WorldWideScience

Sample records for anhydride-modified chicken ovalbumin

  1. MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE MODIFIED RICE HUSK FILLED PVC COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Navin Chand; Bhajan Das Jhod

    2008-01-01

    Unmodified and modified rice husk powder filled PVC composites were prepared having different amounts of rice husk powder. Mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of these composites were determined. The tensile strength of rice husk powder PVC composites having 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 weight percent of rice husk powder was found to be 33.9, 19.4, 18.1, 14.6, and 9.5 MPa, respectively. Adding of maleic anhydride- modified rice husk powder improved the tensile strength of rice husk powder...

  2. Effects of Different Types of Clays and Maleic Anhydride Modified Polystyrene on Polystyrene/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehrabzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/clay nanocomposites are considered as a new subject of research in Iran and the world. Addition of a minimum amount of clay (2-5wt% can improve the mechanical properties, enhance barrier properties and reduce flammability dramatically. Polystyrene (PS exhibits high strength, high modulus and excellent dimensional stability, but it has poor ductility, elongation, and flexural modulus. By incorporating clay into polystyrene these properties can be improved. In this study preparation of polystyrene/clay nanocomposite, effects of different types of clays (Cloisite 10A andNanomer I.30TC and maleic anhydride modified polystyrene on mechanical properties of the prepared polystyrene/clay nanocomposites were evaluated. Samples were prepared by a twin screw extruder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques were employed to evaluate the extent of intercalation and exfoliation of silicate layers in the nanocomposites. Mechanical tests show that by addition of clay and maleic anhydride modified polystyrene the flexural modulus (~30% and elongation-at-break (~40% of prepared nanocomposites have been improved. XRD and TEM results show that nanocomposite have an intercalated structure with ability to change to further exfoliation structure.

  3. The use of maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene for performance enhancement in continuous glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, H.A.; Contant, M.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Miravete, A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene (m-PP) on static mech. properties of continuous glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites was studied. M-PP was added to the PP homopolymer to improve the adhesion between the matrix and the glass fiber. Three-point bending tests

  4. Opposite Smad and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor inputs in the regulation of the collagen VII gene promoter by transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, María Julia; Seoane, Joan; Massagué, Joan

    2004-05-28

    A critical component of the epidermal basement membrane, collagen type VII, is produced by keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and its production is stimulated by the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The gene, COL7A1, is activated by TGF-beta via Smad transcription factors in cooperation with AP1. Here we report a previously unsuspected level of complexity in this regulatory process. We provide evidence that TGF-beta may activate the COL7A1 promoter by two distinct inputs operating through a common region of the promoter. One input is provided by TGF-beta-induced Smad complexes via two Smad binding elements that function redundantly depending on the cell type. The second input is provided by relieving the COL7A1 promoter from chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF)-mediated transcriptional repression. We identified COUP-TFI and -TFII as factors that bind to the TGF-beta-responsive region of the COL7A1 promoter in an expression library screening. COUP-TFs bind to a site between the two Smad binding elements independently of Smad or AP1 and repress the basal and TGF-beta-stimulated activities of this promoter. We provide evidence that endogenous COUP-TF activity represses the COL7A1 promoter. Furthermore, we show that TGF-beta addition causes a rapid and profound down-regulation of COUP-TF expression in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The results suggest that TGF-beta signaling may exert tight control over COL7A1 by offsetting the balance between opposing Smad and COUP-TFs.

  5. The role of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II in the regulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchais, Julien; Boutant, Marie; Fauveau, Véronique; Qing, Lou Dan; Sabra-Makke, Lina; Bossard, Pascale; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; Pégorier, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-15

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in the control of numerous functions in various organs (organogenesis, differentiation, metabolic homeostasis, etc.). The aim of the present work was to characterize the regulation and contribution of COUP-TFII in the control of hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolisms in newborn mice. Our data show that postnatal increase in COUP-TFII mRNA levels is enhanced by glucagon (via cAMP) and PPARα. To characterize COUP-TFII function in the liver of suckling mice, we used a functional (dominant negative form; COUP-TFII-DN) and a genetic (shRNA) approach. Adenoviral COUP-TFII-DN injection induces a profound hypoglycemia due to the inhibition of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation secondarily to reduced PEPCK, Gl-6-Pase, CPT I, and mHMG-CoA synthase gene expression. Using the crossover plot technique, we show that gluconeogenesis is inhibited at two different levels: 1) pyruvate carboxylation and 2) trioses phosphate synthesis. This could result from a decreased availability in fatty acid oxidation arising cofactors such as acetyl-CoA and reduced equivalents. Similar results are observed using the shRNA approach. Indeed, when fatty acid oxidation is rescued in response to Wy-14643-induced PPARα target genes (CPT I and mHMG-CoA synthase), blood glucose is normalized in COUP-TFII-DN mice. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that postnatal increase in hepatic COUP-TFII gene expression is involved in the regulation of liver fatty acid oxidation, which in turn sustains an active hepatic gluconeogenesis that is essential to maintain an appropriate blood glucose level required for newborn mice survival. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Intrathymic selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell antigen receptor (TCR)+ cells in transgenic mice bearing TCR specific for chicken ovalbumin and restricted to I-Ad

    OpenAIRE

    Iwabuchi, Chikako; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Nakagawa, Ken-ichi; Takayanagi, Toshiaki; Nishihori, Hiroki; Tone, Saori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Good, Robert A.; Onoé, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    Generation and negative selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell receptor (TCR)+ thymocytes were analyzed using TCR-transgenic (B10.D2 × DO10)F1 and (C57BL/6 × DO10)F1 mice and Rag-1−/−/DO10 mice, which had been established by breeding and backcrossing between Rag-1−/− and DO10 mice. Almost all T cells from these mice were shown to bear Vα13/Vβ8.2 that is specific for chicken ovalbumin (cOVA) and restricted to I-Ad. A normal proportion of the NK1.1+ Vα13/Vβ8.2+ thymocytes was generated in these mice. Ho...

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Maleic Anhydride-Modified Xylan-g-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel with Multifunctional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Song, Tao; Chang, Minmin; Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Runcang; Ren, Junli

    2018-01-01

    Introducing multifunctional groups and inorganic material imparts xylan-based hydrogels with excellent properties, such as responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, and external magnetic field. In this work, a composite hydrogel was synthesized by introducing acid treated carbon nanotubes (AT-CNTs) into the maleic anhydride modified xylan grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (MAX-g-PNIPAM) hydrogels network. It was found that the addition of AT-CNTs affected the MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel structure, the swelling ratio and mechanical properties, and imparted the hydrogel with new properties of electrical conductivity and near infrared region (NIR) photothermal conversion. AT-CNTs could reinforce the mechanical properties of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogels, being up to 83 kPa for the compressive strength when the amount was 11 wt %, which was eight times than that of PNIPAM hydrogel and four times than that of MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel. The electroconductibility was enhanced by the increase of AT-CNTs amounts. Meanwhile, the composite hydrogel also exhibited multiple shape memory and NIR photothermal conversion properties, and water temperature was increased from 26 °C to 56 °C within 8 min under the NIR irradiation. Thus, the AT-CNTs reinforced MAX-g-PNIPAM hydrogel possessed promising multifunctional properties, which offered many potential applications in the fields of biosensors, thermal-arrest technology, and drug-controlled release. PMID:29495611

  8. Interaction between a "processed" ovalbumin peptide and Ia molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Colon, S; Smith, C

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled immunogenic peptides to purified Ia molecules in detergent solution was examined by equilibrium dialysis. We used the chicken ovalbumin peptide ovalbumin-(323-339)-Tyr, which is immunogenic in the BALB/c mouse and restricted to I-Ad. 125I-labeled ovalbumin-(323-339)-Tyr......-Ak but not to I-Ek, I-Ad, or I-Ed. Thus, a specific interaction between Ia and antigen that correlates with the major histocompatibility complex restriction was demonstrated, strongly arguing in favor of a determinant selection hypothesis for such restriction....

  9. Intrathymic selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell antigen receptor (TCR)+ cells in transgenic mice bearing TCR specific for chicken ovalbumin and restricted to I-Ad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Chikako; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Nakagawa, Ken-ichi; Takayanagi, Toshiaki; Nishihori, Hiroki; Tone, Saori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Good, Robert A.; Onoé, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    Generation and negative selection of NK1.1+α/β T cell receptor (TCR)+ thymocytes were analyzed using TCR-transgenic (B10.D2 × DO10)F1 and (C57BL/6 × DO10)F1 mice and Rag-1−/−/DO10 mice, which had been established by breeding and backcrossing between Rag-1−/− and DO10 mice. Almost all T cells from these mice were shown to bear Vα13/Vβ8.2 that is specific for chicken ovalbumin (cOVA) and restricted to I-Ad. A normal proportion of the NK1.1+ Vα13/Vβ8.2+ thymocytes was generated in these mice. However, the actual cell number of both NK1.1+ and NK1.1− thymocytes in I-Ad/d mice (positive selecting background) was larger than that in I-Ab/d mice (negative selecting background). Markedly low but significant proportions of NK1.1+ Vα13/Vβ8.2+ cells were detected in the spleens from I-Ad/d and I-Ab/d mice. It was shown that the splenic NK1.1+ T cells of the I-Ab/d mice were anergized against stimulation through TCR. When (B10.D2 × DO10)F1 and (C57BL/6 × DO10)F1 mice were given cOVA, extensive or intermediate elimination of NK1.1+α/βTCR+ thymocytes was induced in I-Ad/d or I-Ab/d mice, respectively. However, the clonal elimination was not as complete as that seen in the major NK1.1− thymocyte population. The present findings indicate that normal generation of NK1.1+α/βTCR+ thymocytes occurs in the absence of Vα14-Jα281 and that substantial negative selection operates on the NK1.1+α/βTCR+ cells. PMID:9653164

  10. Reversible self-association of ovalbumin at air-water interfaces and the consequences for the exerted surface pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2005-01-01

    In this study the relation between the ability of protein self-association and the surface properties at air-water interfaces is investigated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. Three forms of chicken egg ovalbumin were obtained with different self-associating behavior: native

  11. Reversible self-association of ovalbumin at air-water interfaces and the consequences for the exerted pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this study the relation between the ability of protein self-association and the surface properties at air-water interfaces is investigated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. Three forms of chicken egg ovalbumin were obtained with different self-associating behavior: native

  12. Aggregate morphology and network properties of ovalbumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.

    2005-01-01

    keywords:ovalbumin, hen egg white proteins,

  13. FTIR study of secondary structure of bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimova, K V; Shulenina, O V; Paston, S V

    2016-01-01

    Proteins structure is the critical factor for their functioning. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides a possibility to obtain information about secondary structure of proteins in different states and also in a whole biological samples. Infrared spectra of egg white from the untreated and hard-boiled hen's egg, and also of chicken ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin in lyophilic form and in aqueous solution were studied. Lyophilization of investigated globular proteins is accompanied by the decrease of a-helix structures and the increase in amount of intermolecular β-sheets. Analysis of infrared spectrum of egg white allowed to make an estimation of OVA secondary structure and to observe α-to-β structural transformation as a result of the heat denaturation. (paper)

  14. Functionality of ovalbumin during Chinese steamed bread-making processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shangyuan; Zhang, Huang; Xu, Lei; Chen, Yisheng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Yang, Na; Wu, Fengfeng; Li, Dandan

    2018-07-01

    Hen egg is commonly used in some cereal-based food, including cakes and bread. Ovalbumin, one of the major components of egg white protein, can affect the performance of the food product. The interaction between ovalbumin and gluten protein and its effect on property of dough and quality of Chinese steamed bread was investigated in this study. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns indicated that ovalbumin was surprisingly not incorporated in glutenins by covalent bond, whereas size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography showed that glutenin macropolymer content in glutenins increased slightly. Furthermore, dynamic rheology experiments indicated ovalbumin led to a decrease inG' andG″ of dough. Based on molecular dynamic simulation and SDS-PAGE results, it was inferred that ovalbumin was not hydrolyzed by endopeptidases during dough fermentation and crosslinked to gluten proteins during steaming. Finally, ovalbumin improved maximum dough height (Hm) during dough development and specific volume of Chinese steamed bread. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulomaa, M.S.; Elo, H.A.; Tuohimaa, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  16. Maillard-Reaction-Functionalized Egg Ovalbumin Stabilizes Oil Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yuan, Dan; Wang, Qi; Li, Wanrong; Cai, Jie; Li, Shuyi; Lamikanra, Olusola; Qin, Xinguang

    2018-04-25

    Egg white proteins are an excellent source of nutrition, with high biological and technological values. However, their limited functional properties prevent their widespread industrial applications. In this study, the ovalbumin functionality was improved via glycation by Maillard reaction with d-lactose. The free amino groups and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile were determined, confirming that glycation occurred between ovalbumin and lactose. The emulsification of the conjugate was 2.69-fold higher than that of ovalbumin at pH 7.0 after glycation. The thermal stability also improved remarkably. The glycated protein products were used to form an oil-water nanoemulsion for polymethoxyflavone-rich aged orange peel oil. The resulting nanoemulsion showed good pH, thermal, and storage stabilities.

  17. Chicken Picadillo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenpicadillo.html Chicken Picadillo To use the sharing features on this ... together on a busy weeknight Ingredients 1 pound chicken breast, boneless, skinless, cut into thin strips 2 ...

  18. Chicken Stew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenstew.html Chicken Stew To use the sharing features on this ... leftovers for lunch the next day! Ingredients 8 chicken pieces (breasts or legs) 1 cup water 2 ...

  19. Electrochemical sensing of concanavalin A and ovalbumin interaction in solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Veronika; Helma, Robert; Paleček, Emil; Ostatná, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 935, SEP2016 (2016), s. 97-103 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00956S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Protein-protein interactions * Lectin-glycoprotein interactions * Ovalbumin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  20. Reduction of allergenicity of irradiated ovalbumin in ovalbumin-allergic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Lee, Soo-Young; Kang, Il-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most serious of the immediate hypersensitivity reactions to foods. Such an allergic disorder is mediated by IgE antibodies stimulated by T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes. This study was undertaken to evaluate changes of allergenicity and cytokine profiles by exposure of irradiated ovalbumin (OVA), a major allergen of egg white, in the OVA-allergic mice model. OVA solutions (2 mg/ml in 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were gamma-irradiated to 50 and 100 kGy. The allergenicity in the OVA-allergy-induced mice model was remarkably reduced when challenged with irradiated OVA. Cultures of spleen cells harvested from OVA-sensitized mice showed a significant decrease in Th2 cytokine levels of ILs-4 and -5 with a concomitant increase in Th1 cytokine levels of IL-12 when co-cultured with irradiated OVA. However, IFN-γ level decreased dependant on the radiation dose of co-cultured OVA. The levels of IgEs and Th2-cytokine were reduced dependant on the radiation dose. These data show that the irradiated OVA could downregulate the activity of Th2 lymphocytes in OVA-sensitized mice

  1. Fabrication and characterization of ovalbumin films for wound dressing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, Mozhgan; Navaee, Fatemeh; Jalili–Firoozinezhad, Sasan; Faturechi, Rahim; Majidi, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A great number of people suffer from burning injuries all around the world each year. Applying an appropriate wound dressing can promote new tissue formation, prevent losing water and inhibit invasion of infectious organisms. In this study, egg white with a long standing history, as a homemade remedy, was fabricated as a wound dressing for burn injuries. For this reason, ovalbumin films were cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) with different concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mM) using three concentrations of ethanol. Physical–chemical characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas transmission rate (GTR), tensile mechanical tests, water uptake and degradation rate were performed on the samples. The sample with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol was considered as the optimized one with 417 kPa of ultimate tensile strength, 64% elongation at break and 230% water uptake. In addition, biological evaluations conducted by MTT and live/dead assay indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fibroblast cells were well spread on the sample with the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, modified ovalbumin can be applied as the base material for fabrication of wound dressing and skin care products. - Highlights: • Ovalbumin films were cross-linked by EDC with different concentrations. • Physical–chemical characterizations were performed on the samples. • Biological evaluations indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. • The optimized sample was considered with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol. • Modified ovalbumin can be applied as wound dressings and skin care products

  2. The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinagha Aghili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. Results: In general, the differences were insignificant (P > 0.05. As the only exception, the group in which both ovalbumin and force were applied had significantly more root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of ovalbumin films for wound dressing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaee, Mozhgan; Navaee, Fatemeh [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalili–Firoozinezhad, Sasan [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Departments of Biomedicine and Surgery, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Faturechi, Rahim [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majidi, Mohammad [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonakdar, Shahin, E-mail: sh_bonakdar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    A great number of people suffer from burning injuries all around the world each year. Applying an appropriate wound dressing can promote new tissue formation, prevent losing water and inhibit invasion of infectious organisms. In this study, egg white with a long standing history, as a homemade remedy, was fabricated as a wound dressing for burn injuries. For this reason, ovalbumin films were cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) with different concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mM) using three concentrations of ethanol. Physical–chemical characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas transmission rate (GTR), tensile mechanical tests, water uptake and degradation rate were performed on the samples. The sample with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol was considered as the optimized one with 417 kPa of ultimate tensile strength, 64% elongation at break and 230% water uptake. In addition, biological evaluations conducted by MTT and live/dead assay indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fibroblast cells were well spread on the sample with the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, modified ovalbumin can be applied as the base material for fabrication of wound dressing and skin care products. - Highlights: • Ovalbumin films were cross-linked by EDC with different concentrations. • Physical–chemical characterizations were performed on the samples. • Biological evaluations indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. • The optimized sample was considered with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol. • Modified ovalbumin can be applied as wound dressings and skin care products.

  4. The effect of ovalbumin on orthodontic induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hosseinagha; Ardekani, Mohammad Danesh; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi; Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Modaresi, Jalil; Mansouri, Reza; Momeni, Ehsan

    2013-09-01

    This randomized trial was undertaken to investigate the effect of experimentally induced allergy on orthodontic induced root resorption. A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided randomly into test and control groups. Starting from the first 3 days, the rats in the test group were injected intra-peritoneally by 2 mg ovalbumin as allergen and 0.5 mg Alume as adjuvant. Afterward only allergen was injected once a week. The control group was injected by normal saline. After 21 days, Wistar immunoglobulin E was measured and peripheral matured eosinophil was counted. A total of 50 g nickel-titanium closed coil spring was ligated between right incisor and first molar. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days. The mesial root of the right and left first molar was dissected in a horizontal plane. The specimens were divided into four groups considering whether force and/or ovalbumin was applied or not. Root resorption was measured and compared among these groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferoni tests were used to analyze the data. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. In general, the differences were insignificant (P root resorption than the group in which neither force nor ovalbumin was applied (P > 0.001). Allergy may increase the susceptibility to root resorption. Application of light force, periodical monitoring of root resorption and control of allergy are advisable.

  5. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  6. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a 125 I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals

  7. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  8. Oral tolerance induction with altered forms of ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stransky B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a T cell-dependent phenomenon, oral tolerance is not expected to depend necessarily on native configuration of antigens. We investigated the induction of oral tolerance with modified ovalbumin (Ova. Oral administration of heat-denatured (HD-Ova and cyanogen bromide-degraded ovalbumin was less effective than native Ova in inducing oral tolerance in B6D2F1 mice. HD-Ova was effective in suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions but did not suppress specific antibody formation. Injection of Ova directly into the stomach, but not into the ileum or cecum, suppressed subsequent immunization to DTH reactions. Gavage with protease inhibitors (aprotinin or ovomucoid before gavage with Ova was ineffective in blocking tolerance induction. Treatment with hydroxyurea to destroy cycling cells 24 h before gavage with Ova blocked oral tolerance induction and also the possibility to passively transfer tolerance to naive recipients with the serum of mice gavaged with Ova 1 h before. The implications of these findings about oral tolerance induction are discussed

  9. Ovalbumin-BasedPorous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Farrar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation on glutaraldehyde cross-linked ovalbumin scaffolds was the main focus of this research. Salt leaching and freeze drying were used to create a three-dimensional porous structure. Average pore size was 147.84±40.36 μm and 111.79±30.71 μm for surface and cross sectional area, respectively. Wet compressive strength and elastic modulus were 6.8±3.6 kPa. Average glass transition temperature was 320.1±1.4°C. Scaffolds were sterilized with ethylene oxide prior to seeding MC3T3-E1 cells. Cells were stained with DAPI and Texas red to determine morphology and proliferation. Average cell numbers increased between 4-hour- and 96-hour-cultured scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were measured at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. Differentiation studies showed an increase in osteocalcin at 21 days and alkaline phosphatase levels at 14 days, both indicating differentiation occurred. This work demonstrated the use of ovalbumin scaffolds for a bone tissue engineering application.

  10. Spin-labelling study of interactions of ovalbumin with multilamellar liposomes and specific anti-ovalbumin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Mirosavljević, Krunoslav; Noethig-Laslo, Vesna; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2007-03-10

    Ovalbumin (OVA) has been used continuously as the model antigen in numerous studies of immune reactions and antigen processing, very often encapsulated into liposomes. The purpose of this work was to study the possible interactions of spin-labelled OVA and lipids in liposomal membranes using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. OVA was covalently spin-labelled with 4-maleimido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO-maleimide), characterized and encapsulated into multilamellar, negatively charged liposomes. ESR spectra of this liposomal preparation gave evidence for the interaction of OVA with the lipid bilayers. Such an interaction was also evidenced by the ESR spectra of liposomal preparation containing OVA, where liposomes were spin-labelled with n-doxyl stearic acids. The spin-labelled OVA retains its property to bind specific anti-OVA antibodies, as shown by ESR spectroscopy, but also in ELISA for specific anti-OVA IgG.

  11. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  12. Ovalbumin-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays effectively induce ovalbumin-specific antibody and T-cell responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaden, Koen; Varypataki, Eleni Maria; Romeijn, Stefan; Ossendorp, Ferry; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the applicability of antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays for effective vaccination strategies. Therefore, a model antigen (ovalbumin) was coated onto pH-sensitive (pyridine-modified) microneedle arrays to test pH-triggered antigen release by applying the coated arrays onto ex vivo human skin, and by conducting a dermal immunization study in mice. The release of antigen into ex vivo human skin from the coated microneedles was determined by using radioactively labeled ovalbumin. To investigate the induction of antigen-specific IgG, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, BALB/c mice were immunized with antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedles by the 'coat and poke' approach. These responses were compared to responses induced by the 'poke and patch' approach, and subcutaneous and intradermal vaccination with classic hypodermic needles. The pH-sensitive microneedle arrays were efficiently coated with ovalbumin (95% coating efficiency) and upon application of six microneedle arrays 4.27 of 7 μg ovalbumin was delivered into the skin, showing a release efficiency of 70%. In contrast, the 'poke and patch' approach led to a delivery of only 6.91 of 100 μg ovalbumin (7% delivery efficiency). Immunization by means of ovalbumin-coated microneedles resulted in robust CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses comparable to those obtained after subcutaneous or intradermal immunization with conventional needles. Moreover, it effectively induced IgG responses; however, it required prime-boost immunizations before antibodies were produced. In conclusion, antigen delivery into ex vivo human skin by antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays is more efficient than the 'poke-and-patch' approach and in vivo vaccination studies show the applicability of pH-sensitive microneedles for the induction of both T cell and B cell responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A kinetic study of the mechanism of radiation induced agglomeration of ovalbumin in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuce, Zorana; Janata, Eberhard; Radojcic, Marija; Milosavljevic, B.H.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of concentration on the protein radiolytic damage resulting in a change in molecular mass was measured in the concentration range from 0.2 to 2 mmolxdm -3 ovalbumin in phosphate buffered solutions saturated with N 2 O. The electrophoretic analysis of samples on discontinuous SDS-polyacrylamide gels in the presence or absence of 5% β-mercaptoethanol showed an expected result, i.e. that the protein scission did not take place in the absence of oxygen. Only ovalbumin agglomerates, bonded by covalent bonds other than S-S bridges, were observed. The G-value for the formation of ovalbumin agglomerates increased linearly from 1.1 to 2.4 by increasing the ovalbumin concentration from 0.2 to 2 mmolxdm -3 . The result is interpreted as to be owing to the competition between ovalbumin agglomeration and some intramolecular reactions which did not lead to the change in the molecular mass. It was also found that the G-value is independent of irradiation dose rate. The result was rationalized as a kinetic evidence that the agglomeration is not a cross-linking process, i.e. it does not occur via recombination of the protein radicals produced in the interaction of ovalbumin and · OH radical. The result suggested that the agglomeration takes place via the process of grafting, i.e. it occurs in the reaction of ovalbumin radical and an intact ovalbumin molecule. The time-resolved light scattering experiments provided an additional proof, supporting the reaction scheme of radiation-induced protein agglomeration. The biological consequences of the proposed mechanism of protein agglomeration are also discussed

  14. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  15. Characterization of allergoids from ovalbumin in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, J; Casadevall, G; Puigneró, V; Queralt, J

    1996-01-01

    Several in vivo and in vitro methods for monitoring immunological properties of two allergoids obtained by formaldehyde treatment of ovalbumin (OA) were developed. The calculated molecular weight of allergoids was 80 kD (OA-F1) and 165 kD (OA-F2), respectively. The allergenic activity in vitro of allergoids in mast-cell histamine release assay was 1000 times lower than of OA. Both allergoids showed reduced ability to induce passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the Sprague-Dawley rats or systemic anaphylaxis in Dunkin-Harley guinea-pigs. The ability of OA and allergoids to bind to the OA-specific IgE antibodies was measured in vivo by the inhibition of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA-inhibition). Allergoid binding to IgE was 51-66% lower than the native allergen. Moreover, the avidity of OA-specific IgG antibodies, measured by ELISA-inhibition, for allergoids and allergen was of the same order. Allergoids induced a different pattern of humoral immune response from that, induced by the native allergen. Thus, after immunization of BALB/c mouse, both allergoids induced a higher production of IgG and a lower production of IgE than OA, only OA-F2 induced a lower production of IgG1. The differences in the IgA response to the immunogens was not significant. Delayed hypersensitivity studies in the BALB/c mouse showed that allergoids were 5- to 12-times less effective in inducing a cell-mediated immune response than OA. The present study provides a battery of immunological methods for preclinical testing of modified allergens.

  16. Inhibitory effect of kefiran on ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation in a murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Mee-Young; Kim, So-Young; Park, Bo-Young; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu

    2008-12-01

    Kefiran is a major component of kefir which is a microbial symbiont mixture that produces jelly-like grains. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic availability of kefiran on the ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model in which airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness were found in the lung. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin were treated intra-gastrically with kefiran 1 hour before the ovalbumin challenge. Kefiran significantly suppressed ovalbumin-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine. Administration of kefiran significantly inhibited the release of both eosinophils and other inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue which was measured by Diff-Quik. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) were also reduced to normal levels after administration of kefiran in BAL fluid. Histological studies demonstrate that kefiran substantially inhibited ovalbumin-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue by H&E staining and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway by PAS staining. Taken above data, kefiran may be useful for the treatment of inflammation of lung tissue and airway hyper-responsiveness in a murine model and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma.

  17. Solubility of drugs in aqueous polymeric solution: effect of ovalbumin on microencapsulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hesham Abdul; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2012-03-01

    Microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs using coacervation-phase separation method is very challenging, as these drugs partitioned into the aqueous polymeric solution, resulting in poor drug entrapment. For evaluating the effect of ovalbumin on the microencapsulation of drugs with different solubility, pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, propranolol HCl, paracetamol, and curcuminoid were used. In addition, drug mixtures comprising of paracetamol and pseudoephedrine HCl were also studied. The morphology, encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and in vitro release profile were investigated. The results showed that the solubility of the drug determined the ratio of ovalbumin to be used for successful microencapsulation. The optimum ratios of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin for water-soluble (pseudoephedrine HCl, verapamil HCl, and propranolol HCl), sparingly water-soluble (paracetamol), and water-insoluble (curcuminoid) drugs were found to be 1:1:2, 2:3:5, and 1:3:4. As for the drug mixture, the optimum ratio of drug, ovalbumin, and gelatin was 2:3:5. Encapsulated particles prepared at the optimum ratios showed high yield, drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and sustained release profiles. The solubility of drug affected the particle size of the encapsulated particle. Highly soluble drugs resulted in smaller particle size. In conclusion, addition of ovalbumin circumvented the partitioning effect, leading to the successful microencapsulation of water-soluble drugs.

  18. Enhancement of Skin Permeation and Skin Immunization of Ovalbumin Antigen via Microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamornpathomkul, Boonnada; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of different types of microneedles and doses of ovalbumin antigen for in vitro skin permeation and in vivo immunization. In vitro skin permeation experiments and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that hollow microneedles had a superior enhancing effect on skin permeation compared with a solid microneedle patch and untreated skin by efficiently delivering ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate into the deep skin layers. The flux and cumulative amount of ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate at 8 h after administering with various conditions could be ranked as follows: hollow MN; high dose > medium dose > low dose > MN patch; high dose > medium dose > low dose > untreated skin; high dose > medium dose > low dose > without ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate. As the dose of ovalbumin-fluorescein conjugate was increased to 500 μg, the antigen accumulated in the skin to a greater extent, as evidenced by the increasing green fluorescence intensity. When the hollow microneedle was used for the delivery of ovalbumin into the skin of mice, it was capable of inducing a stronger immunoglobulin G immune response than conventional subcutaneous injection at the same antigen dose. Immunoglobulin G levels in the hollow MN group were 5.7, 11.6, and 13.3 times higher than those of the subcutaneous injection group for low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Furthermore, the mice immunized using the hollow microneedle showed no signs of skin infection or pinpoint bleeding. The results suggest that the hollow MN is an efficient device for delivering the optimal dose of antigen via the skin for successful immunization.

  19. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  20. Monovalent engagement of the BCR activates ovalbumin-specific transnuclear B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avalos, Ana M.; Bilate, Angelina M.; Witte, Martin D.; Tai, Albert K.; He, Jiang; Frushicheva, Maria P.; Thill, Peter D.; Meyer-Wentrup, Friederike; Theile, Christopher S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2014-01-01

    Valency requirements for B cell activation upon antigen encounter are poorly understood. OB1 transnuclear B cells express an IgG1 B cell receptor (BCR) specific for ovalbumin (OVA), the epitope of which can be mimicked using short synthetic peptides to allow antigen-specific engagement of the BCR.

  1. Rutin has anti-asthmatic effects in an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of the flavonoid rutin in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mouse ... protection in asthmatic mice, via downregulation of inflammatory ..... cytokine production by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells stimulated with ... Increased nuclear factor kappaB activity in milk cells of.

  2. Molecular details of ovalbumin-pectin complexes at the air/water interface: A spectroscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Hoek, A. van; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2007-01-01

    To stabilize air-water interfaces, as in foams, the adsorption of surface-active components is a prerequisite. An approach to controlling the surface activity of proteins is noncovalent complex formation with a polyelectrolyte in the bulk phase. The molecular properties of egg white ovalbumin in a

  3. Molecular details of ovalbumin-pectin complexes at the air/water interface: a spectroscopic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Hoek, van A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To stabilize air-water interfaces, as in foams, the adsorption of surface-active components is a prerequisite. An approach to controlling the surface activity of proteins is noncovalent complex formation with a polyelectrolyte in the bulk phase. The molecular properties of egg white ovalbumin in a

  4. Gender and dose dependent ovalbumin induced hypersensitivity responses in murine model of food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    While federal regulations mandate the labeling of major food allergens, allowable food allergen thresholds have yet to be determined. Therefore the aim of this project was to identify the lowest egg allergen ovalbumin (OVA) dose causing hypersensitization using a validated murine model. Mice were or...

  5. Oviduct-Specific Expression of Human Neutrophil Defensin 4 in Lentivirally Generated Transgenic Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful. PMID:26020529

  6. No priming of the immune response in newborn Brown Norway rats dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    with ovalbumin and if this method could be used in an animal model for food allergy. Methods: Newborn Brown Norway rats were dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth (100 mug or 6 mg). As young adults, the animals were dosed by gavage for 35 days with 1 mg ovalbumin/day or once intraperitoneally with 100 mug. Control......E and IgG responses were decreased compared to the control groups, however, not always reaching statistical significance. A statistical significant decrease in the specific immune response was found in young adult rats dosed in the mouth as compared to by gavage. Conclusions: Dosing Brown Norway rats...

  7. Solvent freeze out crystallization of lysozyme from a lysozyme-ovalbumin mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Borbon, V.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaft, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, 06099 Halle Saale (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystallization conditions from an ovalbumin-lysozyme mixture were found by screening tests and further located in pseudo-phase diagrams. This information was used to set up the initial conditions for the solvent freeze out (SFO) process. The process uses the freezing of ice to create the supersaturation for the proteins to crystallize out of the solution. The crystallization of HEWL (15 mg/mL) out of a lysozyme-ovalbumin mixture (1.7 mg/mL) is carried out by SFO. Under the reported conditions, a crystallization yield of 69 % was obtained. A mean crystal size of 77.8 {mu}m was enhanced in a crystallization time of 15.1 h. The lysozyme nature of the crystals is proven by SDS PAGE and enzymatic activity tests. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  9. Single ovalbumin molecules exploring nucleoplasm and nucleoli of living cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speil, Jasmin; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    The nucleus is the center of direction and coordination of the cell's metabolic and reproductive activities and contains numerous functionally specialized domains. These subnuclear structures are not delimited by membranes like cytoplasmic organelles and their function is only poorly understood. Here, we studied the most prominent nuclear domains, nucleoli and the remaining nucleoplasm. We used fluorescently labeled ovalbumin-ATTO647N, an inert protein, to examine their physical properties. This inert tracer was microinjected into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells, and after diffusion into the nucleus the tracer distribution and mobility in the two nuclear compartments was examined. Like many macromolecular probes ovalbumin was significantly less abundant in nucleoli compared to the nucleoplasm. High-speed fluorescence microscopy allowed visualizing and analyzing single tracer molecule trajectories within nucleoli and nucleoplasm. In accordance with previous studies we found that the viscosity of the nucleus is sevenfold higher than that of aqueous buffer. Notably, nucleoplasm and nucleoli did not significantly differ in viscosity, however, the fraction of slow or trapped molecules was higher in the nucleoplasm than in nucleoli (6% versus 0.2%). Surprisingly, even a completely inert molecule like ovalbumin showed at times short-lived binding events with a decay time of 8 ms in the nucleoplasm and even shorter-6.3 ms-within the nucleoli. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An α4β1 integrin antagonist decreases airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Liu, Ruiwu; O’Roark, Erin M.; Huang, Wenzhe; Peng, Li; Lam, Kit S.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the α4 subunit of both the α4β1 and α4β7 integrins has shown promise in decreasing airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in various animal models. We hypothesized that a novel, high-affinity α4β1 antagonist (LLP2A) would decrease the migration of eosinophils to the lung and ameliorate the airway hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we administered LLP2A, or scrambled LLP2A (a negative control), prior to exposure of sensitized BALB/c mice to ovalbumin aerosol. We can partially prevent, or reverse, the airway inflammatory response, but not airways hyperresponsiveness, by treatment of mice with LLP2A, a synthetic peptidomimetic α4β1 antagonist LLP2A. Specifically engineered, PEGylated (PEG) formulations of this antagonist further reduce the airway inflammatory response to ovalbumin lbumin, presumably by improving the circulating half-life of the drug. PMID:19103195

  11. A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of the egg allergen ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Shimaa; L'Hocine, Lamia; Siaj, Mohamed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-08-07

    A graphene-based label-free voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of the egg white allergen ovalbumin has been developed. Graphene-modified screen printed carbon electrodes have been covalently functionalized using electrochemical reduction of in situ generated aryl diazonium salt forming a carboxyphenyl film on the graphene surface. The blocking property of the carboxyphenyl film grafted on to the graphene electrodes using different cyclic voltammetry cycles has been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry in [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) solution. Then, the terminal carboxylic groups on the graphene surface were activated using EDC/NHS and used to immobilize the ovalbumin antibody and construct the immunosensor. The fabrication steps of the immunosensor have also been characterized using differential pulse voltammetry. The decrease in the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) reduction peak current after the immunochemical reaction with ovalbumin has been used for the ovalbumin detection. The developed immunosensor has been used for ovalbumin detection in the concentration range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 0.5 μg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.83 pg mL(-1) in PBS buffer. The food matrix effect studied with ovalbumin spiked cake extract showed a good percentage of recovery, indicating the possible applicability of the developed immunosensor in real food samples.

  12. Radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin. Comparison with a (/sup 14/C)biotin-binding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulomaa, M S; Elo, H A; Tuohimaa, P J [Tampere Univ. of Tech. (Finland)

    1978-11-01

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with /sup 125/I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the (/sup 14/C)biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the (/sup 14/C)biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin.

  13. ARGINASE ENZYMES IN ISOLATED AIRWAYS FROM NORMAL AND NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE 2-KNOCKOUT MICE EXPOSED TO OVALBUMIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Arginase has been suggested to compete with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for their common substrate, L-arginine. To study the mechanisms underlying this interaction, we compared arginase expression in isolated airways and the consequences of inhibiting arginase activity in vivo with NO production, lung inflammation, and lung function in both C57BL/6 and NOS2 knockout mice undergoing ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, a mouse model of asthma. Arginases I and II were measured by western blot in isolated airways from sensitized C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. Physiological and biochemical responses---inflammation, lung compliance, airway hyperreactivity, exhaled NO concentration, arginine concentration--were compared with the responses of NOS2 knockout mice. NOS2 knockout mice had increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity. Both arginase I and arginase II were constitutively expressed in the airways of normal C57BL/6 mice. Arginase I was up-regulated approximately 8-fold in the airways of C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin. Expression of both arginase isoforms were significantly upregulated in NOS2 knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin, with about 40- and 4-fold increases in arginases I and II, respectively. Arginine concentration in isolated airways was not significantly different in any of the groups studied. Inhibition of arginase by systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a competitive inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA), significantly decreased the lung inflammatory response to ovalbumin in these animals. We conclude that NOS2 knockout mice are more sensitive to ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and its sequelae than are C57BL/6 mice, as determined by increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity, and that these findings are strongly correlated with increased expression of both arginase isoforms in the airways of the NOS2

  14. Improving release completeness from PLGA-based implants for the acid-labile model protein ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luisa; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of hot melt extrusion (HME) for the preparation of PLGA-based ovalbumin-loaded implants as well as to characterize and improve protein release from the implants. Ovalbumin (OVA) was stable during extrusion, which was attributed to a protective effect of the biodegradable matrix. OVA release was characterized by a low burst, a slow release up to day 21, which plateaued thereafter resulting in incomplete release for all evaluated protein loadings. Release incompleteness was accompanied by the formation of an insoluble residual mass. Further characterization of this mass indicated that it consisted of non-covalent protein aggregates and polymer, where ovalbumin was ionically bound as the pH inside the degrading matrix decreased below the pI of the protein. Although higher protein release was obtained with the inclusion of weak bases because of their neutralizing effect, OVA aggregation and release incompleteness were not fully avoided. With the use of shellac, a well-known enteric and biocompatible polymer, as protective excipient, a distinct late release phase occurred and release completeness was increased to more than 75% cumulative release. Shellac apparently protected the protein against the acidic microclimate due to its low solubility at low pH. Protected OVA was thus released once the pH increased due to a declining PLGA-oligomer formation. The result was a triphasic release profile consisting of an initial burst, a slow diffusion phase over about 7 weeks, and an erosion-controlled dissolution phase over the next 3 weeks. An acid-labile protein like OVA was thus feasibly protected from interactions with PLGA and its degradation products, resulting in a controlled delivery of more than 85% of the original payload. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication of micromagnetic beads with molecular recognition/electron-transfer peptides for the sensing of ovalbumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu, E-mail: kzsuga@maebashi-it.ac.jp [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma, 371-0816 (Japan); Kuramitz, Hideki [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan); Shinohara, Hiroki [Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma, 371-0816 (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Electrochemical sensing of ovalbumin (OVA) was performed using magnetic beads with OVA recognition (RNRCKGTDVQAW)/electron-transfer (YYYYC) peptides. The focus of this study was to construct a highly sensitive and regenerative tool for OVA detection based on the interaction between a protein and peptide-1(RNRCKGTDVQAWYYYYC). The peptide-1 was introduced to the bead through four types of cross-linking reagents. Magnetic beads of different sizes with N-(6-maleimidocaproyloxy)sulfosuccinimide (Sulfo-EMCS) were also prepared. An oxidation peak due to tyrosine residues at 0.65 V depended on the distance of the electron-transfer peptide from the bead surface and on the surface area of the magnetic beads that contacted the electrode surface. The response of the electro-transfer peptide moiety was decreased because the protein was accumulated via the recognition peptide on the beads. When using Sulfo-EMCS and beads that were 6.0–6.9 μm in diameter, the calibration curve of OVA was linear and ranged from 8.0 × 10{sup −13} to 2.0 × 10{sup −11} M. To regenerate the magnetic beads, the measurements were achieved after removal of the OVA using a denaturing reagent. When OVA was added to fetal bovine serum containing a complex matrix, OVA was recovered at a rate of 98–100%. Consequently, these magnetic beads could be a powerful tool for the sensing of OVA in real samples. - Highlights: • Ovalbumin recognition/electron-transfer peptides were immobilized on magnetic beads. • The accumulation of the protein through the peptides on the beads caused the change of electrode response. • The magnetic beads could be reused for sensing of ovalbumin.

  16. Effect of Fluticasone and Salmeterol on Tracheal Responsiveness to Ovalbumin and Lung Inflammation, Administrated during and after Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Gholamnezhad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of duration of administration of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol on tracheal responsiveness to ovalbumin and total and differential white blood cell in sensitized guinea pig was examined. Six groups of guinea pigs (n=7 were sensitized to ovalbumin. Three groups of them were subjected to inhaled fluticasone propionate and salmeterol, one group during sensitization (A, one group after that (for 18 days, B, and the other one during sensitization but with 18 days delay before measurements (C. Three other groups were treated with placebo in the same manner. The tracheal responsiveness to ovalbumin and total and differential white blood cells of three placebo groups were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.001 for all cases. Tracheal responsiveness to ovalbumin and total and differential white blood cell in treated groups with fluticasone propionate and salmeterol were significantly decreased compared to those of placebo groups (nonsignificant to P<0.001. The improvement in all variables in treatment groups A and C were more pronounced than group B. The results showed that fluticasone propionate and salmeterol had a prevention effect on tracheal hyperresponsiveness to ovalbumin and lung inflammation which was more pronounced when administered during than after sensitization.

  17. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  18. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. Complexes between ovalbumin nanoparticles and linoleic acid: Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponton, Osvaldo E; Perez, Adrián A; Carrara, Carlos R; Santiago, Liliana G

    2016-11-15

    Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of complex formation between heat-induced aggregates of ovalbumin (ovalbumin nanoparticles, OVAn) and linoleic acid (LA) were evaluated. Extrinsic fluorescence data were fitted to modified Scatchard model yielding the following results: n: 49±2 LA molecules bound per OVA monomer unit and Ka: 9.80±2.53×10(5)M. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties were analyzed by turbidity measurements at different LA/OVA monomer molar ratios (21.5-172) and temperatures (20-40°C). An adsorption approach was used and a pseudo-second-order kinetics was found for LA-OVAn complex formation. This adsorption process took place within 1h. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that LA adsorption on OVAn was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropically-driven process, highlighting the hydrophobic nature of the LA and OVAn interaction. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed that both OVAn and LA-OVAn complexes have a roughly rounded form with size lower than 100nm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of gamma rays on the immunogenicity (IgG types) of ovalbumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, J.A. E-mail: jbalves@ipen.br; Spencer, P.J.; Aroeira, L.G.S.; Casare, M.S.; Nascimento, N

    2004-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity. However, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. In the present work, we used ovalbumin as a model to investigate possible immunogenic differences between native and irradiated proteins. Native ovalbumin (2 mg/ml in 150 mM NaCl) was irradiated with 2 kGy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays with a 570 Gy/h dose rate. B10.PL mice (n=5) were then immunized with either the native or the irradiated protein. After three immunizations, serum samples were collected and the antibody titers and isotypes were determined by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbant assay. Our data indicate that no difference could be noticed when the antibody titers of the two groups were compared. However, the isotyping assays indicates that the native protein induced high levels of IgG1, while its irradiated counterpart displayed mostly IgG2b antibodies. These data suggest that after irradiation, an antigen known to induce a Th2 response, is able to switch the immune system towards a Th1 pattern.

  1. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  2. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  3. Gamma radiation and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropilova, D.; Takac, L.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In our work, we focused the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on metabolic parameters in chickens. In the first group of chickens we monitor changes of the concentration in glucose and cholesterol after whole body irradiation dose of chicken (3 Gy). In the second group of chickens we studied the combined effect of radiation and intraperitoneal application solution of zinc chloride to changes of the concentration in glucose and total cholesterol. In the tissues of organisms are found only in a very small amount of microelements however are of particular importance in a number of enzymatic catalytic and regulatory processes. Zinc is found in all cells of the body. However, it is the highest percentage of zinc contained in muscle and bone cells. Resorption takes place in the small intestine, especially in the duodenum. For both groups of chickens, we performed analyzes on the 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 30 day. Results and an overview of the work can be helpful in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in preventing diseases from exposure to radiation, but also in the case of the consequences after nuclear accidents. (authors)

  4. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as MSG, salt, or sodium erythorbate may be added but must be listed on the label. [ Top of Page ] Foodborne Organisms Associated with Chicken As on any perishable meat, fish, or poultry, bacteria can be found on raw ...

  5. Bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) decreases the food allergic response against peanut and ovalbumin in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J.D. de; Ezendam, J.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Odink, J.; Pourier, M.S.; Penninks, A.H.; Pieters, R.; Loveren, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Other factors than the allergen itself may be of importance in the development of food allergy. This report describes the influence of the immunosuppressive compound bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO), present in the food chain, on the development of food allergy to peanut or ovalbumin in Brown Norway

  6. Protein Exposed Hydrophobicity Reduces the Kinetic Barrier for Adsorption of Ovalbumin to the Air-Water Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Egmond, M.R.; Voragen, F.A.G.J.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Using native and caprylated ovalbumin, the role of exposed hydrophobicity on the kinetics of protein adsorption to the air - water interface is studied. First, changes in the chemical properties of the protein upon caprylation were characterized followed by measurement of the changes in adsorption

  7. Protein exposed hydrophobicity reduces the kinetic barrier for adsoption of ovalbumin to the air-water interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Egmond, M.R.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Using native and caprylated ovalbumin, the role of exposed hydrophobicity on the kinetics of protein adsorption to the air-water interface is studied. First, changes in the chemical properties of the protein upon caprylation were characterized followed by measurement of the changes in adsorption

  8. Microcontainers as an oral delivery system for spray dried cubosomes containing ovalbumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare cubosomes encapsulating the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) via spray drying, and to characterise such cubosomes with a view for their potential application in oral vaccine delivery. Furthermore the cubosome formulation was loaded into polymeric...... microcontainers intended as an oral drug delivery system. The cubosomes consisted of commercial glyceryl monooleate, Dimodan®, containing OVA and were surrounded with a dextran shell prepared by spray drying. Cryo-TEM was used to confirm that cubosomes were formed after hydration of the spray dried precursor...... the cubosomes and microcontainers occurred at pH 6.8, releasing 44.1±5.6% of the OVA in 96h. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the 'dry' particles possessed an internal ordered lipid structure (lamellar and inverse micellar phase) by virtue of a small amount of residual water, and after...

  9. Puerarin Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Hemostatic Unbalance in Rat Asthma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to investigate and evaluate the preventive activity of puerarin on the ovalbumin-induced asthma rat model. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were sensitized intraperitoneally on days 0, 7, and 14 and challenged to ovalbumin intratracheally on day 21. Groups of sensitized rats were treated randomly either with placebo, puerarin, dexamethasone, or puerarin combined with dexamethasone, from days 15 to 20. Inflammatory markers, including cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, inflammatory cytokines, histopathology, and coagulation parameters, such as coagulation tests and the activity of coagulation factors, were analyzed. Results. Puerarin significantly inhibited the recruitment of inflammatory cells in BALF and lung tissue. At the same time, the release of IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in serum and the expression of mRNAs in lung tissue homogenate were changed by puerarin. Administration of puerarin also effectively rectified the coagulation disorder in asthmatic rats, such as prothrombin time (PT (P<0.01, thrombin time (TT (P<0.05, fibrinogen (FIB (P<0.01,the activity of factor II (FII (P<0.01, the activity of factor V (FV (P<0.05, the activity of factor VII (FVII (P<0.05, the activity of factor X (FX (P<0.05, the activity of factor VIII (FVIII (P<0.01, the activity of factor IX (FIX (P<0.05, and the activity of factor XII (FXII (P<0.05. Conclusions. Our results provide a clue that puerarin was useful for the preventive of allergic airway disease in rodents.

  10. The effects of ovalbumin as a protein source during the in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Almeida Drummond Tetzner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Embryo quality is influenced by the culture conditions that affect in vitro maturation (IVM, fertilization (IVF and culture (IVC rates. The present study investigated the feasibility of producing bovine embryos after the replacement of fetal calf serum (FCS and bovine serum albumin (BSA by ovalbumin (OVA. The IVM and IVC medium were supplemented with 10% FCS, 4 mg/mL BSA, or 4 mg/mL OVA. The IVF medium was supplemented with 6 mg/mL BSA or OVA. For IVM, supplementation with FCS, BSA, and OVA did not affect nuclear maturation or cortical granule migration. Higher rates of formation of two pronuclei were obtained when FCS was employed for IVM (79.97%, regardless of the supplement used for IVF, and when BSA was used for IVF (59.4%, regardless of the supplement used for IVM. Supplementation with OVA for IVM+IVC (20.40% and for IVF (22.15% was inferior to supplementation with FCS for IVM+IVC (30.47% and with BSA for IVF (28.91% for blastocyst development. Hatching rates were lower using OVA for IVM+IVC (23.02% and for IVF (28.93% compared with FCS and BSA under the same conditions (40.78 and 34.82%, respectively and BSA for IVF (36.82%. Supplementation with OVA for IVM+IVC and IVF resulted in reduced inner cell mass, trophectoderm cells and total blastocyst cell numbers (17.29, 37.88, and 55.17, respectively. In conclusion, OVA is a protein source for bovine in vitro embryo production, although the quantity and quality of bovine blastocysts using only ovalbumin in the entire in vitro production process are lower than those obtained in the presence of FCS and BSA, when used as supplements in any step of bovine in vitro embryo production.

  11. A combined approach of hollow microneedles and nanocarriers for skin immunization with plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamornpathomkul B

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boonnada Pamornpathomkul,1 Adisak Wongkajornsilp,2 Wanida Laiwattanapaisal,3 Theerasak Rojanarata,1 Praneet Opanasopit,1 Tanasait Ngawhirunpat1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Development of Green Innovations Group, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different types of microneedles (MNs and nanocarriers for in vitro skin permeation and in vivo immunization of plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin (pOVA. In vitro skin permeation studies indicated that hollow MNs had a superior enhancing effect on skin permeation compared with solid MN patches, electroporation (EP patches, the combination of MN and EP patches, and untreated skin. Upon using hollow MNs combined with nanocarriers for pOVA delivery, the skin permeation was higher than for the delivery of naked pOVA, as evidenced by the increased amount of pOVA in Franz diffusion cells and immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody responses. When the hollow MNs were used for the delivery of nanocarrier:pOVA complexes into the skin of mice, they induced a stronger IgG immune response than conventional subcutaneous (SC injections. In addition, immunization of mice with the hollow MNs did not induce signs of skin infection or pinpoint bleeding. Accordingly, the hollow MNs combined with a nanocarrier delivery system is a promising approach for delivering pOVA complexes to the skin for promoting successful immunization. Keywords: hollow microneedle, solid microneedle, electroporation, plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin, skin immunization, nanocarrier

  12. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  13. Chicken Astrovirus Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    35 nm in diameter with a ... named chicken astrovirus (CAstV) isolated from broiler chicks (Baxendale and Mebatsion, 2004). CAstV has .... successfully used the RT-PCR method to detect CAstV in field samples from across the USA while Day et ...

  14. Formation and stability of Vitamin E enriched nanoemulsions stabilized by Octenyl Succinic Anhydride modified starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E (VE) is highly susceptible to autoxidation; therefore, it requires systems to encapsulate and protect it from autoxidation.In this study,we developed VE delivery systems, which were stabilized by Capsul® (MS), a starch modified with octenyl succinic anhydride. Influences of interfacial ten...

  15. Elucidation of substituted ester group position in octenylsuccinic anhydride modified sugary maize soluble starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Miao, Ming; Huang, Chao; Lu, Keyu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-03

    The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.

  16. Rheological, pasting, thermal and retrogradation properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuin WON

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate the rheological, pasting, and thermal properties of octenyl succinic anhydrate (OSA-modified potato starch. Potato starch was modified using different concentrations of OSA (0, 1, 3, and 5%, v/v. The degree of substitution (DS for the OSA-modified starch ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0055. The amylose leaching values of native and OSA-modified potato starch with different DS levels were in the range of 47.09-87.32%. The gel strength values of the OSA-modified starch were lower than those of native potato starch. Rapid Visco Analyzer data showed that peak, hot pasting, final and setback viscosities of the native starch decreased after OSA modification. Dynamic shear rheological tests, conducted at 4 °C, indicated that OSA-modified potato starch had weak gel-like behavior with the storage moduli (G' higher than the loss moduli (G” over most of the frequency ranges (0.63-63.8 rad·s-1.

  17. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ectoparasites of chickens in four areas of Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria, on 160 chickens raised under free-range ... 90% mortality of local free range chickens. Arthropod ... some cases premature death. ... from the birds by displaying the feathers.

  18. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kobayashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6 fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25 created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7, those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6. In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively, resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05. We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein.

  19. Pulsed electric field (PEF)-induced aggregation between lysozyme, ovalbumin and ovotransferrin in multi-protein system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhao, Wei; Yang, Ruijin; Yan, Wenxu

    2015-05-15

    The aggregation of multi-proteins is of great interest in food processing and a good understanding of the formation of aggregates during PEF processing is needed for the application of the process to pasteurize protein-based foods. The aggregates formation of a multi-protein system (containing ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme) was studied through turbidity, size exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE patterns for interaction studies and binding forces. Results from size exclusion chromatography indicated that there was no soluble aggregates formed during PEF processing. The existence of lysozyme was important to form insoluble aggregates in the chosen ovalbumin solution. The results of SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that lysozyme was prone to precipitate, and was relatively the higher component of aggregates. Citric acid could be effective in inhibiting lysozyme from interacting with other proteins during PEF processing. Blocking the free sulphydryl by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) did not affect aggregation inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Antiallergic Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum L. in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Kyei; George Asumeng Koffuor; Paul Ramkissoon; Samuel Abokyi; Osei Owusu-Afriyie; Eric Addo Wiredu

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used traditionally as a remedy for conjunctivitis in Ghana. This study therefore evaluated the antiallergic potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) in ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis and attempted to predict its mode of action. Clinical scores for allergic conjunctivitis induced by intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization (100?:?10??g OVA/Al(OH)3 in phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) and topical conjunctival challenge (1.5?mg OV...

  1. Bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) decreases the food allergic response against peanut and ovalbumin in Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Jonathan D. de; Ezendam, Janine; Knippels, Leon M.J.; Odink, Jennie; Pourier, Milanthy S.; Penninks, Andre H.; Pieters, Raymond; Loveren, Henk van

    2007-01-01

    Other factors than the allergen itself may be of importance in the development of food allergy. This report describes the influence of the immunosuppressive compound bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO), present in the food chain, on the development of food allergy to peanut or ovalbumin in Brown Norway (BN) rats. To study these effects BN rats were sensitized to either 1 or 10 mg peanut or ovalbumin by daily oral gavage and the TBTO-groups were fed a diet containing 80 mg TBTO per kg diet. Co-exposure to TBTO not only resulted in decreased general immunologic parameters such as weights of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphocyte proliferation rates in splenocytes, but also on allergic parameters. In the peanut allergen-model TBTO decreased allergen-specific Th2 cytokine production by spleen cells, number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes in the blood and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. In the ovalbumin allergen-model TBTO decreased the number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, allergen-specific IgE and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. The data imply that in the process of risk assessment of food allergy attention should be given to immunomodulating compounds present in the diet

  2. Artemisia argyi attenuates airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na-Rae; Ryu, Hyung-Won; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Yuk, Heung-Joo; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Jeong, Seong-Hun; Shin, In-Sik

    2017-09-14

    Artemisia argyi is a traditional herbal medicine in Korea and commonly called as mugwort. It is traditionally used as food source and tea to control abdominal pain, dysmenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and inflammation. We investigated the effects of A. argyi (TOTAL) and dehydromatricarin A (DA), its active component on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. The animals were sensitized on day 0 and 14 by intraperitoneal injection of OVA with aluminum hydroxide. On day 21, 22 and 23 after the initial sensitization, the animals received an airway challenge with OVA for 1h using an ultrasonic nebulizer. TOTAL (50 and 100mg/kg) or DA (10 and 20mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage once daily from day 18-23. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured 24h after final OVA challenge. TOTAL and DA treated animals reduced inflammatory cell counts, cytokines and AHR in asthmatic animals, which was accompanied with inflammatory cell accumulation and mucus hypersecretion. Furthermore, TOTAL and DA significantly declined Erk phosphorylation and the expression of MMP-9 in asthmatic animals. In conclusion, we indicate that Total and DA suppress allergic inflammatory responses caused by OVA challenge. It was considered that A. argyi has a potential for treating allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomineralizing synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite-calcium pyrophosphate polycrystal using ovalbumin as biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongshi; He Wen; Wang Yingjun; Yue Yuanzheng; Gao Xingguo; Li Zhengmao; Yan Shunpu; Zhou Weijia; Zhang Xudong

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous polycrystals of hydroxyapatite-calcium pyrophosphate (HA-CPP) are synthesized via a biomineralizing route using ovalbumin as natural biosurfactant. The mesoporous structure of HA-CPP is characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (NADI), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom force microscopy (AFM), polarization microscopy (PLM) and stereomicroscopy. The results show that the crystalline grains with an average diameter of 13.2 nm are uniformly distributed along the protein molecule chains, and this results in microsphere-like particles with diameters of 200-300 nm. The highly ordered pores involved in microspheres are found to be approximately 6.6 nm by small-angle XRD. The formation of lyotropic calcium liquid crystal (CLC) plays a key role in the formation and stabilization of the mesoporous structure. A schematic illustration is used to reveal the mechanism of protein-medicated HA-CPP biomineralization, which employs the protein tertiary structure to explain the formation of the porous particles

  4. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  5. Advanced glycation endproducts form during ovalbumin digestion in the presence of fructose: Inhibition by chlorogenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Caccavello, Russell

    2017-07-01

    One mechanism by which fructose could exert deleterious effects is through intestinal formation and absorption of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation endproducts via the Maillard reaction. We employed simulated stomach and duodenum digestion of ovalbumin (OVA) to test the hypothesis that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by fructose during simulated digestion of a ubiquitous food protein under model physiological conditions. OVA was subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion using standard models, in presence of fructose or glucose (0-100mM). Peptide fractions were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and intensity at Excitation: λ370nm, Emission: λ 440nm. AGE adducts formed between fructose and OVA, evidenced by the peptide fractions (fructose-AGE formation on a ubiquitous dietary protein under model physiological conditions. Our study also suggests ways to decrease the damage: enteral fructose-AGE formation may be partially inhibited by co-intake of beverages, fruits and vegetables with concentrations of phenolics high enough to serve as anti-glycation agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deformation of ovalbumin-alginate capsules in a T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häner, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    We study experimentally the flow-induced deformation of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules in a T-junction. In applications, capsules/cells often negotiate branched networks with junctions thus experiencing large deformations. We investigate the constant volume-flux viscous flow of buoyancy-neutral thin-walled capsules close to the centreline of rectangular channels, by comparison to near-rigid gelled beads. The motion of the capsules in straight channels scales with the capillary number - the ration of viscous to elastic forces. However, the effect of elastic deformation on the motion is sufficiently weak that a rigid sphere model predicts the velocity of capsules with diameters of up to 70% of that of the channel to within 5%. In the T-junction, systematic selection of daughter channel (right-left) occurs outside a finite region around the channel centreline, by contrast with near-rigid gelled beads, where the actual centreline is the separator. We quantify the behaviour of capsules in terms of their longitudinal stretching (up to a factor of three without rupture). We show the large range of deformations encountered can be applied to the measurement of the elastic properties of capsules as well as to the geometric-induced sorting and manipulation of capsules.

  7. Secretoglobin Superfamily Protein SCGB3A2 Deficiency Potentiates Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Pulmonary Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketomo Kido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretoglobin (SCGB 3A2, a cytokine-like secretory protein of small molecular weight, which may play a role in lung inflammation, is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells. In order to understand the physiological role of SCGB3A2, Scgb3a2−/− mice were generated and characterized. Scgb3a2−/− mice did not exhibit any overt phenotypes. In ovalbumin- (OVA- induced airway allergy inflammation model, Scgb3a2−/− mice in mixed background showed a decreased OVA-induced airway inflammation, while six times C57BL/6NCr backcrossed congenic Scgb3a2−/− mice showed a slight exacerbation of OVA-induced airway inflammation as compared to wild-type littermates. These results indicate that the loss of SCGB3A2 function was influenced by a modifier gene(s in mixed genetic background and suggest that SCGB3A2 has anti-inflammatory property. The results further suggest the possible use of recombinant human SCGB3A2 as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. A magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for rapid detection of ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Li; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Yan, Dong-Ming; Hui, Qi; Liu, Dong; Lin, Chao; Liu, Nan-Nan; Liu, Yan-Yan; Lu, Shi-Ying

    2014-08-15

    Egg allergy is an important public health and safety concern, so quantification and administration of food or vaccines containing ovalbumin (OVA) are urgently needed. This study aimed to establish a rapid and sensitive magnetic particles-chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MPs-CLEIA) for the determination of OVA. The proposed method was developed on the basis of a double antibodies sandwich immunoreaction and luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence system. The MPs served as both the solid phase and separator, the anti-OVA MPs-coated polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were used as capturing antibody, and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) was taken as detecting antibody. The parameters of the method were evaluated and optimized. The established MPs-CLEIA method had a linear range from 0.31 to 100ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.24ng/ml. The assays showed low reactivities and less than 5% of intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation (CVs), and the average recoveries were between 92 and 97%. Furthermore, the developed method was applied in real samples analysis successfully, and the correlation coefficient with the commercially available OVA kit was 0.9976. Moreover, it was more rapid and sensitive compared with the other methods for testing OVA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  10. Sea Cucumber Lipid-Soluble Extra Fraction Prevents Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Kang, Shin Ae; Md, Anisuzzaman; Jeong, U-Cheol; Jin, Feng; Kang, Seok-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2018-01-01

    In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) extracts ameliorated allergic airway inflammation through CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T (regulatory T; Treg) cell activation and recruitment to the lung. In this study, we aimed to determine which components of sea cucumber contribute to the amelioration of airway inflammation. We used n-hexane fractionation to separate sea cucumber into three phases (n-hexane, alcohol, and solid) and evaluated the ability of each phase to elevate Il10 expression in splenocytes and ameliorate symptoms in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum-induced asthma. Splenocytes treated with the n-hexane phase showed a significant increase in Il10 expression. In the n-hexane phase, 47 fatty acids were identified. Individual fatty acids that comprised at least 5% of the total fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:0, 18:1n-7, 20:4n-6, and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid). After administering the n-hexane phase to mice with OVA/alum-induced asthma, their asthma symptoms were ameliorated. Several immunomodulatory effects were observed in the n-hexane phase-pretreated group, compared with a vehicle control group. First, eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were significantly reduced around the airways. Second, the concentrations of Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17) were significantly decreased in the spleen and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Finally, the concentrations of TGF-β and IL-10, which are associated with Treg cells, were significantly increased in the BALF and splenocyte culture medium. In conclusion, a fatty acid-rich fraction (n-hexane phase) of sea cucumber extract ameliorated allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model.

  11. Class A dioscorins of various yam species suppress ovalbumin-induced allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Chi; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2014-06-01

    Dioscorins, the primary storage proteins in yam tubers, of different species exhibited varying immunomodulatory activities in mice. We inferred that this might be attributed to the various isoforms in the yam tubers. We aimed to investigate the antiallergic potential of the Class A dioscorins of various yam species using the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine allergy model. We purified the recombinant Class A dioscorins (rDioscorins) of various yam species from Escherichia coli and evaluated their antiallergic potential by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Class A rDioscorins of various yam species suppressed allergic reactions by significantly decreasing the serum IgE and histamine levels. The serum IFN-γ and IgG2a levels significantly increased in all rDioscorin-treated mice. The splenocytes of the rDioscorin-treated mice also exhibited upregulated IFN-γ secretion in response to ConA stimulation. By contrast, the serum IL-5 levels decreased to basal levels in mice treated with Class A rDioscorins and the amount of IL-5 produced by splenocytes decreased in response to ConA stimulation. The Class A rDioscorins suppress allergic reactions, possibly through modulating an imbalanced Th1/Th2 immune response to OVA by promoting Th1 cell responses. Furthermore, the Class A rDioscorins of various yam species exhibited similar immunomodulatory activities in OVA-sensitized mice, which were different from the activities demonstrated by native dioscorins, suggesting that distinct immunomodulatory effects of native dioscorins on mice were attributed to the various isoforms in the yam tubers. The Class A dioscorins of various yam species exhibit antiallergic activity and are potential immunotherapeutic agents for treating IgE-mediated hypersensitivity.

  12. Protective effects of Scrophularia striata in Ovalbumin-induced mice asthma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrophularia striata Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae) is a plant growing in the northeastern part of Iran and being used as a traditional herb for various inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the Scrophularia striata extract in Ovalbumin (OVA) induced-asthma mice model. Methods OVA-sensitized mice were intrapritonealy treated with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract on days 8 to 14 separately. Broncoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge and then the number of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were assessed by direct microscopic counting. In addition, total immunoglubolin (Ig) E and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum, IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines in BALF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Moreover, phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were used to evaluate the main compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract, respectively. Results The results showed that the main components; including flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the S. striata extract. In addition, the treatment with extract significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells and suppressed T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF. Also, total IgE and OVA-specific IgE levels in the serum decreased. Conclusion Collectively, it is concluded that the extract has the potential to modulate the Th2 cytokines and could be used as immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of allergic asthma. PMID:23837463

  13. Asian sand dust enhances ovalbumin-induced eosinophil recruitment in the alveoli and airway of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyoshi, Kyoko; Ichinose, Takamichi; Sadakane, Kaori; Takano, Hirohisa; Nishikawa, Masataka; Mori, Ikuko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Yoshida, Seiichi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Tomura, Shigeo; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    Asian sand dust (ASD) containing sulfate (SO 4 2- ) reportedly causes adverse respiratory health effects but there is no experimental study showing the effect of ASD toward allergic respiratory diseases. The effects of ASD and ASD plus SO 4 2- toward allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) were investigated in this study. ICR mice were administered intratracheally with saline; ASD alone (sample from Shapotou desert); and ASD plus SO 4 2- (ASD-SO 4 ); OVA+ASD; OVA+ASD-SO 4 . ASD or ASD-SO 4 alone caused mild nutrophilic inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli. ASD and ASD-SO 4 increased pro-inflammatory mediators, such as Keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). ASD and ASD-SO 4 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the alveoli and in the submucosa of the airway, which has a goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. However, a further increase of eosinophils by addition of SO 4 2- was not observed. The two sand dusts synergistically increased interleukin-5 (IL-5) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which were associated with OVA, in BALF. However, the increased levels of IL-5 were lower in the OVA+ASD-SO 4 group than in the OVA+ASD group. ASD caused the adjuvant effects to specific-IgG1 production by OVA, but not to specific-IgE. These results suggest that the enhancement of eosinophil recruitment in the lung is mediated by synergistically increased IL-5 and MCP-1. IgG1 antibodies may play an important role in the enhancement of allergic reaction caused by OVA and sand dust. However, extra sulfate may not contribute to an increase of eosinophils

  14. Impact of change of matrix crystallinity and polymorphism on ovalbumin release from lipid-based implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luisa; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2018-05-30

    The objectives of this study were to prepare lipid-based implants by hot melt extrusion (HME) for the prolonged release of ovalbumin (OVA), and to relate protein release to crystallinity and polymorphic changes of the lipid matrix. Two lipids, glycerol tristearate and hydrogenated palm oil, with different composition and degree of crystallinity were studied. Solid OVA was dispersed within the lipid matrixes, which preserved its stability during extrusion. This was partially attributed to a protective effect of the lipidic matrix. The incorporation of OVA decreased the mechanical strength of the implants prepared with the more crystalline matrix, glycerol tristearate, whereas it remained comparable for the hydrogenated palm oil because of stronger physical and non-covalent interactions between the protein and this lipid. This was also the reason for the faster release of OVA from the glycerol tristearate matrix when compared to the hydrogenated palm oil (8 vs. 28 weeks). Curing induced and increased crystallinity, and changes in the release rate, especially for the more crystalline matrix. In this case, both an increase and a decrease in release, were observed depending on the tempering condition. Curing at higher temperatures induced a melt-mediated crystallization and solid state transformation of the glycerol tristearate matrix and led to rearrangements of the inner structure with the formation of larger pores, which accelerated the release. In contrast, changes in the hydrogenated palm oil under the same curing conditions were less noticeable leading to a more robust formulation, because of less polymorphic changes over time. This study helps to understand the effect of lipid matrix composition and crystallinity degree on the performance of protein-loaded implants, and to establish criteria for the selection of a lipid carrier depending on the release profile desired. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Jo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days followed by intradermal OVA injection. Administration of SHHTE significantly reduced edema formation and inflammatory-cell infiltration in ear tissues. Total and OVA-specific IgEs as well as proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and Th2-associated cytokine IL-4 levels were lower in the SHHTE-treated group than in the vehicle. SHHTE treatment significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in OVA-stimulated splenocytes. SHHTE decreased Th1 (IFN-γ and Th17 (IL-17a cytokine mRNA expression but increased Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β1. Moreover, SHHTE significantly inhibited degranulation of RBL-2H3 cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, SHHTE efficiently inhibited the allergic symptoms in an OVA-sensitized mouse model and its action may correlate with the suppression of IgE production by increasing IL-10 and TGF-β1, which can limit the function of other T helper cells and prevent the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. These results suggest that SHHTE could be a therapeutic agent for treating various allergic diseases.

  16. Influence of a cocoa-enriched diet on specific immune response in ovalbumin-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Permanyer, Joan; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies in young rats have reported the impact of 3 weeks of high cocoa intake on healthy immune status. The present article describes the effects of a longer-term cocoa-enriched diet (9 weeks) on the specific immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in adult Wistar rats. At 4 weeks after immunization, control rats produced anti-OVA antibodies, which, according their amount and isotype, were arranged as follows: IgG1 > IgG2a > IgM > IgG2b > IgG2c. Both cocoa diets studied (4% and 10%) down-modulated OVA-specific antibody levels of IgG1 (main subclass associated with the Th2 immune response in rats), IgG2a, IgG2c and IgM isotypes. Conversely, cocoa-fed rats presented equal or higher levels of anti-OVA IgG2b antibodies (subclass linked to the Th1 response). Spleen and lymph node cells from OVA-immunized control and cocoa-fed animals proliferated similarly under OVA stimulation. However, spleen cells from cocoa-fed animals showed decreased interleukin-4 secretion (main Th2 cytokine), and lymph node cells from the same rats displayed higher interferon-gamma secretion (main Th1 cytokine). These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the number of anti-OVA IgG-secreting cells in spleen. In conclusion, cocoa diets induced attenuation of antibody synthesis that may be attributable to specific down-regulation of the Th2 immune response.

  17. Gelam honey attenuates ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mice model of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Salme Suhana Shamshuddin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the pulmonary airways. Gelam honey has been proven to possess anti-inflammatory property with great potential to treat an inflammatory condition. However, the effect of ingestion of Gelam honey on allergic asthma has never been studied. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Gelam honey on the histopathological changes in the lungs of a mice model of allergic asthma. Forty-two Balb/c mice were divided into seven groups: control, I, II, III, IV, V and VI group. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Mice in groups I, II, III, IV, and V were given honey at a dose of 10% (v/v, 40% (v/v and 80% (v/v, dexamethasone 3 mg/kg, and phosphate buffered saline (vehicle respectively, orally once a day for 5 days of the challenged period. Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last OVA challenged and the lungs were evaluated for histopathological changes by light microscopy. All histopathological parameters such as epithelium thickness, the number of mast cell and mucus expression in Group III significantly improved when compared to Group VI except for subepithelial smooth muscle thickness (p < 0.05. In comparing Group III and IV, all the improvements in histopathological parameters were similar. Also, Gelam honey showed a significant (p < 0.05 reduction in inflammatory cell infiltration and beta-hexosaminidase level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In conclusion, we demonstrated that administration of high concentration of Gelam honey alleviates the histopathological changes of mice model of allergic asthma.

  18. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  19. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term in...

  20. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  1. Olodaterol Attenuates Citric Acid-Induced Cough in Naïve and Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known. PMID:25781609

  2. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  3. Olodaterol attenuates citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR, have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.01. Formoterol and salmeterol showed a trend towards reducing cough. On the contrary, indacaterol demonstrated pro-tussive properties as it significantly increased the number of coughs, both in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized animals (p < 0.001. In conclusion, olodaterol, at doses eliciting bronchodilation, showed antitussive properties in a model of citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve

  4. In vivo and ex vivo EPR detection of spin-labelled ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramović, Zrinka; Brgles, Marija; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasić, Jelka; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Frkanec, Ruza

    2010-10-01

    In this study, spin-labelled ovalbumin (SL-OVA), free or entrapped in liposomes, was administered to mice subcutaneously (s.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with the aim to determine the conditions for pharmacokinetic studies of spin-labelled proteins by EPR and to measure the time course of SL-OVA distribution in vivo in live mice and ex vivo in isolated organs. Upon s.c. administration, the decay of the EPR signal was followed for 60min at the site of application using an L-band EPR spectrometer. Within this time period, the signal of free SL-OVA was diminished by about 70%. It was estimated with the help of the oxidizing agent K(3)[(FeCN)(6)] that approximately 30% was a consequence of the spin label reduction to EPR non-visible hydroxylamine and about 40% was due to the SL-OVA elimination from the site of measurement. For liposome encapsulated SL-OVA, the intensity diminished only by approx. 40% in the same period, indicating that liposomes successfully protect the protein from reduction. EPR signal could not be detected directly over live mouse organs within 60min after s.c. application of SL-OVA. With the available L-band EPR spectrometer, the measurements at the site of s.c. application are possible if the amount of SL-OVA applied to a mouse is more than 3mg. For the pharmacokinetic studies of the protein distribution in organs after s.c. or i.v. injection the concentration of the spin-labelled protein should be more than 0.5mmol/kg. After i.v. administration, only ex vivo measurements were possible using an X-band EPR spectrometer, since the total amount of SL-OVA was not sufficient for in vivo detection and also because of rapid reduction of nitroxide. After 2min, the protein was preferentially distributed to liver and, to a smaller extent, to spleen.

  5. Morin Attenuates Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation by Modulating Oxidative Stress-Responsive MAPK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory diseases characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. Morin, an active ingredient obtained from Moraceae plants, has been demonstrated to have promising anti-inflammatory activities in a range of disorders. However, its impacts on pulmonary diseases, particularly on asthma, have not been clarified. This study was designed to investigate whether morin alleviates airway inflammation in chronic asthma with an emphasis on oxidative stress modulation. In vivo, ovalbumin- (OVA- sensitized mice were administered with morin or dexamethasone before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissues were obtained to perform cell counts, histological analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs were challenged by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. The supernatant was collected for the detection of the proinflammatory proteins, and the cells were collected for reactive oxygen species (ROS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK evaluations. Severe inflammatory responses and remodeling were observed in the airways of the OVA-sensitized mice. Treatment with morin dramatically attenuated the extensive trafficking of inflammatory cells into the BALF and inhibited their infiltration around the respiratory tracts and vessels. Morin administration also significantly suppressed goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition/fibrosis and dose-dependently inhibited the OVA-induced increases in IgE, TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 4, IL-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and malondialdehyde. In human BECs challenged by TNF-α, the levels of proteins such as eotaxin-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, were consistently significantly decreased by morin. Western blotting and the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein assay revealed that the increases in intracellular ROS and MAPK phosphorylation were

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Pycnogenol® on Airway Inflammation in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Günel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The supplement Pycnogenol® (PYC has been used for the treatment of several chronic diseases including allergic rhinitis (AR. However, the in vivo effects on allergic inflammation have not been identified to date. Aims: To investigate the treatment results of PYC on allergic inflammation in a rat model of allergic rhinitis. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Allergic rhinitis was stimulated in 42 rats by intraperitoneal sensitization and intranasal challenge with Ovalbumin. The animals were divided into six subgroups: healthy controls, AR group, AR group treated with corticosteroid (dexamethasone 1 mg/kg; CS+AR, healthy rats group that were given only PYC of 10 mg/kg (PYC10, AR group treated with PYC of 3mg/kg (PYC3+AR, and AR group treated with PYC of 10 mg/kg (PYC10+AR. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin-10 (IL-10, and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (Ig-E levels of serum were measured. Histopathological changes in nasal mucosa and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and IL-1β were evaluated. Results: The levels of the IL-4 were significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR, PYC10+AR and CS+AR groups compared with the AR group (p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.006. The production of the IFN-γ was significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR and PYC10+AR groups compared with the AR group (p=0.013, p=0.001. The administration of PYC to allergic rats suppressed the elevated IL-10 production, especially in the PYC3+AR group (p=0.006. Mucosal edema was significantly decreased respectively after treatment at dose 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg PYC (both, p<0.001. The mucosal expression of TNF-α has significantly decreased in the PYC3+AR and PYC10+AR groups (p=0.005, p<0.001, while the IL-1β expression significantly decreased in the CS+AR, PYC3+AR, and PYC10+AR groups (p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.001. Conclusion: PYC has multiple suppressive effects on allergic response. Thus, PYC may be used as a supplementary agent in allergic

  7. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  8. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  9. The retinoid X receptor response element in the human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter is antagonized by the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter family of orphan receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinaire, J; Hasanadka, R; Fang, M; Chou, WY; Stewart, MJ; Kruijer, W; Crabb, D

    2000-01-01

    Two tandem sites in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter (designated FP330-5' and FP330-3') that bind members of the nuclear receptor superfamily mere recently identified. Antibodies against apolipoprotein regulatory protein (ARP-1) altered DNA-protein interactions in electrophoretic mobility shift

  10. Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmouri, Hanene; Sekiou, Omar; Ammar, Sonda; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Messarah, Mahfoud; Boumendjel, Amel

    2017-12-01

    To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-asthmatic activity, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaves (UD), the closest extract to the Algerian traditional use. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of nettle extract. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: negative control; group II: Ovalbumin sensitized/challenged rats (positive control); group III: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol; group IV: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol and sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin. After 25 days, blood and tissue samples were collected for haematological and histopathological analysis, respectively. The oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the lungs, liver and erythrocytes. Then, correlations between markers of airway inflammation and markers of oxidative stress were explored. UD extract significantly (p nettle extract was also investigated for the total phenolic content (30.79 ± 0.96 mg gallic acid/g dry extract) and shows DPPH radical scavenging activity with 152.34 ± 0.37 μg/mL IC 50 value. The results confirmed that UD administration might be responsible for the protective effects of this extract against airway inflammation.

  11. Efficient Genome Editing in Chicken DF-1 Cells Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Bai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, genome engineering technology has provided unprecedented opportunities for site-specific modification of biological genomes. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas 9 is one such means that can target a specific genome locus. It has been applied in human cells and many other organisms. Meanwhile, to efficiently enrich targeted cells, several surrogate systems have also been developed. However, very limited information exists on the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in chickens. In this study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce mutations in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, ATP synthase epsilon subunit (ATP5E, and ovalbumin (OVA genes in chicken DF-1 cells. The results of T7E1 assays showed that the mutation rate at the three different loci was 0.75%, 0.5%, and 3.0%, respectively. In order to improve the mutation efficiency, we used the PuroR gene for efficient enrichment of genetically modified cells with the surrogate reporter system. The mutation rate, as assessed via the T7E1 assay, increased to 60.7%, 61.3%, and 47.3%, and subsequent sequence analysis showed that the mutation efficiency increased to 94.7%, 95%, and 95%, respectively. In addition, there were no detectable off-target mutations in three potential off-target sites using the T7E1 assay. As noted above, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a robust tool for chicken genome editing.

  12. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  13. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moersel, J.T.; Wende, I.; Schwarz, K.

    1991-01-01

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6 deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.) [de

  14. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Neamati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50, (Sent - Ext 100 and (Sent - Ext 200 were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01. The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01 while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001. In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V

  15. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  16. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  17. Allergic sensitization to ovalbumin in mouse model of food allergy is accompanied by stimulation of enterocyte brush border alkaline phosphatase activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Kozáková, Hana; Goliáš, Jaroslav; Kverka, Miloslav; Cinová, Jana; Rossmann, Pavel; Tučková, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 53-53 ISSN 1555-8932. [Meeting of the European Intestinal Transport Group /24./. 04.09.2012-07.09.2012, Oxford] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200913 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ovalbumin * allergy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. Modulation of the adsorption properties at air-water interfaces of complexes of egg white ovalbumin with pectin by the dielectric constant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashova, E.V.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of modulating the mesoscopic properties of food colloidal systems by the dielectric constant is studied by determining the impact of small amounts of ethanol (10%) on the adsorption of egg white ovalbumin onto the air-water interface in the absence and presence of pectin. The

  19. Is a high-fiber diet able to influence ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Wang, Xiaoting; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    More recently, a large amount of experimental and clinical discovered that dietary- fiber intake would decrease the susceptibility to allergic airway disease (AAD) and respiratory inflammation. To investigate whether a fiber-intake supplement is able to influence the induction of AAD and to elucidate the interactive relationship. AAD model mice and control mice were raised on a fundamental diet with standard 4% fiber content, whereas other mice were fed a 10% fiber-content diet in the high fiber-content group, along with a 25% fiber-content diet instead in very-high fiber-content group. All experimental mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to induce allergic inflammation in both the upper and lower airways. Hallmarks of AAD were examined in terms of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, T-helper type 1 (Th1) to Th2 skewing of the immune response. Furthermore, to elucidate the interrelations, we generated 16S ribosomal DNA from fecal samples and further validated the variation of colony composition in each group. The excessive high-fiber supplement induced a promoting effect rather than a suppressive effect, including a rise in nasal rubbing and sneezing, an increase in eosinophil inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, and promoted Th2 skewing of the immune response as well as the production of serum levels of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E. Moreover, overconsumption of dietary fiber greatly altered the construction of bacterial flora in the intestinal tract, including an increased proportion of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, and a decreased proportion of Bacteroidetes. Our work indicated that, instead of a protecting impact, excessive fiber intake preformed a negative influence on the induction of AAD. Therefore, we suspected that an excessive supplement of dietary fiber might not be an advisable method for the prevention and treatment of AADs.

  20. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  1. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  2. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  3. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  4. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  5. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  6. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  7. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tianmu; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR). Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types. PMID:28486516

  8. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.

  9. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Antiallergic Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum L. in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Abokyi, Samuel; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei; Wiredu, Eric Addo

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used traditionally as a remedy for conjunctivitis in Ghana. This study therefore evaluated the antiallergic potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) in ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis and attempted to predict its mode of action. Clinical scores for allergic conjunctivitis induced by intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization (100 : 10 μg OVA/Al(OH)3 in phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) and topical conjunctival challenge (1.5 mg OVA in 10 μL PBS) in Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were estimated after a week's daily treatment with 30-300 mg kg(-1) HIE, 30 mg kg(-1) prednisolone, 10 mg kg(-1) chlorpheniramine, or 10 mL kg(-1) PBS. Ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgE and total IgE in serum were estimated using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Histopathological assessment of the exenterated conjunctivae was also performed. The 30 and 300 mg kg(-1) HIE treatment resulted in a significantly (p ≤ 0.001) low clinical score of allergic conjunctivitis. Ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgE as well as total serum IgE also decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.01-0.001). The conjunctival tissue in HIE treated guinea pigs had mild mononuclear infiltration compared to the PBS-treated ones, which had intense conjunctival tissue inflammatory infiltration. HIE exhibited antiallergic effect possibly by immunomodulation or immunosuppression.

  10. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  11. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom

    2006-08-01

    1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis. 2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic salmonella, are essentially commensal in chickens. They usually form part of the gut flora and contaminate chicken carcases, for example, by faecal spillage at slaughter. Even when certain salmonella serovars like S. Enteritidis are invasive in laying hens overt evidence of clinical disease is rare and the birds appear to behave normally. 3. Are these bacteria just 'passing through' the avian host and only transient members of the bacterial flora or is there a more dynamic perspective to this infection/colonisation process? Chickens mount antibody responses to both pathogens, which indicate something other than commensalism. Such immune responses, however, do not always result in the clearance of the pathogen. 4. Not all animals in a group will carry salmonella or campylobacter, even under experimental conditions, and will vary, especially those that are outbred, in their responses to pathogen challenge. Identifying the reasons behind this could have important implications for disease control. 5. Both salmonella and campylobacter are more likely to be found in animals, which are compromised and this may explain at least part of the variations seen. Animals are more susceptible to infection when they are in a poor environment, fed a poor diet and/or under physical or psychological stress. 6. Work in this area has naturally focused on pathogens of medical significance and has shown that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline can markedly alter pathogen behaviour. Other host responses like Interferon gamma can also affect host tissues in a way, which facilitates invasion by

  12. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  13. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  14. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  15. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  16. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  17. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  18. Hesperetin, a Selective Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Effectively Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness without Influencing Xylazine/Ketamine-Induced Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Shih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hesperetin, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE4 inhibitor, is present in the traditional Chinese medicine, “Chen Pi.” Therefore, we were interested in investigating its effects on ovalbumin- (OVA- induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and clarifying its rationale for ameliorating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Hesperetin was revealed to have a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of >11. Hesperetin (10 ~ 30 μmol/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine. It also significantly suppressed the increases in total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. It dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the BALF and serum. However, hesperetin did not influence xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that hesperetin has few or no emetic effects. In conclusion, the rationales for ameliorating allergic asthma and COPD by hesperetin are anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and bronchodilation.

  19. Novel T-cell epitopes of ovalbumin in BALB/c mouse: Potential for peptide-immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Marie; Mine, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    The identification of food allergen T-cell epitopes provides a platform for the development of novel immunotherapies. Despite extensive knowledge of the physicochemical properties of hen ovalbumin (OVA), a major egg allergen, the complete T-cell epitope map of OVA has surprisingly not been defined in the commonly used BALB/c mouse model. In this study, spleen cells obtained from OVA-sensitized mice were incubated in the presence of 12-mer overlapping synthetic peptides, constructed using the SPOTS synthesis method. Proliferative activity was assessed by 72-h in vitro assays with use of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 and led to identification of four mitogenic sequences, i.e., A39R50, S147R158, K263E274, and A329E340. ELISA analyses of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 productions in cell culture supernatants upon stimulation with increasing concentrations of peptides confirmed their immunogenicity. Knowledge of the complete T-cell epitope map of OVA opens the way to a number of experimental investigations, including the exploration of peptide-based immunotherapy.

  20. Protective Effects of Intratracheally-Administered Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Asthma in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common chronic disease characterized by bronchial inflammation, reversible airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Current therapeutic options for the management of asthma include inhaled corticosteroids and β2 agonists, which elicit harmful side effects. In the present study, we examined the capacity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2, one of the major components of bee venom (BV, to reduce airway inflammation and improve lung function in an experimental model of asthma. Allergic asthma was induced in female BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal administration of ovalbumin (OVA on days 0 and 14, followed by intratracheal challenge with 1% OVA six times between days 22 and 30. The infiltration of immune cells, such as Th2 cytokines in the lungs, and the lung histology, were assessed in the OVA-challenged mice in the presence and absence of an intratracheal administration of bvPLA2. We showed that the intratracheal administration of bvPLA2 markedly suppressed the OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation by reducing AHR, overall area of inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia. Furthermore, the suppression was associated with a significant decrease in the production of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and a reduction in the number of total cells, including eosinophils, macrophages, and neutrophils in the airway.

  1. Effect of glucocorticosteroid treatment on ovalbumin-induced IgE-mediated immediate and late allergic response in guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P; Brange, C; von Kogerer, B; Sonmark, B; Stahre, G

    1988-01-01

    The effect of glucocorticosteroid (GCS) treatment on ovalbumine-induced IgE-mediated immediate and late allergic response was studied in sensitized guinea pigs. The results show that the GCS budesonide (BUD) inhibits the allergen-induced IgE-mediated immediate and late bronchial obstruction. The effect on the early reaction is correlated to the inhibition of leukotrienes and histamine release. The importance of mediator release inhibition for the antianaphylactic effect of GCS is discussed. In examining the effect on the late reaction, it was found that BUD had to be present during the early reaction but did not inhibit the early reaction. Furthermore, the effect on the late reaction was correlated to the inhibition of vascular leakage but not to the infiltration of inflammatory cells as examined in bronchoalveolar lavage. The results indicate that some triggering factors important for the development of the late reaction are released during the early reaction. Inhibition of the release of that factor or the activation of inflammatory cells by that factor might be the mechanism behind the antiinflammatory activities of GCS.

  2. Deep-Sea-Derived Butyrolactone I Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Anaphylaxis by Regulating Mast Cell Function in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Mei; Xie, Chun-Lan; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Bo; Lin, Wei-Xiang; Liu, Hong; Cao, Min-Jie; Su, Wen-Jin; Yang, Xian-Wen; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2018-05-22

    Deep-sea-derived butyrolactone I (BTL-I), which was identified as a type of butanolide, was isolated from Aspergillus sp. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced BALB/c anaphylaxis was established to explore the antifood allergic activity of BTL-I. As a result, BTL-I was able to alleviate OVA-induced allergy symptoms, reduce the levels of histamine and mouse mast cell proteinases, inhibit OVA-specific IgE, and decrease the population of mast cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. BTL-I also significantly suppressed mast-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Additionally, the maturation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) declined as BTL-I caused down-regulation of c-KIT receptors. Furthermore, molecular docking analyses revealed that BTL-I interacted with the inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIB. In conclusion, the reduction of mast cell function by deep-sea-derived BTL-I as well as its interactions with the inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIB, may contribute to BTL-I-related protection against food anaphylaxis.

  3. Preparation and structural characterisation of novel and versatile amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride-modified hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne Diane; Guillaumie, Fanny; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    and structurally characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). The influence of four reaction parameters on the DS of the derivatives was studied by means of an experimental design. The results showed that the OSA/HA molar ratio, the buffer......The purpose of the present study was to prepare amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives and to study the influence of a selection of reaction parameters on the degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives. Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)–modified HA (OSA–HA) derivatives were prepared...... (NaHCO3) concentration and their interaction had the largest influence while the HA concentration and the reaction time only had a negligible effect. According to 1H NMR the maximum DS achieved within the experimental conditions tested was 43% per disaccharide unit. Moreover optimal reaction...

  4. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride-Modified Human Serum Albumin for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of pediatric viral respiratory tract infections. Neither vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy is available to prevent and treat RSV infection. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is the only product approved to prevent serious RSV infection, but its high cost is prohibitive in low-income countries. Here, we aimed to identify an effective, safe, and affordable antiviral agent for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP of RSV infection in children at high risk. We found that maleic anhydride (ML-modified human serum albumin (HSA, designated ML-HSA, exhibited potent antiviral activity against RSV and that the percentages of the modified lysines and arginies in ML- are correlated with such anti-RSV activity. ML-HSA inhibited RSV entry and replication by interacting with viral G protein and blocking RSV attachment to the target cells, while ML-HAS neither bound to F protein, nor inhibited F protein-mediated membrane fusion. Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries.

  5. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  6. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  7. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  8. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  9. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  11. Ectoparasites and Haemoparasites of Indigenous Chicken ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...

  12. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  13. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  14. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125 I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125 I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125 I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens

  15. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  16. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  17. Therapeutic potential of anti-IL-1β IgY in guinea pigs with allergic asthma induced by ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-xu, Hu; Qin, Xiang; Zhu, Wen; Yuan-yi, Chen; Li-feng, Zeng; Zhi-yong, Liu; Dan, He; Xiao-mu, Wu; Guo-zhu, Hu

    2014-03-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) plays pivotal roles in the progression of allergic airway inflammation. This study aims to determine whether the blockade of IL-1β can inhibit airway inflammation in guinea pigs with allergic asthma induced by the inhalation of aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA). Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as normal controls (group C). The guinea pigs with allergic asthma induced by the inhalation of aerosolized OVA were randomly divided into three groups: (1) the M group containing negative control animals treated with saline; (2) the Z1 group containing animals treated by the inhalation of atomized 0.1% anti-IL-1β immunoglobulin yolk (IgY); and (3) the Z2 group containing positive control animals that were treated with budesonide. The inflammatory cells in the peripheral blood (PB) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated using methylene blue and eosin staining. Cytokine concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pulmonary sections were examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Allergic inflammation and damage to the pulmonary tissues were decreased in the Z1 group compared to the M group. Eosinophils and neutrophils in the PB and BALF were significantly decreased in the Z1 group compared to the M group (Pguinea pigs with allergic asthma. The inhibitory activity may be due to the decrease in the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils and the reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines and IgE in the PB and BALF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sik Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility

  19. Discovery of a novel orally active PDE-4 inhibitor effective in an ovalbumin-induced asthma murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Nam, Ji Yeon; Song, Jin Sook; No, Zaesung; Yang, Sung Don; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2012-06-15

    Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) is responsible for metabolizing adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate that reduces the activation of a wide range of inflammatory cells including eosinophils. PDE-4 inhibitors are under development for the treatment of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Herein, we report a novel PDE-4 inhibitor, PDE-423 (3-[1-(3-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-difluoromethoxybenzyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-benzoic acid), which shows good in vitro and in vivo oral activities. PDE-423 exhibited in vitro IC(50)s of 140 nM and 550 nM in enzyme assay and cell-based assay, respectively. In vivo study using ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice revealed that PDE-423 reduced methacholine-stimulated airway hyperreactivity in a dose-dependent manner by once daily oral administration (ED(50)=18.3 mg/kg), in parallel with decreased eosinophil peroxidase activity and improved lung histology. In addition, PDE-423 was effective in diminishing lipopolysaccharide-induced neutrophilia in vivo as well as in vitro. Oral administration of PDE-423 (100 mg/kg) had no effect on the duration of xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia and did not induce vomiting incidence in ferrets up to the dose of 1000 mg/kg. The present study indicates that a novel PDE-4 inhibitor, PDE-423, has good pharmacological profiles implicating this as a potential candidate for the development of a new anti-asthmatic drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Kaempferol Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Mucus Hypersecretion in Airway Epithelial Cells And Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Mucus hypersecretion is an important pathological feature of chronic airway diseases, such as asthma and pulmonary diseases. MUC5AC is a major component of the mucus matrix forming family of mucins in the airways. The initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated stress responses contributes to the pathogenesis of airway diseases. The present study investigated that ER stress was responsible for airway mucus production and this effect was blocked by the flavonoid kaempferol. Oral administration of ≥10 mg/kg kaempferol suppressed mucus secretion and goblet cell hyperplasia observed in the bronchial airway and lung of BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). TGF-β and tunicamycin promoted MUC5AC induction after 72 h in human bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells, which was dampened by 20 μM kaempferol. Kaempferol inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress of airway epithelial cells through disturbing the activation of the ER transmembrane sensor ATF6 and IRE1α. Additionally, this compound demoted the induction of ER chaperones such as GRP78 and HSP70 and the splicing of XBP-1 mRNA by tunicamycin. The in vivo study further revealed that kaempferol attenuated the induction of XBP-1 and IRE1α in epithelial tissues of OVA-challenged mice. TGF-β and tunicamycin induced TRAF2 with JNK activation and such induction was deterred by kaempferol. The inhibition of JNK activation encumbered the XBP-1 mRNA splicing and MUC5AC induction by tunicamycin and TGF-β. These results demonstrate that kaempferol alleviated asthmatic mucus hypersecretion through blocking bronchial epithelial ER stress via the inhibition of IRE1α-TRAF2-JNK activation. Therefore, kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting mucus hypersecretion-associated pulmonary diseases.

  1. Polysaccharide isolated from Aloe vera gel suppresses ovalbumin-induced food allergy through inhibition of Th2 immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dajeong; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Young Mi; Lee, Min Bum; Min, Keun Young; Koo, Jimo; Kim, Su Jeong; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2018-05-01

    An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to harmless substance called allergen that gains access to the body. Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins and the number of patients with food allergy has recently increased. Aloe Vera is used for wellness and medicinal purposes. In particular, Aloe vera has been reported to enhance immunity. However, the effect of Aloe vera on food allergy is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) containing low molecular weight Aloe polysaccharide (AP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy in mice. Allergic symptoms, rectal temperature, and diarrhea were measured in OVA-induced food allergy mice. Other allergic parameters were also analyzed by RT-PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry, and other biochemical methods. As the results, PAG suppressed the decrease of body temperature, diarrhea, and allergic symptoms in OVA-induced food allergy mice. PAG also reduced serum concentrations of type 2 helper T cell (Th2) cytokines (Interleukin-(IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) as well as histamine, mast cell protease-1 (MCP-1), and immunoglobulin (Ig)E. PAG blocked the degranulation of mast cells and infiltration of eosinophils in intestine. Furthermore, PAG suppressed the population of Th2 cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. PAG also increased the production of IL-10 and population of type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells in mice with food allergy. Taken together, our findings suggest that PAG suppressed Th2 immune responses through, at least partially, stimulating the secretion of IL-10 in food allergy mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral Administration of Recombinant Saccharomyces boulardii Expressing Ovalbumin-CPE Fusion Protein Induces Antibody Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherpour, Ghasem; Ghasemi, Hosnie; Zand, Bahare; Zarei, Najmeh; Roohvand, Farzin; Ardakani, Esmat M; Azizi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii , a subspecies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , is a well-known eukaryotic probiotic with many benefits for human health. In the present study, a recombinant strain of S. boulardii was prepared to use as a potential oral vaccine delivery vehicle. In this sense, a ura3 auxotroph strain of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 (known as S. cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926, Yomogi ® ) was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology. Then a gene construct encoding a highly immunogenic protein, ovalbumin (OVA), was prepared and transformed into the ura3 - S. boulardii . To facilitate the transport of the recombinant immunogen across the intestinal barrier, a claudin-targeting sequence from Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) was added to the C-terminus of the expression cassette. The recombinant S. boulardii strain expressing the OVA-CPE fusion protein was then administered orally to a group of mice, and serum IgG and fecal IgA levels were evaluated by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that anti-OVA IgG in serum significantly increased in test group ( P boulardii or PBS), and the fecal IgA titer was significantly higher in test group ( P boulardii strain expressing the similar construct lacking C-terminal CPE was also administered orally. The result showed an increased level of serum IgG in group receiving yeasts expressing the CPE negative construct compared to control groups; however, the fecal IgA levels did not increase significantly. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the yeast S. boulardii , as a delivery vehicle with possible immunomodulatory effects, and c-CPE, as a targeting tag, synergistically assist to stimulate systemic and local immunity. This proposed recombinant S. boulardii system might be useful in the expression of other antigenic peptides, making it as a promising tool for oral delivery of vaccines or therapeutic proteins.

  3. Nitric Oxide Synthase Enzymes in the Airways of Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: NOS2 Expression Is NOS3 Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Bratt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and Design. The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Materials or Subjects. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1−/−, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Methods. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Results. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3−/− strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1−/− animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− allergen-exposed mice. Conclusion. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This “homeostatic” mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia.

  4. Nitric Oxide Synthase Enzymes in the Airways of Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin: NOS2 Expression Is NOS3 Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Williams, Keisha; Rabowsky, Michelle F.; Last, Michael S.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Design. The function of the airway nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms and the lung cell types responsible for its production are not fully understood. We hypothesized that NO homeostasis in the airway is important to control inflammation, which requires upregulation, of NOS2 protein expression by an NOS3-dependent mechanism. Materials or Subjects. Mice from a C57BL/6 wild-type, NOS1−/−, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− genotypes were used. All mice strains were systemically sensitized and exposed to filtered air or ovalbumin (OVA) aerosol for two weeks to create a subchronic model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Methods. We measured lung function, lung lavage inflammatory and airway epithelial goblet cell count, exhaled NO, nitrate and nitrite concentration, and airway NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3 protein content. Results. Deletion of NOS1 or NOS3 increases NOS2 protein present in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of air-exposed animals. Exposure to allergen significantly reduced the expression of NOS2 protein in the airway epithelium and smooth muscle of the NOS3−/− strain only. This reduction in NOS2 expression was not due to the replacement of epithelial cells with goblet cells as remaining epithelial cells did not express NOS2. NOS1−/− animals had significantly reduced goblet cell metaplasia compared to C57Bl/6 wt, NOS2−/−, and NOS3−/− allergen-exposed mice. Conclusion. The airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells maintain a stable airway NO concentration under noninflammatory conditions. This “homeostatic” mechanism is unable to distinguish between NOS derived from the different constitutive NOS isoforms. NOS3 is essential for the expression of NOS2 under inflammatory conditions, while NOS1 expression contributes to allergen-induced goblet cell metaplasia. PMID:20953358

  5. Early Oral Ovalbumin Exposure during Maternal Milk Feeding Prevents Spontaneous Allergic Sensitization in Allergy-Prone Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaweyah El-Merhibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting data to support the practice of delaying the introduction of allergenic foods into the infant diet to prevent allergy development. This study investigated immune response development after early oral egg antigen (Ovalbumin; OVA exposure in a rat pup model. Brown Norway (BN rat pups were randomly allocated into groups: dam reared (DR, DR pups challenged daily (days 4–13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAc, DR pups challenged intermittently (on day 4, 10, 12, and 13 with oral OVA (DR + OVAi, formula-fed pups (FF, and FF pups challenged daily with oral OVA (FF + OVA. Immune parameters assessed included OVA-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgA. Ileal and splenic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1, mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad 2/4/7, and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 were determined. Ileum was stained for TGF-β1 and Smad4. Results. Feeding OVA daily to DR pups maintained systemic and local gut antibody and immunoregulatory marker mRNA responses. Systemic TGF-β1 was lower in DR + OVAi pups compared to DR and DR + OVAc pups. Feeding OVA to FF pups resulted in significantly greater OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and lower IgA and TGF-β1 and Smad expression compared to DR pups. Conclusions. Early daily OVA exposure in the presence of maternal milk maintains immune markers associated with a regulated immune response, preventing early allergic sensitization.

  6. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  7. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  8. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  9. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  10. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  11. Oral Administration of Recombinant Saccharomyces boulardii Expressing Ovalbumin-CPE Fusion Protein Induces Antibody Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Bagherpour

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii, a subspecies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a well-known eukaryotic probiotic with many benefits for human health. In the present study, a recombinant strain of S. boulardii was prepared to use as a potential oral vaccine delivery vehicle. In this sense, a ura3 auxotroph strain of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 (known as S. cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926, Yomogi® was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology. Then a gene construct encoding a highly immunogenic protein, ovalbumin (OVA, was prepared and transformed into the ura3- S. boulardii. To facilitate the transport of the recombinant immunogen across the intestinal barrier, a claudin-targeting sequence from Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE was added to the C-terminus of the expression cassette. The recombinant S. boulardii strain expressing the OVA-CPE fusion protein was then administered orally to a group of mice, and serum IgG and fecal IgA levels were evaluated by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that anti-OVA IgG in serum significantly increased in test group (P < 0.001 compared to control groups (receiving wild type S. boulardii or PBS, and the fecal IgA titer was significantly higher in test group (P < 0.05 than control groups. In parallel, a recombinant S. boulardii strain expressing the similar construct lacking C-terminal CPE was also administered orally. The result showed an increased level of serum IgG in group receiving yeasts expressing the CPE negative construct compared to control groups; however, the fecal IgA levels did not increase significantly. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the yeast S. boulardii, as a delivery vehicle with possible immunomodulatory effects, and c-CPE, as a targeting tag, synergistically assist to stimulate systemic and local immunity. This proposed recombinant S. boulardii system might be useful in the expression of other antigenic peptides, making it as a promising tool for oral delivery of vaccines or therapeutic

  12. Effect of combined nitrogen dioxide and carbon nanoparticle exposure on lung function during ovalbumin sensitization in Brown Norway rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skander Layachi

    Full Text Available The interaction of particulate and gaseous pollutants in their effects on the severity of allergic inflammation and airway responsiveness are not well understood. We assessed the effect of exposure to NO(2 in the presence or absence of repetitive treatment with carbon nanoparticle (CNP during allergen sensitization and challenges in Brown-Norway (BN rat, in order to assess their interactions on lung function and airway responses (AR to allergen and methacholine (MCH, end-expiratory lung volume (EELV, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cellular content, serum and BALF cytokine levels and histological changes. Animals were divided into the following groups (n = 6: Control; CNP (Degussa-FW2: 13 nm, 0.5 mg/kg instilled intratracheally ×3 at 7-day intervals; OVA: ovalbumin-sensitised; OVA+CNP: both sensitized and exposed to CNP. Rats were divided into equal groups exposed either to air or to NO(2, 10 ppm, 6 h/d, 5d/wk for 4 weeks. Exposure to NO(2, significantly enhanced lung inflammation and airway reactivity, with a significantly larger effect in animals sensitized to allergen, which was related to a higher expression of TH1 and TH2-type cytokines. Conversely, exposure to NO(2 in animals undergoing repeated tracheal instillation of CNP alone, increased BALF neutrophilia and enhanced the expression of TH1 cytokines: TNF-α and IFN-γ, but did not show an additive effect on airway reactivity in comparison to NO(2 alone. The exposure to NO(2 combined with CNP treatment and allergen sensitization however, unexpectedly resulted in a significant decrease in both airway reactivity to allergen and to methacholine, and a reduction in TH2-type cytokines compared to allergen sensitization alone. EELV was significantly reduced with sensitization, CNP treatment or both. These data suggest an immunomodulatory effect of repeated tracheal instillation of CNP on the proinflammatory effects of NO(2 exposure in sensitized BN rat. Furthermore, our findings suggest

  13. Effect of liposomal formulations and immunostimulating peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) on the immune reaction to ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habjanec, Lidija; Frkanec, Ruza; Halassy, Beata; Tomasić, Jelka

    2006-01-01

    The adjuvant activity of liposomes and immunostimulating peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) in different formulations has been studied in mice model using ovalbumin (OVA) as an antigen. PGM is a natural compound of bacterial origin with well-defined chemical structure: GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln-mesoDpm(epsilonNH2)-D-Ala-D-Ala. It is a non-toxic, non-pyrogenic, and water-soluble immunostimulator. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different liposomal formulations of OVA, with or without PGM, on the production of total IgG, as well as of IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses of OVA-specific antibodies (as indicators of Th2 and Th1 type of immune response, respectively). CBA mice were immunized s.c. with OVA mixed with liposomes, OVA with PGM mixed with liposomes, OVA encapsulated into liposomes and OVA with PGM encapsulated into liposomes. Control groups were OVA in saline, OVA with PGM in saline, and OVA in CFA/IFA adjuvant formulation. The entrapment efficacy of OVA was monitored by HPLC method. The adjuvant activity of the mixture of OVA and empty liposomes, the mixture of OVA, PGM, and liposomes and PGM encapsulated with OVA into liposomes on production of total anti-OVA IgG was demonstrated. The mixture of PGM and liposomes exhibited additive immunostimulating effect on the production of antigen-specific IgGs. The analysis of IgG subclasses revealed that encapsulation of OVA into liposomes favors the stimulation of IgG2a antibodies, indicating the switch toward the Th1 type of immune response. When encapsulated into liposomes or mixed with liposomes, PGM induced a switch from Th1 to Th2 type of immune response. It could be concluded that appropriate formulations of antigen, PGM, and liposomes differently affect the humoral immune response and direct the switch in the type of immune response (Th1/Th2).

  14. Adverse effect of nano-silicon dioxide on lung function of rats with or without ovalbumin immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The great advances of nanomaterials have brought out broad important applications, but their possible nanotoxicity and risks have not been fully understood. It is confirmed that exposure of environmental particulate matter (PM, especially ultrafine PM, are responsible for many lung function impairment and exacerbation of pre-existing lung diseases. However, the adverse effect of nanoparticles on allergic asthma is seldom investigated and the mechanism remains undefined. For the first time, this work investigates the relationship between allergic asthma and nanosized silicon dioxide (nano-SiO₂. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ovalbumin (OVA-treated and saline-treated control rats were daily intratracheally administered 0.1 ml of 0, 40 and 80 µg/ml nano-SiO₂ solutions, respectively for 30 days. Increased nano-SiO₂ exposure results in adverse changes on inspiratory and expiratory resistance (Ri and Re, but shows insignificant effect on rat lung dynamic compliance (Cldyn. Lung histological observation reveals obvious airway remodeling in 80 µg/ml nano-SiO₂-introduced saline and OVA groups, but the latter is worse. Additionally, increased nano-SiO₂ exposure also leads to more severe inflammation. With increasing nano-SiO₂ exposure, IL-4 in lung homogenate increases and IFN-γ shows a reverse but insignificant change. Moreover, at a same nano-SiO₂ exposure concentration, OVA-treated rats exhibit higher (significant IL-4 and lower (not significant IFN-γ compared with the saline-treated rats. The percentages of eosinophil display an unexpected result, in which higher exposure results lower eosinophil percentages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This was a preliminary study which for the first time involved the effect of nano-SiO₂ to OVA induced rat asthma model. The results suggested that intratracheal administration of nano-SiO₂ could lead to the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and the airway remolding with or without OVA

  15. Pulmonary toxicity and adjuvant effect of di-(2-exylhexyl phthalate in ovalbumin-immunized BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease, which is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and inflammation in the airways. The majority of asthma is allergic asthma, which is a disease caused by type I hypersensitivity mediated by IgE. Exposures to a number of environmental chemicals are suspected to lead to asthma, one such pollutant is di-(2-ethylheyl phthalate (DEHP. DEHP is a manufactured chemical that is commonly added in plastic products to make them flexible. Epidemiological studies have revealed a positive association between DEHP exposure and asthma prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study was aimed to determine the underlying role of DEHP exposure in airway reactivity, especially when combined with allergen exposure. The biomarkers include pulmonary histopathology, airway hyperresponsiveness (lung function, IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils. Healthy balb/c mice were randomly divided into eight exposure groups (n = 8 each: (1 saline control, (2 30 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (3 300 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (4 3000 µg/(kg•d DEHP, and (5 ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized group, (6 OVA-combined with 30 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (7 OVA-combined with 300 µg/(kg•d DEHP, and (8 OVA-combined with 3000 µg/(kg•d DEHP. Experimental tests were conducted after 52-day DEHP exposure and subsequently one week of challenge with aerosolized OVA. The principal findings include: (1 Strong postive associations exist between OVA-combined DEHP exposure and serum total IgE (T-IgE, as well as histological findings. These positive associations show a dose-dependent low dose sensitive effect of DEHP. (2 IL-4, eosinophil recruitment and lung function are also indicators for adjuvant effect of DEHP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that except the significant changes of immunological and inflammatory biomarkers (T-IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils, the pulmonary histological (histopathological

  16. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  17. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  18. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  19. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a total population size of about 65 million, chicken make up the largest share in terms of number ... each PA, 40 households were randomly selected, making a total sample size ..... Production potential and qualitative traits of indigenous ...

  20. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  1. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  2. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  3. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  5. The Inclusion of Chitosan in Poly-ε-caprolactone Nanoparticles: Impact on the Delivery System Characteristics and on the Adsorbed Ovalbumin Secondary Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sandra; Fragal, Elizangela H; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C; Valente, Artur J M; Borges, Olga

    2018-01-01

    This report extensively explores the benefits of including chitosan into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) to obtain an improved protein/antigen delivery system. Blend NPs (PCL/chitosan NPs) showed improved protein adsorption efficacy (84%) in low shear stress and aqueous environment, suggesting that a synergistic effect between PCL hydrophobic nature and the positive charges of chitosan present at the particle surface was responsible for protein interaction. Additionally, thermal analysis suggested the blend NPs were more stable than the isolated polymers and cytotoxicity assays in a primary cell culture revealed chitosan inclusion in PCL NPs reduced the toxicity of the delivery system. A quantitative 6-month stability study showed that the inclusion of chitosan in PCL NPs did not induce a change in adsorbed ovalbumin (OVA) secondary structure characterized by the increase in the unordered conformation (random coil), as it was observed for OVA adsorbed to chitosan NPs. Additionally, the slight conformational changes occurred, are not expected to compromise ovalbumin secondary structure and activity, during a 6-month storage even at high temperatures (45°C). In simulated biological fluids, PCL/chitosan NPs showed an advantageous release profile for oral delivery. Overall, the combination of PCL and chitosan characteristics provide PCL/chitosan NPs valuable features particularly important to the development of vaccines for developing countries, where it is difficult to ensure cold chain transportation and non-parenteral formulations would be preferred.

  6. Effects of probiotics, probiotic DNA and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on ovalbumin-sensitized Brown-Norway rats via TLR9/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Huang, Juan; Tang, Wenjing; Chen, Bing; Cai, Wei

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of living probiotics, probiotic DNA and the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) on both immune response and intestinal barrier function in ovalbumin-sensitized rat and the underlying mechanisms. Brown-Norway rats were orally sensitized with ovalbumin, and living probiotics, probiotic DNA extraction, synthetic CpG-ODN or non-CpG ODN control was administered. In the living probiotics, probiotic DNA and CpG-ODN groups, the allergic response was significantly inhibited, the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance was shifted away from Th2 side, the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+high) Treg cells was increased, and the intestinal barrier function was improved. The levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mRNA and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as well as the IκB-α phosphorylation (p-IκB-α) was significantly increased in these three intervention groups compared with the OVA-positive group, whereas no such effects were found in the non-CpG ODN control group. These data show that the probiotic genomic DNA and the synthetic CpG-ODN was comparable with living probiotics in preventing food allergic response by immune modulation and intestinal barrier function enhancement, and the activation of TLR9/NF-κB signal pathway might be involved in this process. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  8. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  9. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  10. Sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, T M A; Grongnet, J F

    2010-10-01

    This study identified the sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea. Five chicken samples [live village chicken, live broiler, live spent laying hen, ready-to-cook broiler, and ready-to-cook broiler (imported)] bought from different locations were assessed by 10 trained panelists using 19 sensory attributes. The ANOVA results showed that 3 chicken appearance attributes (brown, yellow, and white), 5 chicken odor attributes (oily, intense, medicine smell, roasted, and mouth persistent), 3 chicken flavor attributes (sweet, bitter, and astringent), and 8 chicken texture attributes (firm, tender, juicy, chew, smooth, springy, hard, and fibrous) were significantly discriminating between the chicken samples (Pchicken, the live spent laying hen, and the ready-to-cook broiler (imported) were very well represented and clearly distinguished from the live broiler and the ready-to-cook broiler. One hundred twenty consumers expressed their preferences for the chicken samples using a 5-point Likert scale. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the preference data identified 4 homogenous consumer clusters. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the live village chicken was the most preferred chicken sample, whereas the ready-to-cook broiler was the least preferred one. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) type 1 showed that 72% of the sensory data for the first 2 principal components explained 83% of the chicken preference. The PLSR1 identified that the sensory characteristics juicy, oily, sweet, hard, mouth persistent, and yellow were the most relevant sensory drivers of the Guinean chicken preference. The PLSR2 (with multiple responses) identified the relationship between the chicken samples, their sensory attributes, and the consumer clusters. Our results showed that there was not a chicken category that was exclusively preferred from the other chicken samples and therefore highlight the existence of place for development of

  11. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  13. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  14. Antiviral Activity of Lambda Interferon in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Antje; Soubies, Sebastien; Härtle, Sonja; Schusser, Benjamin; Kaspers, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-λ was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-λ plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-λ. We could demonstrate that chIFN-λ markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-λ. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-λ strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-λ receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-λ treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-λ action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-λ expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-λ systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053

  15. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  16. Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A Case Study of ... per household was lost per year due to diseases, predators, accidents, and theft. ... as well as chicken house construction so as to avoid the risks of predators.

  17. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated ... Key words: Chicken embryonic stem cells, in vitro, directional differentiation, .... synthesized by using the Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit.

  18. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  19. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  20. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas; Nikko A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP) crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injectio...

  1. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  2. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  3. Comparative developmental trajectory of four strains of chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...

  4. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  5. Near-infrared labeled, ovalbumin loaded polymeric nanoparticles based on a hydrophilic polyester as model vaccine : In vivo tracking and evaluation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimian, Sima; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Fransen, Marieke F.; Mezzanotte, Laura; Gold, Henrik; Wisse, Patrick; Overkleeft, Hermen; Amidi, Maryam; Jiskoot, Wim; Lo¨wik, Clemens W.; Ossendorp, Ferry; Hennink, Wim E.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate antigen delivery systems aimed at the induction of antigen-specific T cells form a promising approach in immunotherapy to replace pharmacokinetically unfavorable soluble antigen formulations. In this study, we developed a delivery system using the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA)

  6. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  7. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  8. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  9. Specificity of chicken and mammalian transferrins in myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.L.; Popiela, Heinz; Festoff, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Chicken transferrins isolated from eggs, embryo extract, serum or ischiatic-peroneal nerves are able to stimulate incorporation of ( 3 H)thymidine, and promote myogenesis by primary chicken muscles cells in vitro. Mammalian transferrins (bovine, rat, mouse, horse, rabbit, and human) do not promote ( 3 H)thymidine incorporation or myotube development. Comparison of the peptide fragments obtained after chemical or limited proteolytic cleavage demonstrates that the four chicken transferrins are all indistinguishable, but they differ considerably from the mammalian transferrins. The structural differences between chicken and mammalian transferrins probably account for the inability of mammalian transferrins to act as mitogens for, and to support myogenesis of, primary chicken muscle cells. (author)

  10. Alteration of Diastereoisomeric and Enantiomeric Profiles of Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in Adult Chicken Tissues, Eggs, and Hatchling Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Jing; Xie, Qilai; Sun, Yuxin; Mai, Bixian

    2017-05-16

    The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were not detected-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues, except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues. The accumulation ratios (ARs) of α-HBCD from diet to adult chicken tissues were 4.27 for liver, 11.2 for fat, and 7.64-12.9 for other tissues, respectively. The AR and carry-over rate (COR) of α-HBCD from diet to eggs were 22.4 and 0.226, respectively. The concentrations of α-HBCD in hatchling chicken liver (median: 35.4 ng/g lw) were significantly lower than those in hatchling chicken pectoral muscle (median: 130 ng/g lw). The EFs of α-HBCD decreased from soil to adult chicken tissues and from eggs to hatchling chicken liver. Meanwhile, the EFs of γ-HBCD increased from soil to adult chicken tissues. These results indicate the preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD in chickens. The alteration of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric patterns of HBCDs might be influenced by the different absorption and elimination rates of the six HBCD enantiomers as well as variations in HBCD metabolism in chickens.

  11. Investigation some characteristics of chicken feather’s rachis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşayev, N.; Kocatepe, S.; Maraş, N.; Soylak, M.; Erol, M.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, obtaining the natural protein fibers from chicken feathers, which are obtained as a by-product in the production of chicken meat and which cause environmental pollution and important part is waste, has been drawn to the perspective of scientists. So, the investigations about the chicken feather fibers reveal important properties of these fibers. Chicken feather fibers are obtained by mechanical cutting of the barbs which have fibrous structure, the structure branched from rachis and constitute the body of the feather. The rachis part of chicken feather constitutes approximately half of the weight of the feathers. So, it is necessary to examine the properties of the chicken feathers in order to gain their industrialization. This study is concerned with the mechanical and physical properties of the material that is taken as a by-product in the production of fibers from chicken feathers and constitutes the rachis part of the feathers.

  12. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  13. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...

  15. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken offal at the retail level in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, C H; Goh, S G; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Puspanadan, S; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Mahyudin, N A; Radu, S

    2013-06-01

    A total of 216 chicken offal samples (chicken liver = 72; chicken heart = 72; chicken gizzard = 72) from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia, were examined for the presence and density of Listeria monocytogenes by using a combination of the most probable number and PCR method. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in 216 chicken offal samples examined was 26.39%, and among the positive samples, the chicken gizzard showed the highest percentage at 33.33% compared with chicken liver (25.00%) and chicken heart (20.83%). The microbial load of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples ranged from Malaysia.

  17. Effects of irradiation on bacterial load and Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varabioff, Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Nottingham, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens

  18. Cross-reactivity to fish and chicken meat - a new clinical syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C

    2016-01-01

    fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. METHODS: Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA...... for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while...

  19. Isolation of chicken embryonic stem cell and preparation of chicken chimeric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yani; Yang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Mengmeng; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2013-03-01

    Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were separated from blastoderms at stage-X and cultured in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 staining was conducted to detect ESCs. Then, chicken ESCs were transfected with linearized plasmid pEGFP-N1 in order to produce chimeric chicken. Firstly, the optimal electrotransfection condition was compared; the results showed the highest transfection efficiency was obtained when the field strength and pulse duration was 280 V and 75 μs, respectively. Secondly, the hatchability of shedding methods, drilling a window at the blunt end of egg and drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg was compared, the results showed that the hatchability was the highest for drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg. Thirdly, the hatchability of microinjection (ESCs was microinjected into chick embryo cavity) was compared too, the results showed there were significant difference between the injection group transfected with ESCs and that of other two groups. In addition, five chimeric chickens were obtained in this study and EGFP gene was expressed in some organs, but only two chimeric chicken expressed EGFP gene in the gonad, indicating that the chimeric chicken could be obtained through chick embryo cavity injection by drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg.

  20. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  1. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  3. Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken under Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...

  4. Generation of chickens expressing Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile

    2016-10-01

    Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.

  5. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the

  6. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  7. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...

  8. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, A.B.; De Weerd, Van H.A.; Jong, De I.C.; Steenfeldt, S.

    2018-01-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior

  9. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  10. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  11. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  12. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  13. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  14. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Kanarat, S.; Kanignunta, K.; Tangwongsupang, S.

    1986-12-01

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D 10 -values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  16. The evolution of chicken stem cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E

    2017-12-01

    1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.

  17. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  18. Hesperetin-5,7,3'-O-triacetate suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged mice without reversing xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, You-Lan; Chen, Chi-Li; Chen, Chi-Ming; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2017-05-30

    We recently reported that hesperetin-5,7,3'-O-triacetate (HTA) dually inhibited phosphodiesterase (PDE)3/4 with a therapeutic ratio of 20.8. The application and development of PDE4 inhibitors for treating asthma or COPD are limited by their side effects, such as nausea, vomiting and gastric hypersecretion. PDE4 inhibitors were reported to reverse xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in rats and triggered vomiting in ferrets. Thus the reversing effect of HTA on xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in mice was studied to assess emetic effect of HTA. The aim of this study was to prove the therapeutic effect of HTA without vomiting effect at an effective dose for treating COPD. Ten female BALB/c mice in each group were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) on days 0 and 14. On day 21, these mice were emphasized the sensitization by Freund's complete adjuvant. Mice were challenged by 1% OVA nebulization on days 28, 29, and 30. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was assessed on day 32 in each group, using the FlexiVent system to determine airway resistance (R L ) and lung dynamic compliance (C dyn ) in anesthetized ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged mice. Each group was orally administered HTA (10 ~ 100 μmol/kg), roflumilast (1 and 5 mg/kg) or vehicles (controls) 2 h before and 6 and 24 h after OVA provocation. For comparison, sham-treated mice were challenged with saline instead of 1% OVA. The ability to reverse xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia by HTA or roflumilast for 3 h was determined in normal mice. We used roflumilast, a selective PDE4 inhibitor and bronchodilator for severe COPD approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, as a reference drug. In the results, HTA (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) or roflumilast (5 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly suppressed all R L values of MCh at 0.78 ~ 25 mg/mL and enhanced C dyn values of MCh at 3.125 ~ 25 mg/mL compared to OVA-sensitized and -challenged control mice. Orally administered 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg roflumilast

  19. Hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 and effectively suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness with a high therapeutic ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang You-Lan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hesperetin was reported to selectively inhibit phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4. While hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether (HDME is a synthetic liposoluble hesperetin. Therefore, we were interested in investigating its selectivity on PDE4 and binding ability on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites (HARBs in vitro, and its effects on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo, and clarifying its potential for treating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods PDE1~5 activities were measured using a two-step procedure. The binding of HDME on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites was determined by replacing 2 nM [3H]-rolipram. AHR was assessed using the FlexiVent system and barometric plethysmography. Inflammatory cells were counted using a hemocytometer. Cytokines were determined using mouse T helper (Th1/Th2 cytokine CBA kits, and total immunoglobulin (IgE or IgG2a levels were done using ELISA method. Xylazine (10 mg/kg/ketamine (70 mg/kg-induced anesthesia was performed. Results HDME revealed selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibition with a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of 35.5 in vitro. In vivo, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, orally (p.o. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway resistance (RL and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn, and decreased enhanced pause (Penh values induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. It also significantly suppressed the increases in the numbers of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of these mice. In addition, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, p.o. dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (IgE levels in the BALF and serum, and enhanced IgG2a level in the serum of these mice. Conclusions HDME exerted anti

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine...... following double-blind placebo controlled food challenges with wines fined with ovalbumin/egg white. This application refers to new analytical methods developed for the detection of egg allergens in the fining agent and the detection of ovalbumin in wine. There were no changes in the wine manufacturing...... process and no new clinical studies were provided. Taking into account the information provided on the characterisation of the fining agents regarding their content of egg proteins other than ovalbumin, the lack of standardisation of the wine manufacturing process, and that no new clinical data have been...

  1. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  2. Thinking chickens: a review of cognition, emotion, and behavior in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in these areas with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. My overall conclusion is that chickens are just as cognitively, emotionally and socially complex as most other birds and mammals in many areas, and that there is a need for further noninvasive comparative behavioral research with chickens as well as a re-framing of current views about their intelligence.

  3. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    ) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....

  4. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  5. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  6. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  7. A comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Y.H.; Ogata, Kenji; Sugimura, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)

  8. Comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y H; Ogata, K; Sugimura, M [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1979-05-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R.

  9. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... updating parameters of the model to better describe processes observed in slaughterhouses. We propose Bayesian updating as a suitable technique to update expert judgment with microbiological data. Berrang and Dickens’s data are used to demonstrate performance of this method in updating parameters...... of the chicken processing line model....

  10. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kusdiyantini; T. Yudiarti; V. D.Yunianto; R. Murwani

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two ...

  11. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  12. Carcass and Meat Quality Pelung Sentul Kampung Broiler Crossbreed Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, S.; Afnan, R.; Prabowo, S.; Nurcahya, H.

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreed chicken of pelung sentul kampung broiler (PSKR) has good growth and ready to slaughter at the age of 10 weeks. So, it has potential as a local chicken for meat producers. Potential of PSKR crossbreed chicken need to know about the percentage of carcass and the physical quality of meat for holistic information. This study aimed to evaluate the carcass and the quality of the physical meat of pelung sentul kampung broiler chicken (PSKR). Material of 12 chickens PSKR 12 weeks unsexing were used and observed for the percentage of carcass in the chest, upper and lower thighs and physical quality of breast meat included pH, water-binding power, cooking impurities, and tenderness. Chickens fed 100% commercial feed for broiler chicken phase starter until age 3 weeks, then gradually added rice bran and age > 5 weeks fed 60% commercial feed plus 40% rice bran. Chicken is slaughter at 12 weeks of age. The data obtained are presented descriptively. Percentage of PSKR carcass was 68%, chest was 27.17%, upper thigh was 17.12%, lower thigh was 16.64% respectively. Physical quality of breast meat has a pH performance of 5.30,% mgH2O of 28.08%, cooking loss of 29.13%, and tenderness of 2.63 respectively. PSKR chicken had potential for meat producers based on carcass percentage with chest meat was very tender because the genetic of broiler in PSKR as much as 25%.

  13. Study on determination method of identifying irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liping; Yu Xuejun; Yu Menghong; Fu Junjie; Zhang Shimin; Bao Jinsong

    2003-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the activities of aleipsis, peroxidase, perhydrol catalase and the peroxide values in chicken oil and effects of different storage time on self-oxidation of fat and lipa in irradiated chicken were studied. The results showed that the activities of aleipsis and perhydrol catalase in irradiated chicken decreased with increasing doses, and the peroxide activity and peroxide value of lipa increased with increase of doses. No significant effect of storage time on peroxide value was observed in the irradiated chicken

  14. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Vet World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  15. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.

  16. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed ...

  17. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report: We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Ant...

  18. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  19. Ayanin, a non-selective phosphodiesterase 1-4 inhibitor, effectively suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness without affecting xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fei-Peng; Shih, Chwen-Ming; Shen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Chi-Ming; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2010-06-10

    In recent in vitro reports, the IC(50) value of ayanin (quercetin-3,7,4'-O-trimethylether) was 2.2microM for inhibiting interleukin (IL)-4 production from purified basophils, and its therapeutic ratio was >19. Therefore, we were interested in investigating the effects on ovalbumin induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo, and to clarify its potential for treating asthma. Ayanin (30-100micromol/kg, orally (p.o.)) dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the enhanced pause (P(enh)) value induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. It also significantly suppressed the increases in total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of these mice. However, at 100micromol/kg, it significantly enhanced the level of interferon (IFN)-gamma. In addition, ayanin (30-100micromol/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and enhanced the IgG(2a) level in serum of these mice. In the present results, ayanin did not affect xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that ayanin has few or no adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypersecretion. In conclusion, the above results suggest that ayanin may have the potential for use in treating allergic asthma.

  20. Effect of Kuwanon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba on ovalbumin-induced allergic response in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, A Ryun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Park, Yong-Ki

    2014-11-01

    The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7 days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Combined effect of glycation and sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration on IgG binding, IgE binding and conformation of ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-juan; Gao, Jin-yan; Chen, Hong-bing

    2013-10-01

    Ovalbumin (OVA) is a major allergen in hen egg. During thermal processing, reducing sugars contained in the hen egg white might easily undergo glycation with OVA, but few studies have been conducted on its corresponding immunoreactivity changes. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of the antigenicity, potential allergenicity and conformation of OVA after glycation in a wet-thermal processing system under different concentrations of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer. IgE binding of the glycated OVA was increased after glycation, and the higher the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration, the higher the IgE binding capacity. The increase in IgE binding of OVA corresponded well with the disruption of the disulfide bond, which exposed the epitopes initially buried. Antigenicity of the glycated OVA was increased, and the amount of the increase varied among samples treated under different buffer concentrations. Glycation increased the allergenic potential for OVA, with the amount of increase varying with different sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentrations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. March1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Modulates Features of Allergic Asthma in an Ovalbumin-Induced Mouse Model of Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Kishta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-associated RING-CH-1 (March1 is a member of the March family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. March1 downregulates cell surface expression of MHC II and CD86 by targeting them to lysosomal degradation. Given the key roles of MHC class II and CD86 in T cell activation and to get further insights into the development of allergic inflammation, we asked whether March1 deficiency exacerbates or attenuates features of allergic asthma in mice. Herein, we used an acute model of allergy to compare the asthmatic phenotype of March1-deficient and -sufficient mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA and later challenged by intranasal instillation of OVA in the lungs. We found that eosinophilic inflammation in airways and lung tissue was similar between WT and March1−/− allergic mice, whereas neutrophilic inflammation was significant only in March1−/− mice. Airway hyperresponsiveness as well as levels of IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-6, and IL-10 was lower in the lungs of asthmatic March1−/− mice compared to WT, whereas lung levels of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were not significantly different. Interestingly, in the serum, levels of total and ova-specific IgE were reduced in March1-deficient mice as compared to WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role of March1 E3 ubiquitin ligase in modulating allergic responses.

  3. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampel, D.W.; Smith, Susan; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  4. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to

  6. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57 0 C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3 H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3 H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3 H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines

  7. Chickens Are a Lot Smarter than I Originally Thought”: Changes in Student Attitudes to Chickens Following a Chicken Training Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A practical class using clicker training of chickens to apply knowledge of how animals learn and practice skills in animal training was added to an undergraduate course. Since attitudes to animals are related to their perceived intelligence, surveys of student attitudes were completed pre- and post- the practical class, to determine if (1 the practical class changed students’ attitudes to chickens and their ability to experience affective states, and (2 any changes were related to previous contact with chickens, training experience or gender. In the post- versus pre-surveys, students agreed more that chickens are easy to teach tricks to, are intelligent, and have individual personalities and disagreed more that they are difficult to train and are slow learners. Following the class, they were more likely to believe chickens experience boredom, frustration and happiness. Females rated the intelligence and ability to experience affective states in chickens more highly than males, although there were shifts in attitude in both genders. This study demonstrated shifts in attitudes following a practical class teaching clicker training in chickens. Similar practical classes may provide an effective method of teaching animal training skills and promoting more positive attitudes to animals.

  8. Effect of chicken genotype on growth performance and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...

  9. Cross reactivities of rabbit anti-chicken horse radish peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cross reactivities of rabbit anti chicken horse radish peroxidase (conjugate) was tested with sera of Chicken, Ducks, Geese, Guinea fowl, Hawks, Pigeons and Turkeys in indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Sera from mammalian species (Bat, Equine and swine) were used as negative ...

  10. Status of Indigenous Chicken Farming in Dhemaji District of Assam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in Dhemaji district of Assam, India comprising 15 villages and 300 households. Both purposive and random sampling methods were used to evaluate the socio-economic status of the farmers involved in rearing of indigenous chicken, systems of management of indigenous chicken, their ...

  11. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  12. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of Sudanese native chicken breeds involved in a conservation program. Five Sudanese native chicken breeds were compared with populations studied previously, which included six purebred lines, six African populations and one ...

  13. Evaluation of oral vaccination of village chickens against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...

  14. Morphological features of indigenous chicken ecotype populations of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Kahi, A.K.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized indigenous chicken (IC) ecotypes morphologically. Five IC ecotypes studied were Kakamega (KK), Siaya (BN), West Pokot (WP), Narok (NR) and Bomet (BM). Data on morphological features were collected from 1 580 chickens and 151 for zoometric measurements. Descriptive

  15. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  16. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  17. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  18. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  19. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Malakheeva, L. I.; Prokopenko, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  20. Marketing functions and determinants of profit among frozen chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to estimate the cost of performing some functions in frozen chicken marketing and determined the major factors affecting the profit level of the marketers. Using data collected from 10 wholesalers and 29 retailers in Ibadan metropolis, the transportation costs per kilogram of frozen chicken were N1.20 ...

  1. Response of finishing broiler chickens to supplemental Neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM +GM) on oocyst count, bacteria count and gut morphology of finishing broiler chickens. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve ...

  2. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine

  3. Survival and development of chicken ascarid eggs in temperate pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2017-01-01

    Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil...

  4. Detecting gallbladders in chicken livers using spectral analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Mølvig Jensen, Eigil; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting gallbladders attached to chicken livers using spectral imaging. Gallbladders can contaminate good livers, making them unfit for human consumption. A data set consisting of chicken livers with and without gallbladders, has been captured using 33 wavelengths...

  5. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  6. Assessment of juiciness intensity of cooked chicken pectoralis major

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to assess sensory descriptive juiciness of cooked chicken breast meat (pectoralis major) during the entire process of consumption and to determine the relationship between sensory juiciness intensity scores during eating and raw meat characteristics. Chicken breast fillets were c...

  7. A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, M.A.M.; Cheng, H.H.; Bumstead, N.; Benkel, B.; Briles, E.; Burt, D.W.; Burke, T.; Dodgson, J.; Hillel, J.; Lamont, S.; Ponce, de F.A.; Soller, M.

    2000-01-01

    A consensus linkage map has been developed in the chicken that combines all of the genotyping data from the three available chicken mapping populations. Genotyping data were contributed by the laboratories that have been using the East Lansing and Compton reference populations and from the Animal

  8. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words.

  9. Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Broiler Chickens Using Elisa. ES Soliman, E Taha, WS Abdella, C KilPatrick, AN Wise, MAA Sobieh, PG Reddy. Abstract. The program for the eradication of Salmonella Enteritidis from chickens was based on bacteriological examination of breeding flocks. There is a great need ...

  10. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... challenge dose of Salmonella Enteritidis on detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... Two groups of specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected ... Since chickens may be exposed to variable quantities ... A second group of 8 hens was orally .... where presence of serum antibodies by most birds that.

  11. Invasive behavior of Campylobacter jejuni in immunosuppressed chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaezirad, Mahdi M.; Keestra-Gounder, A.M.; Zoete, de Marcel R.; Koene, Miriam G.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Putten, van Jos P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of gastroenteritis in humans but rather harmless in chickens. The basis of this difference is unknown. We investigated the effect of the chicken immune defense on the behavior of C. jejuni using glucocorticoid (GC)-treated and mock-treated 17-day old Ross

  12. Wildlife Presence and Interactions with Chickens on Australian Commercial Chicken Farms Assessed by Camera Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Phalen, David; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Singh, Mini; Groves, Peter; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2018-03-01

    The types of wildlife and the frequency of their visits to commercial chicken farms in Australia were assessed using infrared and motion-sensing camera traps. Cameras were set up on 14 free-range layer farms, three cage layer farms, two barn layer farms, five non-free-range meat chicken farms, and six free-range meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin region and South East Queensland. Wildlife visits were found on every farm type and were most frequent on cage layer farms (73%), followed by free-range layer farms (15%). The common mynah ( Acridotheres tristis) was the most frequent wildlife visitor in the study (23.9%), followed by corvids (22.9%) and Columbiformes (7.5%). Most wildlife visits occurred during the day from 6 am to 6 pm (85%). There were infrequent observations of direct contact between chickens and wildlife, suggesting the indirect route of pathogen transfer may be more significant. The level of biosecurity on the farm is suggested to impact the frequency of wildlife visits more so than the farm type.

  13. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus from commercial and native chickens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L

    2018-04-25

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Reduction of Salmonella in ground chicken using a bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Parveen, Salina; Schwarz, Jurgen; Hashem, Fawzy; Vimini, Bob

    2017-08-01

    This study's goal was to ascertain the effectiveness of a commercially available Salmonella bacteriophage during ground chicken production focusing on: water source, different Salmonella serovars, and time. Salmonella-free boneless, skinless chicken meat was inoculated with 4.0 Log CFU/cm2 of either a cocktail of 3 Salmonella isolates derived from ground chicken (GC) or a cocktail of 3 Salmonella strains not isolated from ground chicken (non-GC). Bacteriophages were spread onto the chicken using sterile tap or filtered water for 30 min or 8 h. Salmonella was recovered using standard plating method. Greater Salmonella reduction was observed when the bacteriophage was diluted in sterile tap water than in sterile filtered water: 0.39 Log CFU/cm2 and 0.23 Log CFU/cm2 reduction after 30 min, respectively (P Salmonella's susceptibility to the bacteriophage, and treatment time. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  16. The in vivo measurement of radiocaesium activity in broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.; Balas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Contamination of certain areas of Europe with radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident led to a higher 137 Cs accumulation (i.e. 300-600 Bq kg -1 ) in grain and to potential post-accident contamination of broiler chickens. In future, such contamination may require a simple determination of the 137 Cs activity concentration in broiler chicken meat which would lead to measures for preventing the recommended limits of radionuclide contamination of the meat for human consumption from being exceeded. This paper describes the development of a rapid method for the in vivo monitoring of the broiler chicken using a lead-shielded sodium iodide detector. The method enables simply fixed live chicken to be monitored, the results showing a good correlation (R 2 =0.98) with measurements of meat from chicken previously monitored in vivo prior to slaughter

  17. Tetranectin in slow intra- and extrafusal chicken muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K

    2001-01-01

    Tetranectin is a C-type lectin that occurs in the mammalian musculoskeletal system. In the present report we describe the first studies on an avian tetranectin. A full-length chicken tetranectin cDNA was isolated. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of chicken tetranectin with mouse...... and human tetranectin showed an identity of 67 and 68%, respectively. Northern blot analysis demonstrated broad expression of chicken tetranectin mRNA, which was first detected on embryonic day 4. Tetranectin protein was detected in chicken serum and egg yolk. Since muscle is one of few tissues in which...... tetranectin protein is retained, we examined the distribution of tetranectin in various muscle types in chicken. Myofibers strongly positive for tetranectin were observed in several muscles including m. tibialis ant. and m. sartorius (from embryonic day 10 to adult). Using antibodies to fast and slow myosin...

  18. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. THE METABOLITES OF STREPTOMICETES AS IMMUNOSTIMULATORIN CHICKENS RISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae STARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An important part of chickens rising is feeding. A good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. Actually the use of additives feed as immunostimulatory is in a great scale. For these reasons our investigations were aimed at studying the influence of metabolitesextracted from Streptomyces strains on the main indices of chickens productivity. Actinomycetes are a group of prokaryotic microorganisms with many important producers of biologically active substances known to wide application in human and veterinary medicine. In ourexperimentswasused the dry and metabolites of streptomycetes which were administered to 3 groups of chickens since one day age respectively in combefeed a dry biomass - 1 g/1 kg and cultural liquid - 1 ml/1 l in drinking water, daily. The duration of examination period was 70 days. Fromeachgroup of chickens periodically were sampled bloud to investigate the total serum protein,albumins and cholesterol. As a results was established that the total protein in bloud serum of experimental groups chickens I and II which was feed with streptomycetes biomass and cultural liquid in drinking water, at the age of 15 days was 31.23 and 30.53 g/l compared with 28.83 g/l on chickens from the control group, respectively albumins was 13.67 g/l compared with 12.33 g/l in the control chickens group, and cholesterol was 4.63 and 4.3 g/l on chickens in groups I and II compared with 4.5 g/l on chickens from the control group. The obtaining results show that the metabolitesof streptomycetes has the stimulatory effect tosomebloodbiochemicalindexes of chickens.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological quality of japanese chicken meat and microflora change of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachasitthisak, Y.; Ito, H.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of gamma irradiation with doses between 0 and 8 kGy on microbiological quality of chicken meat produced in Japan and micro flora change of irradiated chicken meat were studied. Radiation at the dose 2 kGy resulted in 4 log cycles reduction of total aerobic bacteria, 5 - 6 log cycles reduction of lactic acid bacteria and 2 log cycles reduction of fungi and yeasts. For the coliforms, it could be eliminated below detectable level by irradiation dose of 1 kGy. For the chicken flora-analysis, it was found that chicken of each area had their own specific microbial community structure. Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were found to be dominant organisms in the microflora of Japanese chicken meat. Irradiation with dose 2 kGy resulted in disappearance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas. The microorganisms which dominated in irradiated chickens with doses of 2 kGy and higher were Psychrobacter and yeast. These studies support the view that radiation improves the microbiological quality of chicken meat and substantiate that radiation does not present hazard resulting from a change in the microflora of irradiated chicken

  1. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken slaughter...

  2. Dianthus superbus fructus suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating of inducible nitric oxide synthase in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dianthus superbus has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Dianthus superbus fructus ethanolic extract (DSE) on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, and other factors in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. To study the possible mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of DSE, we also evaluated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the respiratory tract. Methods Mice were sensitized on days 0 and 14 by intraperitoneal injection of OVA. On days 21, 22 and 23 after initial sensitization, mice received an airway challenge with OVA for 1 h using an ultrasonic nebulizer. DSE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered DSE orally at doses of 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg once daily from day 18 to 23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and eotaxin in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Lung tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with periodic acid shift staining, in conjunction with ELISA and western blot analyses for iNOS expression. Results DSE significantly reduced the levels of IL-4, IL-13, eotaxin, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E, number of inflammatory cells in BALF, and inflammatory cell infiltration and mucus production in the respiratory tract. DSE also attenuated the overexpression of iNOS protein induced by OVA challenge. Conclusion Our results suggest that DSE effectively protects against allergic airway inflammation by downregulating of iNOS expression and that DSE has potential as a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma. PMID:23110404

  3. Btk Inhibitor RN983 Delivered by Dry Powder Nose-only Aerosol Inhalation Inhibits Bronchoconstriction and Pulmonary Inflammation in the Ovalbumin Allergic Mouse Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Renteria, Lorena; Burns, Lisa; Harris, Paul; Peng, Ruoqi; Bauer, Carla M T; Laine, Dramane; Stevenson, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    In allergen-induced asthma, activated mast cells start the lung inflammatory process with degranulation, cytokine synthesis, and mediator release. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) activity is required for the mast cell activation during IgE-mediated secretion. This study characterized a novel inhaled Btk inhibitor RN983 in vitro and in ovalbumin allergic mouse models of the early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic response. RN983 potently, selectively, and reversibly inhibited the Btk enzyme. RN983 displayed functional activities in human cell-based assays in multiple cell types, inhibiting IgG production in B-cells with an IC50 of 2.5 ± 0.7 nM and PGD2 production from mast cells with an IC50 of 8.3 ± 1.1 nM. RN983 displayed similar functional activities in the allergic mouse model of asthma when delivered as a dry powder aerosol by nose-only inhalation. RN983 was less potent at inhibiting bronchoconstriction (IC50(RN983) = 59 μg/kg) than the β-agonist salbutamol (IC50(salbutamol) = 15 μg/kg) in the mouse model of the EAR. RN983 was more potent at inhibiting the antigen induced increase in pulmonary inflammation (IC50(RN983) = <3 μg/kg) than the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide (IC50(budesonide) = 27 μg/kg) in the mouse model of the LAR. Inhalation of aerosolized RN983 may be effective as a stand-alone asthma therapy or used in combination with inhaled steroids and β-agonists in severe asthmatics due to its potent inhibition of mast cell activation.

  4. Protective effect of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 on ovalbumin-induced airway asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal food allergy mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Yun; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Dai, Wen-Kui; Huang, Jian-Qiong; Li, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Juan; Qiu, Chuang-Zhao; Wei, Chun; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xin; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, He-Ping; Zheng, Yue-Jie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 (B. infantis CGMCC313-2) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and food allergies in a mouse model. METHODS Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced food allergy mouse models were used in this study. Following oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization, histopathologic changes in the lung and intestine were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In the allergic asthma mouse model, we evaluated the proportion of lung-infiltrating inflammatory cells. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also assessed. In the food allergy mouse model, the levels of total IgE and cytokines in serum were measured. RESULTS Oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization suppressed allergic inflammation in lung and intestinal tissues, while the proportion of infiltrating inflammatory cells was significantly decreased in the BALF of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, B. infantis CGMCC313-2 decreased the serum levels of total IgE in food allergy mice, and reductions in IgE and IgG1 were also observed in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in both serum and BALF was suppressed following the administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2, while an effect on serum IL-10 levels was not observed. CONCLUSION B. infantis CGMCC313-2 inhibits the secretion of allergen-induced IgE, IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuates allergic inflammation. PMID:28405142

  5. Inhibition of airway epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis by kaempferol in endotoxin-induced epithelial cells and ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ju-Hyun; Cho, In-Hee; Shin, Daekeun; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Sin-Hye; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Chronic airway remodeling is characterized by structural changes within the airway wall, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, submucosal fibrosis and epithelial shedding. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental mechanism of organ fibrosis, which can be induced by TGF-β. In the in vitro study, we investigated whether 1-20 μM kaempferol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bronchial EMT in BEAS-2B cells. The in vivo study explored demoting effects of 10-20 mg/kg kaempferol on airway fibrosis in BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). LPS induced airway epithelial TGF-β1 signaling that promoted EMT with concurrent loss of E-cadherin and induction of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Nontoxic kaempferol significantly inhibited TGF-β-induced EMT process through reversing E-cadherin expression and retarding the induction of N-cadherin and α-SMA. Consistently, OVA inhalation resulted in a striking loss of epithelial morphology by displaying myofibroblast appearance, which led to bronchial fibrosis with submucosal accumulation of collagen fibers. Oral administration of kaempferol suppressed collagen deposition, epithelial excrescency and goblet hyperplasia observed in the lung of OVA-challenged mice. The specific inhibition of TGF-β entailed epithelial protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) as with 20 μM kaempferol. The epithelial PAR-1 inhibition by SCH-79797 restored E-cadherin induction and deterred α-SMA induction, indicating that epithelial PAR-1 localization was responsible for resulting in airway EMT. These results demonstrate that dietary kaempferol alleviated fibrotic airway remodeling via bronchial EMT by modulating PAR1 activation. Therefore, kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting asthmatic airway constriction.

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxide in a 10% concentration has no effect on oxidation stress induced by ovalbumin-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolka, P; Mokra, D; Drgova, A; Petras, M; Mokry, J

    2012-04-01

    In allergic asthma, activated cells produce various substances including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As heterogenic pathophysiology of asthma results to different response to the therapy, testing novel interventions continues. Because of water-insolubility of some potentially beneficial drugs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is often used as a solvent. Based on its antioxidant properties, this study evaluated effects of DMSO on mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs, and oxidation processes induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma. Guinea-pigs were divided into OVA-sensitized and naive animals. One group of OVA-sensitized animals and one group of naive animals were pretreated with 10% DMSO, the other two groups were given saline. After sacrificing animals, blood samples were taken and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the plasma was determined. Left lungs were saline-lavaged and differential leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) was made. Right lung tissue was homogenized, TAS and products of lipid and protein oxidation were determined in the lung homogenate and in isolated mitochondria. OVA-sensitization increased total number of cells and percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils in BAL fluid; increased lipid and protein oxidation in the lung homogenate and mitochondria, and decreased TAS in the lungs and plasma compared with naive animals. However, no differences were observed in DMSO-instilled animals compared to controls. In conclusion, OVA-sensitization increased mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs and elevated production of ROS, accompanied by decrease in TAS. 10% DMSO had no effect on lipid and protein oxidation in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

  7. Inhibitory effects of inhaled complex traditional Chinese medicine on early and late asthmatic responses induced by ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng-Chung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many formulae of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs have been used for antiasthma treatment dating back many centuries. There is evidence to suggest that TCMs are effective as a cure for this allergenic disease administered via gastric tubes in animal studies; however, their efficacy, safety and side effects as an asthmatic therapy are still unclear. Methods In this study, guinea pigs sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA were used as an animal model for asthma challenge, and the sensitization of animals by bronchial reactivity to methacholine (Mch and the IgE concentration in the serum after OVA challenge were estimated. Complex traditional Chinese herbs (CTCM were administered to the animals by nebulization, and the leukocytes were evaluated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Results The results showed that inhalation of CTCM could abolish the increased lung resistance (13-fold increase induced by challenge with OVA in the early asthmatic response (EAR, reducing to as low as baseline (1-fold. Moreover, our results indicated higher IgE levels (range, 78-83 ng/ml in the serum of sensitized guinea pigs than in the unsensitized controls (0.9 ± 0.256 ng/ml. In addition, increased total leukocytes and higher levels of eosinophils and neutrophils were seen 6 hours after challenge, and the increased inflammatory cells were reduced by treatment with CTCM inhalation. The interleukin-5 (IL-5 level in BALF was also reduced by CTCM. Conclusion Our findings indicate a novel method of administering traditional Chinese medicines for asthma treatment in an animal model that may be more effective than traditional methods.

  8. Obesity promotes prolonged ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation modulating T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 immune responses in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F M C; Oliveira, E E; Gouveia, A C C; Brugiolo, A S S; Alves, C C; Correa, J O A; Gameiro, J; Mattes, J; Teixeira, H C; Ferreira, A P

    2017-07-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on allergic airway inflammation and T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and analyses were performed at 24 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. Obesity induced an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing macrophages and neutrophils which peaked at 48 h after the last OVA challenge, and was associated with higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-9, IL-17A, leptin and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lungs. Higher goblet cell hyperplasia was associated with elevated mast cell influx into the lungs and trachea in the obese allergic mice. In contrast, early eosinophil influx and lower levels of IL-25, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), CCL11 and OVA-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) were observed in the obese allergic mice in comparison to non-obese allergic mice. Moreover, obese mice showed higher numbers of mast cells regardless of OVA challenge. These results indicate that obesity affects allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving mast cell influx and the release of TSLP and IL-25, which favoured a delayed immune response with an exacerbated Th1, Th2 and Th17 profile. In this scenario, an intense mixed inflammatory granulocyte influx, classically activated macrophage accumulation and intense mucus production may contribute to a refractory therapeutic response and exacerbate asthma severity. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of Tat-Annexin protein on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Hye Ri; Woo, Su Jung; Kim, So Mi; Jo, Hyo Sang [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong Gyu [Department of Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Woo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Moo Ho [Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Eum, Won Sik, E-mail: wseum@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a cell permeable Tat-ANX1 fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the protective effects of Tat-ANX1 protein on OVA-induced asthma in animal models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transduced Tat-ANX1 protein protects from the OVA-induced production of cytokines and eosinophils in BAL fluid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tat-ANX1 protein markedly reduced OVA-induced MAPK in lung tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tat-ANX1 protein could be useful as a therapeutic agent for lung disorders including asthma. -- Abstract: Chronic airway inflammation is a key feature of bronchial asthma. Annexin-1 (ANX1) is an anti-inflammatory protein that is an important modulator and plays a key role in inflammation. Although the precise action of ANX1 remains unclear, it has emerged as a potential drug target for inflammatory diseases such as asthma. To examine the protective effects of ANX1 protein on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in animal models, we used a cell-permeable Tat-ANX1 protein. Mice sensitized and challenged with OVA antigen had an increased amount of cytokines and eosinophils in their bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. However, administration of Tat-ANX1 protein before OVA challenge significantly decreased the levels of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and BAL fluid in lung tissues. Furthermore, OVA significantly increased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in lung tissues, whereas Tat-ANX1 protein markedly reduced phosphorylation of MAPKs such as extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, p38, and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest that transduced Tat-ANX1 protein may be a potential protein therapeutic agent for the treatment of lung disorders including asthma.

  10. Maternal immunization with ovalbumin prevents neonatal allergy development and up-regulates inhibitory receptor FcγRIIB expression on B cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Alberto JS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconception allergen immunization prevents neonatal allergen sensitization in mice by a complex interaction between regulatory cells/factors and antibodies. The present study assessed the influence of maternal immunization with ovalbumin (OVA on the immune response of 3 day-old and 3 week-old offspring immunized or non-immunized with OVA and evaluated the effect of IgG treatment during fetal development or neonatal period. Results Maternal immunization with OVA showed increased levels of FcγRIIb expression in splenic B cells of neonates, which were maintained for up to 3 weeks and not affected by additional postnatal OVA immunization. Maternal immunization also exerted a down-modulatory effect on both IL-4 and IFN-γ-secreting T cells and IL-4 and IL-12- secreting B cells. Furthermore, immunized neonates from immunized mothers showed a marked inhibition of antigen-specifc IgE Ab production and lowered Th2/Th1 cytokine levels, whereas displaying enhanced FcγRIIb expression on B cells. These offspring also showed reduced antigen-specific proliferative response and lowered B cell responsiveness. Moreover, in vitro evaluation revealed an impairment of B cell activation upon engagement of B cell antigen receptor by IgG from OVA-immunized mice. Finally, in vivo IgG transference during pregnancy or breastfeeding revealed that maternal Ab transference was able to increase regulatory cytokines, such as IL-10, in the prenatal stage; yet only the postnatal treatment prevented neonatal sensitization. None of the IgG treatments induced immunological changes in the offspring, as it was observed for those from OVA-immunized mothers. Conclusion Maternal immunization upregulates the inhibitory FcγRIIb expression on offspring B cells, avoiding skewed Th2 response and development of allergy. These findings contribute to the advancement of prophylactic strategies to prevent allergic diseases in early life.

  11. Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Machado L.S., do Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Abreu D.L.C., Gouvea R. & Santos L.M.M. 2014. [Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis.] Escherichia coli em frangos de corte com aerossaculite. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:261-265, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: leandromachadovet@yahoo.com.br The Brazilian poultry industry grows each year and becomes increasingly representative in the production and export of products. The health care with poultry have accompanied and favored this evolution, however, respiratory agents that affect the weight and carcass quality, continue to cause great damage to the poultry industry. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and partial condemnation of carcasses of broilers, and has been attributed to Mycoplasmosis mostly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to relate the positivity of MG / MS and E. coli detected by PCR as a risk factor for airsacculitis in condemnation of broilers in Health Inspection Service. We studied 30 broiler poultry slaughtered in a slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 30 chickens were randomly collected from different lots and tracheas obtained in each PCR. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and amplified using pairs of “primer”specific for MG, MS and E. coli. Of the 30 chickens analyzed by PCR, 30% (9/30 had lesions in air sacs. None of the birds showed infection with MG and/or MS PCR, however 33.3% (3/9 birds were positive for airsacculitis iss gene from E.coli. E.coli found in broiler chickens that were negative for mycoplasma airsacculitis, implying the presence of such bacteria may be sufficient

  12. Consumer Segmentation Based on Food-Related Lifestyles and Perception of Chicken Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll García, Guillermo; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Panea Doblado, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disseminate knowledge regarding the perceptions of Spanish consumers of chicken breast and their related lifestyles and to classify different consumer groups according to their food-related lifestyles. Nearly all Spanish consumers consume chicken breast once or twice per week. The preference for white or yellow chicken appears to be divided evenly, although the preferred is white chicken. Chicken breast is perceived as a product of convenience. Seventy percent of ...

  13. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  14. Prebiotics and gut microbiota in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedin, Mohsen; Zhao, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible feed ingredients that are metabolized by specific members of intestinal microbiota and provide health benefits for the host. Fermentable oligosaccharides are best known prebiotics that have received increasing attention in poultry production. They act through diverse mechanisms, such as providing nutrients, preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, interacting with host immune systems and affecting gut morphological structure, all presumably through modulation of intestinal microbiota. Currently, fructooligosaccharides, inulin and mannanoligosaccharides have shown promising results while other prebiotic candidates such as xylooligosaccharides are still at an early development stage. Despite a growing body of evidence reporting health benefits of prebiotics in chickens, very limited studies have been conducted to directly link health improvements to prebiotic-dependent changes in the gut microbiota. This article visits the current knowledge of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and reviews most recent publications related to the roles played by prebiotics in modulation of the gut microbiota and immune functions. Progress in this field will help us better understand how the gut microbiota contributes to poultry health and productivity, and support the development of new prebiotic products as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  16. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV.

  17. Analysis of Local Chicken Entreprise in DAS Serayu Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Noor Hidayat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Objectives of this research was to know income and efficiency level of local chicken entreprise. Beside that, to know potency of local chicken enterprise developing in DAS Serayu, Banyumas and know factors can effect level of that income and efficiency. Methode that used at this research is survey method to farmer families. Take of research data by random sampling.The data is analysed by multiple regression analysis. The results of this research showed that income level of local chicken entreprise at DAS Serayu is Rp 277.375,00 / year and economi efficiency 2.80 , that means the farmers get return Rp 2.80 for every one unit cost addition. The age of farmers and total of chicken possession effect at efficiency of  local chicken entreprise. Potency of local chicken developing very big if showed from power of area and human resources. Very important to increase entreprise capital and increase knowledge for farmer. Beside that more important present motivation and support for develop there enterprise (Animal Production 2(1: 13-17 (2000 Key Words: local chicken, farmers income, economic efficiency

  18. Chicken Coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia: A Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Penny Humaidah; Kristianingrum, Yuli Purwandari; Wardhana, April Hari; Prastowo, Sigit; da Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a huge problem worldwide. Heavily infected animals that show severe clinical signs and coccidiostat resistance are causing important economic losses. The present study aimed to update the recent cases of coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia, and to show the importance of the disease in the region. A total of 699 samples were obtained from different chicken breed. Different Eimeria species were detected in 175 individuals (25.04%). Three different groups of chicken breed were considered: local chicken (autochthonous chickens of Sentul and Jawa), commercial broiler, and layer. Broiler chickens showed the highest prevalence of infection (34%), followed by layer (26.26%) and local chickens (10.45%). Mild to severe clinical signs of avian coccidiosis were observed in 42% of the infected animals, while 58% of the infected animals showed no clinical signs other than low feed conversion rates. Seven different Eimeria species were identified: E. tenella was the most prevalent (43.3%), followed by E. maxima (26.3%), E. necatrix (15.7%), E. acervulina (8%), E. praecox (3.1%), E. mitis (2.2%), and E. brunetti (1.3%). Coinfections with several Eimeria species were diagnosed. With this study we found massive usage of coccidiostat in the region even though its usage cannot guarantee coccidiosis-free chicken production.

  19. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 μg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 μg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 μg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 μg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 μg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 μg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 μg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 μg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 μg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 μg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 μg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 μg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption

  20. Quality enhancement of chicken baked without skin using honey marinades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; McWatters, K H; Hung, Y C

    1999-12-01

    Chicken (bone-in, skinless, split breast) injected with lemon-pepper poultry pump marinade containing 20 or 30% honey was compared with chicken (with and without skin) marinated without honey. The objectives were to 1) determine moisture and fat contents and instrumental color and texture measurements, 2) characterize the sensory profiles of marinated chicken baked with and without skin, and 3) investigate the effect of honey marinades on the sensory characteristics of chicken baked without skin. Chicken was roasted at 177 C for one h to an internal temperature of 80 C. A trained panel (n = 13) evaluated the roasted chicken. Results showed that skin could be removed from premarinated chicken breast before baking without significantly affecting the amount of marinade uptake, moisture content, fat content, texture (force required to shear), or most instrumental measurements of color. With regard to sensory characteristics, skin removal before baking resulted in a less glossy and moist appearance, less brown color, and more intense pepper flavor in the roasted product than when the skin was not removed. Addition of honey to the marinade restored, to some extent, the intensities of moist and glossy appearance and brown color that were reduced by removal of the skin before baking.

  1. Valorisation of chicken feathers: Characterisation of chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Tamrat; Sithole, Bruce; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Chunilall, Viren

    2017-10-01

    The characterisation of the chemical properties of the whole chicken feather and its fractions (barb and rachis), was undertaken to identify opportunities for valorizing this waste product. The authors have described the physical, morphological, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of the chicken feathers and related them to potential valorisation routes of the waste. However, identification of their chemical properties is necessary to complete a comprehensive description of chicken feather fractions. Hence, the chicken feathers were thoroughly characterised by proximate and ultimate analyses, elemental composition, spectroscopic analyses, durability in different solvents, burning test, and hydrophobicity. The proximate analysis of chicken feathers revealed the following compositions: crude lipid (0.83%), crude fibre (2.15%), crude protein (82.36%), ash (1.49%), NFE (1.02%) and moisture content (12.33%) whereas the ultimate analyses showed: carbon (64.47%), nitrogen (10.41%), oxygen (22.34%), and sulphur (2.64%). FTIR analysis revealed that the chicken feather fractions contain amide and carboxylic groups indicative of proteinious functional groups; XRD showed a crystallinity index of 22. Durability and burning tests confirmed that feathers behaved similarly to animal fibre. This reveals that chicken feather can be a valuable raw material in textile, plastic, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, biomedical and bioenergy industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of Salmonellosis from Chicken Parts Prepared from Whole Chickens Sold in Flow Pack Wrappers and Subjected to Temperature Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2017-09-01

    The flow pack wrapper is a popular packaging choice for retail sale of whole chickens. However, it may provide a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package, leading to an outbreak of salmonellosis. To investigate this possibility, a process risk model was developed that predicted the risk of salmonellosis from chicken parts prepared from whole chickens sold in flow pack wrappers and subjected to proper storage (6 h at 4°C) or improper storage (72 h at 15°C) before preparation. The model had four unit operations (pathogen events): (i) preparation (contamination), (ii) cooking (death), (iii) serving (cross-contamination), and (iv) consumption (dose-response). Data for prevalence, number, and serotype of Salmonella on chicken parts were obtained by whole sample enrichment, real-time PCR. Improper storage increased (P chicken parts from 10.6% (17 of 160) to 41.2% (66 of 160) and incidence of cross-contamination of cooked chicken from 10% (4 of 40) to 52.2% (24 of 46). Improper storage also increased (P chicken part and from 0.048 ± 0.089 to 3.08 ± 1.50 log per cooked chicken part. The predominant serotypes isolated (n = 111) were Typhimurium (34.2%), Typhimurium var 5- (20.7%), Kentucky (12.6%), Enteritidis (11.7%), and Heidelberg (8.1%). When chicken was properly stored before preparation, the model predicted that risk of salmonellosis was low and sporadic with only six cases per 100 simulations of 10 5 chicken parts. However, when 0.1 to 1% of chickens were improperly stored before preparation, the model predicted that salmonellosis would increase (P chicken parts. These results indicated that the flow pack wrapper provided a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package and that even when only a small percentage of packages were subjected to improper storage before preparation, the risk and size of an outbreak of salmonellosis from chicken parts increased significantly.

  3. Screening for heterocyclic amines in chicken cooked in various ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyakov, A; Skog, K

    2002-08-01

    Chicken cooked under well-controlled conditions and commercial chicken products were screened for heterocyclic amines (HAs). Chicken samples were boiled, deep-fried, pan-fried, oven-roasted, cooked in an unglazed clay pot or in a roasting bag in the oven, and oven broiled. 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (harman) and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (norharman) were identified in several samples. Chicken cooked at low temperatures contained low amounts of HAs. In pan-fried chicken breasts, MeIQx was detected in amounts below 2 ng/g, 4,8-DiMeIQx below 0.6 ng/g, and PhIP in amounts up to 38 ng/g. Harman and norharman were detected in almost all samples (below 15 ng/g). In skin from a commercially barbecued chicken, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP were detected, while only traces of MeIQx were detected in the meat. MeIQx was detected in a commercial chicken flavour, 0.1 ng/ml. No HAs were detected in pan-fried chicken liver. The results show that the content of HAs in chicken cooked in various ways is low if prepared at low temperatures, and increases with increasing cooking temperature. PhIP formation seems to start accelerating at cooking temperatures around or above 200 degrees C. Colour development increases with cooking temperature, but no correlation with HA content was observed.

  4. Efficacy of myrrh in controlling coccidioses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmed; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Kutkat, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Myrrh was used for controlling the infection with Eimeria species in chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old native breed chickens bought from commercial hatchery were used in the experiment. Birds were feed on starter balanced ration free from anticoccidial drugs. At age of 2 weeks the chickens were divided into 4 groups (1-4), 30 chicks each. Chickens of first group were inoculated by 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed local field isolated Eimneria species and served as infected non treated control group. Birds of the second group were infected similarly and received simultaneously 10 mg Myrrh / bird by oral route. Birds of group 3 was supplied with Myrrh 10 mg / bird one day before infection by coccidia (50000 oocyst/bird). Last chicken group was left as non infected non treated control group. Measurements to evaluate the efficacy of Myrrh as anticoccidial drug included; mortality percentage; lesion score at 5 day post infection and the total oocyst output/gm of fecal dropping. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% and 3.33% in groups 2&3 respectively, while it reached 26.66% in infected non treated control group. High lesion score was recorded in infected non treated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the time of treatment. The feed conversion rates reached 3.14 in infected non treated chicken group against 2.47 & 2.21 in treated chickens groups, 2&3 respectively. Mean oocyst count per gram faecal dropping (OPG) was reduced significantly in group 3 when compared with other infected treated or infected non treated chicken groups.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen from Chicken Feet

    OpenAIRE

    P. Hashim; M. S. Mohd Ridzwan; J. Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Collagen was isolated from chicken feet by using papain and pepsin enzymes in acetic acid solution at 4°C for 24h with a yield of 18.16% and 22.94% by dry weight, respectively. Chemical composition and characteristics of chicken feet collagen such as amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE patterns, FTIR spectra and thermal properties were evaluated. The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis pattern demonstrated two disti...

  6. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  7. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  8. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Chicken fat and inorganic nitrogen source for lipase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MA41) from Atlantic Forest, using chicken fat and association of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation to seek economically attractive bioprocess. A 2-level, 4-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) and response ...

  11. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...

  12. Assessment of heavy metals in chicken feeds available in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-12-08

    Dec 8, 2014 ... through eggs and meats. Supplementation of some ... heavy metal contaminations of chicken meat, eggs and other products .... processing and mixing of ingredients to the feed. ... Additives and Contaminants, 22(2): 141-. 149.

  13. Acoustic Signals in Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus): A Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the chicken model in teaching acoustic communication, animal behavior and the ... commercial laying strains so it is not important in intensive poultry husbandry ... And to introduce students to acoustic lab and explore some aspects of ...

  14. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi.Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  15. Detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks ... sheep, cats, dogs, deer, mice, turkeys, guinea fowl and ..... complex: turkey astrovirus, turkey coronavirus, and turkey reovirus.

  16. Genetic diversity of four protected indigenous chicken breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joining method. Its topology reflects the general pattern of genetic differentiation among the four chicken breeds. The results also showed high genetic diversity and genetic variation among all the breeds. The information about the four local ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, K; Welinder, K G; Crone, M

    1986-01-01

    Chicken and turkey beta 2-m were isolated from citrated plasma in sequential use of three chromatographic steps: affinity chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was identified as beta 2-m by reaction with a beta 2-m specific monoclonal...... (turkey migrates in the alpha and chicken migrates in the beta region). The mol. wt of both chicken and turkey beta 2-m was 14,500 estimated by SDS-PAGE whereas calculations based on the amino acid compositions gave mol. wts of 11,000. EM280 was 15.9 for chicken beta 2-m and 16.4 for turkey beta 2-m......, and is incompatible with a previously published sequence also thought to be from turkey beta 2-m. Reasons for our opinion that the molecules isolated and sequenced in this paper are the correct ones are given. Udgivelsesdato: 1986-Dec...

  18. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastyanova Antonina A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world.

  19. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production....

  20. RNA Sequence of Spleen of Newcastle Disease Infected Chickens

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — At 21 days of age, chickens were infected with Newcastle Disease virus (or a mock injection as controls), and spleens were harvested at 2 and 6 days post infection....

  1. Genetic diversity of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... DNA polymorphism of 4 indigenous chicken ecotypes was assessed in Jordan using random amplified ... Such technology is random amplified polymorphic DNA. (RAPD) ..... ping from genetics lab for animal and plant at MU.

  2. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... This exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal ... ratio were evaluated for the individual replicate of each dietary treatment.

  3. Radappertization of chicken and pork meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)

  4. Vices Among Commercial Chickens in Maiduguri, Borno State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vices Among Commercial Chickens in Maiduguri, Borno State: Causes and Possible Intervention Strategies. ... Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2009) > ... interviews with the farm managers and farm owners were employed for data collection.

  5. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on two housing types. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed ...

  6. Detection of Escherichia albertii from chicken meat and giblets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eriko; Murakami, Koichi; Sera, Nobuyuki; Ito, Kenitiro; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia albertii occasionally causes food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans; however, little is known about the vehicle of transmission. To screen retail chicken products for the presence of E. albertii, 104 retail chicken products were investigated. Portions of enrichment cultures that were PCR-positive for E. albertii (n=3) were sub-cultured on agar medium. Only 2 strains obtained from 2 chicken giblet samples were identified as E. albertii by multi locus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that 1 strain was resistant to streptomycin and sulfisoxazole. Both strains harbored the virulence genes cdt and eae. This study is the first description of E. albertii isolation from retail food, suggesting that chicken products are a potential vehicle of E. albertii transmission.

  7. Changes of host DNA methylation in domestic chickens infected with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FEI WANG

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... Gene interaction network analysis of differentially methylated genes in the promoter .... sequencing library and sequenced by HiSeq 2000 Illumina. The chicken ... annotation system (KOBAS) (Xie et al. 2011), which pro-.

  8. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; Nauta, Maarten; Havelaar, Arie H.; Fels, Ine van der

    2006-01-01

    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism

  9. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...... chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw (“point-source enrichment”), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges (“complex enriched environments”). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably...

  10. Lipids and fatty acids in roasted chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S A; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; Souza, N E

    1999-09-01

    Total lipids from meat portions of breast, thigh, wing, side and back with and without skin from 10 roasted chickens were extracted with chloroform and methanol and gravimetrically determined, and their fatty acids were analysed as methyl esters by gaseous chromatography, using a flame ionization detector and capillary column. The main fatty acids found were: C16:0, C18:1 omega 9, and C18:2 omega 6. The average ratio observed between PUFA/SFA was of 0.98, mainly due to the great concentration of the C18:2 omega 6 fatty acid, with an average of 26.75%. Regarding to the lipids content, the skinless breast showed the lowest content, 0.78 g/100 g, while the back with skin was the one with the highest content, 12.13 g/100 g except for the pure skin, with 26.54 grams of lipids by 100 grams.

  11. Radiosensitivity study of salmonella enteritidis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gianotti, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    One of the applications of ionizing radiations in food is the inactivation of vegetative phatogenic bacteria (radicidation) such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibro and Listeria. These bacteria are associated with the diseases transmitted by food (ETA). Fresh and frozen farmyard fowls can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms, between them Salmonella. In Argentine, between years 1987-1990, Salmonella enteritidis was the main cause of salmonellosis. In food irradiation, with the aim of improving and assuring its hygienic quality, it is important to know the radiosensitivity of microorganisms to be inactivated. Inactivation of a determined microorganism shall depend, between others factors, of the species, strain, number and of the irradiation conditions (temperature, media, etc.). D 10 value is a very useful data in order to compare radiosensitivities between the microorganisms and the influence of different factors in their sensitivities. In this paper, it was determined the sensitivity to the gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis in fresh and frozen chickens

  12. Studies on radurization of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikumar, P.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters for the preservation of chicken meat by low dose γ-radiation have been defined. Leg muscle and breast muscle samples were separately packed in polythylene pouches with without vacuum and exposed to γ-radiation (0.10 - 0.25 Mrad) at ice temperature. The irradiated samples along with the unirradiated controls were stored at 0-4 degC. The quality attributes of the samples were assessed in terms of the organoleptic score and biochemical parameters such as TMAN, TVBN and TBA values. The results showed that the unirradiated samples spoiled during 10 days storage while irradiated samples were acceptable upto 21 days. Vacuum packaging prior to irradiation was found to suppress the TVBN, and TBA values throughout the storage period. This resulted in the enhanced acceptibility of the product during storage. (author)

  13. Lactobacillus salivarius CTC2197 Prevents Salmonella enteritidis Colonization in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Mònica; Hugas, Marta; Badiola, Jose Ignacio; Monfort, Josep Maria; Garriga, Margarita

    1999-01-01

    A rifampin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius strain, CTC2197, was assessed as a probiotic in poultry, by studying its ability to prevent Salmonella enteritidis C-114 colonization in chickens. When the probiotic strain was dosed by oral gavage together with S. enteritidis C-114 directly into the proventriculus in 1-day-old Leghorn chickens, the pathogen was completely removed from the birds after 21 days. The same results were obtained when the probiotic strain was also administered through t...

  14. Chicken Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Establishment and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuet, Aurelie; Pain, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the introduction of the OSKM (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) genes into somatic cells has allowed generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. So far, this process has been only clearly demonstrated in mammals. Here, using chicken as an avian model, we describe a set of protocols allowing the establishment, characterization, maintenance, differentiation, and injection of putative reprogrammed chicken Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells.

  15. Impact of salinomycin on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Pedersen, Karl

    2007-01-01

    jejuni infection and on the composition of the caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Methods: An experimental infection study was carried out in isolators and the intestinal microflora was analyzed using quantitative cultivation, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing...... treated chickens compared to un-treated controls. Conclusion: Termination of the use of ionophore coccidiostats will not affect food safety related to campylobacter, but will increase the risk of necrotic enteritis in the broilers....

  16. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  17. In vitro comparison of rat and chicken brain neurotoxic esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, R.; Padilla, S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of 2.5-1000 microM. Mipafox titration of the paraoxon-resistant esterases at a fixed paraoxon concentration of 100 microM (mipafox concentration: 0-1000 microM) resulted in a mipafox I50 of 7.3 microM for chicken brain NTE and 11.6 microM for rat brain NTE. NTE (i.e., paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive esterase activity) comprised 80% of chicken and 60% of rat brain paraoxon-resistant activity with the specific activity of chicken brain NTE approximately twice that of rat brain NTE. The pH maxima for NTE from both species was similar showing broad, slightly alkaline optima from pH 7.9 to 8.6. [ 3 H]Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-labeled NTE from the brains of both species had an apparent mol wt of 160,000 measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, NTE from both species was very similar, with the mipafox I50 for rat NTE within the range of reported values for chicken and human NTE, and the inhibitor parameters of the chicken NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay

  18. Storage tests on irradiated deep-frozen chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, T.

    1975-01-01

    Salmonellae infections in deep-frozen roasting chicken can be dealt with by ionising radiation as this process involves hardly any heating of the product. Deep-frozen chickens irradiated with doses up to 800 krad were stored at -30 0 C for two years and were regularly submitted to sensory tests. There was no significant difference in quality between the irradiated samples and the non-irradiated controls. (orig.) [de

  19. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  20. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  1. Acute abdomen caused by ingested chicken wishbone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Faton T; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Komoni, Driton S; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H; Kurshumliu, Fisnik I; Hashimi, Medita SH; Krasniqi, Avdyl S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An ingested foreign body often passes the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Foreign bodies, such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, and toothpicks, have been known to cause perforation of the GI tract. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a fifty-year-old male with acute abdomen; diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis, i.e. ileum perforation, caused by accidentally ingesting a chicken wishbone. He was treated surgically with ileum resection, and temporar...

  2. The spatiotemporal development of innervation in spinal ligaments of chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, H; Moreau, M; Greidanus, N; Bilo, J; Russell, G; Raso, J; Bagnall, K

    1996-01-01

    The development of the innervation of both central and lateral (intertransverse) spinal ligaments was investigated in chickens between the time of hatching and 13 wk of age. A total of 36 White Leghorn chickens in 4 groups of 9 at ages 0, 2, 7, and 13 wk were used. The spinal ligaments were dissected, serially sectioned and labelled with a monoclonal antibody against neurofilament protein and observed using either conventional fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Only a few nerve elements wer...

  3. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. World chicken meat market – its development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Belova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global meat market and primarily the chicken meat market represents a very dynamically developing area. The objective of the present article is the analysis of the chicken meat market in the world in order to identify the basic development trends associated with the development of production of and trade in chicken meat, and also in order to identify the individual entities controlling the global chicken meat market. In methodological terms, the article analyzes the development of production of, consumption of and trade (export and import in chicken meat in the years 1961–2009. The main sources of data necessary for the processing of the individual analyses are the FAOSTAT and UN COMTRADE databases. The results of the conducted analysis show the following findings. World production of poultry meat increased from 7.5 million tons to more than 86 million tons. The global market reacted in a flexible manner, in which there was an increase in volumes of executed trade from 271 thousand tons/year in the year 1961 to more than 10.7 million tons/year in the year 2010. Further, the value of world trade in chicken meat within the analyzed period increased from approximately USD 169 million to approximately USD 16 billion. If we analyze the global chicken meat market, it may be stated that it is very concentrated. The analysis of the global market further shows that Brazil, the USA and China represent, in terms of global production, consumption and trade, the main driving force on the chicken meat market. These three countries have a share in global production of approximately 46%, their share in global consumption ranges at a level of over 40%. The share of these countries in global export ranges at a level exceeding 50%.

  5. Reproducible Infection Model for Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2008-01-01

    , 18, 20, and 24 ( Experiment 2). There was no mortality in any of the groups; however, chickens in the groups receiving both coccidial vaccine and C. perfringens developed the subclinical form of necrotic enteritis, demonstrated by focal necroses in the small intestine, whereas chickens in control...... groups or groups receiving only coccidial vaccine or only C. perfringens cultures developed no necroses. The results underline the importance of predisposing factors in the development of necrotic enteritis....

  6. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  7. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, A B; van de Weerd, H A; de Jong, I C; Steenfeldt, S

    2018-02-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects, as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler chickens are elevated resting-places, panels, barriers, and bales of straw ("point-source enrichment"), as well as covered verandas and outdoor ranges ("complex enriched environments"). Many of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broilers need to be further developed and studied, preferably in commercial trials, with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and on other welfare aspects such as leg health, and the interaction with genotype, production system, stocking density, light, and flock size. In addition, information on the practical application and the economics of the production system is often lacking, although it is important for application in practice. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Biodiesel synthesis using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Jechan; Lee, Taewoo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-11-01

    This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of chicken manure to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO 2 ), chicken manure biochar generated from 350°C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350°C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40-60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350°C was highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategies for the improvement of rural chicken production in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awuni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Rural poultry production systems in Ghana and in Africa as a whole are based on the scavenging indigenous domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), the predominant species in the poultry sector. In most African countries scavenging chicken have no regular health control programmes, may or may not have shelter and usually have to scavenge around for their nutritional requirements. In Ghana, the total poultry population is estimated to be over 20 million with 80% of this being rural scavenging chicken. Out of this population, 80% is lost annually due to outbreaks of Newcastle disease and a number of other causes. Reported here are the results of field surveys conducted in the wet and dry seasons in two selected ecological zones (Forest and Coastal) to establish the constraints to improvement of rural chicken production in the country. The survey covered only women farmers who engaged in rural poultry production. During the course of the survey, chicken flocks as well as chicken houses were examined for ectoparasites. Faecal samples were collected for laboratory diagnosis of endo-parasite infestation, as well as serum samples for analysis of antibodies using immunoassay techniques. The survey revealed that Newcastle disease still remains the most important disease of the scavenging rural chickens. (author)

  10. Amending triple superphosphate with chicken litter biochar improves phosphorus availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Asap

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of H2PO42- and HPO4- with Al and Fe in acid soils to form a precipitate reduces P availability. Chicken litter biochar has been used to improve soil P availability for maize production but with limited information on optimum rates of biochar and Triple Superphosphate (TSP to increase P availability. This study determined the optimum amount of chicken litter biochar and TSP that could increase P availability. Different rates of chicken litter biochar and TSP were evaluated in an incubation study for 30, 60, and 90 days. Selected soil chemical properties before and after incubation were determined using standard procedures. Soil pH, total P, available P, and water soluble P increased in treatments with 75% and 50% biochar. Total acidity, exchangeable Al3+, and Fe2+ were significantly reduced by the chicken litter biochar. The chicken litter biochar also increased soil CEC and exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg and Na. The use of 75% and 50% of 5 t ha-1 biochar with 25% TSP of the existing recommendation can be used to increase P availability whilst minimizing soil Al and Fe content. This rates can be used to optimize chicken litter biochar and TSP use in acid soils for crop production especially maize and short term vegetables.

  11. Lung Transcriptome of Newcastle Disease Virus Infected Chickens--Different Immune Response in Two Types of Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Males and females from resistant Fayoumi and susceptible Leghorn chicken lines were either challenged with a lentogenic strain of Newcastle Disease virus or given a...

  12. Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishita Toshiho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. Methods CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks were determined by ELISA. Results The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb, decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb. The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. Conclusion We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p

  13. Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III) and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Toshiho; Tomita, Yuichiro; Yorifuji, Daisuke; Orito, Kensuke; Ochiai, Hideharu; Arishima, Kazuyosi

    2011-11-26

    The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks) and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks) were determined by ELISA. The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old) was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb), decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb). The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old) was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL) and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL). The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL) chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p < 0.01).

  14. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  16. Perflurooctanoic acid induces developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos and hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qixiao; Lust, Robert M.; Strynar, Mark J.; Dagnino, Sonia; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PFOA exposure thinned right ventricular wall thickness in D19 chicken embryo hearts. ► PFOA exposure induced left ventricle hypertrophy in hearts of hatchling chickens. ► PFOA exposure induced altered cardiac function in hatchling chickens. -- Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that developmental PFOA exposure may not affect cardiac energetics. In summary, structural and functional characteristics of the heart appear to be developmental targets of PFOA, possibly at the level of cardiomyocytes. Additional studies will

  17. Transgenic chickens expressing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Young Tae; Kim, Teoan; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2013-09-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is a serine protease that is clinically used in humans for the treatment of thrombolytic disorders and vascular diseases such as acute ischemic stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion. This study explored the feasibility of using chickens as a bioreactor for producing human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (huPA). Recombinant huPA gene, under the control of a ubiquitous Rous sarcoma virus promoter, was injected into the subgerminal cavity of freshly laid chicken eggs at stage X using the replication-defective Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vectors encapsidated with VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G) glycoprotein. A total of 38 chicks, out of 573 virus-injected eggs, hatched and contained the huPA gene in their various body parts. The mRNA transcript of the huPA gene was present in various organs, including blood and egg, and was germ-line transmitted to the next generation. The level of active huPA protein was 16-fold higher in the blood of the transgenic chicken than in the nontransgenic chicken (P huPA protein in eggs increased from 7.82 IU/egg in the G0 generation to 17.02 IU/egg in the G1 generation. However, huPA-expressing embryos had reduced survival and hatchability at d 18 and 21 of incubation, respectively, and the blood clotting time was significantly higher in transgenic chickens than their nontransgenic counterparts (P huPA transgenic chickens could be successfully produced by the retroviral vector system. Transgenic chickens, expressing the huPA under the control of a ubiquitous promoter, may not only be used as a bioreactor for pharming of the huPA drug but also be useful for studying huPA-induced bleeding and other disorders.

  18. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.

  19. Restricted intra-embryonic origin of bona fide hematopoietic stem cells in the chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yvernogeau, Laurent; Robin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are responsible for blood cell production, are generated during embryonic development. Human and chicken embryos share features that position the chicken as a reliable and accessible alternative model to study developmental hematopoiesis. However, the existence

  20. Pathology of spontaneous tumour lesions in pullets and adult chickens in commercial farms - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-09-01

    Twenty pullets and adult chickens, aged 100 to 403 days, from several commercial chicken farms were examined by gross and histopathology. Grossly, all chickens had white-greyish masses in the visceral organs with or without enlargement of the peripheral nerves. Histopathological examination revealed Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma, lymphoid leukosis (LL) and myeloid leukosis (ML) in 14/20, 5/20 and 1/20 of the chickens, respectively. Lesions of the sciatic nerves in chickens diagnosed as having MD lymphoma were various. No neoplastic and/or inflammatory cells were noted in the peripheral nerves of chickens diagnosed as having LL and ML. These results indicated that MD lymphoma could also develop in older chickens; thus, microscopic examination is needed to identify MD in older chickens showing lymphocyte-derived tumours.

  1. Lung Transcriptome Data from Chickens with Newcastle Disease Virus--Impact of Gender Immune Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — To determine the gender impact on the immune response of chickens, the mRNA was isolated and sequenced from the lungs of 48 chickens of 2 lines as three time-points...

  2. Effects of starvation and protein depletion on mercury retention in two strains of chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, D V; Miller, V L; Bearse, G E; Hamilton, C M

    1965-11-13

    Experiments were performed in an attempt to show the effects of deprivation of feed and water on the liver and kidney mercury retention in two strains of chickens. The chickens to be depleted were fasted for 24 h and offered granulated sugar and drinking water containing vitamins. When the protein-depleted chickens has lost 30% of their body weight, they were injected intramuscularly with 3 mg phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) or mercuric chloride. A chemical analysis of the livers and kidneys of the chickens revealed that more mercury was retained in the organs from the protein-depleted chickens than from the control chickens. A difference was also found in the mercury retention in the kidneys in the two strains of chickens. Thus, alteration of the mercury retention patterns of these two strains of chickens may be accomplished by limiting their protein intake.

  3. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  4. EFFECT OF COOKING METHODS ON AMINO ACIDS COMPOSITION OF CHICKEN MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat is an important item in the Syrian diet. The increasing production of chickens and their potential in restaurants and food service operation implies the need for more detailed information regarding their quality and nutrient retention. Cooking methods have different effects on the values of nutrients of chicken. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave cooking in amino acids composition of chicken meat (breast &thigh) as compared with some con...

  5. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Maduramicin and tiamulin compatibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, J J; Luco, D F; Perez, V; Vargas, M A; Lujan, L; Marin, J F

    1994-03-01

    A total of 480 1-day-old Hybro broiler chickens were divided into five treatment groups (A: unmedicated control, B: maduramicin, C: maduramicin + tiamulin, D: monensin + tiamulin and E: tiamulin) to study the effect on performance parameters, organ weights, blood haematology and biochemistry, and histopathology of liver and selected striated muscles, when maduramicin at 5 parts/10(6) and monensin at 100 parts/10(6) were included in feed in starter and grower periods, and tiamulin 9 in water at 270 parts/10(6) the recommended therapeutic level, from day 28 to 31. Performance parameters were significantly and negatively affected by monensin but not by maduramicin after treatment with tiamulin. Histopathological examination of striated muscles showed no incompatibility of maduramicin + tiamulin, while lesions were found in the monensin + tiamulin treated group. It is concluded that the use of tiamulin to a therapeutic level for 3 consecutive days is compatible with the simultaneous presence of maduramicin in the feed of broilers.

  7. Palatability of sous vide processed chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B E; Larick, D K

    1996-08-01

    The influences of brine composition, internal temperature, heating rate, and storage periods up to 28 d on flavor, texture, and color of sous vide processed chicken breast were evaluated. Pectoralis major muscles containing water and sodium chloride, with or without sodium lactate, were browned and vacuum packaged. Sous vide processing was by fast or slow heating to an internal temperature of 77 or 94 C. Product was evaluated after 0, 14, and 28 d storage at 4 C. Quality was evaluated by gas chromatographic analyses of flavor volatiles, shear, color, and sensory panels. Incorporation of sodium lactate into brine did not influence oxidative stability (as measured by headspace gas chromatography) or sensory warmed-over flavor. Presence of sodium lactate did result in enhanced fresh roasted or meaty and saltiness sensory scores as well as a more yellow color. The more rapid heating rate decreased sulfur-containing compounds and did not influence other volatile concentrations. Products processed to 94 C were less juicy, less tender, and contained higher quantities of alcohols and hydrocarbons than those processed to 77 C. Storage resulted in a decline in fresh roasted or meaty flavor note and an increase in warmed-over flavor note and quantities of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and total headspace volatiles.

  8. Construction and Quantitative Validation of Chicken CXCR4 Expression Reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Haghi, Masoumeh; Bassami, Mohammadreza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-03-01

    Site directional migration is an important biological event and an essential behavior for latent migratory cells. A migratory cell maintains its motility, survival, and proliferation abilities by a network of signaling pathways where CXCR4/SDF signaling route plays crucial role for directed homing of a polarized cell. The chicken embryo due to its specific vasculature modality has been used as a valuable model for organogenesis, migration, cancer, and metastasis. In this research, the regulatory regions of chicken CXCR4 gene have been characterized in a chicken hematopoietic lymphoblast cell line (MSB1). A region extending from -2000 bp upstream of CXCR4 gene to +68 after its transcriptional start site, in addition to two other mutant fragments were constructed and cloned in a promoter-less reporter vector. Promoter activity was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry techniques. Our findings show that the full sequence from -2000 to +68 bp of CXCR4 regulatory region is required for maximum promoter functionality, while the mutant CXCR4 promoter fragments show a partial promoter activity. The chicken CXCR4 promoter validated in this study could be used for characterization of directed migratory cells in chicken development and disease models.

  9. Express quality control of chicken eggs by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Arbuzova, Evgeniia A.

    2017-06-01

    The urgency of the task of analyzing the foodstuffs quality is determined by the strategy for the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the rational nutrition of the world population. This applies to products, such as chicken eggs. In particular, it is necessary to control the chicken eggs quality at the farm production prior to incubation in order to eliminate the possible hereditary diseases, as well as high embryonic mortality and a sharp decrease in the quality of the bred young. Up to this day, in the market there are no objective instruments of contactless express quality control as analytical equipment that allow the high-precision quality examination of the chicken eggs, which is determined by the color parameters of the eggshell (color uniformity) and yolk of eggs, and by the presence in the eggshell of various defects (cracks, growths, wrinkles, dirty). All mentioned features are usually evaluated only visually (subjectively) with the help of normalized color standards and ovoscopes. Therefore, this work is devoted to the investigation of the application opportunities of contactless express control method with the help of technical vision to implement the chicken eggs' quality analysis. As a result of the studies, a prototype with the appropriate software was proposed. Experimental studies of this equipment on a representative sample of eggs from chickens of different breeds have been carried out (the total number of analyzed samples exceeds 300 pieces). The correctness of the color analysis was verified by spectrophotometric studies of the surface of the eggshell.

  10. Coccidiosis radiovaccine test on broiler chicken in Surabaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawan; Partadihardjo, S.; Suryanto, I.

    1988-01-01

    A study of radiovaccin produced by PAIR-BATAN was carried out to examine safety, potenscy and duration of immunity of the vaccine. Radiovaccine was prepared in alhidrogel media and inactivation by irradiation was done with a dose of 125 Gy. Field test was localted at two places, i.e. at Rungkut menanggal and Pusvetma, Surabaya. The test was done on 105 chickens of Arbor acres which divided into two groups. Groups on which consisting of 60 chickens were vaccinated at the age of 10 days whereas group two as a control group which consisting of 15 chickens were not vaccinated. Challenge test was carried out at two weeks, four weeks and six weeks after vaccination by inoculating with exp.5 virulent oocysts. The parametersa used in this research were mortality rate, weight gained and albumin/globulin ratio analysed by electroforesis. The results of the study revealed that all of the control chickens showed a sign sickness, haemorrhagic diarrrhea. Severe haemorrhagic was apparent in the caecum and large amount of oocysts were found in the mocous. All vaccinated chickens showed neither sign of thickness nor macroscopic changes. The average weight gained of the vaccinated groups with challenge was more than that the control group challenge. (author). 9 refs, 2 tab

  11. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  12. Reactions of chicken sera to recombinant Campylobacter jejuni flagellar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative spiral rod bacterium and is the leading but underreported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated in colonization and adhesion to the mucosal surface of chicken gastrointestinal tracts. Therefore, flagellar proteins would be the excellent targets for further investigation. In this report, we used the recombinant technology to generate a battery of C. jejuni flagellar proteins, which were purified by His tag affinity chromatography and determined antigenic profiles of these recombinant flagellar proteins using sera from chickens older than 6 weeks of age. The immunoblot results demonstrate that each chicken serum reacted to various numbers of recombinant flagellar proteins. Among these recombinant proteins, chicken sera reacted predominantly to the FlgE1, FlgK, FlhF, FliG and FliY proteins. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of these recombinant flagellar proteins as potential vaccines for chickens to improve food safety as well as investigation of host immune response to C. jejuni.

  13. Molecular Genotype Identification of Different Chickens: Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a main poultry in China. Molecular breeding for disease resistance plays an important role in the control of diseases, especially infectious diseases. Choice of genes for disease resistance is the key technology of molecular breeding. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is of great interest to poultry breeding scientists for its extraordinary polymorphism and close relation with traits of resistance against infectious diseases. The MHC-B haplotype plays an important role in the study of disease resistance in chicken. The traditional chicken MHC-B haplotype is commonly defined by serologic reactions of erythrocytes and the majority of studies have been conducted in Leghorn and broiler but study about other chicken breeds is little. In this study, firstly, the microsatellite marker LEI0258 which is located within the MHC was sequenced by using target sequence capture assay in different chicken breeds, and then according to the number of repeated structures and polymorphic sequences in microsatellite, sequence information for the region defined by LEI0258 was obtained for different haplotypes. Afterwards, we identified the relation between MHC-B haplotypes and disease resistance. Collectively, these observed results provided the reference data for disease-resistant breeding association with blood type and for further study of MHC gene function in poultry.

  14. Structure and expression of the chicken calmodulin I gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W

    1997-01-01

    The chicken calmodulin I (CaMI) gene has been isolated and characterized on the level of cDNA and genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence is identical to the one of chicken CaMII which consists of 148 aa. The CaMI gene contains six exons. Its intron/exon organization is identical...... to that of the chicken CaMII and the CaMI and CaMIII genes of rat and human. Expression of the CaMI gene was detected in all chicken tissues examined, although at varying levels. The gene is transcribed into four mRNAs of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7 and 4.4 kb as determined by Northern blot analysis. Our results demonstrate...... that the "multigene-one-protein" principle of CaM synthesis is not only applicable to mammals whose CaM is encoded by three different genes, but also to chickens....

  15. A study on the distribution of P-32 in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H.Y.; Chung, K.H.; Won, P.O.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive phosphorus (P-32) was injected to the chicken in the purpose of determination of the uptake and distribution, as related to sex and hour differences of the various organs of the body. 2μCi of P-32 were injected to each chicken and the distribution of P-32 was observed at 1 hr, 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs and 48 hrs after injection. In this experiment 34 heads of chicken were used (30 chicken for P-32, 4 chicken for control group) and the results obtained as follows: 1. The uptake of P-32 per gram of various organ in g. mm, femur (1 hr), liver, femur, tibia (24 hrs) and tibia (48 hrs) exhibited higher in the male than the female. 2. The uptake of P-32 per gram of various organ in heart, kidney, ovary (1 hr), kidney, brain (24 hrs) and kidney (48 hrs) exhibited higher in the female than the male. 3. The uptake ratio of brain, spleen, g. mm and tibia were increased gradually by the 12 hrs ahter injection of P-32, but decreased in liver, heart and kidney by the 24 hrs. 4. The uptake ratio of the femur was increased gradually by the 24 hrs, but testis and ovary was increased after 24 hrs. 5. The organs showed an uptake of P-32 per gram of various organ, with the following sequence: femur, tibia, testis or spleen, liver, kidney, heart, g. mm and brain. (Author)

  16. Pilot study of long-term anaesthesia in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Peter M; Connerton, Ian F; White, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    To provide stable anaesthesia of long duration in broiler chickens in order to perform a terminal caecal ligated loop procedure. Prospective experimental study. Seven clinically healthy broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) aged 27-36 days, weighing 884-2000 g. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. All birds underwent intermittent positive pressure ventilation for the duration. End-tidal carbon dioxide, peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate and oesophageal temperature were monitored continuously. All birds received intraosseous fluids. Butorphanol (2 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly at two hourly intervals. Euthanasia by parenteral pentobarbitone was performed at the end of procedure. Stable anaesthesia was maintained in four chickens for durations ranging from 435 to 510 minutes. One bird died and one was euthanized after 130 and 330 minutes, respectively, owing to surgical complications and another died from anaesthetic complication after 285 minutes. Long-term, stable anaesthesia is possible in clinically healthy chickens, provided complications such as hypothermia and hypoventilation are addressed and vital signs are carefully monitored. There are no known previous reports describing monitored, controlled anaesthesia of this duration in chickens. © 2015 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  17. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  18. Aerobic degradation of tylosin in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Teeter, Jerold; Meyerhoff, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Tylosin, a fermentation-derived macrolide antibiotic, was tested to determine its aerobic degradation rate in cattle, chicken, and swine excreta. For chicken, excreta from a hen administered 14 C-tylosin as part of a metabolism study were used. For cattle and swine, 14 C-tylosin was added to control excreta. The formation of 14 C volatile breakdown products and 14 CO 2 was not observed throughout the study. Material balance for the cabon-14 label ranged between 94% and 104%. Initial, day-0, concentrations of tylosin-A averaged 119.52±4.39, 35.01±1.34, and 62.82±2.11 μg/g (dry weight basis) for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta samples, respectively. After 30 days, samples averaged 4.16±0.69 and 4.11±0.69 μg/g tylosin-A in cattle and swine excreta, respectively. No residues of tylosin-A or its factors were apparent in the chicken excreta samples after 30 days of incubation. In each case, tylosin declined to less than 6.5% of the initial level after 30 days. Calculated first-order half-lives under the test conditions were 6.2 days, <7.6 days, and 7.6 days for cattle, chicken, and swine excreta, respectively. The results indicate that tylosin residues degrade rapidly in animal excreta. Therefore, tylosin residues should not persist in the environment

  19. Detection of irradiated chicken by 2-alkylcyclobutanone analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Goto, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2001-01-01

    Chicken meat irradiated at 0.5 kGy or higher doses were identified by GC/MS method analyzing 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB), which are formed from palmitic acid and stearic acid respectively, and isolated using extraction procedures of soxhlet-florisil chromatography. Many fat-containing foods have oleic acid in abundance as parent fatty acid, and chicken meat contains palmitoleic acid to the amount as much as stearic acid. In this study, we detected 2-tetradec-5'-enylcyclobutanone (2-TeCB) and 2-dodec-5'-enylcyclobutanone (2-DeCB) in chicken meat, which are formed from oleic acid and palmitoleic acid by irradiation respectively, using GC/MS method. Sensitivity in detection of both 2-TeCB and 2-DeCB were lower than that of 2-DCB. However, at least 0.57 μg/g/fat of 2-TeCB was detected in chicken meat irradiated at 0.5 kGy, so 2-TeCB seems to be a useful marker for the identification of irradiated foods containing fat. On the contrary, 2-DeCB was not detected clearly at low doses. This suggests that 2-DeCB may be a useful marker for irradiated fat in the food having enough amount of palmitoleic acid needed to analysis. In addition, 2-tetradecadienylcyclobutanone, which is formed from linoleic acid was also found in chicken meat. (author)

  20. Apollo II - Thermal use of chicken droppings - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salerno, B.; Hersener, J.L.; Dinkel, F.

    2001-01-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the conception, planning and construction of an easy-to-operate pilot heating plant that uses chicken litter as its fuel. The plant, which is installed at a chicken farm in Boesingen, Switzerland, produces 250 - 350 kW and not only supplies heat for two chicken sheds and two households, but also provides energy for a drying plant in summer. The results of measurements made on emissions are discussed and, within the framework of an eco-balance analysis, comparisons are made between the direct use of the droppings as manure or as a fuel. The cost-effectiveness of the plant is examined and the influence of plant size and other factors discussed. Further, legal questions concerning the use of chicken litter as a fuel for heating installations are discussed; the use of the droppings as a fuel is not foreseen in the legislation concerning water protection and airborne emissions of pollutants. Although normally this type of plant is built at the same location as the chicken farms, questions on logistics are also looked at

  1. Genetic architecture of gene expression in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The annotation of many genomes is limited, with a large proportion of identified genes lacking functional assignments. The construction of gene co-expression networks is a powerful approach that presents a way of integrating information from diverse gene expression datasets into a unified analysis which allows inferences to be drawn about the role of previously uncharacterised genes. Using this approach, we generated a condition-free gene co-expression network for the chicken using data from 1,043 publically available Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays. This data was generated from a diverse range of experiments, including different tissues and experimental conditions. Our aim was to identify gene co-expression modules and generate a tool to facilitate exploration of the functional chicken genome. Results Fifteen modules, containing between 24 and 473 genes, were identified in the condition-free network. Most of the modules showed strong functional enrichment for particular Gene Ontology categories. However, a few showed no enrichment. Transcription factor binding site enrichment was also noted. Conclusions We have demonstrated that this chicken gene co-expression network is a useful tool in gene function prediction and the identification of putative novel transcription factors and binding sites. This work highlights the relevance of this methodology for functional prediction in poorly annotated genomes such as the chicken.

  2. [BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES FROM CHICKENS THROMBOCYTES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sycheva, M V; Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Pashkova, T M; Popova, L P; Kartashova, O L

    2016-01-01

    Isolation and study of biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from chickens thrombocytes. Peptides from chickens thrombocytes, obtained by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with stepped and linear gradients of concentration increase of the organic solvent were used in the study. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by microtitration method in broth; mechanism of biological effect--by using fluorescent spectroscopy method with DNA-tropic dyes. Individual fractions of peptides were isolated from chickens thrombocytes, that possess antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus P209 and Escherichia coli K12. A disruption of integrity of barrier structures of microorganisms under the effect of thrombocyte antimicrobial peptides and predominance of cells with damaged membrane in the population of E. coli was established. The data obtained on antimicrobial activity and mechanism of bactericidal effect of the peptide fractions from chickens thrombocytes isolated for the first time expand the understanding of functional properties of chickens thrombocytes and open a perspective for their further study with the aim of use as antimicrobial means.

  3. Effects of hypoxia on serum hepatic chemistries of Tibet chicken and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoxia is a major factor that affects the subsistence and development of multicellular organisms. Tibet chicken, as a unique native chicken breed in altiplano, shows genetic adaptation to hypoxia comparing with the breeds at the low altitude. In the present study, to explore effects of hypoxia on chicken fetal livers, eggs of ...

  4. Antimicrobial usage in chicken production in the mekong delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Trung, Nguyen V.; Hoa, Ngo T.; Mai, Ho Huynh; Thanh, Tuyen H.; Campbell, James I.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hardon, Anita; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012-2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10-200 chickens; >200-2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial

  5. Antimicrobial usage in chicken production in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrique-Mas, J.J.; Trung, N.V.; Hoa, N.T.; Mai, H.H.; Thanh, T.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hardon, A.; Hieu, T.Q.; Schultsz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used extensively in chicken production in Vietnam, but to date no quantitative data are available. A 2012-2013 survey of 208 chicken farms in Tien Giang province, stratified by size (10-200 chickens; >200-2000), was carried out to describe and quantify the use of antibacterial

  6. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained from...

  7. 76 FR 77245 - Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ...-FF02R06000] Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX... (EA) for Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR), located approximately 60... Prairie Chicken NWR draft CCP and EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Monica Kimbrough...

  8. 75 FR 21649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri... availability of the Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) Recovery Plan, Second Revision. A recovery plan was originally completed for the Attwater's prairie-chicken in 1983 and revised in 1993...

  9. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  10. Campylobacter multi-locus sequence typing subtypes detected on chicken livers available at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been traced to undercooked chicken liver. It is not known what prevalence of Campylobacter to expect on fresh chicken livers available at retail. The objectives of this study were to measure prevalence of Campylobacter associated with chicken livers at retail and d...

  11. 9 CFR 113.37 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo inoculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.37 Detection of pathogens by the chicken embryo...-serum mixture shall be inoculated into each of at least 20 fully susceptible chicken embryos. (1) Twenty...

  12. A survey for selected avian viral pathogens in backyard chicken farms in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, L; Tammiranta, N; Ek-Kommonen, C; Soveri, T; Hänninen, M L; Fredriksson Ahomaa, M; Huovilainen, A

    2017-04-01

    Backyard poultry are regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious avian diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anaemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5.4%) had chickens seropositive for avian influenza virus. No farms had chickens seropositive for Newcastle disease virus. Of the 51 farms, five (10%) had chickens positive for coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all backyard chicken coronaviruses collected were QX type infectious bronchitis viruses. All chickens tested for avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were negative. To our knowledge, there is no evidence to date to suggest that these diseases would have been transmitted between commercial and non-commercial flocks.

  13. Radiation sterelization of chicken dejections for their incorporation in animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oularbi, S.; Nouani, A.

    1992-09-01

    Deshydrated chicken dejection obtained from chicken grown in battery were irradiated by using gamma rays and incorporated in the ovine and bovine food. Dejection presented a high content of nitrogen, and other minerals. Treatment done with a dose of 10kGy was biologically safe. Their incorporation in the ovine food allowed us to substitute the soybean by chicken dejection

  14. Effectiveness duckweed (Lemna minor) as an alternative native chicken feed native chicken (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, A.; Ritonga, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to know the effectiveness duckweed as feed as native chicken (Gallus domesticus) on growth period (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion). This research was conducted in Desa Telaga Jernih Kabupaten Langkat. The study was conducted in February 2017 until May 2017. This study use completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 Replication, where each treatment consisting of 5 Native chickens unsexing. The treatment was used P0 = control (feed manufacturing), P1 = ration conventional with 10% duckweed, P2 = ration conventional with 20% duckweed, P3 = ration conventional with 30% duckweed. The parameters observed were weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The results showed not significantly effect in body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Where the average of best weight gain on treatment P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed), P3 (30% duckweed) and P1 (10% duckweed), average of best feed consumption in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed ) Of P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), average of best feed conversion rate in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed) P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed).

  15. Genetic Polymorphisms of The Chicken Antiviral Mx Gene in A Variety of Indonesian Indigenous Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that a G/A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP at nucleotideposition 1,892 of coding sequence of chicken Mx gene confers susceptibility/resistance to avian viral diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the geographical distribution of G/A alleles in relation to differentgenetic backgrounds of a wide range of chicken populations. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction- RestrictionFragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods, 492 samples from 15 breeds of indigenous chickenpopulations from Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan and Sulawesi islands were genotyped. Allele and genotypefrequencies of each population were calculated. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were testedand inbreeding coefficient FIS estimated. Overall, the susceptible allele G had a frequency of 37.27% whilethe resistant allele A had a corresponding frequency of 62.73%. No clear relation of the geographicaldistribution of the G/A alleles to genetic backgrounds was found. The distribution of this SNP acrosspopulations seems to be affected by genetic drift rather than selection.

  16. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioconversion of chicken wastes to value-added products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Forgacs, T; Isbister, J [ARCTECH, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Increasing quantities of chicken waste concerns the poultry industry because of escalating disposal costs and the potential for environmental pollution. Biological conversion of these wastes to valuable products such as methane and/or chemical feed-stocks appears to be feasible. Biomethanation of chicken waste by a sewage sludge microbial consortium produced as much as 69 mol% methane in the gas phase. Acetic and propionic acids were the major acids produced during the bioconversion. Addition of chelating agents and other micro-nutrients enhanced methane production and shifted the ratios of intermediates accumulated. Preliminary data indicate that more than 60% of the chicken waste carbon was converted and that the nitrogen-rich residue may have potential as a soil additive. (author).

  18. Reaction of chickens to graduated length of exposure to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nvota, J.; Grom, A.; Faberova, A.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions of 60 day old chickens Arbor Acres 60 X Vantress to immobilization stress lasting 1/2, 1, 2, 4 hours and to application of ACTH, manifested by activity changes in the systems hypophysis-adrenal gland and hypophysis-thyroid gland were studied. The highest activity increase in the two neuro-endocrine systems of the chickens was found to occur after 1/2 hour exposure to stress. With prolonged stress the responses weakened and after 4 hours most of the values gradually regressed to their initial level. The responses of both systems were synchronized. Reactions of the chickens differed from those of laboratory rats in which an increased activity of the hypophysis-adrenal gland system coincided with attenuation of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system.

  19. Addition of anacardic acid as antioxidants in broiler chicken mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves ABREU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe effect of anacardic acid on lipid stability and coloration of chicken mortadella was investigated. Antioxidants were added to chicken mortadellas, according to the treatments: no added antioxidant, 100 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm anacardic acid. The mortadellas were stored for 90 days at 4 °C, and the analysis of lipid oxidation and color were performed. For TBARS, there was linear reduction with increased anacardic acid. According to the means test, 200 ppm anacardic acid provided the lower TBARS values. The redness decreased during storage, and, as reported by the means test, mortadella containing 200 ppm anacardic acid had lower values. The lightness of mortadellas decreased during storage. Also in accordance with the means test, mortadellas containing antioxidants had same lightness than control. The yellowness of mortadellas increased during storage. Thus, the anacardic acid is a potential natural antioxidant that could be included in chicken mortadella formulations before cooking.

  20. Identification of irradiated chicken meat using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, S.P.; Thomas, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out on detection of irradiation treatment in chicken using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The effect of gamma- irradiation treatment on radiation induced signal in different types of chicken namely, broiler, deshi and layers was studied. Irradiation treatment induced a characteristic ESR signal that was not detected in non-irradiated samples. The shape of the signal was not affected by type of the bone. The intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was affected by factors such as absorbed radiation dose, bone type irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage, post-irradiation cooking and age of the bird. Deep-frying resulted in the formation of a symmetric signal that had a different shape and was weaker than the radiation induced signal. This technique can be effectively used to detect irradiation treatment in bone-in chicken meat even if stored and/or subjected to various traditional cooking procedures. (author)

  1. Conservation by irradiation of the cooled chicken meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toraa, Sofiene

    2004-01-01

    The irradiation like treatment of decontamination showed a great effectiveness. Indeed the amount 2 KGy destroyed more than 90% of total germs and the complete elimination of the germs of fecal contamination. The irradiation doses: 2 and 4 KGy significantly slow down the development of the germs of contamination during the cooled conservation of the chicken meat compared to the control meats. The physicochemical composition did not modify by irradiation in a clear way. Thus, the majority of the measured parameters (pH, capacity of water retention, amino acid quantity, and the loss of weight during cooking) remained stable after the ionizing treatment. Lastly, the irradiation makes it possible to preserve the chicken meat 16 days compared to the control meat, which was damaged at the 6 2nd days of conservation. Theses result showed the effectiveness of the irradiation process on the lengthening storage cooled period of chicken meat. (author). 8 refs

  2. Consumer perception and acceptance of pork and chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.

  3. Recombinant-derived chicken growth hormone used for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proudman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of recombinant-derived chicken growth hormone (rcGH) in an avian growth hormone (GH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure is described. Antiserum to turkey GH bound 125 I-labeled rcGH, and unlabeled rcGH or turkey GH displaced binding in a dose-related manner. The dose-response curves of sera and pituitary extract from chickens and turkeys were parallel to the rcGH standard curve. Sera from hypophysectomized (hypox) chickens and turkeys produced no dose-response and did not inhibit binding of labeled rcGH. Recovery of rcGH added to hypox sera was quantitative. Modification of the homologous turkey GH RIA protocol of Proudman and Wentworth (1) to use rcGH made possible either an increase in assay sensitivity or a 3-day reduction in incubation time

  4. Analysis of trace elements in chicken embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Zhijun; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin; Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong

    2002-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells

  5. Intestinal volvulus with coagulative hepatic necrosis in a chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Mohie; Goryo, Masanobu; Sasaki, Jun; Okada, Kosuke

    2010-04-01

    A 7-week-old SPF chicken inoculated at 4 weeks of age with chicken anemia virus was puffed up depressed and had ruffled feathers and a good body condition. Intestinal volvulus involving the jejunum and part of the duodenum forming two loops with one knob was observed. Microscopically, venous infarction of the obstructed loops, periportal and sublobular multifocal coagulative hepatic necrosis and granulomatous inflammation of the cecal tonsils were observed. Gram staining revealed no bacteria in hepatic tissue; however, gram-positive bacilli were detected in the necrotic debris in the intestinal lumen. Immunosuppression might have predisposed the chicken to intestinal and cecal tonsil infection that then progressed to volvulus. Loss of the mucosal barrier in infarction might allow bacterial toxins and vasoactive factors to escape into the systemic circulation (toxemia) and be responsible for the hepatic necrosis.

  6. Transfer of Campylobacter jejuni from raw to cooked chicken via wood and plastic cutting boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J Y H; Nishibuchi, M; Nakaguchi, Y; Ghazali, F M; Saleha, A A; Son, R

    2011-06-01

    We quantified Campylobacter jejuni transferred from naturally contaminated raw chicken fillets and skins to similar cooked chicken parts via standard rubberwood (RW) and polyethylene cutting boards (PE). RW and PE cutting boards (2.5 × 2.5 cm(2)) were constructed. RW surfaces were smooth and even, whereas PE was uneven. Scoring with scalpel blades produced crevices on RW and flaked patches on the PE boards. Raw chicken breast fillets or skin pieces (10 g) naturally contaminated with Camp. jejuni were used to contaminate the cutting boards (6.25 cm(2)). These were then briefly covered with pieces of cooked chicken. Campylobacter jejuni on raw chicken, the boards, and cooked chicken pieces were counted using a combined most-probable-number (MPN)-PCR method. The type of cutting board (RW, PE; unscored and scored) and temperature of cooked chicken fillets and skins were examined. Unscored PE and RW boards were not significantly different in regards to the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from raw samples to the boards. The mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW was significantly higher than from scored PE. When the chicken fillets were held at room temperature, the mean transfer of Camp. jejuni from scored RW and PE was found to be 44.9 and 40.3%, respectively.   RW and PE cutting boards are potential vehicles for Camp. jejuni to contaminate cooked chicken. Although cooked chicken maintained at high temperatures reduced cross-contamination via contaminated boards, a risk was still present. Contamination of cooked chicken by Camp. jejuni from raw chicken via a cutting board is influenced by features of the board (material, changes caused by scoring) and chicken (types of chicken parts and temperature of the cooked chicken). © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Cross-reactivity to fish and chicken meat - a new clinical syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C; Doyen, V; Gomez-André, S-A; Bienvenu, F; Fischer, J; Ballardini, N; van Hage, M; Perotin, J-M; Silcret-Grieu, S; Chabane, H; Hentges, F; Ollert, M; Hilger, C; Morisset, M

    2016-12-01

    Fish is one of the most allergenic foods. While clinical cross-reactivity among different fishes is a widely accepted feature of fish allergy, associations with other food allergies are not well understood. This study aims at analyzing the relevance of clinical cross-reactivity between fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA). Allergens were used in IgE ELISA and skin testing. Chicken parvalbumin and two new allergens, aldolase and enolase, were identified at 12, 40, and 50 kDa, respectively. They were recognized by sIgE of 61%, 75%, and 83% of all patient sera which were in the majority of the cases positive for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while parvalbumin was detectable in chicken legs and wings. Fish and chicken meat are cross-reactive foods; both fish-allergic and chicken meat-allergic patients might be at risk of developing a food allergy to chicken meat or to fish, respectively. This clinical phenomenon is proposed to be termed 'fish-chicken syndrome' with cross-reactive allergens involved being parvalbumins, enolases, and aldolases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...

  9. Breeding of tomorrow's chickens to improve well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H-W

    2010-04-01

    Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency

  10. Influence of garlic extract on antioxidant status of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on animal organism resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihypertensive properities. Studies focused on growth, conversion and meat quality of different types of animals indicate its positive effects. In our experiment we studied the influence of garlic extract in a dose of 0, 10 g and 15 g per 1 kg of chicken feed mixture. We focused on weight gains and antioxidant status of an organism. The experiment took 39 days. 54 seven-day-old chickens were included in the experiment. The chickens were weighed once a week, when aged 11, 17, 24, 31 and 38 days, at the same time of the day. The chickens had ad libitum access to feed ration and water. The chickens were taken blood sample at the end of the experiment when 39 days old. Their antioxidant status were measured using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods. Our results show that owing to higher concentration of garlic extract in feed ration the antioxidant status of observed chickens was increased. DPPH method showed an increase in antioxidant status of both experimental groups by 38% (a group with a dose of 10 g/kg of mixture and by 46% (a group with a dose of 15 g/kg of mixture compared to the control group. When using FRAP method, antioxidant status of both G10 and G15 groups increased by 24%, resp. 16%. No evidential differences in antioxidant activity between the experimental groups and control group were found using ABTS method. The supplement of garlic extract into a feed ration did not have any influence

  11. Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetpillai P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.Keywords: small bowel obstruction, chicken bone, bezoar

  12. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...... effective, indicating that some cells may recover after a 1-min treatment with these chemicals. An increase in treatment time to 15 min resulted in higher effectiveness of trisodium phosphate and formic acid. Interestingly, when reduction of the C. jejuni population was compared on chicken skin and meat...

  13. Exploring the chemotactic attraction of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    Campylobacter jejuni is the primary food borne bacterial pathogen in the developed world. The most important reservoir for C. jejuni is the gut of chickens, which are colonized commensally and efficiently by this organism. Predominantly the mucus filled crypts of the lower gastrointestinal tract....... These mutants will be analyzed for their chemotatic capacity in order to investigate the chemoreceptor function and to identify matching chemoeffectors. Furthermore, selected mutants will be investigated for their ability to colonize chickens with focus on establishment, level, and persistence. Special emphasis...

  14. Gene set analysis of the EADGENE chicken data-set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarman, Axel; Jiang, Li; Hornshøj, Henrik

    2009-01-01

     Abstract Background: Gene set analysis is considered to be a way of improving our biological interpretation of the observed expression patterns. This paper describes different methods applied to analyse expression data from a chicken DNA microarray dataset. Results: Applying different gene set...... analyses to the chicken expression data led to different ranking of the Gene Ontology terms tested. A method for prediction of possible annotations was applied. Conclusion: Biological interpretation based on gene set analyses dependent on the statistical method used. Methods for predicting the possible...

  15. Decontamination of fermented chicken feet by 60Co irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Huang Min; Wu Ling; Du Xiaoying; Lei Qing; Xie Yan

    2010-01-01

    Fermented chicken feet was treated by 60Co irradiation, and the aerobic plate count, enumeration of coliforms, pathogens and TBARS value were measured during storage. The results showed that, aerobic plate count of all irradiated samples was lower than control, and enumeration of coliforms, and pathogens of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Salmonella were not detected. TBARS value of all treatments was stable during 60 d storage. It could be concluded that 60Co irradiation of chicken feet was an effective method to prolong its shelf life. (authors)

  16. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Wegener, Henrik C.; Mølbak, Kåre

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1–15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously f...

  17. Calcium absorption in vitamin D deficient chickens using radiocalcium as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasangka, Bintara Her

    1984-01-01

    An experiment to study the absorption of calcium through the duodenum of vitamin D deficient chickens was conducted using radiocalcium as tracer. In this experiment twenty chickens were reared from one day old chicken until one month and maintained on rachitogenic diet. Vitamin D was given to ten chickens orally fourty eight hours prior to the administration of radiocalcium. The result of this experiment indicated that the absorption of calcium in the duodenum was higher in chickens provided with vitamin D compared to those without vitamin D (P≤0.01). (author)

  18. Inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria in ground chicken breast meat during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R Y; Marks, B P; Johnson, E R; Johnson, M G

    1999-09-01

    Thermal inactivation of six Salmonella spp. and Listeria innocua was evaluated in ground chicken breast and liquid medium. Survival of Salmonella and Listeria was affected by the medium composition. Under the same thermal process condition, significantly more Salmonella and Listeria survived in chicken breast meat than in 0.1% peptone-agar solution. The thermal lethality of six tested Salmonella spp. was additive in chicken meat. Survival of Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing was not affected by the presence of the six Salmonella spp. Sample size and shape affected the inactivation of Salmonella and Listeria in chicken meat during thermal processing.

  19. CHICKEN MEAT IN HUMAN NUTRITION FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids was also analysed. The content of basic nutritive matters in white and red meat was as follows: protein 24.15% and 20.96% resp., water 74.01% and 74.56% resp., fat 0.62% and 3.29% resp., ash 1.22% and 1.19% resp. The following contents of macro and trace elements were determined in 100 g white and red meat: K 359.22 mg and 322.00 mg resp., Mg 39.35 mg and 27.11 mg resp., Na 61.86 mg and 86.45 mg resp., Mn 0.08 mg and 0.09 mg resp., Zn 1.09 mg and 2.30 mg resp., Fe 1.79 mg and 1.98 mg resp. PUFA omega 3 (C 18:3ω3, C 20:5ω3, C 22:5ω3 and C 22:6ω3 and PUFA omega 6 (C18:2ω6, C 20:2ω6 and C 20:4ω6 fatty acids ratio in white and red meat was 3.11 and 4.43 resp.

  20. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  1. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken meat and chicken skin by combined or sequential application of lytic bacteriophage with chemical antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2015-08-17

    The effectiveness of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella in vitro and on chicken breast fillets was examined in combination with lauric arginate (LAE) or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). In another experiment, a sequential spray application of this bacteriophage (phage) solution on Salmonella inoculated chicken skin after a 20s dip in chemical antimicrobials (LAE, CPC, peracetic acid, or chlorine) was also examined in reducing Salmonella counts on chicken skin. The application of phage in combination with CPC or LAE reduced S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis up to 5 log units in vitro at 4 °C. On chicken breast fillets, phage in combination with CPC or LAE resulted in significant (p<0.05) reductions of Salmonella ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g as compared to control up to 7 days of refrigerated storage. When phage was applied sequentially with chemical antimicrobials, all the treatments resulted in significant reductions of Salmonella. The application of chlorine (30 ppm) and PAA (400 ppm) followed by phage spray (10(9)PFU/ml) resulted in highest Salmonella reductions of 1.6-1.7 and 2.2-2.5l og CFU/cm(2), respectively. In conclusion, the surface applications of phage in combination with LAE or CPC significantly reduced Salmonella counts on chicken breast fillets. However, higher reductions in Salmonella counts were achieved on chicken skin by the sequential application of chemical antimicrobials followed by phage spray. The sequential application of chlorine, PAA, and phage can provide additional hurdles to reduce Salmonella on fresh poultry carcasses or cut up parts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G. In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens.

  3. Genetic diversity of mtDNA D-loop sequences in four native Chinese chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H W; Li, C; Wang, X N; Li, Z J; Sun, G R; Li, G X; Liu, X J; Kang, X T; Han, R L

    2017-10-01

    1. To explore the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, a 585 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region was sequenced in 102 birds from the Xichuan black-bone chicken, Yunyang black-bone chicken and Lushi chicken. In addition, 30 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Silkie fowls were downloaded from NCBI. The mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism and maternal origin of 4 chicken breeds were analysed in this study. 2. The results showed that a total of 33 mutation sites and 28 haplotypes were detected in the 4 chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of these 4 native breeds were 0.916 ± 0.014 and 0.012 ± 0.002, respectively. Three clusters were formed in 4 Chinese native chickens and 12 reference breeds. Both the Xichuan black-bone chicken and Yunyang black-bone chicken were grouped into one cluster. Four haplogroups (A, B, C and E) emerged in the median-joining network in these breeds. 3. It was concluded that these 4 Chinese chicken breeds had high genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree and median network profiles showed that Chinese native chickens and its neighbouring countries had at least two maternal origins, one from Yunnan, China and another from Southeast Asia or its surrounding area.

  4. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peta S; Hemsworth, Paul H; Groves, Peter J; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-07-20

    Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for range visits and included chickens that used the range only once (6 to 12% of tagged chickens), and high ranging chickens (3 to 9% of tagged chickens) that accounted for 33 to 50% of all range visits. Males spent longer on the range than females in winter ( p ranging behaviour may help optimise ranging opportunities in free-range systems and is important to elucidate the potential welfare implications of ranging.

  5. Comparative pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens of two strains of avian hepatitis E virus recovered from a chicken with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome and from a clinically healthy chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billam, P; LeRoith, T; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Meng, X J

    2009-11-18

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is the primary causative agent of Hepatitis-Splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in chickens. Recently, a genetically unique strain of avian HEV, designated avian HEV-VA, was recovered from healthy chickens in Virginia. The objective of this study was to experimentally compare the pathogenicity of the prototype strain recovered from a chicken with HS syndrome and the avian HEV-VA strain in specific-pathogen-free chickens. An infectious stock of the avian HEV-VA strain was first generated and its infectivity titer determined in chickens. For the comparative pathogenesis study, 54 chickens of 6-week-old were assigned to 3 groups of 18 chickens each. The group 1 chickens were each intravenously inoculated with 5x10(2.5) 50% chicken infectious dose of the prototype strain. The group 2 received the same dose of the avian HEV-VA strain, and the group 3 served as negative controls. Six chickens from each group were necropsied at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Most chickens in both inoculated groups seroconverted by 3wpi, and the mean anti-avian HEV antibody titers were higher for the prototype strain group than the avian HEV-VA strain group. There was no significant difference in the patterns of viremia and fecal virus shedding. Blood analyte profiles did not differ between treatment groups except for serum creatine phosphokinase levels which were higher for prototype avian HEV group than avian HEV-VA group. The hepatic lesion score was higher for the prototype strain group than the other two groups. The results indicated that the avian HEV-VA strain is only slightly attenuated compared to the prototype strain, suggesting that the full spectrum of HS syndrome is likely associated with other co-factors.

  6. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  7. Identification of a chicken (Gallus gallus) endogenous reference gene (Actb) and its application in meat adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenjin; Shang, Ying; Wang, Qin; Xu, Yuancong; Zhu, Pengyu; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-11-01

    The genes commonly used to determine meat species are mainly mitochondrial, but the copy numbers of such genes are high, meaning they cannot be accurately quantified. In this paper, for the first time, the chromosomal gene Actb was selected as an endogenous reference gene for chicken species. It was assayed in four different chicken varieties and 16 other species using both qualitative and quantitative PCR. No amplification of the Actb gene was found in species other than chicken and no allelic variations were detected in chicken. Southern blot and digital-PCR confirmed the Actb gene was present as a single copy in the chicken genome. The quantitative detection limit was 10pg of DNA, which is equivalent to eight copies. All experiments indicated that the Actb gene is a useful endogenous reference gene for chicken, and provides a convenient and accurate approach for detection of chicken in feed and food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory evaluation of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2008-03-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical sensory characteristics of chicken meat has been evaluated. Chicken meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Degree Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of chicken meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analysis of chicken meat were evaluated at weekly up to end of the storage period. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load, and increased the shelf-life of chicken meat. Total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in chicken meat were not affected by gamma irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and un-irradiated chicken meat. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory evaluation of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical sensory characteristics of chicken meat has been evaluated. Chicken meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Degree Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of chicken meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analysis of chicken meat were evaluated at weekly up to end of the storage period. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the microbial load, and increased the shelf-life of chicken meat. Total acidity, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in chicken meat were not affected by gamma irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and un-irradiated chicken meat. (author)

  10. The expression characteristics of mt-ND2 gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Ting; Lu, Weiwei; Tao, Yafei; Chen, Wen; Du, Xiaohui; Huang, Yanqun

    2016-09-01

    Subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND2) is encoded by the mt-ND2 gene and plays a critical role in controlling the production of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Our study focused on exploring the mt-ND2 tissue expression patterns and the effects of energy restriction and dietary fat (linseed oil, corn oil, sesame oil or lard) level (2.5% and 5%) on its expression in chicken. The results showed that mt-ND2 gene was expressed in the 15 tissues of hybrid chickens with the highest level in heart and lowest level in pancreas tissue; 30% energy restriction did not significantly affect mt-ND2 mRNA level in chicken liver tissue. Both the mt-ND2 mRNA levels in chicken pectoralis (p chicken age (p chicken age (p chicken age.

  11. Performance of a commercial Chicken-Ovo-transferrin-ELISA on the serum of brown layer chickens infected with Gallibacterium anatis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Krisna; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Christensen, Jens Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate Ovo-transferrin (OTF), a positive acute-phase protein in chickens, as a diagnostic biomarker of selected bacterial infections we checked the performance of a commercial Chicken-OTF-ELISA (ICL, Inc., Portland, OR, USA) by analytical and overlap performances using two groups of serum samples obtained from 26 Gallibacterium anatis-infected and 20 Streptococcus zooepidemicus-infected brown layer chickens. In addition, sera from 14 apparently healthy and 19 negative control chickens were analysed in the Gallibacterium group whereas sera from 20 healthy and 11 negative control chickens from the Streptococcus group were analysed. All calibration curves revealed high coefficients of determination (≥ 0.97) between optical density (OD 450nm) and concentrations of OTF (mg/ml). OTF concentrations in high, medium and low pools (made of sera from a combination of infected and/or non-infected birds) were >6.4, >3.8 to 6.7, >3.5 to chickens (Gallibacterium, 4.4 ± 0.3 mg/ml; Streptococcus, 3.2 ± 0.4 mg/ml) compared with negative controls (1.7 ± 0.1 mg/ml) (P Chicken-OTF-ELISA can be used to measure reproducible serum OTF concentrations in brown layer chickens as a response to G. anatis infections, whereas an adjustment of dilution process is proposed to optimize to use in S. zooepidemicus-infected chickens.

  12. Study on Efficacy of Gamma Radiation on the Inactivation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 (Thai isolate) in Chicken Meat and Chicken Feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinyochon, Wasana; Piadang, Nattayana; Mulika, Ladda; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Vitittheeranon, Arag; Damrongwatapokin, Sudarat

    2006-09-01

    A study on the efficacy of gamma radiation on the inactivation of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype, Thai isolate was carried out. The virus was in the form frozen infected allantoic fluid frozen chicken meat and frozen chicken feces. The result indicated that 9 kilo grey of gamma radiation could completely inactivated 106.0 EID50/ml of AIV infected allantoic fluid and 22 kiel grey and 15 kilo grey of gamma radiation completely inactivate 106.0 EID50/10/ grams of chicken meat and 106.0 EID50/5 grams of chicken feces respectively.

  13. Immunoadjuvant activities of a recombinant chicken IL-12 in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus recombinant HN protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bor Sheu; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Hung, Li Hsiang; Huang, Ji Ping; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-08-05

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/HN) expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene and rFPV/HN/chIL-12 co-expressing chicken IL-12 (chIL-12) and HN (rHN/chIL-12) genes have been characterized. rHN/chIL-12 or rchIL-12, expressed by our previous construct rFPV/chIL-12, co-administered with rHN was assessed for adjuvant activities of chIL-12. Chickens were vaccinated with various amounts of rHN/chIL-12 mixed with mineral oil (MO), intramuscularly. Levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody production depended on the concentration of the injected rHN or rHN/chIL-12. The lower HI antibody titers were obtained in chicken groups rHN/chIL-12/7-rHN/chIL-12/9, receiving 60ng rHN/8ng chIL-12 with MO, 30ng rHN/4ng chIL-12 with MO or 15ng rHN/2ng chIL-12 with MO, respectively, compared to those in chicken groups rHN/7-rHN/9, receiving rHN with MO alone. However, chickens in group rHN/chIL-12/7 or rHN/chIL-12/8 and rHN with MO alone showed the same effective protection. Chicken group rHN/chIL-12/9 was even more protective than that in group rHN/9. When rchIL-12 was co-injected with 15ng rHN plus MO, chickens produced low levels of HI antibody titers; while higher levels of IFN-γ production and an effective protection rate (83%) were obtained. On the other hand, low levels of IFN-γ production and low protection response (50%) were obtained in chickens injected with rHN with MO alone. Taken together, when the concentration of rHN decreased to certain levels, rchIL-12 reduced HI antibody production. The increase in the induction of IFN-γ production might suggest the enhancement of the cell-mediated immunity which conferred the protection from the NDV challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetic studies of the recombinant chicken interferon-α in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Yu, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Wang, Xing-Man; Li, Jin-Pei; Hu, Tao; Hu, Yong; Wang, Ming-Li; Shen, Yong-Zhou; Xu, Jing-Dong; Han, Guo-Xiang; Chen, Jason

    2017-02-14

    In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 10 6 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the T max was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T 1/2 ) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T 1/2 ) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent.

  15. Characterizing genetic diversity of contemporary pacific chickens using mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Needham Dancause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hypervariable region (HVR sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups--D and E--by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagos of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. METHODS: We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. RESULTS: Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary

  16. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  17. Creatine kinase isozyme expression in embryonic chicken heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Geerts, W. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Dottin, R. P.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution pattern of creatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.2) isozymes in developing chicken heart was studied by immunohistochemistry. Creatine kinase M, which is absent from adult heart, is transiently expressed between 4 and 11 days of incubation. During that period, numerous muscular cells in the

  18. Paired Chicken and Mammalian Erythrocyte Indicator Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three levels of erythrocytes suspensions, 1.5%, 1% and 0.5% respectively from goat and guinea pig, were compared to conventional 0.5% chicken erythrocytes, in an attempt to investigate the suitability for the two sources of mammalian erythrocytes as indicators for Newcastle disease virus haemagglutination (HA) tests.

  19. Phenological Characteristics of the Barred Chicken in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between May and June 2011, the growth performance and phenological characteristics of local barred chicken of the Western Highland Cameroon was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang. The data on body weight, body measurements and carcass characteristics were collected on ...

  20. Sinai and Norfa chicken diversity revealed by microsatellite markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to outline the population differentiation of Sinai and Norfa chicken, native to Egypt, with microsatellite markers. Twenty microsatellite loci recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were used. Fifty eight birds were sampled (29 for each strain: 12 males + 17 females). Data were ...

  1. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  2. Growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...

  3. Genetic diversity of Ghanaian local chicken populations based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, local chickens are raised across distinct agro-ecological zones and constitute unique populations with variable phenotypes that need to be characterized to provide needed information for the conservation of useful genotypes against future needs. In particular, the Interior Savannah (GHIS) in the north, the Forest ...

  4. Differentiation of pork from beef, chicken, mutton and chevon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...

  5. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the splitplot design, ...

  6. Cross-species applicability of chicken microsatellite markers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We obtained blood samples of 57 Indian ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) belonging to three indigenous duck populations of geographically distinct locations of the country and genotyped them using chicken microsatellite markers. Twenty three of the 30 loci were amplified and 17 loci yielded high success rate (> 91%).

  7. Genetic structure among the local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...

  8. Sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ...

  9. Serum biochemical indices of Finisher Broiler Chickens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4 week feeding trial was conducted using 180 five-week old Hubbard broiler chickens to determine the effect of feeding variously processed roselle(Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds on serum biochemical indices with a view to determining the potential of roselle seed as an alternative to soybeans. Five broiler finisher diets were ...

  10. Determination of o-tyrosine in irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, O.; Schoeni, D.; Zimmerli, B.

    1991-01-01

    The author explains his method to determine O-Tyrosine in irradiated chickens with a high-performance liquid chromatography. The method is simple and fast, but a proper chromatographic separation is difficult. The detection limit with a high sensitive detector is about 0.05-0.1 mg O-Tyrosine/kg meat (9 refs)

  11. The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks. E.M. Smith, J Hattingh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  12. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  13. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of turning frequency of chicken eggs on hatchability in hurricane lantern incubator. There were four treatments in which eggs were not turned in treatment one (control), those in treatment two were turned once daily (morning), treatment three turned twice daily ...

  14. Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Meat in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Zarfel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA, and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48% of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes.

  15. Plasma Concentrations of Fentanyl Achieved With Transdermal Application in Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaski, Kristina M; Gehring, Ronette; Heffron, Brendan T; Negrusz, Adam; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2017-01-01

    Providing appropriate analgesia is an important concern in any species. Fentanyl, a μ-receptor specific opioid, use is common in mammalian species but has been incompletely evaluated for this purpose in avian species. Transdermal fentanyl patches were applied to domestic chickens (n = 10) of varying

  16. Rosemary as natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation in chicken burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is known for their sensory characteristics and antioxidant properties, mainly due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. The aim of this work, was determine the antioxidant activity and apply the Rosemary lyophilized extract (RLE in chicken burger, for assess their ability to reduce the lipid oxidation. Total antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds profile were analyzed by colorimetric tests and liquid chromatography analysis, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay was used to evaluate the ability of the RLE to prevent lipid peroxidation in chicken burger stored at 4 °C. Three treatments of chicken burgers were prepared (T1 – control, without addition of synthetic antioxidant BHT: butylated hydroxytoluene or RLE, T2 – with addition of BHT, and T3 – experimental, containing RLE. The high contents of total phenolic compounds (40.91 mg GAE g-1: Gallic Acid Equivalent and total flavonoids (24.26 mg QE g-1: Quercetin Equivalents were found in RLE. Rutin was the major phenolic compound identified in the RLE. The RLE showed strong antioxidant capacity and inhibited 48.29% of lipid oxidation (21 days of storage in comparison to the control (T1, with low production of malonaldehyde, which has potential to be used in chicken burgers.

  17. Transgene transmission in chickens by sperm-mediated gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate transgene transmission by SMGT in chickens using ... group. EGFP mRNA was detected in 21% of newborn chicks from the DMSO group, ..... training or equipment was required and it is applicable to.

  18. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... of eggs and meat, respectively, of which 80% are from indigenous stocks (FAO, 2006). In Sudan, the traditional sector comprises 70% of the total chicken's annual production of 20.1 million birds and 900 million eggs. (Sulieman, 1996). The Sudanese fowls with various types, which collectively are called ...

  19. Quinolone Resistance in Bacterial Isolates from Chicken Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred bacterial isolates including Escherichia coli (95; 47.5%), Salmonella serotypes (78; 38.0%), Klebsiella (17; 8.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12; 6.0%) were isolated from chicken carcasses within the six-year period. On the overall, the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (40.5%), enrofloxacin (21.0%), ...

  20. Efficiency of fatty acid accumulation into breast muscles of chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... 1The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, 05-110 Jabłonna, Poland. 2The National ... oxidative stress) in breast muscles of female and male chickens were also studied. Dietary SeY ...... properties of lycopene from tomato products and their possible role in.

  1. Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H Hassen, FWC Neser, A de Kock, E van Marle-Köster ... in the present study are in accordance with the origin and marketing systems of ... initial step to plan the characterization and conservation of native chickens in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

  2. Egg Qualities and Performance Characteristics of Laying Chicken in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meanwhile, hens in partitioned battery cage (control) gave the best results. However, except for the egg weight, the housing systems had no significant effect (p>0.05) on other egg quality parameters measured. Partitioned (conventional) battery cage is still the best system of housing laying chickens, although extended ...

  3. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...

  4. Factors affecting wheat nutritional value for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all

  5. Meat quality characteristics of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined meat quality characteristics of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler chickens reared on deep-litter and deep-litter with a run housing systems. After brooding for 2 weeks, a total of 75 male and female chicks, respectively were confined on deep litter and on deep litter with a run having three replications of 25 ...

  6. Histopathology of the organs of Broiler Chickens exposed to flames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...

  7. Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of dietary raw and soaked and cooked velvet beans, Mucuna utilis on the performance of broiler chickens. Two batches of raw Mucuna seeds were used. The first batch of seeds was used raw. The second batch was soaked for 24 h, subdivided into four parts and ...

  8. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...

  9. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield)

  10. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  11. Proteomic analysis of chicken eggshell cuticle membrane layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Ergang, Peter; Pácha, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 29 (2014), s. 7633-7640 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mass spectrometry * bioanalyticalmethods * cuticle * chicken proteins * insoluble proteins * eggshell Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  12. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by ...

  13. Effects of gastrin on calcium homeostasis in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, P.; Gagnemo-Persson, R.; Orberg, J.; Chen, D.; Hakanson, R.

    1991-01-01

    As in the rat, gastrin and an extract of the acid-producing part of the stomach (proventriculus) were found to lower the blood Ca2+ concentration in the chicken. Furthermore, gastrin enhanced the uptake of 45Ca into the femur. It has been suggested previously that gastrin causes hypocalcemia in the rat by releasing gastrocalcin, a hypothetical hormone thought to reside in the acid-producing part of the stomach. The results of the present study in the chicken are in agreement with this concept. Not only exogenous, but also endogenous gastrin lowered blood calcium levels. Thus, the serum gastrin concentration was increased in response to ranitidine-evoked blockade of the gastric acid output; the rise in gastrin was associated with a transient drop in blood calcium. Also, food intake produced a rise in the serum gastrin concentration and a transient drop in blood calcium. However, injection of ranitidine or food intake in proventriclectomized (acid-producing part of the stomach extirpated) chickens failed to lower blood calcium, supporting the view that the gastrin-evoked hypocalcemia depends upon an agent in the gastric (proventriculus) mucosa. The authors suggest that endogenous and exogenous gastrin evoke hypocalcemia in the chicken by the same mechanism as that which has been postulated in the rat, i.e. by mobilization of the candidate hormone gastrocalcin from endocrine cells in the acid-producing gastric mucosa

  14. Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a Recessive White breed using AFLP fingerprinting. Yushi Gao. 1,2#. , Yunjie Tu. 1,2. , Haibin Tong. 1. , Kehua Wang. 1. , Xiujun Tang. 1 and Kuanwei Chen. 1. 1 Institute of Poultry, Academy of Agricultural Sciences in China, Yangzhou, 225003, Jiangsu, China.

  15. Haematology and serum chemistry of finisher broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the haematology and serum chemistry of broiler chickens fed maize-cassava diets supplemented with methionine and inorganic sulphur. A total of 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups of 30 birds making 10 birds per replicate group. Starter and ...

  16. Outbreaks of Marek's Disease in Layer Chickens Farms in Khartoum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that infection of MD in vaccinated adult commercial type chickens might be due to de novo infection (Super infection) with highly virulent strains despite existing considerable levels of vaccine immunity and age resistance, also vaccination failure may perhaps considered one of the important causes of disease outbreaks.

  17. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avizyme 1500TM) on the performance and nutrient digestibility by broiler finishers was investigated. A total of 120 d-old broiler chickens was assigned to four treatments each having two replicates of 15 birds in a 2 x 2 factorial block design.

  18. Effect of effective microorganisms on broiler chicken performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between January and March 2001 to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) as feed additive in broiler chicken production on growth performance. The experiment involved 210 day-old broiler chicks which were randomly allocated to 14 pens of 15 birds each. There were seven ...

  19. Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent...

  20. Microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; El-Nashaby, F.M.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products (Luncheon, Burger and debonded minced chicken) which are produced by three companies (Halwany Bros.(H)-Faragalla (F) and Egypco (E)). The samples were purchased from local supermarkets and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The examination illustrated that all examined samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. While Luncheon (F), Burger (H) and debonded minced chicken (E) were only positive for Salmonella spp. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at 0, 3, 6 and 9 kGy. The effects of radiation treatments and cold storage (5+,-1 degree) on the total volatile basic nitrogen (T.V.B.N.), microbiological quality and sensory properties of samples under investigation were studied. The results indicated that 3kGy dose of gamma irradiation completely destroyed Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. and caused slight increase in (T.V.B.N.) content for all samples. A gradual increase in total bacteria, molds and yeast and T. V. B. N. during storage were observed, while 6 kGy dose was also sufficient for destroying Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in all chicken meat products under investigation without any detectable effects on the sensory properties of these products and increased the shelf-life of luncheon, burger and minced for 8, 4 and 3 weeks respectively as compared with 4, 2 and 1 weeks for control samples