children's access to such foods. The "Chiparoo" was developed at The Pennsylvania State University with this objective in mind. Plant-based and meat ingredients of the Chiparoo are chosen based on regional availability and cultural acceptability. Chiparoo processing procedures, including solar drying, are designed to ensure product safety and to provide product properties that allow them to be eaten as a snack or crumbled into a weaning porridge. Continued work is needed to develop formulation and processing variations that accommodate the needs of cultures around the world.

  19. A Bayesian approach to quantify the contribution of animal-food sources to human salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Vose, D.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused...... salmonellosis was also included. The joint posterior distribution was estimated by fitting the model to the reported number of domestic and sporadic cases per Salmonella type in a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The number of domestic and sporadic cases was obtained by subtracting.......8-10.4%) of the cases, respectively. Taken together, imported foods were estimated to account for 11.8% (95% CI: 5.0-19.0%) of the cases. Other food sources considered had only a minor impact, whereas 25% of the cases could not be associated with any source. This approach of quantifying the contribution of the various...

  20. Application of isolated hepatocytes to studies of drug metabolism in large food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, L R; Kirsch, D G; Lohse, C L; Wisniewski, J A

    1987-03-01

    A definitive hazard assessment of xenobiotics translocated through food animals into edible products such as meat or milk requires a complete analysis of metabolism in food animals. However, large animal metabolism studies present many experimental difficulties. None of several in vitro alternatives such as subcellular fractions has been established as an acceptable predictor of in vivo metabolism. The feasibility of using isolated hepatocytes to predict the metabolism of xenobiotics, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in large ruminant animals (e.g. cattle) is being studied in our laboratory. A procedure was developed for isolating hepatocytes aseptically from the caudate process of the liver which was obtained surgically from 100-125 kg calves. A modified two-step vascular perfusion procedure provides hepatocyte suspensions that are typically greater than or equal to 85% viable and greater than or equal to 1 X 10(7) viable hepatocytes/g of liver (wet wt). Xenobiotic metabolism has been evaluated in suspensions and primary cultures using aldrin epoxidation, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation and sulfation. Metabolic activities are relatively short-lived in suspensions less than or equal to 4 h, but quite stable up to 10 h when cultured on collagen-coated plates in chemically defined medium. Bovine hepatocytes behave similarly in culture to rodent hepatocytes. Although primary culturing of hepatocytes is more difficult than suspensions, primarily due to the asepsis requirements, it is the method of choice for xenobiotic metabolism determinations in isolated hepatocytes of cattle.

  1. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Proteins KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Proteins What's in ... from the foods you eat. Different Kinds of Protein Protein from animal sources, such as meat and ...

  2. Protein transport across the small intestine in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Marit; Westerhout, Joost; Wichers, Harry J; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M

    2014-01-01

    In view of the imminent deficiency of protein sources for human consumption in the near future, new protein sources need to be identified. However, safety issues such as the risk of allergenicity are often a bottleneck, due to the absence of predictive, validated and accepted methods for risk assessment. The current strategy to assess the allergenic potential of proteins focuses mainly on homology, stability and cross-reactivity, although other factors such as intestinal transport might be of added value too. In this review, we present an overview of the knowledge of protein transport across the intestinal wall and the methods currently being used to measure this. A literature study reveals that protein transport in sensitised persons occurs para-cellularly with the involvement of mast cells, and trans-cellularly via enterocytes, while in non-sensitised persons micro-fold cells and enterocytes are considered most important. However, there is a lack of comparable systematic studies on transport of allergenic proteins. Knowledge of the multiple protein transport pathways and which model system can be useful to study these processes may be of added value in the risk assessment of food allergenicity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Protein preparations in the development of media fragrances in technology of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Tolpigina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the sorption properties of plant and animal proteins, common on the Russian market. Installed the recommended dosage of the preparations of animal protein and vegetable origin, as well as the biological value.

  4. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary protein restriction for renal patients: don't forget protein-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Rossi, Andrea; Innocenti, Maurizio; Ricchiuti, Guido; Bozzoli, Laura; Sbragia, Giulietta; Meola, Mario; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) consists of pharmacological, nutritional, and psychological-social approaches. The dietary therapy of CKD, namely a low-protein low-phosphorus diet, plays a crucial role in contributing to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to protect cardiovascular and nutritional status. The protein-free food products represent a very important tool for the implementation of a low-protein diet to ensure adequate energy supply, reducing the production of nitrogenous waste products. This survey included 100 consecutive CKD patients who were asked their opinion about the use of protein-free foods. Ninety-eight patients (98%) reported a regular daily intake of protein-free pasta (as macaroni, spaghetti, etc.), which was the preferred product consumed. Actually, the taste and texture of protein-free pasta were considered as "good" or "very good" by 70% of patients. Conversely, 43% of CKD patients perceived the taste and texture of protein-free bread as "bad" or "very bad", and 30% found it "acceptable". Therefore, the main concern for the implementation of low-protein diets is the use and palatability of the protein-free products, bread in particular. The use of these products may help in reducing protein, phosphorus, and sodium intake while supplying an adequate energy intake, which represents the basis for a nutritionally safe and successful dietary treatment of advanced CKD patients. Manufacturers and food technology should make more efforts to finding new solutions to improve the taste and texture of protein-free products. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proposed Food and Drug Administration protective action guides for human food and animal feed: methods and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.D.; Shleien, B.; Chiacchierini, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's proposed recommendations to State and local agencies provide guidance on appropriate planning actions necessary for evaluating and preventing radioactive contamination of foods and animal feeds and the control and use of such products should they become contaminated. This presentation will cover the recommendations on implementation of the Preventive and Emergency PAG's. These recommendations include (1) the use of 'Dietary Factors' to obtain PAG's for specific food items from the general guidance, (2) procedures to be used for radionuclide mixtures and other radionuclides, (3) field and laboratory methods for the measurement of the level of contamination in the event of an incident and, (4) protective actions to be implemented by State and local agencies to limit the radiation dose to the public. Specific protective actions which should be considered for implementation when the projected dose exceeds the Preventive PAG are given for application to pasture, milk, fruits and vegetables, and grains. At the Emergency PAG level, the protective action decision is whether condemnation or other disposition is appropriate. (author)

  7. Plant G-Proteins Come of Age: Breaking the Bond with Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José R

    2016-01-01

    G-proteins are universal signal transducers mediating many cellular responses. Plant G-protein signaling has been modeled on the well-established animal paradigm but accumulated experimental evidence indicates that G-protein-dependent signaling in plants has taken a very different evolutionary path. Here we review the differences between plant and animal G-proteins reported over past two decades. Most importantly, while in animal systems the G-protein signaling cycle is activated by seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptors, the existence of these type of receptors in plants is highly controversial. Instead plant G-proteins have been proven to be functionally associated with atypical receptors such as the Arabidopsis RGS1 and a number of receptor-like kinases. We propose that, instead of the GTP/GDP cycle used in animals, plant G-proteins are activated/de-activated by phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation. We discuss the need of a fresh new look at these signaling molecules and provide a hypothetical model that departs from the accepted animal paradigm.

  8. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  9. Impact of casein and egg white proteins on the structure of wheat gluten-based protein-rich food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Arno G B; Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing interest in texturally and nutritionally satisfying vegetable alternatives to meat. Wheat gluten proteins have unique functional properties but a poor nutritional value in comparison to animal proteins. This study investigated the potential of egg white and bovine milk casein with well-balanced amino acid composition to increase the quality of wheat gluten-based protein-rich foods. Heating a wheat gluten (51.4 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend for 120 min at 100 °C increased its firmness less than heating a wheat gluten (33.0 g)-freeze-dried egg white (16.8 g)-water (100.0 mL) blend. In contrast, the addition of casein to the gluten-water blend negatively impacted firmness after heating. Firmness was correlated with loss of protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium during heating, which was higher with egg white than with casein. Even more, heat-induced polymerization of the gluten-water blend with egg white but not with casein was greater than expected from the losses in extractability of gluten and egg white on their own. Structure formation was favored by mixing gluten with egg white but not with casein. These observations were linked to the intrinsic polymerization behavior of egg white and casein, but also to their interaction with gluten. Thus not all nutritionally suitable proteins can be used for enrichment of gluten-based protein-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Genetic opportunities to enhance sustainability of pork production in developing countries: A model for food animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Golovan, S.P.; Ajakaiye, A.; Fan, M.Z.; Hacker, R.R.; Phillips, J.P.; Meidinger, R.G.; Kelly, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)

  11. Costs of Foraging Predispose Animals to Obesity-Related Mortality when Food Is Constantly Abundant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Higginson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important medical problem affecting humans and animals in the developed world, but the evolutionary origins of the behaviours that cause obesity are poorly understood. The potential role of occasional gluts of food in determining fat-storage strategies for avoiding mortality have been overlooked, even though animals experienced such conditions in the recent evolutionary past and may follow the same strategies in the modern environment. Humans, domestic, and captive animals in the developed world are exposed to a surplus of calorie-rich food, conditions characterised as 'constant-glut'. Here, we use a mathematical model to demonstrate that obesity-related mortality from poor health in a constant-glut environment should equal the average mortality rate in the 'pre-modern' environment when predation risk was more closely linked with foraging. It should therefore not be surprising that animals exposed to abundant food often over-eat to the point of ill-health. Our work suggests that individuals tend to defend a given excessive level of reserves because this level was adaptive when gluts were short-lived. The model predicts that mortality rate in constant-glut conditions can increase as the assumed health cost of being overweight decreases, meaning that any adaptation that reduced such health costs would have counter-intuitively led to an increase in mortality in the modern environment. Taken together, these results imply that efforts to reduce the incidence of obesity that are focussed on altering individual behaviour are likely to be ineffective because modern, constant-glut conditions trigger previously adaptive behavioural responses.

  12. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functi...

  13. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro eCeli; Pietro eCeli; Gianfranco eGabai

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress, and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional m...

  14. Evaluation of the microbial safety of child food of animal origin in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liandris, Emmanouil; Gazouli, Maria; Taka, Styliani; Andreadou, Margarita; Vaiopoulou, Anna; Tzimotoudis, Nikolaos; Kasampalidis, Ioannis; Mpaseas, Dionysis; Fyliousis, George; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Poltrionieri, Palmiro; Cook, Nigel; Ikonomopoulos, John

    2014-03-01

    Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially for children, even in the developed world. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial safety of food of animal origin intended for consumption by children in Greece. Sampling involved 8 categories of retail products and was completed with a collection of 850 samples. These were tested by PCR and/or culture for Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Brucella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP). The number of positive results recorded collectively for the pathogens under investigation over the total number of samples tested was 3.52% and 0.12% by PCR and culture, respectively. The most frequently detected pathogen was enterohemorrhagic E. coli (1.29%) followed by Brucella (0.82%) and Listeria (0.82%). DNA belonging to MAP was detected in 0.35% of samples, which was also the percentage of positivity recorded for Campylobacter. The percentage for Salmonella was 0.12%. It can be concluded from the results that there is no indication of noncompliance for the tested food samples. However, detection of DNA belonging to pathogens that are transmissible to humans through food is indicative that constant vigilance regarding food safety is an absolute necessity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Involvement of opioid signaling in food preference and motivation: Studies in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, I; Font, L; Currie, P J; Pastor, R

    2016-01-01

    Motivation is a complex neurobiological process that initiates, directs, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. Although distinct components of motivated behavior are difficult to investigate, appetitive and consummatory phases of motivation are experimentally separable. Different neurotransmitter systems, particularly the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, have been associated with food motivation. Over the last two decades, however, research focusing on the role of opioid signaling has been particularly growing in this area. Opioid receptors seem to be involved, via neuroanatomically distinct mechanisms, in both appetitive and consummatory aspects of food reward. In the present chapter, we review the pharmacology and functional neuroanatomy of opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, in the context of food reinforcement. We examine literature aimed at the development of laboratory animal techniques to better understand different components of motivated behavior. We present recent data investigating the effect of opioid receptor antagonists on food preference and effort-related decision making in rats, which indicate that opioid signaling blockade selectively affects intake of relatively preferred foods, resulting in reduced willingness to exert effort to obtain them. Finally, we elaborate on the potential role of opioid system manipulations in disorders associated with excessive eating and obesity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiocesium Concentration Change in Game Animals: Use of Food Monitoring Data - 13168

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides were released into the environment in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (Cs-134+137) concentrations in most agricultural products became lower than the detection limit (∼10 Bq kg -1 ) from June 2011, and the concentrations have remained low. However, some wild food materials such as meat of game animals (e.g., bear and wild boar) caught in Fukushima and surrounding areas some times showed higher values than the detection limits. In this study, monitoring data on game animal meat were summarized to understand the amount of activities found in wild animals and the activity distribution in the contaminated areas. Concentration data are available from monthly reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data were collected on wild boar (Sus scrofa), deer (Cervus nippon), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Japanese pheasant (Phasianus versicolor), and duck (e.g. Anas poecilorhynch). There is a tendency that the concentration decreases with distance from the FDNPP; in order to compare the Cs-137 concentrations among animals, one collection site was selected. The results showed that the concentration was in the following order within one year: Asian black bear>wild boar> deer >duck and Japanese pheasant. Bear and boar are omnivorous animals and their feeding pattern would affect the concentrations in their meats. (authors)

  17. The Distribution of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin in the OrgansPart of Animals Sea Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.; Kris-Tri Basuki; A, Sukarman; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Supriyanto, C.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of PSP toxin in the organs part of animals seafood wereinvestigated. PSP is one of the most important toxin of sea food animals forexport commodities. The main feed of animals seafood is microalgae. Sometypes of microalgae produced toxin, i.e. PSP or saxitoxin. Animals seafoodsamples, i.e. mussel, shrimp, and fish were collected from Manila bay andbrought to laboratorium. The head, intestine and muscle organ parts of thesamples were separated. Each organ part of the samples was extracted by 0,1 NHCl. The saxitoxin contents of the animal seafood samples were determined bymicroplate LSC binding assay method. It was found that the intestine organsamples has a higher concentration of saxitoxin (0.28-0.36 ppm), followed byhead organ samples (0.17-0.20 ppm) and muscle organ samples (0.10-0.16 ppm).Therefore, the distribution of PSP toxin in the organ part of the animalsseafood are 47-52% in the intestine organ samples, 27-31 % in the head organsamples and 10-15% in the muscle organ samples. (author)

  18. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment.

  19. Radiocesium Concentration Change in Game Animals: Use of Food Monitoring Data - 13168

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides were released into the environment in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (Cs-134+137) concentrations in most agricultural products became lower than the detection limit (∼10 Bq kg{sup -1}) from June 2011, and the concentrations have remained low. However, some wild food materials such as meat of game animals (e.g., bear and wild boar) caught in Fukushima and surrounding areas some times showed higher values than the detection limits. In this study, monitoring data on game animal meat were summarized to understand the amount of activities found in wild animals and the activity distribution in the contaminated areas. Concentration data are available from monthly reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data were collected on wild boar (Sus scrofa), deer (Cervus nippon), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Japanese pheasant (Phasianus versicolor), and duck (e.g. Anas poecilorhynch). There is a tendency that the concentration decreases with distance from the FDNPP; in order to compare the Cs-137 concentrations among animals, one collection site was selected. The results showed that the concentration was in the following order within one year: Asian black bear>wild boar> deer >duck and Japanese pheasant. Bear and boar are omnivorous animals and their feeding pattern would affect the concentrations in their meats. (authors)

  20. Toward Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part 1. Analysis of the Primary Links of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Swaving Dijkstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinusspp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  1. Towards Sustainable Production of Protein-Rich Foods: Appraisal of Eight Crops for Western Europe. Part II: Analysis of the Technological Aspects of the Production Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving Dijkstra, D.; Linnemann, A.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses on the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium

  2. Body composition changes following the supplementation of different food additives to irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that deposition of fat and / or protein in animal's body before irradiation or using radio - protector material such as soyabean oil may reduce the hazard effects of radiation on life span, body weight and body compartments. Therefore, 286 mice ( 144 males and 142 females) after chemical maturity were used in this study. The animals were divided to 4 major groups. The first group was fed on chow diet, the second group was fed on radioprotector diet ( basel diet), the third group was fed on high energy diet and the forth group fed on high protein diet, for 7 weeks before the exposure to gamma-rays. At the exposure day each nutritional group was divided to 3 exposure treatments ( non-irradiated, 800 and 1200 rads). The previous hypothesis was studied for 42 days after irradiation

  3. Antibiotic Resistance in Food Animals in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founou, Luria Leslie; Amoako, Daniel Gyamfi; Founou, Raspail Carrel; Essack, Sabiha Yusuf

    2018-04-23

    This study critically reviewed the published literature and performed a meta-analysis to determine the overall burden of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals in Africa. English and French published articles indexed in EBSCOhost, PubMed, Web of Science, and African Journals Online were retrieved, with searches being conducted up to August, 2015. Data were pooled and meta-analysis performed using a random-effects model, and the results are described as event rates. According to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 articles out of the 852 retrieved were eligible for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The studies included were mainly conducted in Nigeria, with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. being the main bacteria. The pooled estimates showed high level of antibiotic resistance (ABR) (86%; p < 0.001) and multidrug resistance (73%; p = 0.003). Our results suggest that ABR is substantively prevalent and poses a serious threat for food safety and security in Africa. These findings shed light on areas for future research concerning antibiotic-resistant and multidrug-resistant bacteria in food animals as etiological agents of infectious diseases in humans. They further yielded some interesting findings on the burden of ABR that could be useful in developing measures to contain this threat in the farm-to-plate continuum in Africa.

  4. Pathogens of Food Animals: Sources, Characteristics, Human Risk, and Methods of Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Catherine M; Barbieri, Nicolle L; Nielsen, Daniel W

    Pathogens associated with food production (livestock) animals come in many forms causing a multitude of disease for humans. For the purpose of this review, these infectious agents can be divided into three broad categories: those that are associated with bacterial disease, those that are associated with viruses, and those that are parasitic in nature. The goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of the most common pathogens that cause disease in humans through exposure via the food chain and the consequence of this exposure as well as risk and detection methods. We have also included a collection of unusual pathogens that although rare have still caused disease, and their recognition is warranted in light of emerging and reemerging diseases. These provide the reader an understanding of where the next big outbreak could occur. The influence of the global economy, the movement of people, and food makes understanding production animal-associated disease paramount to being able to address new diseases as they arise. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishment of a competitive ELISA for detection of florfenicol antibiotic in food of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Yueh-Kuei; Tai, Yung-Te; Lei, Yi-Chih; Chang, Tong-Hsuan; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Florfenicol (FF) is a synthetic antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum and the high therapeutic effectiveness that has been developed specifically for veterinary use. Obviously, FF adulterated in animal supplies is one of essential global concerns. A competitive ELISA for the detection of florfenicol in food of animal origin (swine, chicken, and fish) is described. Influence of immunoconjugate structure on the assay sensitivity and specificity was investigated. The new ELISA showed much lower than the MRPLs for FF at 100-3,000 mg kg(-1) in the European Communities and the sensitivity of our ELISA method was superior to that described in other reports. According to the test preparation record, the limit of detection of the developed ELISA performed on meat species was 0.3 µg kg(-1) (IC50 value 1.9 µg kg(-1)). The method developed permits FF concentrations to be determined in the range 0.3-24.3 µg kg(-1). A low cross-reactivity with florfenicol amine (FFA), thiamphenicol (TAP), and chloramphenicol (CAP) was displayed (16.2%, 9.5%, and 9.4%, respectively). Recovery in different food samples (swine, chicken, and fish) averages between 87-115%. The method can be applied for inspection of animal supplies for trace florfenicol residues.

  6. How protein kinases co-ordinate mitosis in animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y C

    2011-04-01

    Mitosis is associated with profound changes in cell physiology and a spectacular surge in protein phosphorylation. To accomplish these, a remarkably large portion of the kinome is involved in the process. In the present review, we will focus on classic mitotic kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinases, Polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases, as well as more recently characterized players such as NIMA (never in mitosis in Aspergillus nidulans)-related kinases, Greatwall and Haspin. Together, these kinases co-ordinate the proper timing and fidelity of processes including centrosomal functions, spindle assembly and microtubule-kinetochore attachment, as well as sister chromatid separation and cytokinesis. A recurrent theme of the mitotic kinase network is the prevalence of elaborated feedback loops that ensure bistable conditions. Sequential phosphorylation and priming phosphorylation on substrates are also frequently employed. Another important concept is the role of scaffolds, such as centrosomes for protein kinases during mitosis. Elucidating the entire repertoire of mitotic kinases, their functions, regulation and interactions is critical for our understanding of normal cell growth and in diseases such as cancers.

  7. The evaluation of metabolizable energy in traditional Korean food for protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunmi Kim

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The various food ingredients involved in the cooking process of traditional Korean food lead to differences between the energy level attained from chemical analysis and from actual animal testing.

  8. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  9. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  10. Modeling of allergen proteins found in sea food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Galán-Freyle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish are a source of food allergens, and their consumption is the cause of severe allergic reactions in humans. Tropomyosins, a family of muscle proteins, have been identified as the major allergens in shellfish and mollusks species. Nevertheless, few experimentally determined three-dimensional structures are available in the Protein Data Base (PDB. In this study, 3D models of several homologous of tropomyosins present in marine shellfish and mollusk species (Chaf 1, Met e1, Hom a1, Per v1, and Pen a1 were constructed, validated, and their immunoglobulin E binding epitopes were identified using bioinformatics tools. All protein models for these allergens consisted of long alpha-helices. Chaf 1, Met e1, and Hom a1 had six conserved regions with sequence similarities to known epitopes, whereas Per v1 and Pen a1 contained only one. Lipophilic potentials of identified epitopes revealed a high propensity of hydrophobic amino acids in the immunoglobulin E binding site. This information could be useful to design tropomyosin-specific immunotherapy for sea food allergies.

  11. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  12. Surf or Turf: How shifting from animal feed to food production could reduce nutrient loading to the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.

    2004-12-01

    The use of nitrogen fertilizers on croplands in central U.S. is commonly blamed for the increase in nitrogen export by the Mississippi River since the 1950s and the emergence of the large seasonal hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. The majority of production of the major Mississippi Basin crops like corn and soybean is currently used as animal feed rather than directly for human food. This study uses U.S. Department of Agriculture inventory data and nutrient cycling models to investigate how replacing the meat protein produced from Mississippi croplands with vegetable protein would affect nutrient inputs to Mississippi Basin and nitrogen loading to the Gulf of Mexico. The results show that a shift to only vegetable, dairy and some poultry production from Mississippi Basin croplands could produce the same amount of dietary protein with less than half the current land and nutrient demands. These changes would reduce the annual export of nitrate-nitrogen by the Mississippi River to a consistently low level at which hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico has historically been small or non-existent.

  13. Electrospinning of food-grade nanofibres from whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Mohan, Saeed D; Bell, Alan; Terry, Ann; Mitchell, Geoffrey R; Davis, Fred J

    2018-02-19

    In this study, electrospinning has been employed to produce micro to nano scale fibres of whey protein in order to investigate their potential for use in the food industry. Initially, spinning of pure whey protein proved challenging; so in order to facilitate the spinning of freshly prepared aqueous solutions, small amounts of polyethylene oxide (as low as 1% w/w in solution) were incorporated in the spinning solutions. The electrospun composite polyethylene-oxide/whey fibres exhibited diameters in the region of 100 to 400 nm, showing the potential to build fibre bundles from this size up. Time-dependent examinations of pure whey protein aqueous solutions were conducted using rheometery and small angle neutron scattering techniques, with the results showing a substantial change in the solution properties with time and stirring; and allowing the production of fibres, albeit with large diameters, without the need for an additive. The spinability is related to the potential of the whey protein composites to form aggregate structures, either through hydration and interaction with neighbouring proteins, or through interaction with the polyethylene oxide. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  15. Food Supplements Have a Positive Impact on Weight Gain and the Addition of Animal Source Foods Increases Lean Body Mass of Kenyan Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grillenberger, M.; Neumann, C.G.; Murphy, S.P.; Bwibo, N.O.; Veer, van 't P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; West, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Observational studies of dietary patterns and growth and studies with milk supplementation have shown that children consuming diets containing animal source foods grow better. This study evaluates the growth of 544 Kenyan schoolchildren (median age 7.1 y) after 23 mo of food supplementation with a

  16. Impacts of Verotoxigenic and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Vtec and Ehec on Animal, Human and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Suwito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verotoxigenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, VTEC and EHEC are strains that produce a toxin on the Vero cells in vitro, therefore the toxin called verotoxin. Strain VTEC and EHEC have been isolated from human and various animal species, mainly ruminants and pigs. The prevalence of VTEC in cattle is 35%, milk 10%, cheese 1.5%. In beef meat, pork, poultry, goat and sheep is 3.7, 1.5, 1.5, 2 and 2.5%, respectively. In contrast, the human prevalence in United States, Spain and France 5 – 10, 2.5 and 3.4%, respectively. In Indonesia, nine cases of VTEC were reported by Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital and four out of nine cases were died. The verotoxin also named Shiga toxins (Stx, is active in vivo as a pathogen on the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the gastro intestinal mucosa, kidneys, brain and other tissues of human and piglets. Verotoxin in human, ruminants and piglets causes bloody diarrhea so with ruminants. In the adult ruminants, verotoxin results in clinical signs and they act as asymptomatic carriers of VTEC and EHEC strains but in human, it produced haemorrhagic colitis (HC, haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and thrombocytopenia purpura (TPP. Infection in human by the most famous EHEC strain belongs to the O157:H7 serotype, through faecal contamination or environment of either food of animal origin, or other foodstuffs (fruits and vegetables. Infection from EHEC strains could be prevented by avoiding food of animal origin and unpasteurized milk, and by taking care of food hygiene for comsumption.

  17. Bioactive Properties of Maillard Reaction Products Generated From Food Protein-derived Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, K; Zhou, L; Ohata, M

    Food protein-derived peptides are promising food ingredients for developing functional foods, since various bioactive peptides are released from food proteins. The Maillard reaction, which plays an important role in most processed foods, generates various chemical components during processing. Although changes of amino acids or proteins and reduced sugars by the Maillard reaction have been studied extensively, such changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction are still not resolved enough. Since food protein-derived peptides are widely utilized in many processed foods, it deserves concern and research on the changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction in foods during processing or storage. This chapter initially overviewed food protein-derived bioactive peptides. Then, Maillard reaction products generated from peptides are discussed. We focused particularly on their bioactivities. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal food safety traceability using GS1 and RFID. This framework uses RFID tags encoding with EPCglobal tag data standards. Each information server has access tier, business tier and resource tier. These servers are heterogeneous and distributed, providing user access interfaces by SOAP or HTTP protocols. For sharing dynamic data, discovery service and object name service are used to locate dynamic distributed information servers.

  19. Microbiological quality of food of animal origin commercialized in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ricardo de Castro Leite Júnior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk, Minas Frescal cheese (MFC, and bovine ground beef (BGB. A total of 74 samples were subjected to analyses of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Moreover, the MFC samples were subjected to analysis of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS and Listeria monocytogenes. All samples presented total coliforms, 81.6 % of the samples had values above the recommended for fecal coliform, and high incidence of E. coli. 75.0 % of the MFC samples were not in accordance with the legislation for CPS. All samples showed absence of Salmonella sp. and L. monocytogenes. These results showed that food of animal origin commercialized in the region of Minas Gerais is unfit for human consumption due to low microbiological quality. Therefore, there is need for adoption of good manufacturing practices and efficient sanitation to minimize the risk of transmission of foodborne pathogens by these foods.

  20. An Agenda for Growth and Metabolism Research in Farm Animals: Healthy Food for a Healthy Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, R. S. A.; Manalo, D. D.; Garcia, J. N. M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a paradigm shift from meat demand to health driven understanding of the effects of livestock production and meat consumption in human. Included are comments on animal nutrition research with the purpose of getting more relevant health information. The growth and metabolism research covers the principles from feed intake regulation, nutrient digestion, absorption and growth. Meat preservation provides enough food for the urban population, and its major ingredient includes the combination of salt, sugar and fats, suspected to cause food addiction in man. The reported effect of processed red meat causing systemic inflammation is a major consideration in food preparation, diet selection and reasonable control for meat consumption. In livestock “Pharming” the danger of heavy metal contamination of commercial feed poses threat to human health aside from drug residues. It is proposed that the 50% of global greenhouse gas is due to the lifestyle of the rich and epidemic of obesity-related diseases are the effect of livestock “Pharming” and addiction to fast food and or processed meat.

  1. Consumer Preferences for Animal Source Foods in Uganda: Quality, Retail Forms and Retail Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Mtimet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a rapid consumer survey undertaken in Uganda. The survey aimed at identifying preferred quality and safety attributes, retail forms and retail outlets for major livestock products and by type of consumers. Results of the survey, combined with nationally representative household datasets, allows description of both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the developing market for animal-source foods, which is anticipated to provide major business opportunities for small-scale livestock producers in the short and medium terms.

  2. Quality function deployment in the organic animal food sector: application to poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Naspetti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of an Italian investigation into the development of food quality for poultry meat in the organic sector, using the quality function deployment technique. The results show that among the characteristics of poultry, meat consumers assign greater importance to those that are strictly related to animal welfare issues. Price and product appearance (i.e., colour, presence of fat come in second. To meet these needs, producers can effectively operate along the supply chain by acting on poultry housing type, genotype lines, and stocking density. Information about these issues should then be shared with the consumers (i.e., clear product labelling.

  3. Escherichia coli O157:H7 - An Emerging Pathogen in foods of Animal Origin

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    Ch. Bindu Kiranmayi

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging public health concern in most countries of the world. E. coli O157:H7 was known to be a human pathogen for nearly 24 years. EHEC O157 infection is estimated to be the fourth most costly food borne disease in Canada and USA, not counting the cost of possible litigation. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are the leading causes of produce related outbreaks, accounting for 20 and 30% respectively. The authority of the Federal Meat Inspection Act, FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service declared Escherichia coli O157:H7, an adulterant in raw ground beef and enforced “zero tolerance” (USDA-FSIS, 17 December 1998. Because of the severity of these illnesses and the apparent low infective dose (less than 10 cells, Escherichia coli O157:H7 is considered one of the most serious of known food borne pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is mainly pathogenic to human but in cattle and other animals, it did not induce any clinical disease except diarrhea. So, these animals act as carriers to Escherichia coli O157:H7. The majority transmission is through eating of undercooked contaminated ground meat and consumption of raw milk, raw vegetables, fruits contaminated by water, cheese, curd and also through consumption of sprouts, lettuce and juice. The conventional isolation procedure includes growth in enrichment broth like modified EC (E. coli broth or modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB Since the infection primarily occurs via faeco-oral route, the preventive measures include food hygiene measures like proper cooking of meat, consumption of pasteurized milk, washing fruits and vegetables especially those to be eaten raw and drinking chlorine treated water and personnel hygiene measures like washing hands after toilet visits. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 382-389

  4. Food availability and animal space use both determine cache density of Eurasian red squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Rong

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris. This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1 animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2 animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3 seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years.

  5. Food Availability and Animal Space Use Both Determine Cache Density of Eurasian Red Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Ke; Yang, Hui; Ma, Jianzhang; Zong, Cheng; Cai, Tijiu

    2013-01-01

    Scatter hoarders are not able to defend their caches. A longer hoarding distance combined with lower cache density can reduce cache losses but increase the costs of hoarding and retrieving. Scatter hoarders arrange their cache density to achieve an optimal balance between hoarding costs and main cache losses. We conducted systematic cache sampling investigations to estimate the effects of food availability on cache patterns of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). This study was conducted over a five-year period at two sample plots in a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)-dominated forest with contrasting seed production patterns. During these investigations, the locations of nest trees were treated as indicators of squirrel space use to explore how space use affected cache pattern. The squirrels selectively hoarded heavier pine seeds farther away from seed-bearing trees. The heaviest seeds were placed in caches around nest trees regardless of the nest tree location, and this placement was not in response to decreased food availability. The cache density declined with the hoarding distance. Cache density was lower at sites with lower seed production and during poor seed years. During seed mast years, the cache density around nest trees was higher and invariant. The pine seeds were dispersed over a larger distance when seed availability was lower. Our results suggest that 1) animal space use is an important factor that affects food hoarding distance and associated cache densities, 2) animals employ different hoarding strategies based on food availability, and 3) seed dispersal outside the original stand is stimulated in poor seed years. PMID:24265833

  6. Food-producing animals and their health in relation to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Téllez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fields of immunology, microbiology, and nutrition converge in an astonishing way. Dietary ingredients have a profound effect on the composition of the gut microflora, which in turn regulates the physiology of metazoans. As such, nutritional components of the diet are of critical importance not only for meeting the nutrient requirements of the host, but also for the microbiome. During their coevolution, bacterial microbiota has established multiple mechanisms to influence the eukaryotic host, generally in a beneficial fashion. The microbiome encrypts a variety of metabolic functions that complements the physiology of their hosts. Over a century ago Eli Metchnikoff proposed the revolutionary idea to consume viable bacteria to promote health by modulating the intestinal microflora. The idea is more applicable now than ever, since bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a serious worldwide problem both in medical and agricultural fields. The impending ban of antibiotics in animal feed due to the current concern over the spread of antibiotic resistance genes makes a compelling case for the development of alternative prophylactics. Nutritional approaches to counteract the debilitating effects of stress and infection may provide producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. Improving the disease resistance of animals grown without antibiotics will benefit the animals’ health, welfare, and production efficiency, and is also a key strategy in the effort to improve the microbiological safe status of animal-derived food products (e.g. by poultry, rabbits, ruminants, or pigs. This review presents some of the alternatives currently used in food-producing animals to influence their health in relation to human health.

  7. Dietary intake of total, animal, and vegetable protein and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Ivonne; Beulens, Joline W J; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Grobbee, Diederick E; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2010-01-01

    Dietary recommendations are focused mainly on relative dietary fat and carbohydrate content in relation to diabetes risk. Meanwhile, high-protein diets may contribute to disturbance of glucose metabolism, but evidence from prospective studies is scarce. We examined the association among dietary total, vegetable, and animal protein intake and diabetes incidence and whether consuming 5 energy % from protein at the expense of 5 energy % from either carbohydrates or fat was associated with diabetes risk. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 38,094 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL study. Dietary protein intake was measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Incident diabetes was verified against medical records. During 10 years of follow-up, 918 incident cases of diabetes were documented. Diabetes risk increased with higher total protein (hazard ratio 2.15 [95% CI 1.77-2.60] highest vs. lowest quartile) and animal protein (2.18 [1.80-2.63]) intake. Adjustment for confounders did not materially change these results. Further adjustment for adiposity measures attenuated the associations. Vegetable protein was not related to diabetes. Consuming 5 energy % from total or animal protein at the expense of 5 energy % from carbohydrates or fat increased diabetes risk. Diets high in animal protein are associated with an increased diabetes risk. Our findings also suggest a similar association for total protein itself instead of only animal sources. Consumption of energy from protein at the expense of energy from either carbohydrates or fat may similarly increase diabetes risk. This finding indicates that accounting for protein content in dietary recommendations for diabetes prevention may be useful.

  8. Four infants presenting with severe vomiting in solid food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Amolak S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Several different foods have been implicated in inducing the delayed and very significant vomiting and sometimes diarrhea that occurs in food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. While immunoglobulin E is not involved, the mechanism(s that result in the food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms are unclear, although T cell activation has been considered. We report four cases of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by different solid foods and without concomitant immunoglobulin E sensitization to milk and soya. Clinical and laboratory evidence of type I immunoglobulin E mediated food reactivity and food-induced T cell activation was absent in each case. Case presentations Case 1 concerned a 20-month-old South Asian boy who had experienced four episodes of severe vomiting with flaccidity since four months of age and two hours after consuming rice. Case 2 involved a nine-month-old Caucasian boy who had suffered three episodes of severe vomiting with flaccidity since six months of age and three hours after consuming wheat. The child in Case 3 was a 16-month-old Caucasian boy who had suffered three episodes of severe vomiting with flaccidity since nine months of age and two hours after consuming cod. Case 4 involved a 15-month-old South Asian boy who had suffered three episodes of severe vomiting since eight months of age and two hours after consuming chicken. Conclusion In children with recurrent marked delayed vomiting after the ingestion of specific foods and in whom bronchospasm, skin rash and angioedema are absent, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome should be considered. Skin prick testing and specific immunoglobulin E antibodies are negative and the mechanism of the vomiting is unclear. We speculate whether food protein-induced oligoclonal T cell activation may be present. This has similarities to various animal models and improvement may involve deletion of these T cells.

  9. A review of current methods using bacteriophages in live animals, food and animal products intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ian R

    2016-11-01

    Bacteriophages are utilised in the food industry as biocontrol agents to reduce the load of bacteria, and thus reduce potential for human infection. This review focuses on current methods using bacteriophages within the food chain. Limitations of research will be discussed, and the potential for future food-based bacteriophage research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional Quality Assessment of Complementary Foods Produced from Fermented and Malted Quality Protein Maize Fortified with Soybean Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiose Sumbo H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition of varying degrees has been associated with feeding infants with unwholesome and poor quality complementary foods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce complementary foods from quality protein maize (QPM using the processes of malting and fermentation. The resulting flour was blended with processed soy bean flour at a ratio of 70:30 (maize: soybean. The nutritional qualities of the complementary foods were assessed biologically using animal feeding experiment to determine the growth rate, feed intake, protein quality parameters, haematological properties and rehabilitation potentials. The results showed that the protein efficiency ratio (PER and food efficiency ratio of the malted QPM fortified with soybean were 2.44 and 0.24, respectively, which was the highest among the formulated diets and compared favourably with casein (2.5 and commercial diet (2.3. The QPM-based diets had a better biological value (<60% and true dig stibility (<60% than the products from normal maize. The packed cell volume of the samples ranged between 23.00 (basal and 46.00% (soy fermented normal maize. The QPM-based diets enhanced the quick recovery of protein starved/depleted animals better than the NM-based diets. Moreover, the addition of soybean further boosted the ability of the diet to rehabilitate the animals. The best result was seen in the group of rats fed with soy-malted QPM. The use of QPM in complementary food formulation gave better results and could alleviate the problem of protein and energy malnutrition, thereby reducing the mortality rate among infants.

  11. The grey mouse lemur uses season-dependent fat or protein sparing strategies to face chronic food restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available During moderate calorie restriction (CR the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression or summering torpor avoidance. We investigated body composition, whole body protein turnover, and daily energy expenditure (DEE, during a graded (40 and 80% 35-day CR in short-days (winter; SD40 and SD80, respectively and long-days (summer; LD40 and LD80, respectively acclimated animals. LD40 animals showed no change in fat mass (FM but a 12% fat free mass (FFM reduction. Protein balance being positive after CR, the FFM loss was early and rapid. The 25% DEE reduction, in LD40 group was mainly explained by FFM changes. LD80 animals showed a steady body mass loss and were excluded from the CR trial at day 22, reaching a survival-threatened body mass. No data were available for this group. SD40 animals significantly decreased their FM level by 21%, but maintained FFM. Protein sparing was achieved through a 35 and 39% decrease in protein synthesis and catabolism (protein turnover, respectively, overall maintaining nitrogen balance. The 21% reduction in energy requirement was explained by the 30% nitrogen flux drop but also by torpor as DEE FFM-adjusted remained 13% lower compared to ad-libitum. SD80 animals were unable to maintain energy and nitrogen balances, losing both FM and FFM. Thus summering mouse lemurs equilibrate energy balance by a rapid loss of active metabolic mass without using torpor, whereas wintering animals spare protein and energy through increased torpor expression. Both strategies have direct fitness implication: 1 to maintain activities at a lower body size during the mating season and 2 to preserve an optimal wintering muscle mass and function.

  12. Evaluation of canine adverse food reactions by patch testing with single proteins, single carbohydrates and commercial foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cornelia; Mariani, Claire; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-10-01

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction. Twenty five privately owned dogs, with confirmed AFR, underwent provocation trials with selected food antigens and patch testing. For proteins, carbohydrates and dry dog food the sensitivity of patch testing was 100%, 70% and 22.2%, respectively; the negative predictive values of patch testing were 100%, 79% and 72%. The positive predictive values of patch testing for proteins and carbohydrates were 75% and 74%, respectively. This study confirmed that patch testing may be useful for the selection of a suitable protein source for an elimination diet in dogs with suspected AFR, but not as a diagnostic tool for canine AFR. Results for proteins are more reliable than for carbohydrates and the majority of positive patch test reactions were observed with raw protein. Patch testing with commercial dog food does not seem to be useful. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. The importance of milk and other animal-source foods for children in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-09-01

    Milk and other animal-source foods are concentrated dietary sources of macro- and micronutrients. Despite a global increase in milk production and consumption over the past decades, milk and other animal-source foods are often lacking in the diets of children in developing countries. To evaluate the importance of milk and other animal-source food intake in promoting the growth, development, and health of children in low-income countries. Original research articles describing observational and intervention studies with unfortified milk, fortified milk, and other animal-source foods in children were identified by searching the PubMed database. Consumption of milk and other animal-source foods by undernourished children improves anthropometric indices and cognitive function and reduces the prevalence of biochemical and functional nutritional deficiencies, reducing morbidity and mortality. Unfortified and fortified milk used in supplementation trials has been well tolerated and widely accepted by parents and children. To improve the dietary quality of children in low-income countries and further the effort to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in accordance with the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, additional research is necessary to identify and implement programs and policy supporting increased intake of milk and other animal-source foods.

  14. Land-based production of animal protein: impacts, efficiency, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cross, H Russell

    2014-11-01

    Land-based production of high-quality protein by livestock and poultry plays an important role in improving human nutrition, growth, and health, as well as economical and social developments worldwide. With exponential growth of the global population and marked rises in meat consumption per capita, demands for animal-source protein are expected to increase by 72% between 2013 and 2050. This raises concerns about the sustainability and environmental impacts of animal agriculture. An attractive solution to meeting the increasing needs for animal products and mitigating undesired effects of agricultural practices is to enhance the efficiency of animal growth, reproduction, and lactation. Breeding techniques may help achieve this goal, but have only met with limited success. A promising, mechanism-based approach is to optimize the proportion and amounts of amino acids in diets for maximizing whole-body protein synthesis and feed efficiency. Improvements in farm animal productivity will not only decrease the contamination of soils, groundwater, and air by excessive manure, but will also help sustain animal agriculture to produce high-quality protein for the expanding population in the face of diminishing resources. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The

  16. What We Know about the Public's Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Amelia; Raubenheimer, David; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-11-16

    Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public's level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public's understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns.

  17. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    .... FDA-2012-F-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed Ingredients; Correction... Administration (FDA) is correcting a document amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet...

  18. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention

  19. Nuclear protein synthesis in animal and vegetal hemispheres of Xenopus oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldherr, C.M.; Hodges, P. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA)); Paine, P.L. (Michigan Cancer Foundation, Detroit (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if nuclear proteins are preferentially synthesized in the vicinity of the nucleus, a factor which could facilitate nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Using Xenopus oocytes, animal and vegetal hemispheres were separated by bisecting the cells in paraffin oil. It was initially established that protein synthesis is not affected by the bisecting procedure. To determine if nuclear protein synthesis is restricted to the animal hemisphere (which contains the nucleus), vegetal halves and enucleated animal halves were injected with ({sup 3}H)leucine and incubated in oil for 90 min. The labeled cell halves were then fused with unlabeled, nucleated animal hemispheres that had been previously injected with puromycin in amounts sufficient to prevent further protein synthesis. Thus, labeled polypeptides which subsequently entered the nuclei were synthesized before fusion. Three hours after fusion, the nuclei were isolated, run on two-dimensional gels, and fluorographed. Approximately 200 labeled nuclear polypeptides were compared, and only 2 were synthesized in significantly different amounts in the animal and vegetal hemispheres. The results indicate that nuclear protein synthesis is not restricted to the cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus.

  20. INPROVING OF THE QUALITY FOOD FOR ANIMALS BY PULSED POWER PLASMA DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gnapowski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soy beans powder mixed with water is a good food for animals. However, there are two problems with this brew. One is that soy beans powder is sunk down to fast. Parts of soy beans powder are too big and too heavy. Animals do not eat soy beans powder because after a few minutes (around 3min is sunk down and soy beans are on the bottom case. Another negative point is a quick growth of mold, especially during summer when the temperature is highest. Mold is making food unhealthy and causes unpleasant smell. After mold appears it is difficult to clean the case. One of the solutions to eliminate these problems is to use pulse power plasma discharge and the second solution is ultra sound treatment. It was observed that pulse power discharge can decrease the size of soy beans powder a few times. Another advantage of such experiments was that the pulse power discharge killed bacteria and viruses. After our experiments we did not observe mold growing. Using pulse power discharge we can decrease sinking speed by about ten times. Ultra sound generation is useful and can decrease sinking speed even more, compared with pulse power discharge.

  1. Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance in Animal Nutrition and Health: The Role of Protein Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Pietro; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the role that oxidative stress (OS), and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism, and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions, such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however, some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions, such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health, and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which OS may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins.

  2. Eliminating anti-nutritional plant food proteins: the case of seed protease inhibitors in pea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Clemente

    Full Text Available Several classes of seed proteins limit the utilisation of plant proteins in human and farm animal diets, while plant foods have much to offer to the sustainable intensification of food/feed production and to human health. Reduction or removal of these proteins could greatly enhance seed protein quality and various strategies have been used to try to achieve this with limited success. We investigated whether seed protease inhibitor mutations could be exploited to enhance seed quality, availing of induced mutant and natural Pisum germplasm collections to identify mutants, whilst acquiring an understanding of the impact of mutations on activity. A mutant (TILLING resource developed in Pisum sativum L. (pea and a large germplasm collection representing Pisum diversity were investigated as sources of mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the major protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk class of seed protein. Of three missense mutations, predicted to affect activity of the mature trypsin / chymotrypsin inhibitor TI1 protein, a C77Y substitution in the mature mutant inhibitor abolished inhibitor activity, consistent with an absolute requirement for the disulphide bond C77-C92 for function in the native inhibitor. Two further classes of mutation (S85F, E109K resulted in less dramatic changes to isoform or overall inhibitory activity. The alternative strategy to reduce anti-nutrients, by targeted screening of Pisum germplasm, successfully identified a single accession (Pisum elatius as a double null mutant for the two closely linked genes encoding the TI1 and TI2 seed protease inhibitors. The P. elatius mutant has extremely low seed protease inhibitory activity and introgression of the mutation into cultivated germplasm has been achieved. The study provides new insights into structure-function relationships for protease inhibitors which impact on pea seed quality. The induced and natural germplasm variants identified provide immediate potential for

  3. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Allen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  4. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Nutrition (HFS-300), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740-3835, 301...-to-eat food, bakery products, fresh-cut produce, milk products, and medical food. Specific biological...

  5. Human, food and animal Campylobacter spp. isolated in Portugal: high genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Andreia; Santos, Andrea; Manageiro, Vera; Martins, Ana; Fraqueza, Maria J; Caniça, Manuela; Domingues, Fernanda C; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-10-01

    Infections by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food being the main source of infection. In this study, a total of 196 Campylobacter strains (125 isolates from humans, 39 from retail food and 32 from food animal sources) isolated in Portugal between 2009 and 2012 were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and flaA short variable region (SVR) typing. Susceptibility to six antibiotics as well as the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance phenotypes was also studied. Based on MLST typing, C. coli strains were genetically more conserved, with a predominant clonal complex (CC828), than C. jejuni strains. In contrast, C. coli isolates were genetically more variable than C. jejuni with regard to flaA-SVR typing. A high rate of resistance was observed for quinolones (100% to nalidixic acid, >90% to ciprofloxacin) and, in general, resistance was more common among C. coli, especially for erythromycin (40.2% vs. 6.7%). In addition, most isolates (86%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial families. Besides the expected point mutations associated with antibiotic resistance, detected polymorphisms in the cmeABC locus likely play a role in the multiresistant phenotype. This study provides for the first time an overview of the genetic diversity of Campylobacter strains from Portugal. It also shows a worrying antibiotic multiresistance rate and the emergence of Campylobacter strains resistant to antibiotics of human use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica isolated from humans and food animals using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golab, N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infections are the second leading cause of zoonotic bacterial foodborne illness. Main source of infection in human is contaminated food products. The aim of this study was sub typing isolates of Salmonella enterica obtained during our previous study by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE technique. All 46 Salmonella isolates were serotyped and then subjected to PFGE. Total isolates were analyzed by means of the molecular technique XbaI PFGE. In this study, PFGE and serotyping were used to subtype 46 Salmonella isolates belonging to 27different serovars and derived from human and different food origins. Among these isolates, S. Typhimurium was found to be the most predominant serovar. 40 PFGE patterns out of 46 isolates were obtained. The Discrimination Index obtained by serotyping (DI = 0.93 was lower than PFGE (DI = 0.99. Subtyping of Salmonella enterica is very important and shows that animal origin can be one of a reservoir that potentially could be transferred to human through the food chain. In addition, results of this study also revealed that this procedure is a golden standard for genotyping of such salmonella serotypes.

  7. [Species identification of animal hair present as a contaminant in food by PCR-APLP method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kato, Yukari; Taniguchi, Masaru; Terada, Hisaya

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive method was developed for identifying the species of animal hair present as a contaminant in food. A polymerase chain reaction-amplified product length polymorphism (PCR-APLP) assay was applied to identify hair from human and others (cat, dog, rabbit, rat and mouse) or livestock (pig, cattle, horse, sheep, goat and chicken). The PCR primers were designed to amplify partial sequences from the 16S rRNA gene to the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which generate different length fragments for different animal species. The PCR-APLP assay utilized two PCR reaction tubes, each of which contained one universal forward primer and six species-specific reverse primers (human, etc. or livestock). Simultaneous identification was possible by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products. The developed method was applied to identify the source species of 52 animal hair samples. The expected amplified product length was obtained from all samples.

  8. Technologies For Maintaining Animals In Space: Lighting, Air Quality, Noise, Food And Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Skidmore, M. G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment multiple time cues exist. Zeitgebers have been identified and studied for their ability to convey temporal information to various physiological systems. In the microgravity experiment it is necessary to define time cues within the flight hardware prior to flight. During flight if changes in the Circadian System (e.g., mean, phase angle, period) occur this would indicate that the gravity vector is important relative to biological timing. This presentation is concerned with the environmental parameter: to support rodent experiments in microgravity. The Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) provides solid food bars and water via lixits and ad libitum. Flight animals (Sprague-Dawley rats, 60 - 300g) when compared to ground controls show similar growth (mean growth per day g, plus or minus SD; flight 5.4 plus or minus 2.0, ground 5.9 plus or minus 2.1). Current AEMs use incandescent lighting (approx. 5 Lux). Light emitting diode (LED) arrays are being developed that provide a similar light environment as cool-white fluorescent sources (40 Lux). In ground based tests (12L:12D), these arrays show normal circadian entrainment (Tau = 24.0) with respect to the behavioral responses, measured (drinking, eating, gross locomotor activity). A newly developed ultra high efficiency filter system can entrap all feces, urine and odors from 6 rats for 24 days. Maximum sound level exposure limits (per octave band 22 Hz - 179 kHz) have been established. The AEM will effectively support animal experiments in microgravity.

  9. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb. Forty-four out of 49 samples (90% were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb and OTA (median 5 ppb. Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb, 42 samples (86% with ZEA (median 50 ppb, and 38 samples (78% with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb. Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  10. The evaluation of metabolizable energy in traditional Korean food for protein sources

    OpenAIRE

    Eunmi Kim; Jinho Choi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The validity of energy data in the composition table of Korean food has been in question due to possible differences in its chemical composition from that of western food. Traditional Korean food involves a diverse range of food ingredients so there has been considerable doubt regarding the accuracy of the energy level derived from chemical analysis and energy conversion factors. Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the metabolizable energy of Korean food by animal t...

  11. Non-feed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for industrial microorganism fe...

  12. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL(-1) culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  13. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from Outback Australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thang eDuong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory – Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 µg mL-1 culture and 99.13 µg mL-1, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  14. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Marlene D; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Christensen, Sheena M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume ( p Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content was as satiating and palatable as an animal-based meal with high protein content.

  15. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Marlene D.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). Results HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (pmeals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content was as satiating and palatable as an animal-based meal with high protein content. PMID:27765144

  16. Fish protein hydrolysates: application in deep-fried food and food safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Four different processes (enzymatic, microwave-intensified enzymatic, chemical, and microwave-intensified chemical) were used to produce fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) from Yellowtail Kingfish for food applications. In this study, the production yield and oil-binding capacity of FPH produced from different processes were evaluated. Microwave intensification significantly increased the production yields of enzymatic process from 42% to 63%. It also increased the production yields of chemical process from 87% to 98%. The chemical process and microwave-intensified chemical process produced the FPH with low oil-binding capacity (8.66 g oil/g FPH and 6.25 g oil/g FPH), whereas the microwave-intensified enzymatic process produced FPH with the highest oil-binding capacity (16.4 g oil/g FPH). The FPH from the 4 processes were applied in the formulation of deep-fried battered fish and deep-fried fish cakes. The fat uptake of deep-fried battered fish can be reduced significantly from about 7% to about 4.5% by replacing 1% (w/w) batter powder with FPH, and the fat uptake of deep-fried fish cakes can be significantly reduced from about 11% to about 1% by replacing 1% (w/w) fish mince with FPH. Food safety tests of the FPH produced by these processes demonstrated that the maximum proportion of FPH that can be safely used in food formulation is 10%, due to its high content of histamine. This study demonstrates the value of FPH to the food industry and bridges the theoretical studies with the commercial applications of FPH. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues1–3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Heuvel, van den E.M.; Boesveldt, S.; Finlayson, G.; Graaf, de C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. Objective: We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the

  18. Factors affecting use of veterinarians by small-scale food animal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Andrea L; Thilmany, Dawn D; Garber, Lindsey P; Van Metre, David C; Pritchard, Randy W; Kopral, Christine A; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    To identify factors associated with use of a veterinarian by small-scale food animal operations. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. 16,000 small-scale farm or ranch operations in all 50 states. Surveys were conducted via mail or telephone during 2011 for small-scale operations (gross annual agricultural sales between $10,000 and $499,999) in which an animal or animal product comprised the highest percentage of annual sales. 8,186 (51.2%) operations responded to the survey; 7,849 surveys met the inclusion criteria. For 6,511 (83.0%) operations, beef cattle were the primary animal species. An estimated 82.1% of operations (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1% to 83.0%) had a veterinarian available ≤ 29 miles away; 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.7%) did not have a veterinarian available within 100 miles of the operation. Operations for which the nearest veterinarian was ≥ 100 miles away or for which a veterinarian was not available were located in 40 US states. Overall, 61.7% of operations (95% CI, 60.6% to 62.9%) had used a veterinarian during the 12 months prior to the survey. Producers with college degrees were significantly more likely to use a veterinarian (675%) versus those who did not complete high school (52.9%). Results of this study indicated most small-scale operations had adequate access to veterinarians during 2011, but there seemed to be localized shortages of veterinarians in many states.

  19. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  20. Isolation, identification, and characterization of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Deepti N.; Savalia, C. V.; Kalyani, I. H.; Kumar, Rajeev; Kshirsagar, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken with the prime objective of isolating and identifying Listeria spp. from various foods of animal origin sold at retail market outlets in the city of Navsari, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 200 samples comprising of milk, milk products, meat, and fish (50 each) collected aseptically from local market which were subjected first to pre-enrichment in half strength Fraser broth followed by enrichment in full strength Fraser broth and subsequent plating on PALCAM agar. The growth with the typical colony characteristics were further identified up to species level on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Cultures identified as Listeria monocytogenes were further subjected to in vitro pathogenicity tests and detection of different virulence-associated genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Of the total 200 food samples of animal origin; 18 (9%) were found positive for Listeria spp. which were identified as Listeria seeligeri (6, 33.3%), Listeria innocua (5, 27.7%), Listeria welshimeri (4, 22.2%), and L. monocytogenes (3, 16.6%). The highest prevalence was observed in milk samples (8). Species wise, 6 isolates of L. seeligeri which included two each from cow milk, buffalo milk, and meat samples; 5 L. innocua isolates included four recovered from fish and one from meat sample; 4 L. welshimeri comprised of two isolates from ice cream and one each from buffalo milk and meat sample; and 3 isolates of L. monocytogenes recovered from milk (1 cow and 2 buffalo milk). All 3 L. monocytogenes isolates screened for the presence of virulence genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using the specific primers revealed the presence of all the genes suggesting the possibility of danger of foodborne listeriosis among raw milk consumers. Conclusion: Listeria spp. was isolated from 9% (18/200) of the animal origin food samples viz.; milk, milk products, meat, and fish with the highest prevalence

  1. Isolation, identification, and characterization of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti N. Nayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the prime objective of isolating and identifying Listeria spp. from various foods of animal origin sold at retail market outlets in the city of Navsari, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 200 samples comprising of milk, milk products, meat, and fish (50 each collected aseptically from local market which were subjected first to pre-enrichment in half strength Fraser broth followed by enrichment in full strength Fraser broth and subsequent plating on PALCAM agar. The growth with the typical colony characteristics were further identified up to species level on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Cultures identified as Listeria monocytogenes were further subjected to in vitro pathogenicity tests and detection of different virulence associated genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Of the total 200 food samples of animal origin; 18 (9% were found positive for Listeria spp. which were identified as Listeria seeligeri (6, 33.3%, Listeria innocua (5, 27.7%, Listeria welshimeri (4, 22.2%, and L. monocytogenes (3, 16.6%. The highest prevalence was observed in milk samples (8. Species wise, 6 isolates of L. seeligeri which included two each from cow milk, buffalo milk, and meat samples; 5 L. innocua isolates included four recovered from fish and one from meat sample; 4 L. welshimeri comprised of two isolates from ice cream and one each from buffalo milk and meat sample; and 3 isolates of L. monocytogenes recovered from milk (1 cow and 2 buffalo milk. All 3 L. monocytogenes isolates screened for the presence of virulence genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using the specific primers revealed the presence of all the genes suggesting the possibility of danger of foodborne listeriosis among raw milk consumers. Conclusion: Listeria spp. was isolated from 9% (18/200 of the animal origin food samples viz.; milk, milk products, meat, and fish with the highest

  2. Contaminants in Foods of Animal Origin in Cameroon: A One Health Vision for Risk Management "from Farm to Fork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouokam, Guy B; Foudjo, B U Saha; Samuel, Chi; Yamgai, Philomina Fankam; Silapeux, A Kamda; Sando, Joel Taguemkam; Atonde, G Fankam; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Foods of animal origin represent an important share in the diet of Cameroonian populations. Cameroon is known to be a food basket in the west and central Africa sub-region, and an important supplier of foods on the international markets. In the meantime, food importation is continuously increasing to meet the high demand of a more westernized segment of the population. Cereals, fish, sea products, eggs, honey, shrimps, chicken, and feed ingredients are important share in the international trade of agricultural products. Few controls are made on the quality and safety of these products. Certain safety standards do exist but are still yet to be enforced. Inspections done so far by regulatory authorities are partial and do not cover important hazards that require laboratory analysis. The increasing awareness of population, the burden of new types of disease, as well as the recurrence of food scandals have recently launched a scientific and population debate on the contribution of foods items, especially those of animal origin, to the toxic exposure of food producing animals and humans. This paper critically reviews the occurrence of toxicants in most consumed foods of animal origin in Cameroon. This study included the most consumed food of animal origin, identified during the national household budget survey and contributing to 8.1% of the total diet of an individual. Data evaluated suggest an important contamination by toxic metals, mycotoxins, veterinary drugs' residues, and pesticides. The current national legal framework is briefly analyzed to explore possible intervention measures in the frame of the One Health approach.

  3. Integrating Model-Based Learning and Animations for Enhancing Students' Understanding of Proteins Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Hussein-Farraj, Rania

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the context of chemistry education reforms in Israel. The study examined a new biochemistry learning unit that was developed to promote in-depth understanding of 3D structures and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Our goal was to examine whether, and to what extent teaching and learning via model-based learning and animations of biomolecules affect students' chemical understanding. Applying the mixed methods research paradigm, pre- and post-questionnaires as well as class-observations were employed in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. The research population included 175 grade twelve students, divided into three research groups: (a) hands-on exploration of animations, (b) teacher's demonstrations of animations, (c) traditional learning using textbooks. Findings indicated that the integration of model-based learning and 3D animations enhanced students' understanding of proteins' structure and function and their ability to transfer across different levels of chemistry understanding. Findings also indicated that teachers' demonstrations of animations may enhance students' `knowledge'—a low order thinking skill; however, in order to enhance higher levels of thinking, students should be able to explore 3D animations on their own. Applying constructivist and interpretative analysis of the data, three themes were raised, corresponding to cognitive, affective, and social aspects of learning while exploring web-based models and animations.

  4. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  5. A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmeyer, D E; Stone, K L; Sebastian, A; Cummings, S R

    2001-01-01

    Different sources of dietary protein may have different effects on bone metabolism. Animal foods provide predominantly acid precursors, whereas protein in vegetable foods is accompanied by base precursors not found in animal foods. Imbalance between dietary acid and base precursors leads to a chronic net dietary acid load that may have adverse consequences on bone. We wanted to test the hypothesis that a high dietary ratio of animal to vegetable foods, quantified by protein content, increases bone loss and the risk of fracture. This was a prospective cohort study with a mean (+/-SD) of 7.0+/-1.5 y of follow-up of 1035 community-dwelling white women aged >65 y. Protein intake was measured by using a food-frequency questionnaire and bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral density was not significantly associated with the ratio of animal to vegetable protein intake. Women with a high ratio had a higher rate of bone loss at the femoral neck than did those with a low ratio (P = 0.02) and a greater risk of hip fracture (relative risk = 3.7, P = 0.04). These associations were unaffected by adjustment for age, weight, estrogen use, tobacco use, exercise, total calcium intake, and total protein intake. Elderly women with a high dietary ratio of animal to vegetable protein intake have more rapid femoral neck bone loss and a greater risk of hip fracture than do those with a low ratio. This suggests that an increase in vegetable protein intake and a decrease in animal protein intake may decrease bone loss and the risk of hip fracture. This possibility should be confirmed in other prospective studies and tested in a randomized trial.

  6. Interaction of Quillaja bark saponins with food-relevant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezwon, Aleksandra; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2014-07-01

    The surface activity and aggregation behaviour of two Quillaja bark saponins (QBS) are compared using surface tension, conductometry and light scattering. Despite formally of the same origin (bark of the Quillaja saponaria Molina tree), the two QBS show markedly different ionic characters and critical micelle concentrations (7.7·10(-6) mol·dm(-3) and 1.2·10(-4) mol·dm(-3)). The new interpretation of the surface tension isotherms for both QBS allowed us to propose an explanation for the previous discrepancy concerning the orientation of the saponin molecules in the adsorbed layer. The effect of three food-related proteins (hen egg lysozyme, bovine β-lactoglobulin and β-casein) on surface tension of the saponins is also described. Dynamic surface tension was measured at fixed protein concentrations and QBS concentrations varying in the range 5·10(-7)-1·10(-3) mol·dm(-3). Both dynamic and extrapolated equilibrium surface tensions of the protein/QBS mixtures depend not only on the protein, but also on the QBS source. In general, the surface tension for mixtures of the QBS with lower CMC and less ionic character shows less pronounced synergistic effects. This is especially well visible for β-casein/QBS mixtures, where a characteristic maximum in the surface tension isotherm around the molar ratio of one can be noticed for one saponin product, but not for the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Stenberg, Marianne; Frid, Anders H

    2004-01-01

    or vegetable proteins on concentrations of postprandial blood glucose, insulin, amino acids, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1] in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Twelve healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of reconstituted milk...... was accompanied by higher AUCs for insulin (90%) and GIP (54%). CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that food proteins differ in their capacity to stimulate insulin release, possibly by differently affecting the early release of incretin hormones and insulinotropic amino acids. Milk proteins have insulinotropic......BACKGROUND: Milk products deviate from other carbohydrate-containing foods in that they produce high insulin responses, despite their low GI. The insulinotropic mechanism of milk has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of common dietary sources of animal...

  8. Thermogenic effect and substrate oxidation of protein from animal and plant sources in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahmy Arif Tsani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changing nutrient source is one of the efforts to increase thermogenic effect (TEF which may be significant for body weight reduction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high protein diets using animal (chicken and plant (tofu sources on the thermogenic effect (TEF and substrate oxidation. Method: Ten female adults (mean age 20.8+1.2 y participated in two isocaloric diet ingestions. Each meal provided 30% of the daily basal energy need (32/26/42% as protein/fat/carbohydrates, respectively. Postprandial energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results: There were no significant differences in TEF and substrate oxidation. The postprandial fat oxidation rate was higher than that at the preprandial state, while carbohydrate and protein oxidation rates were lower. Conclusion: No differences were observed in TEF and substrate oxidation in animal- and plant-based diets. A high protein diet could be beneficial for weight loss, but animal protein does not appear to offer superior benefits compared to plant protein.

  9. National surveillance of Salmonella enterica in food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijima Mayumi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 518 fecal samples collected from 183 apparently healthy cattle, 180 pigs and 155 broilers throughout Japan in 1999 were examined to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella. The isolation rates were 36.1% in broilers, 2.8% in pigs and 0.5% in cattle. S. enterica Infantis was the most frequent isolate, found in 22.6% of broiler fecal samples. Higher resistance rates were observed against oxytetracycline (82.0%, dihydrostreptomycin (77.9%, kanamycin (41.0% and trimethoprim (35.2%. Resistance rates to ampicillin, ceftiofur, bicozamycin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were S. enterica Senftenberg was found in the isolates obtained from one broiler fecal sample. This is the first report of cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella directly isolated from food animal in Japan.

  10. Novel approach to control sulfamethazine misuse in food-producing animals by hair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Castellari, M; Valero, A; Diaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A

    2006-10-01

    The presence of sulfamethazine residues in pig and calf hair was compared with the residual levels encountered in the corresponding edible tissues (liver and muscle) as a consequence of drug administration. Sulfamethazine up to 84.7 mg kg-1 was found in calf hair samples after a pharmacological treatment, with a significant effect of hair pigmentation. High concentrations of the parent drug were detected in calf hair for 4 weeks after administration, when sulfamethazine residues were no longer detectable in the corresponding edible tissues. In a similar way, pig hair also accumulated sulfamethazine residues up to 40.5 mg kg-1, which was more than the amount detected in the corresponding muscle and liver samples at slaughter. Hair analysis seems a suitable tool to improve the efficacy of regulatory controls, and thus the safety of the food chain and to discourage the improper use of sulfamethazine in animal farming.

  11. Attributing human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis to food, animal and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    Foodborne pathogens are an important cause of human disease worldwide. In the last decades, several industrialized countries have made efforts to prevent and control foodborne zoonoses. To identify and prioritize options for control in the food chain, it is important to identify the most important...... direct contact with farm animals, and (4) children visiting a petting zoo. Results suggest that individuals belonging to the risk groups were more exposed than the overall population, specifically (in presented order) individuals from RG1 with between 5 and 14 years of age, and other age categories...... within RG1, RG2 and RG3. Within the overall population, people aged between 25 and 64 years were estimated to be more exposed to Salmonella, and the most important routes of exposure were direct contact with pets, consumption of table eggs, domestic pork, and fruits eaten not peeled. A systematic review...

  12. [Assessment of the effect of selected mixture of food additives on the protein metabolism--model studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Contemporarily, food production without food additives is very rare. Increasingly often, however, scientific works report on adverse effects of specified, single food additives on the body. Data is, in turn, lacking on the synergistic effect of a mixture of different food additives on body functions and its main metabolic pathways. The objective of this study, an animal model, was to evaluate if and in what way the compound of chosen and most frequently used and consumed food additives, along with the change of diet composition to processed, purified, influence the selected markers of protein metabolism. The animals were divided into four groups, which were fed with compound of feed pellets: group I and II with basic compound, group III and IV with modified compound in which part of the full grain was replaced by isocalorie wheat flour type 500 and saccharose. Animals from groups I and III received tap water, which was standing for some time, to drink. Animals from groups II and IV received solution of chosen additives to food and next they were given water to drink. The amount of given food additives was evaluated by taking into consideration their consumption by people recalculated to 1 kg of their body mass. The experiment spanned for 7 weeks. It was ascertained that the applied additives caused significant changes in total protein concentration and its fractions: albumin, alpha1-globulin, alpha2-globulin, beta-globulin and gamma-globulin in the blood serum of the animals under research, which can indicate and contribute to disclosure of creation of undesirable food reaction, especially when recommended levels of consumption of those additives are being exceeded. The organism response to the applied additives and accompanying it change of diet was essentially connected to sex of the animals. Undesirable character of changes taking place under the influence of applied additives, was observed both in animals fed with basic feed and modified feed with various

  13. Identification of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 in Acinetobacter lwoffii of food animal origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene bla(NDM-1 in bacteria of food animal origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the bla(NDM-1 positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the bla(NDM-1 genes, and DNA sequencing was performed to determine the sequences of bla(NDM-1 and the flanking genes. In total, nine gram-negative bacteria of four different species presented a MBL phenotype. bla(NDM-1 was identified on a mobile plasmid named pAL-01 in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate of chicken origin. Transfer of pAL-01 from this isolate to E. coli J53 and JM109 resulted in resistance to multiple β-lactams. Sequence analysis revealed that the bla(NDM-1 gene is attached to an intact insertion element ISAba125, whose right inverted repeat (IR-R overlaps with the promoter sequence of bla(NDM-1. Thus, insertion of ISAba125 likely enhances the expression of bla(NDM-1. CONCLUSION: The identification of a bla(NDM-1- carrying strain of A. lwoffii in chickens suggests the potential for zoonotic transmission of bla(NDM-1 and has important implications for food safety.

  14. Restricting the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals and its associations with antibiotic resistance in food-producing animals and human beings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Karen L; Caffrey, Niamh P; Nóbrega, Diego B; Cork, Susan C; Ronksley, Paul E; Barkema, Herman W; Polachek, Alicia J; Ganshorn, Heather; Sharma, Nishan; Kellner, James D; Ghali, William A

    2017-11-01

    Antibiotic use in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture has been linked to the rise of antibiotic resistance globally. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the effect that interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals have on the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals and in humans. On July 14, 2016, we searched electronic databases (Agricola, AGRIS, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Index Medicus, ProQuest Dissertations, Science Citation Index) and the grey literature. The search was updated on Jan 27, 2017. Inclusion criteria were original studies that reported on interventions to reduce antibiotic use in food-producing animals and compared presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria between intervention and comparator groups in animals or in human beings. We extracted data from included studies and did meta-analyses using random effects models. The main outcome assessed was the risk difference in the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A total of 181 studies met inclusion criteria. Of these, 179 (99%) described antibiotic resistance outcomes in animals, and 81 (45%) of these studies were included in the meta-analysis. 21 studies described antibiotic resistance outcomes in humans, and 13 (62%) of these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled absolute risk reduction of the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in animals with interventions that restricted antibiotic use commonly ranged between 10 and 15% (total range 0-39), depending on the antibiotic class, sample type, and bacteria under assessment. Similarly, in the human studies, the pooled prevalence of antibiotic resistance reported was 24% lower in the intervention groups compared with control groups, with a stronger association seen for humans with direct contact with food-producing animals. Interventions that restrict antibiotic use in food-producing animals are associated with a reduction in the

  15. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  16. Chemistry, Antimicrobial Mechanisms, and Antibiotic Activities of Cinnamaldehyde against Pathogenic Bacteria in Animal Feeds and Human Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2017-12-06

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods. Solid foods include various fruits (bayberries, blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries), vegetables (carrots, celery, lettuce, spinach, cucumbers, and tomatoes), meats (beef, ham, pork, and frankfurters), poultry (chickens and turkeys), seafood (oysters and shrimp), bread, cheese, eggs, infant formula, and peanut paste. The described findings are not only of fundamental interest but also have practical implications for food safety, nutrition, and animal and human health. The collated information and suggested research needs will hopefully facilitate and guide further studies needed to optimize the use of cinnamaldehyde alone and in combination with other natural antimicrobials and medicinal antibiotics to help prevent and treat food animal and human diseases.

  17. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (4): can we diagnose adverse food reactions in dogs and cats with in vivo or in vitro tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf S; Olivry, Thierry

    2017-08-30

    The gold standard to diagnose adverse food reactions (AFRs) in the dog and cat is currently an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials. However, those trials are inconvenient and client compliance can be low. Our objective was to systematically review the literature to evaluate in vivo and in vitro tests used to diagnose AFR in small animals. We searched three databases (CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE and Web of Science) for pertinent references on September 16, 2016. Among 71, 544 and 41 articles found in the CAB Abstract, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases, respectively, we selected 22 articles and abstracts from conference proceedings that reported data usable for evaluation of tests for AFR. Serum tests for food-specific IgE and IgG, intradermal testing with food antigens, lymphocyte proliferation tests, fecal food-specific IgE, patch, gastroscopic, and colonoscopic testing were evaluated. Testing for serum food-specific IgE and IgG showed low repeatability and, in dogs, a highly variable accuracy. In cats, the accuracy of testing for food-specific IgE was low. Lymphocyte proliferation tests were more frequently positive and more accurate in animals with AFR, but, as they are more difficult to perform, they remain currently a research tool. All other reported tests were only evaluated by individual studies with small numbers of animals. Negative patch test reactions have a very high negative predictability in dogs and could enable a choice of ingredients for the elimination diet in selected patients. Gastroscopic and colonoscopic testing as well as food-specific fecal IgE or food-specific serum IgG measurements appear less useful. Currently, the best diagnostic procedure to identify AFRs in small animals remains an elimination diet with subsequent provocation trials.

  18. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and brominated dioxins (PBDD/Fs) in Irish food of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Tlustos, C; Smith, F; Carr, M; Petch, R; Rose, M

    2009-01-01

    Brominated dioxins (PBDD/Fs) and 17 polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) congeners including BDE-209 were analysed in 100 composite samples of commonly consumed foods of animal origin, prepared from ten to 40 individual subsamples of each type. These included 30 samples of milk from farms; eggs from chickens; fat from cows, pigs, sheep, and poultry; and liver from cows, pigs, sheep, horses, and poultry. The ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology used, follows similar guidelines as given for chlorinated dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in European Commission Directive 2002/69/EC. Apart from some samples of milk, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs were detected in all food types. Concentrations ranged from 0.31 µg kg(-1) Σ17 PBDEs for a sample of milk to 37.5 µg kg(-1) Σ17 PBDEs for a sample of liver. The corresponding range for the PBDD/F toxicity (computed using analogous PCDD/F toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)) was 0.09 ng TEQ kg(-1) to approximately 3.5 ng TEQ kg(-1). The detection of these compounds, in particular PBDD/Fs, is consistent with the increased use and disposal of brominated organic compounds.

  19. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  20. Exploring Proteins Purification Techniques Animations as Tools for the Biochemistry Teaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cortez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Some classical techniques usually applied in protein purification and characterization are most important to understand different aspects related to protein structure. These experiments can be carried out beyond the laboratory because security and logistics reasons but its basic concepts and their applicability may be better understood with the help of virtual models and animations. The objective of this work was to produce interactive virtual models and animations of equipments used in protein purification and characterization. To make the animations were used real protein structures downloaded from PubMed with the aid of CN3D software. Electrophoresis equipments, chromatography columns, HPLC's and spectrophotometers models were built used software Google sketch up. Final animations were compiled with macromedia flash software giving more interactivity to these tools. To supply tools of help to the users of the produced material some avatars are designed with Iclone and Crazy Talk softwares.

  1. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  2. Pathogenicity determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci from foods of animal origin in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elal Mus, Tulay; Cetinkaya, Figen; Cibik, Recep; Soyutemiz, Gul Ece; Simsek, Husniye; Coplu, Nilay

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the presence of genes responsible for the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci isolated from various foodstuffs of animal origin was investigated. The percentage prevalence of enterococci was 54.1% (203/375) and the average count was found to be 3.81 log cfu/ml-g. Species-specific primers revealed Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species carrying one or more virulence-associated traits of efa, gelE, ace, esp and agg genetic markers. Only one E. faecium isolate (from milk) was positive for the esp gene. Regarding antibiotic resistance, the highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline (21.7%), followed by quinupristin/dalfopristin (13.3%), ciprofloxacin (2.0%), penicillin (2.0%), linezolid (1.0%), ampicillin (1.0%), streptomycin (1.0%), and gentamicin (0.5%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance than other enterococci. The percentage of multidrug resistance among the isolates was 3.4%. Twenty-nine E. faecalis isolates (26.6%) carrying one of the virulence-associated traits were at the same time resistant to at least one antibiotic. Our results show that foods of animal origin, including ready-to-eat products, may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.

  3. Molecular Subtyping and Source Attribution of Campylobacter Isolated from Food Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Tate, Heather P; Abbott, Jason; Tran, Thu-Thuy; Kabera, Claudine; Crarey, Emily; Young, Shenia; McDermott, Patrick F; Sprague, Grisselle; Campbell, Mark; Adeyemo, Oyewole; Browne-Silva, Johnette; Myers, Michael; Thitaram, Sutawee; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. commonly cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. Poultry meats have long been considered the predominant source of these infections, but few in-depth Campylobacter source attribution studies have been completed. We analyzed more than 1,300 Campylobacter isolates recovered from a number of animal and food sources, including dairy and beef cattle, pigs, poultry, and retail poultry meat, and compared them with Campylobacter isolates recovered from human clinical samples. Each isolate was subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and queried against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PulseNet database to identify human isolates with indistinguishable patterns. Half (49.5%) of the PFGE patterns from poultry animal and retail meat isolates were indistinguishable from patterns of at least one human isolate. Among the isolates from beef and dairy cows, 56.6 and 65.0%, respectively, of their PFGE patterns were indistinguishable from those of human isolates. Only a small portion of the PFGE patterns of Campylobacter isolated from pigs (9.5%) were found to have PFGE patterns in common with human isolates. These data imply that cattle may be larger contributors to Campylobacter infections than previously recognized and help further our understanding of potential sources of human campylobacteriosis.

  4. Different Cells Make Different Proteins: A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Tissue-Specific Protein Expression in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Izaskun; Villamarín, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    All the cells of higher organisms have the same DNA but not the same proteins. Each type of specialised cell that forms a tissue has its own pattern of gene expression and, consequently, it contains a particular set of proteins that determine its function. Here, we describe a laboratory exercise addressed to undergraduate students that aims to…

  5. Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The germ fraction with pericarp (bran is generated in the industrial processing of corn kernel, and it is used for oil extraction and animal feed. This study evaluated the nutritional and protein quality of this fraction in relation to whole corn. The proximate composition, mineral contents, and amino acid profile of the germ fraction with pericarp and of whole corn were determined. A 4-week experiment was conducted using 36 weanling male Wistar rats, and three 10%-protein diets (reference, germ with 15% lipids and casein with 15% lipids, two 6%-protein diets (whole corn and casein, and a protein-free diet were prepared. The germ showed higher contents of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber (27.8 g.100 g-1, ash, minerals (Fe and Zn- approximately 5 mg.100 g-1, and lysine (57.2 mg.g-1 protein than those of corn. The germ presented good quality protein (Relative Protein Efficiency Ratio-RPER = 80%; Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score-PDCAAS = 86%, higher than that of corn (RPER = 49%; PDCAAS = 60%. The corn germ fraction with pericarp is rich in dietary fiber, and it is a source of good quality protein as well as of iron and zinc, and its use as nutritive raw material is indicated in food products for human consumption.

  6. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  7. Characterization of CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping eLiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics has become a major concern for public health. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics and distribution of blaCTX-M-14, which encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, in E. coli isolated from Guangdong Province, China. A total of 979 E. coli isolates isolated from healthy or diseased food-producing animals including swine and avian were examined for blaCTX-M-14 and then the blaCTX-M-14 –positive isolates were detected by other resistance determinants (ESBLs, PMQR, rmtB and floR and analyzed by phylogenetic grouping analysis, PCR-based plasmid replicon typing, multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analysis. The genetic environments of blaCTX-M-14 were also determined by PCR. The results showed that fourteen CTX-M-14-producing E. coli were identified, belonging to groups A (7/14, B1 (4/14 and D (3/14. The most predominant resistance gene was blaTEM (n= 8, followed by floR (n=7, oqxA (n=3, aac(6’-1b-cr (n=2 and rmtB (n=1. Plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14 were classified to IncK, IncHI2, IncHI1, IncN, IncFIB, IncF or IncI1, ranged from about 30kb to 200kb, and with insertion sequence of ISEcp1, IS26 or ORF513 located upstream and IS903 downstream of blaCTX-M-14. The result of MLST showed that 14 isolates had 11 STs, and the 11 STs belonged to 5 groups. Many of the identified STs are reported to be common in E. coli isolates associated with extraintestinal infections in humans, suggesting possible transmission of blaCTX-M-14 between animals and humans. The difference in the flanking sequences of blaCTX-M-14 between the 2009 isolates and the early ones suggests that the resistance gene context continues to evolve in E. coli of food producing animals.

  8. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants

  9. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Carbapenem resistance in food animal ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    -1-encoding genes were located on IncHI2 plasmids. A methodology including selective culture is proposed for the detection of CP strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. The choice of selective media for the surveillance of carbapenem resistance for testing animal and food samples needs......Carbapenems are broad-spectrum β-lactam antimicrobials used for the treatment of serious infections in humans. To date only sporadic studies have reported the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing (CP) bacteria in food-producing animals and their environment. The bacteria and enzymes isolated...... should be given to broilers, fattening turkeys, fattening pigs, veal calves and meat thereof. Because there are no data on the comparative efficacy of individual control options, prioritisation is complex. Continued prohibition of the use of carbapenems in food-producing animals would be a simple...

  10. Digestibility of animal and vegetable protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles, Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe dos Santos Cipriano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein, and amino acids in protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles. A test was conducted with six protein ingredients: meat and bone meal, fish meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal. Three repetitions were used for each tested ingredient. A reference feed was used with 430 g kg−1 crude protein and 19.63 kJ g−1 gross energy. The test feeds consisted of the replacement of 30% of the reference feeds with the test ingredients. Chromium oxide was added to the feeds at 1 g kg−1 as an external marker. Eighteen juveniles with an average weight of 235±36 g were used. The best apparent digestibility coefficients of protein were found for fish meal, followed by the poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meal. However, except for gluten, all the tested ingredients presented protein digestibilities above 0.70. The crude energy apparent digestibility coefficient was higher for animal ingredients, above 0.75, than for vegetable ingredients, which presented values below 0.60. Pirarucu efficiently uses the protein from the tested ingredients, regardless of origin. However, it has a preferential ability to use the energy from animal ingredients.

  11. Freezing of in vitro produced bovine embryos in animal protein-free medium containing vegetal peptones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F; Vrancken, M; Verhaeghe, B; Verhoeye, F; Schneider, Y-J; Massip, A; Donnay, I

    2006-09-15

    Successful cryopreservation is essential for a large-scale dispersal of bovine in vitro produced (IVP) embryos that have been shown to be more sensitive to cryopreservation than their in vivo counterparts. On the other hand, the use of animal proteins in freezing media increases sanitary risks. We first replaced animal proteins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the freezing medium by plant-derived peptides (vegetal peptones). A batch of wheat peptones was selected after a preliminary experiment showing the absence of toxicity of concentrationsanimal protein-free freezing medium containing 1.8 mg/mL peptones. No beneficial effect of adding 1 mg/mL sodium hyaluronate or 100 microM beta-mercaptoethanol was observed on embryo survival or quality. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that vegetal peptones can replace BSA in freezing media without affecting blastocyst survival and quality.

  12. [Levels for toxaphene in three categories of animal originated food in Pearl River Delta area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqing; Liu, Zhibin; Jiang, Yousheng; Li, Shengnong; Zhou, Jian; Lin, Xiaoshi; Lu, Shaoyou

    2014-12-01

    To explore the present contamination status and profile of toxaphene in fish, chicken and meat samples in Pearl River Delta area. Totally 60 independent samples including fish, chicken, meat were collected from Huizhou,Guangzhou,Dongguan,Jiangmen of Pearl River Delta area in Guangdong by purposive sampling from Oct 2010 to Jun 2011. Toxaphene monomer Parlar26, Parlar50 and Parlar62 levels in three various categories of foods were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed referencing international authoritative standard methods by utilizing isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution double-focusing magnetic mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). The levels of pollution and characteristics were compared. The concentration of toxaphene median(M) in fish, chicken and meat were 12.87, 5.8 and 1.89 ng/kg (gross weight) , respectively and the difference was significant(H = 14.29, P = 0.001). The toxaphene level in seafish (M = 32.07 ng/kg) was significantly higher than that in freshwater fish (M = 10.63 ng/kg, Z = -2.52, P = 0.012). The profile analysis showed that Parlar50 and Parlar26 were the predominant characteristic monomers in fish, which contributed about 44% (9.91/22.60, ng/kg) and 39% (8.89/22.60, ng/kg) to total concentration, and Parlar62 and Parlar26 were the two predominant congeners in poultry products, the two congeners accounted for 42% (5.03/11.90, ng/kg) and 38% (4.58/11.90, ng/kg). Furthermore Parlar26 and Parlar62 made up about 57% (3.45/6.08, ng/kg) and 26% (1.58/6.08, ng/kg) of total concentration in livestock meat respectively. Toxaphene levels in all tested food samples are far lower than the limited standard stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2002, which was 0.1 mg/kg. The congener characteristic difference in the three categories food indicated that the different enrichment ability in Toxaphene in different animal species.

  13. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (2): common food allergen sources in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ralf S; Olivry, Thierry; Prélaud, Pascal

    2016-01-12

    To diagnose cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs) in dogs and cats, dietary restriction-provocation trials are performed. Knowing the most common offending food allergens for these species would help determining the order of food challenges to optimize the time to diagnosis. The search for, and review and analysis of the best evidence available as of January 16, 2015 suggests that the most likely food allergens contributing to canine CAFRs are beef, dairy products, chicken, and wheat. The most common food allergens in cats are beef, fish and chicken. In dogs and cats, after a period of dietary restriction leading to the complete remission of clinical signs, food challenges to diagnose CAFR should begin with beef and dairy products, the most commonly recognized food allergens in these two species.

  14. Need for accurate and standardized determination of amino acids and bioactive peptides for evaluating protein quality and potential health effects of foods and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Xiao, Chaowu; Lee, Nora

    2008-01-01

    Accurate standardized methods for the determination of amino acid in foods are required to assess the nutritional safety and compositional adequacy of sole source foods such as infant formulas and enteral nutritionals, and protein and amino acid supplements and their hydrolysates, and to assess protein claims of foods. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which requires information on amino acid composition, is the official method for assessing protein claims of foods and supplements sold in the United States. PDCAAS has also been adopted internationally as the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Standardized methods for analysis of amino acids by ion-exchange chromatography have been developed. However, there is a need to develop validated methods of amino acid analysis in foods using liquid chromatographic techniques, which have replaced ion-exchange methods for quantifying amino acids in most laboratories. Bioactive peptides from animal and plant proteins have been found to potentially impact human health. A wide range of physiological effects, including blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, and immunomodulatory effects have been described for bioactive peptides. There is considerable commercial interest in developing functional foods containing bioactive peptides. There is also a need to develop accurate standardized methods for the characterization (amino acid sequencing) and quantification of bioactive peptides and to carry out dose-response studies in animal models and clinical trials to assess safety, potential allergenicity, potential intolerance, and efficacy of bioactive peptides. Information from these studies is needed for determining the upper safe levels of bioactive peptides and as the basis for developing potential health claims for bioactive

  15. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model for dietary protein quality assessment of protein meals used in extruded dog foods. Three foods with similar CP content but of different protein quality were produced using different protein meals. The protein meals varied...... by the European Pet Food Industry Federation. It was concluded that growth studies with mink kits can provide valuable information in protein quality assessment of extruded dog foods. Furthermore, the study showed that to ensure nutritional adequacy of dog food and to be able to compare protein quality of dog...

  16. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy

  17. Scientific bases of protein paste technology for baby food with a long shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Андріївна Ткаченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the development prospects of technologies of protein food pastes for children from 8 months; the basic principles underlying production technology by thermostatic way are given; the choice of physiologically functional food ingredients is grounded for the adaptation of the product to the milk of women and parameters of the process using thermal acid coagulation of skim milk proteins

  18. Effects of Protein Foods on the Nutritional Status of Adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Effects of Protein Foods on the Nutritional Status of. Adults with Moderate Chronic Renal Failure. Fadupin Grace T. Department of Human Nutrition, College of Medicine, University Of Ibadan. Ibadan. ABSTRACT: This study compares the efficacy of low- protein foods, from cooked beef (diet A), smoked cat fish (diet B),.

  19. A Potential Animal Model of Maladaptive Palatable Food Consumption Followed by Delayed Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lital Moshe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Binging is the consumption of larger amounts of food in a briefer period of time than would normally be consumed under similar circumstances. Binging requires palatable food (PF to trigger abnormal eating, probably reflecting gene × environment interactions. In this study we examined the impact of trait binge eating (BE and its compulsive nature on the conflict between hedonic eating of PF and anticipation of a delayed aversive effect. We used female rats as an animal model similar to other models of BE. A novel aspect of this model in this paper is the use of a delayed internal aversive effect produced by lactose ingestion. Establishing this model will allow us to better understand the nature of the conflict between immediate reward and its delayed aversive implications. We hypothesized that BE prone (BEP rats will demonstrate maladaptive decision making, presenting higher motivation toward PF even when this is associated with delayed discomfort.Method: (Phase 1 52 female adult Wistar rats were divided to two eating profiles: resistant and prone binge eaters (BER/BEP based on intake of liquid PF (Ensure. Next, all subjects underwent a Lactose Conditioning Protocol (LCP that included 4 h tests, one baseline and 3 conditioning days (Phase 2, in which solid PF (Oreo cookies was paired with glucose (control-no internal aversive effect or lactose, dissolved in liquid PF. Index for PF motivation was PF consumption during the 4 h LCP. To test for memory of lactose conditioning, we performed another LCP with glucose only (anticipation, but no actual lactose-induced discomfort, a week after the last conditioning session.Results: Lactose conditioned BEP showed higher motivation toward PF compared to lactose conditioned BER faced with delayed aversive effects. Only lactose conditioned BER rats devaluated the PF over LCP days, indicating an association between PF and abdominal discomfort. In addition, only lactose conditioned BER presented

  20. Phenotypic Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates from Food-animals and Abattoir Drains in Buea, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis T.K.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Ndip, Lucy M.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella spp. have been extensively incriminated worldwide as common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food-animals serving as important reservoirs. The study was aimed at investigating cattle and pigs slaughtered in Buea as reservoirs of Salmonella Typhimurium and the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics. In total, 230 specimens (comprising 50 each from the rectum, ileum, and gall bladder of cattle; and 10 each from same anatomical sites of pigs and 50 from abattoir drains) were analyzed for Salmonella using the standard microbiological, biochemical and serological techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion test. The isolates were characterized into biotypes using the API 20E kit, and results were analyzed using the chi-square test. Seventy-five (32.6%) of the 230 specimens were positive for S. Typhimurium, with pigs and abattoir drains presenting the highest level of isolation (40%). Biochemical typing grouped the isolates into five biotypes. Biotype I was the most prevalent (30.6%) while biotype IV was the least prevalent (9.3%) and was absent in samples from pigs. Antibio-tic susceptibility studies revealed 14 antibiotypes based on antibiotics used in the study. The predominant antibiotype AMXR DOXRCEFR was recorded in 13 (17.3%) of the isolates. Multidrug resistance (to four or more antibiotics) was recorded in 50.7% (38/75) of the isolates. The most active drugs were ciprofloxacin (98.6%), ofloxacin (93.3%), amikacin (90.6%), and gentamicin (84%). All the isolates (100%) were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin. Cattle and pigs were found to be reservoirs of S. Typhimurium in the environment of Buea, Cameroon, implying that foods from these sources, if not properly handled, could serve as vehicles for its transmission to humans. PMID:19902796

  1. Preparation of a Chicken scFv to Analyze Gentamicin Residue in Animal Derived Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; He, Jinxin; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoying; Du, Enqi; Li, Xinping

    2016-04-05

    Chicken is an ideal model for simplified recombinant antibody library generation. It has been rarely been reported to apply chicken single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) in immunoassays for the detection of antibiotic and chemical contaminants in animal food products. In this study, the scFvs (S-1 and S-5) were isolated from a phage display library derived from a hyperimmunized chicken. The checker board titration revealed that the optimum concentrations of S-1 and S-5 were 0.78 μg/mL and 0.44 μg/mL respectively, to obtain OD450 around 1.0 at 5 μg/mL of Gent-OVA coating concentration. Both S-1 and S-5 exhibited negligible cross reactivity with kanamycin and amikacin. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of S-1 and S-5 were 12.418 ng/mL and 14.674 ng/mL respectively. In the indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA), the limits of detection for S-1 and S-5 were 0.147 ng/mL and 0.219 ng/mL respectively. The mean recovery for Gent ranged from 60.91% to 118.09% with no more than 10.35% relative standard deviation (RSD) between the intra-assay and the inter-assay. These results indicate the chicken scFv based ic-ELISA method is suitable for the detection of Gent residue in animal derived edible tissues and milk.

  2. Effects of natural peptides from food proteins on angiotensin converting enzyme activity and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Melanie; Deussen, Andreas

    2017-12-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. The underlying pathophysiology is largely contributed by an overactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS). Herein, angiotensin II (AngII) is a key mediator not only in blood pressure control and vascular tone regulation, but also involved in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Since more than three decades suppression of AngII generation by inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or blockade of the AngII-receptor has shown clinical benefit by reducing hypertension, atherosclerosis and other inflammation-associated cardiovascular diseases. Besides pharmaceutical ACE-inhibitors some natural peptides derived from food proteins reduce in vitro ACE activity. Several animal studies and a few human clinical trials have shown antihypertensive effects of such peptides, which might be attractive as food additives to prevent age-related RAAS activation. However, their inhibitory potency on in vitro ACE activity does not always correlate with an antihypertensive impact. While some peptides with high inhibitory activity on ACE-activity in vitro show no antihypertensive effect in vivo, other peptides with only a moderate ACE inhibitory activity in vitro cause such effects. The explanation for this conflicting phenomenon between inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect remains unclear to date. This review shall critically address the effects of natural peptides derived from different food proteins on the cardiovascular system and the possible underlying mechanisms. A central aspect will be to point to conceptual gaps in the current understanding of the action of these peptides with respect to in vivo blood pressure lowering effects.

  3. Allergenic sensitization versus elicitation risk criteria for novel food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ladics, Gregory S

    2018-02-23

    The value of criteria used in the weight-of-evidence assessment of allergenic risk of genetically modified (GM) crops has been debated. This debate may originate, in part, from not specifying if the criteria are intended to contribute to the assessment of sensitization risk or elicitation risk. Here, this distinction is explicitly discussed in the context of exposure and hazard. GM crops with structural relationships with known allergens or sourced from an organism known to cause allergy (hazard) are screened for IgE-antibody reactivity using serum from sensitized individuals. If IgE reactivity is observed, the GM crop is not developed. While digestive and heat stability impact exposure and thus the elicitation risk to sensitized individuals, these attributes are not interpretable relative to sensitization risk. For novel food proteins with no identified hazard, heat stability cannot be validly assessed because relevant IgE antibodies are not available. Likewise, the uncertain and sometime non-monotonic dose relationship between oral exposure to allergens and sensitization makes digestive stability a poor predictor of sensitization risk. It is hoped that by explicitly distinguishing between sensitization risk and elicitation risk, some of the debate surrounding the weight-of evidence criteria for predicting the allergenic risk of GM crops can be resolved. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Interaction Between Salivary Proteins and Food Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mafalda Santos; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Brandão, Elsa; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor; Soares, Susana

    2017-08-09

    Polyphenols interaction with salivary proteins (SP) has been related with organoleptic features such as astringency. The aim of this work was to study the interaction between some human SP and tannins through two spectroscopic techniques, fluorescence quenching, and saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR). Generally, the results showed a significant interaction between SP and both condensed tannins and ellagitannins. Herein, STD-NMR proved to be a useful tool to map tannins' epitopes of binding, while fluorescence quenching allowed one to discriminate binding affinities. Ellagitannins showed the greatest binding constants values (K SV from 20.1 to 94.1 mM -1 ; K A from 0.7 to 8.3 mM -1 ) in comparison with procyanidins (K SV from 5.4 to 40.0 mM -1 ; K A from 1.1 to 2.7 mM -1 ). In fact, punicalagin was the tannin that demonstrated the highest affinity for all three SP. Regarding SP, P-B peptide was the one with higher affinity for ellagitannins. On the other hand, cystatins showed in general the lower K SV and K A values. In the case of condensed tannins, statherin was the SP with the highest affinity, contrasting with the other two SP. Altogether, these results are evidence that the distinct SP present in the oral cavity have different abilities to interact with food tannins class.

  5. Risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet: Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, S. M.; Greig, J. B.; Bridges, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is one of several prepared under the project "Food Safety In Europe: Risk Assessment of Chemicals in Food and Diet" (FOSIE). a European Commission Concerted Action Programme, organised by the International Life Sciences Institute. Europe (ILSI). The aim of the FOSIE project is to review...... the current state of the science of risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet, by consideration of the four stages of risk assessment, that is. hazard identification. hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. The contribution of animal-based methods in toxicology to hazard...... identification of chemicals in food and diet is discussed. The importance of first applying existing technical and chemical knowledge to the design of safety testing programs for Food chemicals is emphasised. There is consideration of the presently available and commonly used toxicity testing approaches...

  6. Occurrence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae from foods of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Hakkı Tekiner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL in bacteria is a growing health concern of global significance. The local, regional, national, and international epidemiological studies for extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their encoding genes in foods are still incomplete. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae and the characteristics of their encoding genes from a total of 250 samples of various foods of animal-origin (100 raw chicken meat, 100 raw cow milk, and 50 raw cow milk cheese sold in Turkey. Overall, 55 isolates were positive as extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The most prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strain were identified as Escherichia coli (80%, followed by Enterobacter cloacae (9.1%, Citrobacter braakii (5.5%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%, and Citrobacter werkmanii (1.8% by Vitek® MS. The simultaneous production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and AmpC was detected in five isolates (9.1% in E. coli (80% and E. cloacae (20%. The frequency rates of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV were 96.4%, 53.7%, and 34.5%, respectively. The co-existence of bla -genes was observed in 82% of extended spectrum beta-lactamases producers with a distribution of blaTEM & blaCTX-M (52.7%, blaTEM & blaSHV (20%, blaTEM & blaCTX-M & blaSHV (12.7%, and blaSHV & blaCTX-M (1.8%. The most prevalent variant of blaCTX-M clusters was defined as blaCTX-M-1 (97.2%, followed by blaCTX-M-8 (2.8%. In summary, the analysed foods were found to be posing a health risk for Turkish consumers due to contamination by Enterobacteriaceae with a diversity of extended spectrum beta-lactamases encoding genes.

  7. Advances in food packaging films from milk proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most commercial petroleum-based food packaging films are poor oxygen barriers, do not biodegrade, and some are suspected to even leach compounds into the food product. For instance, three-perfluorinated coatings were banned from convenience food packaging earlier this year. These shortcomings are a ...

  8. Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eCeli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the role that oxidative stress, and protein oxidation in particular, plays in nutrition, metabolism and health of farm animals. The route by which redox homeostasis is involved in some important physiological functions and the implications of the impairment of oxidative status on animal health and diseases is also examined. Proteins have various and, at the same time, unique biological functions and their oxidation can result in structural changes and various functional modifications. Protein oxidation seems to be involved in pathological conditions such as respiratory diseases and parasitic infection; however some studies also suggest that protein oxidation plays a crucial role in the regulation of important physiological functions such as reproduction, nutrition, metabolism, lactation, gut health and neonatal physiology. As the characterization of the mechanisms by which oxidative stress may influence metabolism and health is attracting considerable scientific interest, the aim of this review is to present veterinary scientists and clinicians with various aspects of oxidative damage to proteins.

  9. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    .... FDA-2008-F-0151] (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0478) Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted in... agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj of...

  10. 75 FR 62545 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Virginiamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of virginiamycin as an... is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2264) has been filed by Ferm Solutions, Inc., PO Box 203...

  11. 76 FR 22904 - Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Erythromycin Thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of erythromycin...) (21 U.S.C. 348(b)(5)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2271) has been filed by Ferm...

  12. 76 FR 48751 - Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Calcium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of calcium...)), notice is given that a food additive petition (FAP 2261) has been filed by Lanxess Corp. (Lanxess), 111...

  13. Possible nature and specificity of a protein factor favoringsolubilization of chromatin from irradiated animal thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Trebenok, Z.A.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that activation of endonucleolysis of thymocyte nuclear chromatin by protein factor from the cells of irradiated animals is not conditioned by its nuclease activity or ability to activate Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ - dependent lymphocyte endonuclease. DNA degradation character and kinetics of accumulation of the forming products doesn't change in autolysis of thymocyte nucleus. It is assumed that protein factor doesn't participate in starting mechanisms of postirradiation chromatin degradation but can be of significance at delayed stages of the process. The discovered effect is characterized by tissue and specific characteristic

  14. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the enviroment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Garcia, Alejandro; Smid, J.H.; Pelt, Van Wilfrid; Bonten, M.J.M.; Fluit, A.C.; Bunt, van den Gerrita; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hordijk, J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Veldman, K.T.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Dohmen, W.; Schmitt, H.; Liakopoulos, A.; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Velthuis, Annet; Heuvelink, A.; Gonggrijp, Maaike; Duijkeren, van E.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Roda Husman, de A.N.; Blaak, H.; Havelaar, A.H.; Mevius, D.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  15. Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the environment : a pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-García, Alejandro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372621023; Smid, Joost H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313996458; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Bonten, Marc J M; Fluit, Ad C; van den Bunt, Gerrita; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Hordijk, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314839542; Dierikx, Cindy M; Veldman, Kees T; de Koeijer, Aline; Dohmen, Wietske|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/333690451; Schmitt, Heike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831042; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Pacholewicz, Ewa; Lam, Theo J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X; Velthuis, Annet G J; Heuvelink, Annet; Gonggrijp, Maaike A; van Duijkeren, Engeline; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281; Blaak, Hetty; Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Mevius, Dik J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; Heederik, Dick J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains

  16. 21 CFR 2.35 - Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Investigations by the Food and Drug Administration, the National Communicable Disease Center of the U.S. Public... original use of these containers for the storage and shipment of articles containing or bearing disease... frequently consumed without heat treatment. (2) Some potato growers and producers of animal feeds use...

  17. 77 FR 50591 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... corresponding to no significant increase in the risk of cancer to the human consumer. However, the definition of... used in food- producing animals. Specifically, the Agency is clarifying the definition of ``S o '' and revising the definition of ``S m '' so that it conforms to the clarified definition of S o . Other...

  18. Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1999-01-01

    , clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located...

  19. Ractopamine and Clenbuterol Urinary Residues in Pigs as Food-Producing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vahčić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine residual ractopamine (RCT and clenbuterol (CLB concentrations in urine during and after their administration in anabolic dose to male pigs. RCT and CLB residues were determined using previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA as a quantitative screening method. Hydrolysis of urine samples with β-glucuronidase showed significantly higher (p<0.05 RCT residues. Study results showed RCT and CLB urine concentrations to vary greatly during oral treatment for 28 days, with maximal RCT and CLB concentration recorded on day 25 ((327.4±161.0 ng/mL and day 20 ((68.4±32.2 ng/mL, respectively. RCT concentration of (57.1±10.6 ng/mL and CLB concentration of (38.8±20.1 ng/mL were measured on day 0 of treatment withdrawal; on day 7 of treatment withdrawal, the measured concentration of RCT ((5.0±0.9 ng/mL was 20-fold of CLB concentration ((0.3±0.2 ng/mL. Study results indicate that the excretion of RCT and CLB in pig urine could clearly point to their abuse in pigs as food-producing animals, in particular when using sample hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase on RCT determination.

  20. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Saeidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90% and 105 (26.25% were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%, m1a (79.18%, s1b (69.54%, and m1b (63.45% and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%, m1as1b (60.40%, m1bs1b (55.83%, and m1bs1a (53.29%. High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human.