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Sample records for angiomyolipomas computed tomographic

  1. Case of renal angiomyolipoma treated with partial nephrectomy. Diagnostic value of ultrasonogram and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, N.; Shrestha, G.R.; Nakamura, T.; Ichikawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.

    1987-05-01

    A 62-year-old woman with renal angiomyolipoma is reported. Ultrasonogram revealed a hyperechoic renal mass and computed tomography showed a fatty density area in the tumor. Preoperative dianosis of renal angiomyolipoma was made and was confirmed by frozen section during the operation. Partial nephrectomy was performed subsequently. Renal angiomyolipoma is known by its fat content causing high echogenecity in the ultrasonogram and fatty density area in computed tomography. Renal angiomyolipoma, therefore, could be suspected by this combination of findings and conservative surgery should be planned preoperatively.

  2. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: Dynamic computed tomography features and clinical correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Yang; Wen-Hui Chen; Qiao-Yun Li; Jing-Jing Xiang; Ru-Jun Xu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the dynamic computed tomography (CT) features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients with or without tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: The clinical information, CT findings and histopathological results of hepatic AML were analyzed retrospectively in 10 patients. RESULTS: Hepatic AML was prone to occur in female patients (7/10), and most of the patients (8/10) had no specific symptoms. All tumors presented as welldefined, unenveloped nodules in the liver. Six patients with sporadic hepatic AML had a solitary hepatic nodule with a definite fat component. Non-fat components of the hepatic lesions were enhanced earlier and persistently. Prominent central vessels were noted in the portal venous phase in three patients. In four patients with hepatic AML and TSC, most of the nodules were within the peripheral liver. Seven fatdeficient nodules were found with earlier contrast enhancement and rapid contrast material washout in two patients. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis was found in one patient.CONCLUSION: Imaging features of hepatic AML are characteristic. Correct diagnosis preoperatively can be made in combination with clinical features.

  3. Computer tomographic findings in neurosyphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithran K

    1993-01-01

    Computer tomographic features of the brain in 2 cases of neurosyphilis are described. Less prominence of the cortical sulci suggesting cortical atrophy was the predominant feature in a case of general paralysis of insane. Diffuse, irregular, non-enhancing, low-attenuated area in the cortical and subcortical region of the right temporoparietal lobe of a patient with vascular syphilis, suggested infarction of the brain.

  4. Computer tomographic findings in neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer tomographic features of the brain in 2 cases of neurosyphilis are described. Less prominence of the cortical sulci suggesting cortical atrophy was the predominant feature in a case of general paralysis of insane. Diffuse, irregular, non-enhancing, low-attenuated area in the cortical and subcortical region of the right temporoparietal lobe of a patient with vascular syphilis, suggested infarction of the brain.

  5. Low-fat Angiomyolipoma of the Liver Studied with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Multidetector Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman with persistent pain at the right hypochondrium, relapsing fever, and normal serum tests. Ultrasound showed a hyperechoic inhomogeneous mass; following sulfur hexafluoride injection, uniform enhancement at 14-16 s and rapid wash-out at 26 s was found. Multidetector computed tomography showed an inhomogeneously hypodense mass, with no detectable negative density values, characterized by inhomogeneous enhancement at the arterial phase and wash-out at the portal phase. Histopathology demonstrated a hepithelioid angiomyolipoma with a poor fatty component. This diagnosis should always be considered in the presence of a very rapid wash-out after intravenous contrast injection. However, a hepatocellular carcinoma cannot be excluded and the final diagnosis of low-fat angiomyolipoma must be pathologically proved based on immunohistochemistry

  6. Computed tomographic imaging of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of uncertain etiology. The computed tomographic image is characterized by geographically sharply delineated alveolar infiltrates, faint, ground-glass-like parenchymal turbidity, with well bordered interstitial structures and recesses in the subpleural space. (orig.)

  7. Computed tomographic appearances of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis

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    Chigira, Masaki; Shimizu, Toru (Gunma Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery)

    1989-08-01

    Computed tomographical analysis of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis was performed in 27 patients. In the earliest stage hyperostosis occurred around the cartilaginous portion of the first ribs. The sternoclavicular joint space was preserved even in the late stage III of the disorder. It is also suggested that perichondritis and periostitis play important roles in the etiology of this disorder. (orig./GDG).

  8. Computed Tomographic Scan Evaluation of Pulmonary Blastomycosis

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    Suzanne Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis is an uncommon granulomatous pulmonary and extrapulmonary infectious disease caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. Diagnosis may be delayed or difficult because of varied presentation. The characteristics of blastomycosis on computed tomographic (CT scan of the chest are not well characterized.

  9. Computed tomographic features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Evaluation in 138 patients

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    Tobino, Kazunori, E-mail: tobino@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshiomachi, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-0018 (Japan); Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Kurumazuka 3-1, Itami, Hyogo 664-0872 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University Hospital, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Arakawa, Hiroaki [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kita-Kobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kumasaka, Toshio [The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo 150-0012 (Japan); Koike, Kengo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine & Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •In our series, the frequency of pulmonary nodules was higher than in the previous reports. •Our sporadic LAM patients had a lower frequency of renal AML than in that of previous reports. •LAM patients may have a high incidence of renal and hepatic cysts. •LAM cells may originate in the pelvis then spread via the axial lymphatic system. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim was to characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings from Japanese patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Materials and methods: CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis from 124 patients with sporadic LAM (S-LAM, mean age, 37.4 years) and 14 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-LAM (mean age, 35.6 years) were analyzed. Results: Pulmonary nodules (18.8%) and hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML, 24.3%) were more common in our patients than those in previous reports. Compared with TSC-LAM, S-LAM group had a higher frequency of pulmonary nodules (28.6% vs 32.3%, P < 0.01) and lower frequencies of air-space consolidation (21.4% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01), pneumothorax (28.6% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02), pulmonary hilar lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 0.8%, P < 0.01), renal AML (85.7% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), hepatic AML (71.4% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), and retrocrural lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 1.4%, P = 0.04). Axial lymphatic abnormalities (i.e., thoracic duct dilatation, lymphadenopathy, and lymphangioleiomyoma) were most common in the pelvis and tended to decrease in incidence with increased distance from the pelvis. Conclusion: The incidence of some CT findings in Japanese patients differed from those in previous reports. Axial lymphatic abnormalities noted here suggest that the origin of LAM cells may be the pelvis.

  10. Computed tomographic features of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Evaluation in 138 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •In our series, the frequency of pulmonary nodules was higher than in the previous reports. •Our sporadic LAM patients had a lower frequency of renal AML than in that of previous reports. •LAM patients may have a high incidence of renal and hepatic cysts. •LAM cells may originate in the pelvis then spread via the axial lymphatic system. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim was to characterize the computed tomographic (CT) findings from Japanese patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Materials and methods: CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis from 124 patients with sporadic LAM (S-LAM, mean age, 37.4 years) and 14 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-LAM (mean age, 35.6 years) were analyzed. Results: Pulmonary nodules (18.8%) and hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML, 24.3%) were more common in our patients than those in previous reports. Compared with TSC-LAM, S-LAM group had a higher frequency of pulmonary nodules (28.6% vs 32.3%, P < 0.01) and lower frequencies of air-space consolidation (21.4% vs 2.4%, P < 0.01), pneumothorax (28.6% vs 8.1%, P = 0.02), pulmonary hilar lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 0.8%, P < 0.01), renal AML (85.7% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), hepatic AML (71.4% vs 17.4%, P < 0.01), and retrocrural lymphadenopathy (14.3% vs 1.4%, P = 0.04). Axial lymphatic abnormalities (i.e., thoracic duct dilatation, lymphadenopathy, and lymphangioleiomyoma) were most common in the pelvis and tended to decrease in incidence with increased distance from the pelvis. Conclusion: The incidence of some CT findings in Japanese patients differed from those in previous reports. Axial lymphatic abnormalities noted here suggest that the origin of LAM cells may be the pelvis

  11. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare lesion composed of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue and abnormal vessels. It is currently classified as a benign, non-epithelial renal tumor. It has a high incidence in patients suffering from tuberous sclerosis but is more frequently found as an isolated renal...

  12. Computed tomographic findings of benign retroperitoneal tumors

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    Matsuura, Takashi; Nakata, Hajime; Nakayama, Chikashi (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)); Nishitani, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Keiichi

    1983-07-01

    We have reviewed the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 8 cases of benign retroperitoneal tumors with histological proof. Two teratomas, two schwannomas, and one each of epidermoid cyst, simple cyst, bronchogenic cyst, and cystic lymphangioma were included. The most common CT appearance of these tumors was the solitary, round, well-demarcated, relatively low density mass. Capsule or calcification was demonstrated in some. CT is a highly valuable non-invasive examination method for a diagnosis of a benign retroperitoneal tumor.

  13. Health risks from computed tomographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Seth B; Meyers, Bryan F

    2015-05-01

    Results of the recent National Lung Cancer Screening Trial show a significant survival benefit for annual screening with a low-dose computed tomographic (CT) scan in high-risk individuals. This result has led the US Preventive Services Task Force to recommend annual low-dose CT scans for this at-risk population. Less well characterized are the risks from screening. The primary risks from screening are radiation exposure, false-positive results and unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and increased psychological distress. This article reviews these risks, which must be considered and weighed against the benefits when discussing enrollment with patients. PMID:25901559

  14. Computed tomographic findings in acute infantile hemiplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and computed tomographic findings in four cases of acute infantile hemiplegia that were followed for over ten years are described. The most impressive and common findings in four cases are as follows: 1) Unilateral loss of cerebral volume with displacement of the midline structures to the affected side. 2) Unilateral thicked calvarium and dilated frontal and ethmoid sinus and mastoid air cells on affected side. 3) A dilated lateral ventricle in the affected hemisphere. The recongnition of these calvarial changes should indicate that the cerebral abnormalities are the result of an atrophic and hypoplastic process that began in early life. (author)

  15. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise

  16. Computed tomographic analysis of urinary calculi

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    Newhouse, J.H.; Prien, E.L.; Amis, E.S. Jr.; Dretler, S.P.; Pfister, R.C.

    1984-03-01

    Excised urinary calculi were subjected to computed tomographic (CT) scanning in an attempt to determine whether CT attenuation values would allow accurate analysis of stone composition. The mean, maximum, and modal pixel densities of the calculi were recorded and compared; the resulting values reflected considerable heterogeneity in stone density. Although uric acid and cystine calculi could be identified by their discrete ranges on one or more of these criteria, calcium-containing stones of various compositions, including struvite, could not be distinguished reliably. CT analysis of stone density is not likely to be more accurate than standard radiography in characterizing stone composition in vivo.

  17. Computed tomographic features of canine nonparenchymal hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Robertson, Ian D; Oshima, Fukiko; Fukazawa, Eri; Nakano, Yuko; Ono, Shin; Thrall, Donald E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe pre- and postcontrast computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of confirmed nonparenchymal hemangiosarcoma in a group of dogs. Medical records were searched during the period of July 2003 and October 2011 and dogs with histologically confirmed nonparenchymal hemangiosarcoma and pre- and postcontrast CT images were recruited. Two observers recorded a consensus opinion for the following CT characteristics for each dog: largest transverse tumor diameter, number of masses, general tumor shape, character of the tumor margin, precontrast appearance, presence of dystrophic calcification, presence of postcontrast enhancement, pattern of postcontrast enhancement, presence of regional lymphadenopathy, and presence of associated cavitary fluid. A total of 17 dogs met inclusion criteria. Tumors were located in the nasal cavity, muscle, mandible, mesentery, subcutaneous tissue, and retroperitoneal space. Computed tomographic features of nonparenchymal hemangiosarcoma were similar to those of other soft tissue sarcomas, with most tumors being heterogeneous in precontrast images, invasive into adjacent tissue, and heterogeneously contrast enhancing. One unexpected finding was the presence of intense foci of contrast enhancement in 13 of the 17 tumors (76%). This appearance, which is not typical of other soft tissue sarcomas, was consistent with contrast medium residing in vascular channels. Findings indicated that there were no unique distinguishing CT characteristics for nonparenchymal hemangiosarcoma in dogs; however, the presence of highly attenuating foci of contrast enhancement may warrant further investigation in prospective diagnostic sensitivity and treatment outcome studies. PMID:24382330

  18. Computed tomographic features of cerebellar hemangioblastoma

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    Park, Yong Lan; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Ho Kyun [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    Computed tomographic and angiographic findings of 6 proven cerebellar Hemangiotoma seen in this hospital during last 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. Except one 14 years old female, all of them wee 37 to 48 years old males. 2. The operative findings of the tumors were 3 cystic tumors with mural nodules and 3 solid tumors. Computed tomographic findings were: 3. Of three cases of cystic cerebellar hemangiotomas, 2 cases revealed characteristic CT findings such as; a. In precontrast study, a well defined round lower density containing one isodense nodule in its periphery was seen in each case. The absorption coefficiency of each lower density was around 5 EMI unit. b. In post contrast study, the nodules were enhanced densely and homogeneously white the lower densities remain unchanged. 4. Of three cases of solid cerebella hemangiotoma, 2 cases revealed isodense mass suggested by mass effect such as displaced 4th ventricle and peripheral edema in precontrast study, while the remaining case revealed ill defined slightly high density with peripheral edema. In postcontrast study, the 2 isodense masses showed well circumscribed homogenous enhancement with central slight lower density in one of them, while high density mass revealed no enhancement at all. 5. The vertebral angiography performed in 5 cases revealed high vascular tumors with feeding arteries, draining veins and increased circulation time. 6. The tumor blushing seen in vertebral angiography was correlated to the postcontrast enhancement of solid tumors and mural nodules in cystic hemangioblastoma.

  19. Computed tomographic investigations on intraventricular hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated in 106 patients with intraventricular hematomas all the known factors which can have an influence on prognosis: age, sex, anamnesis of the patients, size, extent and localization of the intracranial bleeding, underlying angiopathy and differences between arterial and venous and spontaneous and traumatic bleedings. It was shown that the state of mind was the deciding prognostic factor, whereby viligance was the cumulative expression of all other investigated influences. A computed tomography (CT) examination is deciding in the question of operative hydrocephalus care. In 13 patients it was further shown, how clearly CT results and brain dissection allowed themselves to be compared. The computed tomographic examination method is best suited to achieve even physiological and more extensive prognostic possibilities. (orig.)

  20. E-learn Computed Tomographic Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...... occlusion and "spot sign" in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that an e-learning program enhances reading skills in physicians of varying experience. METHODS: We developed an HTML-based program with a teaching segment and 2 matching test segments. Tests were taken before and after the...... sign correctly 69% before versus 92% after teaching (P = .009) and reported a median self-perceived diagnostic certainty of 50% versus 75% (P = .030). Self-perceived diagnostic certainty revealed no significant increase for vascular occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The e-learning program is a useful educational...

  1. Cutaneous angiomyolipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand S Ammanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cutaneous angiomyolipoma (AML found on the anterior abdominal wall of a 3-year-old female child. Histologic examination showed a well-circumscribed nodule in the dermis composed of an intimate mixture of convoluted thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and mature fat. This lesion differs from renal AML in terms of a lack of association with tuberous sclerosis, circumscription, absence of epithelioid cells, and male predominance. We concluded that the unique features of this lesion distinguish it from other lesions such as angiomyoma, angiolipoma, myolipoma, haemangioma, and other mixed mesenchymal tumors. This case report suggests that the features considered diagnostic of AML can occur in extrarenal sites and, therefore, this diagnosis cannot be excluded on the basis of site alone.

  2. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach

  3. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  4. Computed tomographic findings of postoperative maxillary cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied computed tomographic findings in the axial sections of postoperative maxillary cyst diagnosed histopathologically. The results were as follows: 1. Nineteen patients (11 males and 8 females) were studied. The average age was 44.9 years and the average period after the initial surgery of maxillary sinus was 24.3 years. 2. The lesion occupied the maxillary sinus horizontally in 13 cases and the inferior border of the lesion extended to the alveolar area in 17 cases. The forms of the lesions fell into three types; absorbed bone type, simular sinus type and unsettled type. The lesion was unilocular in 15 cases. 3. The lesion protruded into the soft tissue in 15 cases. 4. The CT numbers of the lesions ranged from 28.5 to 73.0 H.U., and the average was 44.6 H.U. 5. In the bilateral surgery cases, the findings of the opposite side fell into three types; filled bone type, reduced cavity type and soft tissue density area type. (author)

  5. Computer tomographic imaging of rabbit bulbourethral glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to utilize the obtained data for differentiation of normal and pathologically altered bulbourethral glands in rabbits with regard to using this animal species as a model for studying diseases in this organ in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten sexually mature healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, 12 months old, weighed 2.8−3.2 kg were investigated. The animals were anesthetized. Scans were done at 2 mm intervals and the image reconstruction was three-dimensional. RESULTS: Rabbit bulbourethral glands were observed as a transversely oval homogeneous, relatively hyperdense structure against the surrounding soft tissues. They are visualized in the transverse cut of the pelvic outlet in the plane through the cranial part of cg2, the body of ischium, cranially to tuber ischiadicum and dorsally to the caudal part of symphysis pubis –sciatic arch. The glandular margins are adequately distinguished from the adjacent soft tissue structures. The density of the rabbit bulbourethral glands was similar to this of the soft tissues. CONCLUSION: The data obtained by the computed tomographic imaging of the rabbit bulbourethral glands could be used as an anatomical reference in the diagnosis and interpretation of imaging findings of various pathological states of the gland in this species, as well as in utilization of the rabbit as an animal model for studying diseases of this organ in humans, particularly diverticula, stenosis, lithiasis and valves

  6. Computed tomographic study of maxillofacial gunshot injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and computed tomographic features of 7 cases of maxillofacial al gunshot injuries in the suicidal patients visited the emergency room, Capital Armed Forces General Hospital. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The gunshot wounds were directed from submental area to dorsum of nose (3 cases), frontal area (1 case), orbit (1 case ), infraorbital area (1 case), and lateral to nasal wing (1 case), The shape of inlet in gunshot wounds were round (diameter : 13cm) and that of outlet were oval shape (size : inlet< outlet). 2. The bullet fragment wasn't found in 2 cases, but in the other 5 cases, the bullet fragments were showed in facial area. 3. All cases showed the fracture on anterior mandible (5 cases : comminuted fracture), and 1 case showed the comminuted fracture on mandibular body. The maxilla were comminutedly fractured in all cases, the fracture of mixillary teeth were showed and in 3 cases the fracture of mandibular teeth were showed. 4. The comminuted fracture on nasal bone and fracture on nasal septum occurred in 6 cases. 5. the cases of injuries on paranasal sinus were 5 cases of fracture on mixillary sinus, 4 cases of fracture on ethmoid al sinus, 2 cases of fracture on frontal sinus. this every fractured paranasal sinus showed air-fluid level or non-aera tion state. 6. Obstruction of supralaryngeal airway occurred in 6 cases.

  7. Lipid-poor renal angiomyolipoma: Differentiation from clear cell renal cell carcinoma using wash-in and washout characteristics on contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, PINGKUN; Yang, Zhihui; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 82 patients (42 men and 40 women; age range, 24–84 years), including 34 patients with lipid-poor renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and 49 with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), who had undergone multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) (i.e., CT with unenhanced, corticomedullary, nephrographic and 5-min delay phase scanning) were evaluated. The peak enhancement attenuation value, net enhancement attenuation value, enhancement ratio, washout value an...

  8. A case of renal angiomyolipoma treated with partial nephrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 62-year-old woman with renal angiomyolipoma is reported. Ultrasonogram revealed a hyperechoic renal mass and computed tomography showed a fatty density area in the tumor. Preoperative dianosis of renal angiomyolipoma was made and was confirmed by frozen section during the operation. Partial nephrectomy was performed subsequently. Renal angiomyolipoma is known by its fat content causing high echogenecity in the ultrasonogram and fatty density area in computed tomography. Renal angiomyolipoma, therefore, could be suspected by this combination of findings and conservative surgery should be planned preoperatively. (author)

  9. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  10. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, E.; Schelin, H.R.; Setti, J.A.P.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S.A.; Basilio, A.C.; Rocha, R.; Ribeiro Junior, S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)]. E-mails: sergei@utfpr.edu.br; edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; Evseev, I.; Yevseyeva, O. [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graducao em Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, U.M. [Instituto de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  11. Epitheloid Type Renal Angiomyolipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GÜNEŞ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipoma (AML is a well-known rare soft tissue tumor involving the kidneys, liverand other organs. Epithelioid angiomyolipoma is a recently recognized variant ofangiomyolipoma, which is characterized by the presence of polygonal cells with denselyeosinophilic cytoplasm and varying degrees of nuclear atypia. Immunreactivity with HMB-45and CD68 are helpful for its identification. We report a case of epithelioid angiomyolipoma ofthe kidney that occurred in a 19-year-old woman.

  12. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M;

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral computed...... tomographic images correlates with that on computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images and that spiral computed tomographic imaging predicts the histomorphometric plaque content....

  13. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease

  14. Dynamic computed tomographic scans in experimental brain abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic computed tomographic scans were performed in an experimental brain abscess model to establish criteria that could be utilized in abscess staging. The vascular phase of the time-density curves did not differentiate cerebritis and capsule stages. The amount of residual enhancement after the first pass of an intra-arterial contrast bolus differed between major abscess stages, the greater residual enhancement being noted in the capsule stage. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic computed tomographic scans in experimental brain abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzmann, D.R.; Britt, R.H.; Placone, R.C.

    1984-07-01

    Dynamic computed tomographic scans were performed in an experimental brain abscess model to establish criteria that could be utilized in abscess staging. The vascular phase of the time-density curves did not differentiate cerebritis and capsule stages. The amount of residual enhancement after the first pass of an intra-arterial contrast bolus differed between major abscess stages, the greater residual enhancement being noted in the capsule stage.

  16. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) in Vascular Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tehrai

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of trauma patients, computed tomo-graphy and CT angiography (CTA) are powerful non-invasive tools that provide a large amount of informa-tion in so little time that they have virtually replaced plain film radiography and catheter angiography. In our hospital, CTA has replaced catheter angiogra-phy for diagnosing most vascular injuries, resulting from penetrating and blunt trauma to head, neck, thorax, abdomen and extremities. This lecture will cover current imaging protocols...

  17. Computer tomographic diagnosis of Caroli's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts - Caroli's syndrome - is a rare disease of which about one hundred cases have been reported in the literature. Based on two observations, the value of various radiological procedures is discussed. Compared with other noninvasive procedures, computer tomography has the advantage of being able to show not only the medullary sponge kidney which often accompanies this condition. The indications for ERC can therefore be more strictly defined. (orig.)

  18. Computed tomographic evaluation of renal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate radiographic demonstration of the extent of renal injury following blunt abdominal trauma is an important guide to therapy. The diagnostic evaluation of renal injuries usually begins with excretory urography, but not provide detailed information about the extent of injury. The need for a more accurate noninvasive modality led us to investigate the use of computed tomography. We evaluated with computed tomography and excretory urography 30 selected patients suspected of having major renal injury. Of these patients 11 were also underwent arteriography for assessment of renal arterial injuries. In this paper, we wish to analyze the result of the above modalities, particularly angiography and computed tomography. The brief results were as follow. 1. Among 30 patients, 21 cases were male and 9 cases were female. About one third of these occurred between the age of 20-29. 2. All cases were non penetrating blunt traumas. 3. Renal injuries were categorized into 3 groups. Category I is minor renal injuries (14 cases), II is major renal injuries (13 cases), and III is catastrophic renal injuries (3 cases). 4. IVP is the most common initial diagnostic modality and good for screening of patients, but lack of specificity. In our study the specificity is about 33%. 5. CT is more accurate in detecting hematoma, parenchymal laceration, fracture and extravasation of urine, but angiography is more confirmative in diagnosis of vascular injuries. 6. Conservative management was done in 19 cases; 13 cases of category I and 6 cases of II. Operation was performed in 11 cases; 1 case of category I, 7 cases of II and 3 cases of III. 7. Associated injuries were noted in 17 cases (57%).

  19. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  20. Lymphadenopathy in celiac disease: computed tomographic observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.; Bayless, T.M.; Fishman, E.K.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1984-06-01

    Lymphadenopathy in patients with celiac disease is generally viewed with alarm due to the association between celiac disease and intestinal lymphoma. Four patients with celiac disease are described in whom significant mesenteric and paraaortic adenopathy was demonstrated by computed tomogrophy (CT). The subsequent clinical course of these patients revealed no evidence of lymphoma. In two patients with longstanding celiac disease and recent relapse, exploratory laparotomy revealed reactive hyperplasia in the enlarged glands; in one patient this was associated with intestinal ulceration, and in the other no underlying pathology was found. Follow-up CT scans in both these patients demonstrated regression of the findings with clinical improvement. In the other two patients, CT was performed as part of the initial evaluation.

  1. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, B.J.; Drach, G.W.; Tracey, P.; Gaines, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment.

  2. Computed tomographic evaluation of intracranial metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Eun, Chung Kie; Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    Computed tomography was proved to be the most accurate diagnostic tool in the analysis of brain metastasis than any other classical methods. The authors studied CT findings of intracranial metastasis in 31 cases proven clinically and histologically. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the cases was 15 males and 16 females with peak age of 6th decade in males and 4th decade in female. 2. Metastic lesions were multiple in 18 cases and single in 13 cases. 3. The most common degree of edema was grade III, 43% of total metastatic foci. Marked edematous low densities with relatively small nodular high densities in precontrast scan and variable contrast enhancement of the nodular densities were the most frequent CT findings. 4. No specific characteristics according to the primary cancer was noted. All four cases of choriocarcinoma showed hemorrhagic tendency.

  3. Computed tomographic findings of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraventricular hemorrhage frequently occurs in premature newborn infants, and the prognosis is usually poor. Recently, with new methods for computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic tomography, the size of the hematoma and the degree of ventricular dilatation can be determined allowing early therapeutic management of this disease. Papile et al. (1980) classified subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants into four types, and reported the prognosis, especially the incidence of hydrocephalus for each type. Since the report of Goldstein et al. (1976), early treatment with repeated lumbar punctures (RLP) have been tried at several institutions. A few reports evaluating this treatment have been published. In this paper the features of CT in eighteen surviving infants with intraventricular hemorrhage are described. Early clinical management of the hemorrhage with repeated lumbar punctures is evaluated. (author)

  4. Computed tomographic evaluation of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the clinical experience in the evaluation of the pancreas with computed tomography (CT) since October 1975 indicates that it is a reliable, often specific and relatively noninvasive method for the detection of pancreatic neoplasms and the varied manifestations of pancreatitis and its complications. The normal pancreas is clearly imaged in all but the leanest or uncooperative patients. Tumors of pancreas are identified as focal alteration in the size or contour of the gland. Obliteration of contiguous fat planes, areas of necrosis within the tumor, and secondary effects on the uninvolved parts of the pancreas and biliary tree can be identified. CBT has substantially reduced the need for pancreatic angiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography at this medical center. Although a definitive comparison of ultrasound and CT has not yet been accomplished, initial experience indicates that a complementary rather than competitive relationship will develop between the two imaging methods. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  5. Computed tomographic analysis of renal calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro study sought to determine the feasibility of using computed tomography (CT) to analyze the chemical composition of renal calculi and thus aid in selecting the best treatment method. Sixty-three coded calculi were scanned in a water bath. Region-of-interest measurements provided the mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum pixel values for each stone. These parameters were correlated with aspects of the stones' chemical composition. A multivariate analysis showed that the mean and standard deviation of the stones' pixel values were the best CT parameters for differentiating types of renal calculi. By using computerized mapping techniques, uric acid calculi could be perfectly differentiated from struvite and calcium oxalate calculi. The latter two types also were differentiable, but to a lesser extent. CT has a potential role as an adjunct to clinical and laboratory methods for determining the chemical composition of renal calculi in an effort to select optimal treatment

  6. Computed tomographic finding of tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography has been established as a useful imaging method in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. By demonstrating the characteristic intracranial lesion, it allows confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a noninvasive means of evaluating the patient with seizure and mental retardation. Authors analysed CT findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis since March 1985 through August 1988. The results were as follows: 1) There are 14 men and 6 women with the age raging from 6 months to 45 years. 2) Ventricular calcified tubers are noted at the frontal horn (16/20, 80%), body (13/20, 65%), atrium (9/20 45%) of the lateral ventricles. 1 case shows the haematuria near the foramen of Monro. 3) In the cortical region, 1 case of high density tuber and 2 cases of focal atrophy are noted. 4) In the white mater, 3 cases of amorphous calcifications and 1 case of demyelinating hypodensity are seen.

  7. Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Christian D; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Juergen; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2010-01-01

    A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while...

  8. Computed tomographic features of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional radiography of the adrenal glands are too often unsatisfactory. It is well known that the whole body computed tomography is very useful in identifying retroperitoneal pathology. The authors intended to present normal data of adrenal glands for preparation of basis for interpretation of abnormalities. We reviewed CT scans of 30 cases without evidence of adrenal disease and 4 cases of adrenal lesions. The results are as follows: 1. There were 16 male and 14 female patients, and their ages ranged from 10 to 70 years. 2. On CT, both glands were shown in 23 (76%), the right in 24 (80%) and the left in 26 (86%). 3. Most of the right adrenal gland was linear or comet in shape in the apex, and partly 'inverted V' in the base. 4. The right adrenal had length of 2.4 ± 0.8 cm, width of 2.6 ± 0.8 cm and thickness of 0.6 ± 0.1 cm. The left adrenal, 2.5 ± 0.7 cm, 2.4 ± 0.5 cm and 0.7 ± 0.1 cm respectively. 5. In 2 cases of Cushing's syndrome, CT demonstrated grossly enlarged, smooth-contoured adrenal glands with convex borders. 6. In the case of cortical adenoma, CT showed the mass of homogeneous low density as a result to high total fat content.7. In pheochromocytoma, CT showed relatively large mass with low density.

  9. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  10. Computer diagnosis of tomographic pulmonary images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation records an attempt to construct empirically a robust algorithm capable of differentiating between images of healthy and abnormal lung parenchyma. The aim is to provide the basis for computer software that will facilitate the automatic diagnosis of pulmonary disease. Six archived data sets, comprising images of a range of known physiological conditions, are used to inform the final diagnostic algorithm. However, irregularities common in such data - arising from factors associated with scanning protocols and image reconstruction - demand that some consistent means of normalizing the images be adopted. Lung morphology results in the fractal structure of the broncho-vascular tree, which provides an efficient network for transporting air and blood to the alveoli and accounts for the homogeneous density of the lung parenchyma. Local density is decreased by lesions occurring as residual air pockets beyond the terminal bronchioles, and increased by fibrous scarring. The result is darker or lighter greyscale levels in the corresponding images. The sensitivity of CT to parenchymal density changes makes such deviations from 'normal' greyscale values good indices of disease. However, as the aforementioned conditions are often present together, average density cannot be used as a discriminator, so a set of three 'panning' threshold windows are prepared: one to 'see' only a range of darker pixels, another the 'normal' ones, the third the unnaturally light ones. Different features can thus be segmented and quantified. An image 'feature' here implies a subset of a significant number of adjacent, thresholded pixels. Its 'space-filling' character is assessed by assigning it a fractal dimension. The number and greyscale range of the pixels comprising the pattern (feature) together with its assessed fractal dimension are used as diagnostic indices. As a conclusion to the diagnostic exercise, some aspects of image processing are suggested as useful in addressing the

  11. A computed tomographic study on epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    140 patients with epileptic seizure were studied by computed tomography during the period from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1979 in the Department or Radiology, College of Medicine, Hangyang University. Those findings on CT and clinical records including EEG findings were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 140 patients was broad ranging from 1 month to 63 years. 73.5% of patients was below the age of 30. The patient population was comprised of 93 males and 47 females, and its male to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The type of epileptic seizure were classified according to the International League against Epilepsy. 42.9% of patients had primary generalized seizure, 47.1% with partial seizure, and 10% with non classifiable seizure. 3. As additional symptoms and signs except seizure, headache was most common, and the next was nausea and vomiting. Uncommonly, there were also insomnia, personality change, and memory disturbance. 4. 37.1% of patients had less than 1 month of seizure history, 19.3% between 1 year and 5 years. 5. EEG findings were available in 41 patients, and normal in 15 cases. 26 patients revealed abnormal findings. Among those abnormal findings focal slowing was appeared in 19.5% and generalized slowing in 17.1%. 6. 52% of patients showed abnormal findings on CT. The most common abnormal findings was focal low density (30%), and the next was diffuse hydrocephalus (7.1%). After contrast infusion, contrast enhancement was occurred in cases with focal low density, focal high or isodense mass density. In patients with focal low density, ring or nodular enhancement were common, and diffuse or serpentime enhancement in focal high or isodence mass density. 7. The frequency of structural abnormalities on CT was more common in patients below the age of 10 and over 30 than other age groups. The epilepsy starting below 10 and over 30 years of age showed structural abnormalities in 63.6-100%. 8. The patients who had less than 6 months of

  12. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kinoshita, Y.; Yokota, J.I.; Yoshioka, T.; Sugimoto, T.

    1987-07-01

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint.

  13. Computed tomographical imaging of the brain in post hypoglycemic coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of post severe hypoglycemic coma was studied by sequential Computed Tomographic Imaging (CT) of the brain. The CT 1) was normal in the early stage, 2) subsequently showed a low density area, which was enhanced by the contrast medium, in the cerebral cortex and the boundary zone between the major cerebral arteries, and 3) revealed marked enhancement in the entire cortical region and hypodensity in the periventricular region in the late stage. These CT findings, representing the course of neural cell damage by severe hypoglycemia, are discussed from the pathophysiological viewpoint. (orig.)

  14. Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, N.N.; Osborn, A.G.; Cheson. B.D.

    1981-11-01

    While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning.

  15. Computed tomographic features of fibrous dysplasia of maxillofacial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontakke, Subodh Arun; Karjodka, Freny R [Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumba (India); Umarji, Hemant R [Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2011-03-15

    This study was to find the computed tomographic features of fibrous dysplasia of the maxillofacial region. All eight cases included in the study reported either to Government Dental College and Hospital or Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai between 2003 and 2009. The patients were prescribed computed tomogram in addition to conventional radiographs of maxillofacial region which were studied for characteristic features of fibrous dysplasia. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was confirmed by histopathological report. All cases showed the ill-defined margins of lesions except in the region where the lesions were extending to cortex of the involved bone. Internal structure of all cases showed ground glass appearance. Four cases of maxillary lesion showed the displacement of maxillary sinus maintaining the shape of maxillary sinus. Two cases showed complete obliteration of maxillary sinus. Displacement of inferior alveolar canal did not follow any typical pattern in any of the cases but was displaced in different directions. The craniofacial type of fibrous dysplasia is as common as fibrous dysplasia of jaw. The margins, extent, internal structure and effect on surrounding structure are well detected on computed tomographic images.

  16. Computed tomographic evaluation of pancreatic and peripancreatic cystic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four cases of pancreatic cystic mass (pancreatic pseudocyst 37, pseudocyst caused by pancreatic carcinoma 2, mucous producing caner 2, cystadenoma 1, cystadenocarcinoma 2, and 16 cases of peripancreatic cystic mass (intestinal leiomyosarcoma 10, lymphonode metastasis 3, mesenteric hematoma 1, carcinoma of Vater's papilla 1, duplicating cyst of duodenum 1) were evaluated by computed tomography during the period from April 1978 to December 1984 at Fujita-Gakuen Health University Hospital. The most common cystic masses of pancreatic and peripancreatic lesion were pseudocyst. Although there are many cystic masses mimicking a pancreatic pseudocyst in pancreatic region, sometimes it is impossible to distinguish between cystic mass arising in the pancreas and the adjuvant organ. Difficulties in the computed tomographic differential diagnosis between pancreatic and peripancreatic cystic mass are analyzed and discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Computed Tomographic Characteristics and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimara de la Caridad Vergara Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: strokes are the third leading cause of death among adults and 10-15 % of them are due to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Objective: to characterize spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage through computed tomography scan and its outcome. Methods: a case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital in Villa Clara from January 2009 to January 2010. Tomographic variables of interest were derived from evaluation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. Results: fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were studied, 23 were located in lobar regions, 4 had severe midline shift, and 2 showed volume greater than 80 ml. Eight out of eleven with extension into the ventricular system had an unfavorable outcome. Among those with thalamic hemorrhage, patients with diameter larger than 4cm and extension into the ventricular system died. Patients with putaminal hemorrhage larger than 4 cm and posterior fossa hematoma with hydrocephalus had a poor outcome, as well as most individuals (55 with other mass effects. Most lobar hematomas (14 out of 23 had a satisfactory outcome, unlike cerebellar and brainstem hematomas. Conclusions: tomographic variables that had a negative impact on the outcome were: volume greater than 80 ml, severe midline shift, diameter larger than 4 cm, extension into the ventricular system, hydrocephalus, other signs of mass effect and brainstem location.

  18. Computed tomographic evaluation of gallstone calcification for biliary lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslowitz, P L; Fishman, E K; Kafonek, D R; Lillemoe, K D; Mitchell, S; Widlus, D M; Saba, G P

    1991-04-01

    As the Food and Drug Administration trials for biliary lithotripsy in the United States near completion, future criteria for patient eligibility remain to be defined. Gallstone calcification greater than 3-mm partial rim on plain film (KUB) or oral cholecystogram (OCG) has excluded patients thus far, since early results of gallstone clearance (lithotripsy plus chemodissolution) were suboptimal with calcified stones. To evaluate the usefulness of these criteria for gallstone fragmentation, computed tomographic (CT) scans were performed on 20 patients immediately prior to lithotripsy to evaluate gallstone density and 24 hours after lithotripsy to observe the CT appearance of fragmentation. The adequacy of fragmentation was determined by pre- and post-lithotripsy sonography. This report constitutes the results of these investigations. PMID:10149158

  19. Study on diagnosis of peritoneal metastases with computed tomographic peritoneography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value and clinical significance of computed tomographic peritoneography (CTP) for peritoneal metastases. methods: Twenty-five cases with peritoneal metastases examined by plain CT and CTP with complete clinical information and surgical-pathologic results were retrospectively analyzed and correlative study was done in 20 cases. Results: The sensitivity of plain CT and CTP for detection of peritoneal metastases at all sites of involvement was 47.5% and 76.8%, respectively (x2 = 16.92, P < 0.005). For CTP, the highest sensitivity was in the bilateral sub-phrenic space (88.0%) and para-colic gutter (74.0%). conclusion: CTP is an effective imaging modality in detecting and diagnosing peritoneal metastases superior to plain CT

  20. Low-dose computed tomographic imaging in orbital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review findings in 75 computed tomographic (CT) examinations of 66 patients with orbital trauma who were imaged using a low-radiation-dose CT technique. Imaging was performed using a dynamic scan mode and exposure factors of 120 kVp and 80 mAs resulting in a skin dose of 11 mGy with an effective dose-equivalent of 0.22 mSv. Image quality was diagnostic in all cases and excellent in 73 examinations. Soft-tissue abnormalities within the orbit including muscle adhesions were well demonstrated both on primary axial and reconstructed multiplanar images. The benefits of multiplanar reconstructions are stressed and the contribution of soft-tissue injuries to symptomatic diplopia examined. (author)

  1. ''Aggressive'' renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an 'aggressive' appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG)

  2. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice computed tomographic angiography in the detection of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomographic angiography is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to compare Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography In the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study we evaluated 111 consecutive patients [42(37.8%) male and 69(62.2%) female], who were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs. suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm by using a four detector Multislice computed tomographic angiography. Then we compared results of Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography results as a gold standard method. Digital subtraction angiography was performed by bilateral selective common carotid artery injections and either unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery injections, as necessary. Multislice computed tomographic angiography images were interpreted by one radiologist and digital subtraction angiography was performed by another radiologist who was blinded to the interpretation of the Multislice computed tomographic angiograms. Results: The mean ±S D age of the patients was 49.1±13.6 years (range: 12-84 years). We performed Multislice computed tomographic in 111 and digital subtraction angiography in 85 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio of Multislice computed tomographic angiography, when compared with digital subtraction angiography as the gold standard, were 100%, 90%, 87.5%, 100%, 10 and 0, respectively. Conclusion: Multislice computed tomographic angiography seems to be an accurate and noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms

  4. Colorectal Laterally Spreading Tumors by Computed Tomographic Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kakugawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, few reports focused primarily on detecting colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the visibility of LSTs on computed tomographic colonography (CTC compared with that on colonoscopy as a standard. We retrospectively reviewed and matched data on endoscopic and CTC reports in 157 patients (161 LSTs who received a multidetector CT scan using contrast media immediately after total colonoscopy at the National Cancer Center Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between December 2005 and August 2010. The results of the total colonoscopy were known at the time of the CTC procedure and reading. Of the 161 LSTs detected on colonoscopy, 138 were observed and matched by CTC (86%. Of the 91 granular type LSTs (LST-Gs, 88 (97% were observed and matched, while of the 70 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 50 (71% were observed and matched by CTC (p < 0.0001. CTC enabled observation of 73% (22/30 of 20–29 mm, 83% (35/42 of 30–39 mm, 88% (49/56 of 40–59 mm, and 97% (32/33 of ≥60 mm tumors. The rate of observed LSTs by CTC was 86% (97% of LST-G, 71% of LST-NG of the LSTs found during total colonoscopy.

  5. Extracolonic findings of computed tomographic colonography in Koreans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Keun Park; Dong Il Park; Sun-Young Lee; Sang Kil Lee; Young-Ho Kim; Soon Jin Lee; Jeong-Sik Byeon; Kyu Chan Huh; Ki-Nam Shim

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To determine the frequency and characteristics of extracolonic lesions detected using computed tomographic (CT) colonography. METHODS:The significance of extracolonic lesions was classified as high, intermediate, or low. Medical records were reviewed to establish whether further investigations were carried out pertaining to the extracolonic lesions that were detected by CT colonography. RESULTS:A total of 920 cases from 7 university hospitals were included, and 692 extracolonic findings were found in 532 (57.8%) patients. Of 692 extracolonic findings, 60 lesions (8.7%) were highly significant, 250 (36.1%) were of intermediate significance, and 382 (55.2%) were of low significance. CT colonography revealed fewer extracolonic findings in subjects who were without symptoms ( P < 0.001), younger ( P < 0.001), or who underwent CT colonography with no contrast enhancement ( P = 0.005). CT colonography with contrast enhancement showed higher cost-effectiveness in detecting highly significant extracolonic lesions in older subjects and in subjects with symptoms. CONCLUSION:Most of the extracolonic findings d e t e c t e d u s i n g C T c o l o n o g ra p hy w e r e o f l e s s significant lesions. The role of CT colonography would be optimized if this procedure was performed with contrast enhancement in symptomatic older subjects.

  6. The research of clinical application of computed tomographic virtual gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the values, methods and findings of computed tomographic virtual gastroscopy (CTVG). Methods: Sixty-nine patients underwent the examination of spiral CT after charged air into stomachs in different cubage. The CT scan conditions were collimating width 3 mm, pitch 1.2 - 2.5, scanning speed 0.8 s/360 degree, the raw data of CT volume scan was reconstructed in overlapping rate 33% - 67%. Then the images of CTVG were built using navigator software (GE AG, USA). Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CTVG were 92.8%, 96.4%, and 78.6%, respectively. CTVG corresponded well with fibrous gastroscopy and specimens in demonstrating the gastric lesions. CTVG was provided with the ability of revealing the tiny lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis, chronic erosive gastritis, chronic proliferative gastritis, and acute hemorrhagic gastritis in some degree. The high quality imaging of CTVG could be obtained in condition of collimating width 3 mm, pitch 1.2 - 1.5, overlapping 50% - 67%, well hold-breath, gastric cubage in full and feasible scan positions. Conclusion: CTVG is a rising means of gastric examination and has great value in clinic applications

  7. Computed tomographic high-attenuation mediastinal lymph nodes after aluminum exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Overlack, A. [Medical Faculty, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Mueller, K.M. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    A case with increased computed tomographic densities of mediastinal lymph nodes with histologically proven aluminum storage is presented. We suggest consideration of aluminosis as differential diagnosis in patients with increased native CT densities beyond 50 HU. (orig.)

  8. Transcatheter embolisation of renal angiomyolipoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, S

    2010-06-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AML) are rare benign renal tumours which are associated with aneurysms that can cause haemorrhage. Embolisation of AML greater than 4 cm with a variety of embolic agents is now the first-line treatment in these cases.

  9. Estimation of stochastic risk from computed tomographic examinations in Japan, 1979, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population doses and stochastic risks of hereditary, leukemia and malignant diseses from computed tomographic examinations were estimated on the basis of a 1979 nationwide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics throughout Japan. The organ or tissue doses related to genetic effects and somatic effects were determined with a phantom measurement, using thermoluminescent dosimeters and seven types of computed tomographic scanners. The resultant annual population doses per person were 0.11 mrad (1.1 μGy) for genetically significant dose, 2.8 mrad (28 μGy) for per caput mean bone marrow dose, 2.2 mrad (22 μGy) for leukemia significant dose and 0.72 mrad (7.2 μGy) for malignancy significant dose, respectively. Assuming that computed tomographic examinations in 1979 will be performed continuously in the future, the population risks for the whole population in Japan were estimated to be 20 persons per year for total risks. As an example of results, the individual risks was 7.36 x 10-6 for 32 year old male and 8.23 x 10-6 for 32 year old female from clanial computed tomographic examinations and 101.0 x 10-6 for 12 year old male and 257 x 10-6 for 12 year old female from lower abdominal computed tomographic examinations. (author)

  10. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detection of local recurrent colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau-Tong You; Chung-Rong Chang Chien; Jeng-Yi Wang; Koon-Kwan Ng; Jinn-Shiun Chen; Reiping Tang; Jy-Ming Chiang; Chien-Yuh Yeh; Pao-Shiu Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity,specificity of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2004,434 patients after potentially curative resection for invasive colorectal cancer were followed up for a period ranging from 20 to 55 mo. Eighty of the four hundred and thirty-four patients showing strong clinical evidence for recurring colorectal cancer during the last followup were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography and colonoscopy on the same day. Any lesions, biopsies,identified during the colonoscopic examination, immediate complications and the duration of the procedure were recorded. The results of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography were evaluated by comparing to those of colonoscopy, surgical finding, and clinical follow-up.RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic colonography had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 83% and an overall accuracy of 94% in detecting local recurrent colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION: Conventional colonoscopy and contrastenhanced tomographic colonography can complement each other in detecting local recurrence of colorectal cancer.

  11. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  12. Temporal bone anomalies in the branchio-oto-renal syndrome: detailed computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceruti, S.; Stinckens, C.I.C.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Casselman, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inventory computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging study on a family with the BOR syndrome. SETTING: Department of medical imaging and magnetic

  13. Computed tomographic virtual cardioscopy in a case of left atrial myxoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H-W; Chen, S-J; Chiu, I-S

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomographic virtual cardioscopy was used to provide clear and precise visualisation of a myxoma with a stalk arising from the interatrial septum. This technique permits the safe, reliable, and non-invasive diagnosis of intracardiac lesions. This case is presented to assist the cardiovascular surgeon in preoperative planning or in developing a simulation of robotic cardiac surgery.

  14. Computed-tomographic and conventional linear-tomographic evaluation of tracheobronchial lesions for laser photoresection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser therapy is a new modality for treatment of airway lesions. The authors examined 18 patients prior to laser photoresection of tracheobronchial lesions. Thirteen had cancers involving the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi; five had benign lesions of the middle or proximal trachea. Each patient was examined by conventional linear tomography (CLT) and computed tomography (CT). CT was valuable in patients who had lesions of the distal trachea, carina, and/or proximal bronchi. Its particular usefulness, and its advantage relative to CLT, consisted in its ability to delineate vascular structures adjacent to the planned area of photoresection. Neither CLT nor CT was helpful in evaluation of benign lesions of the proximal trachea

  15. Computed tomographic evaluation of the altered pancreas in dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen dogs and 12 cats of varying breed, age and sex underwent a computed tomographic study of the pancreas. Length, diameter and density of each lobe of the pancreas were measured. Further, the gained results were compared to the information established by the clinical examination, sonography, haematology and histology. Contrast CT improved evaluation of the pancreas in all cases of normal life controls. CT criteria such as changes in size, density, delimitation of the pancreas and the peripancreatic structures were analyzed. Increased pancreatic size was seen in inflammatory as well as in neoplastic diseases. There were no reliable computed tomographic criteria to differentiate pancreatic neoplasia from inflammation without peripancreatic findings. Ultrasonography proved to be a good screening method in this study: sonographic and computed tomographic results correlated in all cases with the exception of 5 cases. In contrast to ultrasonography CT could differentiate normal pancreas from pancreas atrophy. Computed tomography was superior to sonography in determining the full extent of pancreatic and peripancreatic signs due to the good overview and overall image of the abdominal structures. Serum chemistry of a- amylase and lipase were obtained in 28 animals. Assays of serum lipase and a- amylase activities were only able to detect acute pancreatitis in half of the canine cases. Despite morphological alterations detected with the help of sonography or CT, there were no significant increases in a- amylase and lipase in cats. Following computed tomography the pancreas of 10 animals was examined pathohistologically. With the exception of 2 cases the computed tomographic results correlated with the pathohistological findings. In conclusion, computed tomography (CT) proved to be a valuable method to evaluate the localization, the full extent and the seriousness of pancreatic lesions. (author)

  16. Computer tomographic demonstration of an intramuscular haematoma in haemophilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomical localisation of intramuscular haematomas can be achieved more accurately by computer tomography than by clinical examination in conjunction with conventional radiography. Computer tomography is able to demonstrate fresh haematomas before they become diagnosable clinically, and before secondary changes, such as calcification or bone erosions, make them visible on conventional radiographs. In this way the diagnosis is made more certain and the choice between conservative or surgical treatment is simplified. The period of treatment with clotting factors can, in some cases, be shortened as a result of serial examinations by computer tomography. (orig.)

  17. Computer tomographic findings in pelvic and abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two patients with trauma to the pelvis and abdomen were examined by computer tomography. Subcapsular haematomas, haematomas and rupture of organs, intra- and retroperitoneal haematomas and pelvic fractures could be reliably diagnosed in this way. Serial observations on the tissue density of an haematoma allows one to judge its age. Lack of contrast enhancement of an haematoma makes the injection of contrast a useful test. Computer tomography has reduced the indications for angiography in blunt abdominal trauma. (orig.)

  18. Hepatic Angiomyolipoma: Diagnostic Findings and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Kamimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipoma (AML is a benign mesenchymal tumor that is frequently found in the kidney and, rarely, in the liver. The natural history of hepatic AML has not been clarified, and, because of the similar patterns in imaging studies, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, some of these tumors have been overdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma in the past. With an increase in the number of case reports showing detailed imaging studies and immunohistochemical staining of the tumor with human melanoma black-45, the diagnostic accuracy is also increasing. In this paper, we focused on the role of noninvasive imaging studies and histological diagnosis showing distinctive characteristics of this tumor. In addition, because several reports have described tumor progression in terms of size, recurrence after surgical resection, metastasis to other organs, and portal thrombosis, we summarized these cases for the management and discussed the indications for the surgical treatment of this tumor.

  19. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Abdolrazagh; Geissbühler, Urs; Schellenberger, Frank; Zanolari, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Using ...

  20. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages.

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Abdolrazagh; Geissbühler, Urs; Schellenberger, Frank; Zanolari, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Us...

  1. Computed Tomographic Study of Superficial Fascia of the Abdomen: Implication to Localized Fat Deposits (LFD) Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey AK; Kumar P; Radhakrishnan P; Kumar S; Kotian SR; D'Souza A; D'Souza AS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Superficial fascia of the abdomen, being a supportive structure plays a vital role in abdominal localized fat deposits (LFDs) as well as in surgical treatment of obesity. Interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia is increasing with increasing popularity of surgical procedures for abdominal obesity. The study aims at computed tomographic evaluation and classification of the superficial fascia of abdomen & comparing with the earlier published cadaveric study. Materials and m...

  2. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: Report of a case using computed tomographic scan diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil Diwan; Mahesh Chavan; Anagha Shete; Shivaji Khedkar

    2013-01-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions are benign mesenchymal tumors in which mineralized tissue, blood vessels, and giant cells, in varying proportions, replace normal bone. Although this group of lesions includes reactive lesions, harmatomas, and neoplasms, they cannot be distinguished only on the basis of the histopathology which can only confirm their common fibro-osseous nature. Definitive diagnosis requires thorough radiological evaluation. Computed tomographic images of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia o...

  3. Computed tomographic findings of progressive supranuclear palsy compared with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated computed tomographic (CT) films of 4 pathologically documented cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) in which the clinical presentations were atypical and compared the findings with those of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Dilatation of the third ventricle, atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum, and enlargement of the interpeduncular cistern toward the aqueduct were found to be the characteristic findings in PSP. Thus, radiological findings can be useful when the differential diagnosis between PSP and PD is clinically difficult. (author)

  4. Rot detection of wood poles by means of a portable x-ray computed tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable X-ray computed tomographic (CT) scanner has been applied to rot detection of wood poles for electric power distribution. CT reconstructions clearly drew a rotted part and they well agreed with crosssections of wood poles which were actually cut off after the measurement. The result shows that the CT scanner offers a very useful means for rot detection of utility poles, building columns, statues, etc. (author)

  5. Computed tomographic imaging of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; Computertomographisches Bild der pulmonalen Alveolarproteinose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, M.B. [Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Schweden, F. [Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Wilhelm, K. [Medizinische Klinik 3, Abt. Pneumologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Wengler-Becker, U. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Thelen, M. [Klinik mit Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany)

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease of uncertain etiology. The computed tomographic image is characterized by geographically sharply delineated alveolar infiltrates, faint, ground-glass-like parenchymal turbidity, with well bordered interstitial structures and recesses in the subpleural space. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die pulmonale Alveolarproteinose ist eine seltene Erkrankung unklarer Aetiologie. Das computertomographische Bild ist durch geographisch scharf demarkierte alveolaere Infiltrate, flaue milchglasartige Parenchymtruebungen mit gut abgrenzbaren interstitiellen Strukturen und Aussparung des Subpleuralraumes charakterisiert. (orig.)

  6. Utility of Computed Tomographic Enteroclysis/Enterography for the Assessment of Mucosal Healing in Crohn's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Hashimoto; Kensaku Shimizu; Hiroaki Shibata; Satoko Kanayama; Ryo Tanabe; Hideko Onoda; Naohumi Matsunaga; Isao Sakaida

    2013-01-01

    Aim. When determining therapeutic strategy, it is important to diagnose small intestinal lesions in Crohn's disease (CD) precisely and to evaluate mucosal healing as well as clinical remission in CD. The purpose of this study was to compare findings from computed tomographic enteroclysis/enterography (CTE) with those from the mucosal surface and to determine whether the state of mucosal healing can be determined by CTE. Materials and Methods. Of the patients who underwent CTE for CD, 39 patie...

  7. The fate of traumatic subdural hygroma in serial computed tomographic scans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K. S.; Bae, W. K.; Bae, H. G.; Yun, I. G.

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed serial computed tomographic (CT) scans of 58 patients with traumatic subdural hygroma (SDG) to investigate its natural history. All were re-evaluated with a special reference to the size and density of SDG. Thirty-four patients (58.6%) were managed conservatively and 24 patients (41.4%) underwent surgery. The lesion was described as remained, reduced, resolved, enlarged and changed. Means of interval from injury to diagnosis and any changes in CT were calculated. SDGs were resolve...

  8. Evaluating intrusive injuries in primary dentition from computed tomographic scans: A preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Makkada Yuvaraj Padmanabhan; Ramesh Kumar Pandey; Nitesh Tewari; Radhakrishnan Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Context: Children sustaining maxillofacial trauma may undergo computed tomographic (CT) examination to exclude potential complications, which pave way for spread of infection into the meningeal region. Following treatment, these children report for management of their dental injuries as out-patients for which a separate conventional radiographic examination is usually done. The usefulness of the initial maxillofacial CT scan in evaluating dental injuries needs to be assessed so as to possibly...

  9. Computed tomographic appearance of inflammatory polyps in three cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the inner ear, tympanic bullae, nasopharyngeal area, and external ear canals of three cats. All cats presented for evaluation of upper respiratory signs or chronic ear infection. Nasopharyngeal masses were present in two cats, and a mass in the external ear canal was present in the third cat. In all three cats, CT was able to define the extent of osseous bulla involvement, which was confirmed at surgery. Computed tomography also defined the extent of the polyp in the nasopharyngeal area in two cats, and in the external ear canal in one cat. Surgical removal of the polyps was accomplished with a combined oral approach and ventral bulla osteotomy in cats 1 and 2. The polyp was removed from cat 3 using a combination of ventral bulla osteotomy and excision of the mass through the external ear canal. Microscopic examination confirmed all masses as nasopharyngeal (inflammatory) polyps

  10. Accuracy of the typical computed tomographic appearances of fibrosing alveolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, K. T.; Wells, A. U.; Rubens, M B; Kirk, J M; du Bois, R M; Hansell, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Open lung biopsy is often performed to confirm the diagnosis in patients with suspected fibrosing alveolitis. The superior sensitivity and specificity of high resolution computed tomography (CT) over chest radiography in various diffuse lung diseases suggest that the characteristic appearance of fibrosing alveolitis on high resolution CT might render biopsy confirmation unnecessary. METHODS--The chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans of 86 patients (41 with fibrosing alveo...

  11. Computed tomographic bronchioarterial ratio for brachycephalic dogs without pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Sungjun; Lee, Ahra; CHOI, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycep...

  12. Computer tomographic diagnosis of Caroli's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischedick, A.R.; Peters, P.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts - Caroli's syndrome - is a rare disease of which about one hundred cases have been reported in the literature. Based on two observations, the value of various radiological procedures is discussed. Compared with other noninvasive procedures, computer tomography has the advantage of being able to show the medullary sponge kidney which often accompanies this condition. The indications for ERC can therefore be more strictly defined.

  13. Computed Tomographic Tenography of Normal Equine Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lacitignola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to document the normal computed tomographic tenography findings of digital flexor tendon sheath. Six ex vivo normal equine forelimbs were used. An axial approach was used to inject 185 mg/mL of iopamidol in a total volume of 60 mL into the digital flexor tendon sheaths. Single-slice helical scans, with 5 mm thickness, spaced every 3 mm, for a pitch of 0.6, and with bone algorithm reconstruction, were performed before and after injections of contrast medium. To obtain better image quality for multiplanar reconstruction and 3D reformatting, postprocessing retroreconstruction was performed to reduce the images to submillimetre thickness. Computed tomographic tenography of digital flexor tendon sheaths could visualize the following main tendon structures for every forelimb in contrast-enhanced images as low densities surrounded by high densities: superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, manica flexoria, mesotendons, and synovial recess. Results of this study suggest that computed tomographic tenography can be used with accuracy and sensitivity to evaluate the common disorders of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath and the intrathecal structures.

  14. Phantom investigations of an emission computer tomograph (J and P multipoise tomoscanner)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of emission computer tomography and its practical application in a new designed industrially manufactured emission computer tomograph (J and P Multipoise Tomoscanner) are explained. The imaging properties of the device was investigated by means of a specially designed phantom. The contour quality and the resolution power for positive areas are satisfying whereas image area homogeneity and the resolution power for cold areas can still be improved. The question of the influence of collimators on the image formation properties is dealt in detail. At the time being they are the main obstacle on the way to a quantitative emission computer tomography. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomographic cholangiography in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a one-year period we performed 32 conventional computed tomography (CT) studies involving the intravenous administration of a contrast material that is cleared by the biliary system (Bilisergol), in patients in presenting clinical or radiological features of choledocholithiasis. The results were compared with the findings from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and/or surgery. The sensitivity and specificity of intravenous cholangiography with conventional CT was 92 %. We demonstrate the utility of this widely available study, when performed according to protocol during apnea, with acquisition of thin sections. It is a highly sensitive and specific tool in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. (Author) 10 refs

  16. Computer-tomographic characteristics of tibial distraction regenerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer tomography (CT) potentialities in examinations of patients over the course of distraction osteosynthesis and in assessment of the bone regenerate structure of different sites in various periods of its formation and maturation were studied in 25 patients in periods from 24 days to 5 years. CT permitted a visual and densitometric assessment of the developing bone regenerate surrounded by metal constructions. CT helps follow up all the periods of bone regenerate formation and maturation and permits the detection of deviations in this process, if any

  17. Computed tomographic imaging of the brain of normal neonatal foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cabrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide a more complete description of normal cross-sectional anatomy of the neonatal brain of the foal and associated structures by computed tomography (CT and gross anatomical sections. Using a fourth-generation CT scanner, 2-mm contiguous transverse images were acquired from two neonatal 5-days-old Quarter horse foals. After the study the animals were euthanised for reasons unrelated to head pathology. To assist in the accurate identification of brain and associated structures, transverse CT images were obtained and compared with the corresponding frozen cross-sections of the head. CT images matched well with their corresponding transverse gross sections and provided good differentiation between the bones and the soft tissues of the head. These CT images are intended to be a useful initial anatomic reference in the interpretation for clinical CT imaging studies of the brain and associated structures in live neonatal foals.

  18. A computed tomographic prolective trohoc study of chronic schizophrenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximal width of the third ventricle, the maximal distance between the outer tips of the anterior horns, and the number of enlarged cerebral sulci on the two highest CT slices were measured in 68 chronic schizophrenic patients on cranial computed tomograms in order to detect a possible enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled intracranial spaces. These results were compared with values obtained from a control group which was formed in accordance with definite exclusion criteria and matched-pair parameters (sex, age and maximal inner diameter of the skull). In a prolective trohoc study no difference was found in the size of the CSF spaces of schizophrenics and the controls. The psychopathological condition of the patients, which was classified in a semistandardized dialogue, also showed no correlation with the ventricular size or the number of enlarged cerebral sulci. (orig.)

  19. Sonographic and computed tomographic evaluation of intrahepatic calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menu, Y.; Lorphelin, J.M.; Scherrer, A.; Grenier, P.; Nahum, H.

    1985-09-01

    Intrahepatic calculi in non-Asian patients were studied by sonography and computed tomography (CT). Three patients were studied by CT cholangiography also. In two cases, the calculi were consecutive to Caroli disease, and in two others, the biliary stones were formed proximal to a stenosis of a previous surgical anastomosis. Five patients spontaneously developed intrahepatic calculi. All sonograms were abnormal. Image specificity was good, even when bile ducts were not dilated, if appropriate technique allowed identification of a double-arc-shadow pattern. Sonography strongly suggested the diagnosis in eight patients and was nonspecific in only one. On CT, calculi had various densities, and they were not visible in two patients. CT cholangiography was not particularly helpful. Both examinations strongly underestimate the number of stones, and direct cholangiography remains indicated if surgery is planned.

  20. Sonographic and computed tomographic evaluation of intrahepatic calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrahepatic calculi in non-Asian patients were studied by sonography and computed tomography (CT). Three patients were studied by CT cholangiography also. In two cases, the calculi were consecutive to Caroli disease, and in two others, the biliary stones were formed proximal to a stenosis of a previous surgical anastomosis. Five patients spontaneously developed intrahepatic calculi. All sonograms were abnormal. Image specificity was good, even when bile ducts were not dilated, if appropriate technique allowed identification of a double-arc-shadow pattern. Sonography strongly suggested the diagnosis in eight patients and was nonspecific in only one. On CT, calculi had various densities, and they were not visible in two patients. CT cholangiography was not particularly helpful. Both examinations strongly underestimate the number of stones, and direct cholangiography remains indicated if surgery is planned

  1. The image of a brain stroke in a computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of 100 findings from patients who suffered brain strokes and by the use of 1500 ensured stroke images it was tested whether or not the stroke-predilection typologie outlined by Zuelch is based on a coincidental summation of individual cases. The radio-computed tomography with the possibility of evaluation of non-lethal cases proved itself as a suited method for confirmation or repudiation of this stroke theory. By means of the consistently achieved association of the frontal, respectively horizontal sectional image for the typology it could be proven and - with the exception of a few rather seldom types - also demonstrated that the basic and predilection types of brain stroke repeated themselves in their pattern. In individual cases a specification of lower types could also be undertaken. (orig./TRV)

  2. Recurrent largngeal nerve paralysis: a laryngographic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocal cord paralysis is a relatively common entity, usually resulting from a pathologic process of the vagus nerve or its recurrent larynegeal branch. It is rarely caused by intralargngeal lesions. Four teen patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) were evaluated by laryngography, computed tomography (CT), or both. In the evaluation of the paramedian cord, CT was limited in its ability to differentiate between tumor or RLNP as the cause of the fixed cord, but it yielded more information than laryngography on the structural abnormalities of the larynx and pre-epiglottic and paralaryngeal spaces. Laryngography revealed distinct features of RLNP and is the procedure of choice for evaluation of functional abnormalities of the larynx until further experience with faster CT scanners and dynamic scanning of the larynx is gained

  3. Computed tomographic appearance of mucormycosis; Computertomographisches Erscheinungsbild der pulmonalen Mukormykose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Hinrichs, T.; Jacobi, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Boehme, A.; Hoelzer, D. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik III, Haematologie/Onkologie

    2000-07-01

    Aim: Analysis of the morphological characteristics of pulmonary mucormycosis using computed tomography (CT). Material and methods: Prospective analysis of CT studies in 9 patients out of 19 patients with proven pulmonary mucormycosis. Results: Pulmonary mucormycosis was most frequently found in the upper lobe bilaterally (51% of all nodules). In 22% of the manifestations, the morphological criterion of a 'bird's nest' could be verified in CT, in 37% central necrotic areas were detected. In 37% an open bronchus was diagnosed, in 6% we observed bronchiectases. 43% of all nodules presented with a halo sign. In three patients we found pleural effusions, enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were diagnosed in one patient. Conclusion: Computed tomography allows an improved diagnosis and therapeutic follow-up in patients suffering from pulmonary mucormycosis. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Analyse der morphologischen Charakteristika der pulmonalen Mukormykose in der Computertomographie. Material und Methodik: Retrospektive Analyse der computertomographischen Untersuchungen bei 9 Patienten aus einem Kollektiv von 19 Patienten mit gesicherter pulmonaler Mukormykose. Ergebnisse: Pulmonale Mukormanifestationen fanden sich bevorzugt im Oberlappen beidseits (51% aller Herde). Bei 22% der Herde konnte das morphologische Zeichen des 'bird's nest' verifiziert werden, bei 37% zeigten sich Einschmelzungen. In 37% der Herde liess sich ein offener Bronchus nachweisen, bei 6% beobachteten wir Bronchiektasen. 43% der Herde wiesen einen 'Halo' auf. Bei drei Patienten lagen Pleuraerguesse vor, eine Lymphknotenvergroesserung (>1 cm) zeigte sich bei einem Patienten. Schlussfolgerung: Die Computertomographie leistet einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Diagnose und Verlaufskontrolle der pulmonalen Mukormykose. (orig.)

  4. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF PARANASAL SINUS AND PATHOLOGIES

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    Vijay Prabhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To assess the role of computed tomography in the evaluation of diseases involving paranasal sinuses and to correlate it with clinical diagnosis . METHODOLOGY : Patients with symptoms involving paranasal sinuses were evaluated by clinical and CT ( B oth axial and coronal sections f indings for management of patients . RESULTS : CT diagnosis had higher sensitivity , specificity , positive predictive value and negative predictive value in diagnosing anatomic variants of PNS , chronic sinusitis , sinonasal polyps and other lesions in comparis on to clinical diagnosis . However sensitivity of CT was not so high in diagnosing fungal sinusitis as seen with other lesions . But involvement of the bone by PNS lesions was always demonstrasted by the CT , which is the standard imaging modality to demonstr ate it accurately . CONCLUSION : Pathological conditions of PNS are common and have a varied presentation in all the age groups . These are difficult to diagnose accurately on conventional plain films . CT imaging provides detailed information regarding involv ement , location , extent of paranasal sinus diseases accurately and is an excellent alternatives to standard radiographs .

  5. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine lumbosacral spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lumbosacral spine (L5–S3) was examined by high resolution computed tomography (CT) in five canine cadaver specimens and one anesthetized dog using 5mm thick transverse slices at 5mm intervals. In each dog, anatomic features observed on CT images were confirmed by comparison with corresponding 5 mm thick anatomic transverse sections and section radiographs. CT anatomic features visualized in all dogs included the vertebral bodies, pedicles, laminae, articular processes, spinous processes, transverse processes, mammillary processes, basivertebral venous canals, vertebral foramina, intervertebral foramina, sacral wings, median sacral crest, intermediate sacral crests, lateral sacral crests, articular process joints, sacroiliac joints, internal vertebral venous plexus, epidural fat, thecal sac, L5–S3 nerve roots, and spinal nerves. Spinal ganglia, yellow ligaments, and portions of the intervertebral discs were visible in some dogs. The spinal cord, intrathecal nerve roots, dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments, spinal arteries, and radicular vessels were not distinguishable. Accessory processes were identified on the caudal L5 pedicles in most dogs, an observation that differed from descriptions in standard anatomy texts. Previously undescribed osseous grooves, termed “lateral recesses,” were identified in the caudal L7 vertebral foramen of all dogs

  6. Chest radiographic and computed tomographic manifestations in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the chest radiographic and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT chest manifestations in glucocorticoid-naïve allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA patients. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study and includes 60 consecutive glucocorticoid-naïve patients with ABPA who underwent chest radiography and HRCT of the chest (1.25 mm every 10 mm in the routine diagnostic workup for ABPA. RESULTS: Chest radiographs were normal in 50% of cases. Of the remainder, most patients demonstrated permanent findings in the form of parallel line and ring shadows suggesting bronchiectasis. Consolidation was detected in 17 cases but in the majority, the corresponding HRCT chest scan showed mucus-filled bronchiectatic cavities. Chest HRCT was normal in 22 patients, while central bronchiectasis (CB was demonstrated in the remaining 38 patients. Bronchiectasis extended to the periphery in 33%-43% depending on the criteria used for defining CB. The other findings observed on HRCT were mucoid impaction, centrilobular nodules and high-attenuation mucus in decreasing order of frequency. CONCLUSION: Patients with ABPA can present with normal HRCT chest scans. Central bronchiectasis cannot be considered a characteristic feature of ABPA as peripheral bronchiectasis is commonly observed. Consolidation is an uncommon finding in ABPA.

  7. Computed tomographic bronchioarterial ratio for brachycephalic dogs without pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sungjun; Lee, Ahra; Choi, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The bronchoarterial (BA) ratio measured with computed tomography is widely used in human medicine to diagnose bronchial dilation or collapse. Although use of the BA ratio in veterinary medicine has been recently studied, this has not been evaluated in brachycephalic dogs predisposed to bronchial diseases including bronchial collapse. The purpose of this study was to establish BA ratios for brachycephalic dogs and compare the values with those of non-brachycephalic dogs. Twenty-three brachycephalic dogs and 15 non-brachycephalic dogs without clinical pulmonary disease were evaluated. The BA ratio of the lobar bronchi in the left and right cranial as well as the right middle, left, and right caudal lung lobes was measured. No significant difference in mean BA ratio was observed between lung lobes or the individual animals (p = 0.148). The mean BA ratio was 1.08 ± 0.10 (99%CI = 0.98~1.18) for brachycephalic dogs and 1.51 ± 0.05 (99% CI = 1.46~1.56) for the non-brachycephalic group. There was a significant difference between the mean BA ratios of the brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic groups (p = 0.00). Defining the normal limit of the BA ratio for brachycephalic breeds may be helpful for diagnosing bronchial disease in brachycephalic dogs. PMID:25643795

  8. MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF INTRACRANIAL SPACE OCCUPYING LESIONS

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    Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The term intracranial space occupying lesions includes lesions which expand in volume to displace normal neural structures. They give rise to the various symptoms like focal seizures, paralysis, features of raised intracranial tension and false localizing signs. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of computed tomography in evaluation of space occupying lesions of brain, assessment of the site, nature and extent, age and sex prevalence of space occupying lesions. MATERIAL & METHODS: The present study was conducted on one hundred patients with space occupying lesions of the brain presenting with various neurologic symptoms or incidental findings. Patients of all age groups suspected to have intracranial space occupying lesions were included in the study. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and proportions as percentages. Results: Most of the cases of hyperdense lesions were intracerebral hemorrhages, meningioma, lymphoma and medulloblastoma. High grade astrocytomas were heterogenous hypodense lesions with irregular ring enhancement associated perilesional edema and mass effect. Low grade astrocytomas had minimal rim/ mural nodule enhancement. Intracranial tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis showed ring with nodular enhancing. Calcification was seen in tuberous sclerosis, neurocysticercosis, meningiomas, oligodendrogliomas, arteriovenous malformations and dermoid cyst. Congenital lesions had variable presentation ranging from cystic to mixed pattern lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In developing countries, CT imaging remains as a major diagnostic modality, with easy accessibility and technical ease as compared to MRI.

  9. Computed tomographic study of the complication of head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is quite effective in the diagnosis of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral contusion. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with head injury were admitted to the hospital and studied by CT in the year from 1977 to 1980. Fourty-sevenof 209 patients had the complications of head injury, including 6 patients with carotidcavernous fistula (CCF), 6 with traumatic aneurysm, 10 with pneumocephalus, 4 with intracranial foreign body, 15 with optic nerve injury, and 14 with other cranial nerve palsy. Five patients with CCF had abnormal finding on CT. Two traumatic aneurysms of the superficial temporal artery were visualized on CT after injection of contrast material, but all traumatic aneurysms of the carotid siphon were not seven on CT. CT in all 10 patients with pneumocephalus and in all 4 patients with intracranial foreign body was of diagnostic value: On CT in two patients even small air bubbles were seen in details. In the CT examination of 29 patients who presented with cranial nerve injury, we could not find out any abnormality on CT. We emphasize that CT is much less effective in the diagnosis of vascular complication of head injury and traumatic cranial nerve injury. (author)

  10. Computed tomographic study of the complication of head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Waga, S. (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is quite effective in the diagnosis of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral contusion. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with head injury were admitted to the hospital and studied by CT in the year from 1977 to 1980. Fourty-seven of 209 patients had the complications of head injury, including 6 patients with carotidcavernous fistula (CCF), 6 with traumatic aneurysm, 10 with pneumocephalus, 4 with intracranial foreign body, 15 with optic nerve injury, and 14 with other cranial nerve palsy. Five patients with CCF had abnormal finding on CT. Two traumatic aneurysms of the superficial temporal artery were visualized on CT after injection of contrast material, but all traumatic aneurysms of the carotid siphon were not seen on CT. CT in all 10 patients with pneumocephalus and in all 4 patients with intracranial foreign body was of diagnostic value: On CT in two patients even small air bubbles were seen in details. In the CT examination of 29 patients who presented with cranial nerve injury, we could not find out any abnormality on CT. We emphasize that CT is much less effective in the diagnosis of vascular complication of head injury and traumatic cranial nerve injury.

  11. Computed tomographic features of afferent loop syndrome: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pictorial essay reviews the computed tomography (CT) findings of afferent loop syndrome (ALS) in various pathological conditions to demonstrate the contribution of a common imaging modality-that is, abdominal CT, used nowadays for various abdominal complaints-to the diagnosis of ALS. ALS is caused by obstruction of the duodenum and jejunum proximal to a gastrojejunostomy anastomosis. It is a rare complication after Billroth II subtotal gastrectomy and even more rare after total or subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Although currently advanced medical treatment and endoscopic interventions have dramatically decreased the necessity of surgery for peptic ulcer disease, ALS may appear years after previously common operations. Alternatively, the use of surgical resection for early gastric cancer nowadays leads to an increasing rate of malignancy-related ALS. Clinically, ALS may be difficult to diagnose as its presentation may be vague and nonspecific, but it has a characteristic appearance on CT. Clinicians and radiologists should therefore be familiar with this rare complication. Prompt recognition and correct diagnosis of this syndrome and its probable etiology are important as a guide for treatment. This review illustrates the CT features of ALS in various conditions. (author)

  12. Computed tomographic features of afferent loop syndrome: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hertz, M. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Paran, H. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Surgery ' A' , Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Zrifin, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-04-15

    This pictorial essay reviews the computed tomography (CT) findings of afferent loop syndrome (ALS) in various pathological conditions to demonstrate the contribution of a common imaging modality-that is, abdominal CT, used nowadays for various abdominal complaints-to the diagnosis of ALS. ALS is caused by obstruction of the duodenum and jejunum proximal to a gastrojejunostomy anastomosis. It is a rare complication after Billroth II subtotal gastrectomy and even more rare after total or subtotal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Although currently advanced medical treatment and endoscopic interventions have dramatically decreased the necessity of surgery for peptic ulcer disease, ALS may appear years after previously common operations. Alternatively, the use of surgical resection for early gastric cancer nowadays leads to an increasing rate of malignancy-related ALS. Clinically, ALS may be difficult to diagnose as its presentation may be vague and nonspecific, but it has a characteristic appearance on CT. Clinicians and radiologists should therefore be familiar with this rare complication. Prompt recognition and correct diagnosis of this syndrome and its probable etiology are important as a guide for treatment. This review illustrates the CT features of ALS in various conditions. (author)

  13. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  14. Novel computed tomographic chest metrics to detect pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chin-Shang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH can potentially improve survival and quality of life. Detecting PH using echocardiography is often insensitive in subjects with lung fibrosis or hyperinflation. Right heart catheterization (RHC for the diagnosis of PH adds risk and expense due to its invasive nature. Pre-defined measurements utilizing computed tomography (CT of the chest may be an alternative non-invasive method of detecting PH. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed 101 acutely hospitalized inpatients with heterogeneous diagnoses, who consecutively underwent CT chest and RHC during the same admission. Two separate teams, each consisting of a radiologist and pulmonologist, blinded to clinical and RHC data, individually reviewed the chest CT's. Results Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, sex, ascending aortic diameter, body surface area, thoracic diameter and pulmonary wedge pressure showed that a main pulmonary artery (PA diameter ≥29 mm (odds ratio (OR = 4.8, right descending PA diameter ≥19 mm (OR = 7.0, true right descending PA diameter ≥ 16 mm (OR = 4.1, true left descending PA diameter ≥ 21 mm (OR = 15.5, right ventricular (RV free wall ≥ 6 mm (OR = 30.5, RV wall/left ventricular (LV wall ratio ≥0.32 (OR = 8.8, RV/LV lumen ratio ≥1.28 (OR = 28.8, main PA/ascending aorta ratio ≥0.84 (OR = 6.0 and main PA/descending aorta ratio ≥ 1.29 (OR = 5.7 were significant predictors of PH in this population of hospitalized patients. Conclusion This combination of easily measured CT-based metrics may, upon confirmatory studies, aid in the non-invasive detection of PH and hence in the determination of RHC candidacy in acutely hospitalized patients.

  15. Novel computed tomographic chest metrics to detect pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) can potentially improve survival and quality of life. Detecting PH using echocardiography is often insensitive in subjects with lung fibrosis or hyperinflation. Right heart catheterization (RHC) for the diagnosis of PH adds risk and expense due to its invasive nature. Pre-defined measurements utilizing computed tomography (CT) of the chest may be an alternative non-invasive method of detecting PH. This study retrospectively reviewed 101 acutely hospitalized inpatients with heterogeneous diagnoses, who consecutively underwent CT chest and RHC during the same admission. Two separate teams, each consisting of a radiologist and pulmonologist, blinded to clinical and RHC data, individually reviewed the chest CT's. Multiple regression analyses controlling for age, sex, ascending aortic diameter, body surface area, thoracic diameter and pulmonary wedge pressure showed that a main pulmonary artery (PA) diameter ≥29 mm (odds ratio (OR) = 4.8), right descending PA diameter ≥19 mm (OR = 7.0), true right descending PA diameter ≥ 16 mm (OR = 4.1), true left descending PA diameter ≥ 21 mm (OR = 15.5), right ventricular (RV) free wall ≥ 6 mm (OR = 30.5), RV wall/left ventricular (LV) wall ratio ≥0.32 (OR = 8.8), RV/LV lumen ratio ≥1.28 (OR = 28.8), main PA/ascending aorta ratio ≥0.84 (OR = 6.0) and main PA/descending aorta ratio ≥ 1.29 (OR = 5.7) were significant predictors of PH in this population of hospitalized patients. This combination of easily measured CT-based metrics may, upon confirmatory studies, aid in the non-invasive detection of PH and hence in the determination of RHC candidacy in acutely hospitalized patients

  16. Adult Sail Sign: Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The sail sign is a well-known radiographic feature of the pediatric chest. This sign can be observed in an adult population as well, but for a different reason. Purpose: To investigate the sail sign appearing in adult chest radiography. Material and Methods: Based on two anecdotal adult cases in which frontal chest radiographs showed the sail sign, we prospectively screened radiographs of 10,238 patients to determine the incidence of the sail sign found in adults in their 40s or older. The cause of the sail sign was assessed using computed tomography (CT). Results: The sail sign was revealed in 10 (seven males, three females; median age 60.6 years) of 10,238 patients. Of these 10 patients with a sail sign on frontal radiographs, eight underwent CT. The frontal radiographs of these 10 patients showed a concave superior margin toward the lung in nine patients, a concave inferior margin in five, and a double-lined inferior margin in three. Lateral radiographs disclosed a focal opacity over the minor fissure in five of six patients, which was either fuzzy (n = 4) or sharp (n = 1) in its upper margin, and was sometimes double lined in the inferior margin (n = 3). CT revealed the anterior mediastinal fat to be the cause of the radiographic sail sign, which stretched laterally from the mediastinum to insinuate into the minor fissure. Conclusion: The incidence of sail sign on adult chest radiographs is about 0.1%. The sign is specific enough to eliminate the need for more sophisticated imaging

  17. Ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomic and computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of anatomic specimens and routine computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the caudal attachments of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomic finding, but a much less common CT finding. Its characteristic location should help prevent confusion with other entities. The present study was prompted by a case of thoracic spine trauma, reported here, in which areas of bone density in the spinal canal simulated fracture fragments. The true nature of these bony projections, namely ossification in the ligamentum flavum, was established by computer reconstruction of axial CT images

  18. Computed tomographic features of intraperitoneal fat-containing lesions: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R.; Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Zrifin, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Shapiro-Feinberg, M.; Rathaus, V. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2003-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used in the evaluation of various abdominal complaints, whether acute or chronic. The demonstration of a fatty element, based on negative Hounsfield attenuation numbers, within an organ or a lesion provides either an important clue or a specific diagnosis, obviating the need for further evaluation. This review illustrates the computed tomographic features of a spectrum of relatively common, intraperitoneal fat-containing abnormalities affecting the gastrointestinal organs and the peritoneal cavity that we have encountered in our daily practice. (author)

  19. Development of a portable computed tomographic scanner for on-line imaging of industrial piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) technology is being increasingly developed for industrial application. This paper presents the development of a portable computed tomographic scanner for on?line imaging of industrial piping systems. The theoretical approach, the system hardware, the data acquisition system and the adopted algorithm for image reconstruction are discussed. The scanner has large potential to be used to determine the extent of corrosion under insulation (CUI), to detect blockages, to measure the thickness of deposit/materials built-up on the walls and to improve understanding of material flow in pipelines. (Author)

  20. Computed tomographic features of intraperitoneal fat-containing lesions: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is used in the evaluation of various abdominal complaints, whether acute or chronic. The demonstration of a fatty element, based on negative Hounsfield attenuation numbers, within an organ or a lesion provides either an important clue or a specific diagnosis, obviating the need for further evaluation. This review illustrates the computed tomographic features of a spectrum of relatively common, intraperitoneal fat-containing abnormalities affecting the gastrointestinal organs and the peritoneal cavity that we have encountered in our daily practice. (author)

  1. High resolution computed tomographic features of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with unknown etiology and with a nonuniform clinical course. Nonuniformity of clinical course might be related to the degree of pulmonary parenchymal alterations, which can be revealed with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, HRCT findings of PAM were not fully described in the current literature. Aim: The aim of this study was to interpret and to contribute to describe HRCT findings of PAM and to investigate a correlation between profusion of micro nodules (MN) and pulmonary parenchymal alterations in patients with PAM. Material and methods: Ten male patients with PAM (mean age: 22 ± 3.2) were included into the study. HRCT images were assessed for patterns, distribution, and profusion of pulmonary abnormalities. Dividing the lungs into three zones, profusion of abnormalities was assessed. A profusion score (1-4) was given and the scores of each zone were then summed to obtain a global profusion score for HRCT ranging from 0 to 12. Also a parenchymal alteration score (PAS) was defined with respect to profusion of abnormalities. Chest X-rays were also scored. Results: All of ten patients with PAM had findings of interstitial lung disease in varying degrees on their HRCTs. HRCT findings of patients with PAM were as following: MN, parenchymal bands (PB), ground glass opacity (GGO) and, sub pleural interstitial thickening (SPIT) in 10 patients; interlobular septal thickening (ILST), in 9 patients; paraseptal emphysema (PSA) in 8 patients; centrilobular emphysema (CLA) in 7 patients; bronchiectasis (BE), confluent micro nodules (CMN) in 6 patients; peri bronchovascular interstitial thickening (PBIT) in 5 patients; panacinar emphysema (PANAA) in 3 patients; pleural calcification (PC) in 2 patients. A significant correlation between MN scores and PAS (r = 0.68, p = 0.031, MN scores and GGO scores (r = 0.69, p = 0.027) and, MN scores and CLA scores (r = 0.67, p = 0

  2. Interventional treatment of renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Thorlund, Mie Gaedt; Wennevik, Gjertrud Egge;

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: The renal angiomyolipoma decreased significantly from mean 7.2 cm to 2.9 cm after embolization (p = 0.04). Cortical infarctions of about one-third of the circumference of the embolized kidneys could be detected on follow-up examinations, but all patients had normal total kidney function. The...... bleeding was primarily stopped in all patients, however, in one patient bleeding from a lumbar artery was supplementary embolized within 24 h. In another case the interventional procedure ended up in embolization of the whole kidney as it was impossible to embolize all the feeding arteries selectively. One...... patient had a nephrectomy one month after embolization because of infection and re-bleeding and one patient after 2.5 years because of tumor size >4 cm. The technical success was 7/8 (88%) and clinical success was 6/8 patients (75%). CONCLUSION: Selective embolization of renal angiomyolipoma is a...

  3. Computer tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotation and lateral deflection movement of the diverging X-ray beam are carried out by a synchronous motor which is controlled by a saw-tooth generator. This saw-tooth generator simultaneously controls deflection coils that move an electron beam to and for on a target. The periodic displacement of the origin of the X-radiation with respect to the detectors being alternately performed in or against the direction of movement of the source. By this means a continuous rotation of the data errors can take place. (DG)

  4. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, S.E.; Locke, G.E.; Biggers, S.; Percy, A.K.

    1982-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic.

  5. The computed tomographic appearance of cerebral cysticercosis in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomographic (CT) scans of 45 patients (30 adults, 15 children) with cerebral cysticercosis were reviewed. These patients had undergone complete diagnostic evaluations including skin tests, laboratory tests, plain skull radiography, radionuclide brain scanning, CT, and cerebral angiography. All of these tests were unrewarding except CT and the indirect hemagglutination tests on the serum. A classification of cerebral cysticercosis based on the location of the lesions in the brain and the CT appearance was developed. Cerebral cysticercosis can be diagnosed by CT findings when there is also a history of seizures and of the patient having lived in an area where the disease is endemic

  6. Hybrid computing: CPU+GPU co-processing and its application to tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern computers are equipped with powerful computing engines like multicore processors and GPUs. The 3DEM community has rapidly adapted to this scenario and many software packages now make use of high performance computing techniques to exploit these devices. However, the implementations thus far are purely focused on either GPUs or CPUs. This work presents a hybrid approach that collaboratively combines the GPUs and CPUs available in a computer and applies it to the problem of tomographic reconstruction. Proper orchestration of workload in such a heterogeneous system is an issue. Here we use an on-demand strategy whereby the computing devices request a new piece of work to do when idle. Our hybrid approach thus takes advantage of the whole computing power available in modern computers and further reduces the processing time. This CPU+GPU co-processing can be readily extended to other image processing tasks in 3DEM. -- Highlights: ► Hybrid computing allows full exploitation of the power (CPU+GPU) in a computer. ► Proper orchestration of workload is managed by an on-demand strategy. ► Total number of threads running in the system should be limited to the number of CPUs.

  7. Biomass exposure and the high resolution computed tomographic and spirometric findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Mubeccel E-mail: isalk@mynet.com; Akkurt, Ibrahim; Egilmez, Hulusi; Atalar, Mehmet; Salk, Ismail

    2004-11-01

    Background: The adverse health effects of biomass fuel exposure (BFE) is complex and widespread. According to our knowledge, the interstitial lung disease due to BFE is not clear in literature. Objective: In this descriptive crossectional study, the main objective was to assess the effects of BFE on the respiratory system. Methods: Patient group was included non-smoker 21 woman and the control group was included non-smoker 22 woman. High resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) examinations were made with supin and prone positions in two groups. The spirometric measurements, including the diffusion capacity at rest for carbon monoxide, single breath (DLCO), were also made. Results: It was found that BFE caused obstructive and restrictive spirometric impairments. The prevalence of the fibrotic bands, peribronchovascular thickenings, nodular radio opacities, and curvilinear densities in the high resolution computed tomographic examinations were 7, 5, 7, and 16 times higher in the exposure group than the control group, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume first second (FEV{sub 1}), FEV{sub 1}/FVC, forced expiratory flow during middle half of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75), DLCO and the volumetric densities of the HRCT slices with deep expiration in prone position. Conclusions: We think that, the findings due to BFE, pose a special situation and it can be named 'biomass lung'.

  8. Microwave Tomographic Imaging of Cerebrovascular Accidents by Using High-Performance Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Tournier, P -H; Bonazzoli, M; de Buhan, M; Darbas, M; Dolean, V; Hecht, F; Jolivet, P; Kanfoud, I El; Migliaccio, C; Nataf, F; Pichot, C; Semenov, S

    2016-01-01

    The motivation of this work is the detection of cerebrovascular accidents by microwave tomographic imaging. This requires the solution of an inverse problem relying on a minimization algorithm (for example, gradient-based), where successive iterations consist in repeated solutions of a direct problem. The reconstruction algorithm is extremely computationally intensive and makes use of efficient parallel algorithms and high-performance computing. The feasibility of this type of imaging is conditioned on one hand by an accurate reconstruction of the material properties of the propagation medium and on the other hand by a considerable reduction in simulation time. Fulfilling these two requirements will enable a very rapid and accurate diagnosis. From the mathematical and numerical point of view, this means solving Maxwell's equations in time-harmonic regime by appropriate domain decomposition methods, which are naturally adapted to parallel architectures.

  9. Experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae challenge in swine: Comparison of computed tomographic and radiographic findings during disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Carsten

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pigs, diseases of the respiratory tract like pleuropneumonia due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App infection have led to high economic losses for decades. Further research on disease pathogenesis, pathogen-host-interactions and new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are needed. In most studies, a large number of experimental animals are required to assess lung alterations at different stages of the disease. In order to reduce the required number of animals but nevertheless gather information on the nature and extent of lung alterations in living pigs, a computed tomographic scoring system for quantifying gross pathological findings was developed. In this study, five healthy pigs served as control animals while 24 pigs were infected with App, the causative agent of pleuropneumonia in pigs, in an established model for respiratory tract disease. Results Computed tomographic (CT findings during the course of App challenge were verified by radiological imaging, clinical, serological, gross pathology and histological examinations. Findings from clinical examinations and both CT and radiological imaging, were recorded on day 7 and day 21 after challenge. Clinical signs after experimental App challenge were indicative of acute to chronic disease. Lung CT findings of infected pigs comprised ground-glass opacities and consolidation. On day 7 and 21 the clinical scores significantly correlated with the scores of both imaging techniques. At day 21, significant correlations were found between clinical scores, CT scores and lung lesion scores. In 19 out of 22 challenged pigs the determined disease grades (not affected, slightly affected, moderately affected, severely affected from CT and gross pathological examination were in accordance. Disease classification by radiography and gross pathology agreed in 11 out of 24 pigs. Conclusions High-resolution, high-contrast CT examination with no overlapping of organs is superior to

  10. A case of multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas with high 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor. We report an unusual case of a patient with multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas exhibiting high 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. A 29-year-old man with a medical history of tuberous sclerosis was admitted to our hospital for fever, vomiting, and weight loss. Abdominal dynamic computed tomography revealed faint hypervascular hepatic tumors in segments 5 (67 mm) and 6 (10 mm), with rapid washout and clear borders; however, the tumors exhibited no definite fatty density. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the hepatic lesions were slightly hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging, and hyperintense with no apparent fat component on diffusion-weighted imaging. FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed high maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of 6.27 (Segment 5) and 3.22 (Segment 6) in the hepatic tumors. A right hepatic lobectomy was performed, and part of the middle hepatic vein was also excised. Histological examination revealed that these tumors were characterized by the background infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells, including spindle-shaped cells, and a resemblance to an inflammatory pseudotumor. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that the tumor stained positively for human melanoma black-45. The tumor was therefore considered an inflammatory pseudotumor-like angiomyolipoma. Although several case reports of hepatic angiomyolipoma have been described or reviewed in the literature, only 3 have exhibited high 18 F-FDG uptake on PET imaging with SUVmax ranging from 3.3–4.0. In this case, increased 18 F-FDG uptake is more likely to appear, particularly if the inflammation is predominant. Although literature regarding the role of 18 F-FDG-PET in hepatic angiomyolipoma diagnosis is limited and the diagnostic value of 18 F-FDG-PET has not yet been clearly defined, the possibility that hepatic angiomyolipoma might exhibit

  11. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings of hemorrhagic cholecystitis; report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Byun, Jae Young; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Woo [Kangnung Dongin Hospital, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cholecystitis(HC) is a rare complication of gallbladder(GB) disease characterized by mucosal and intraluminal hemorrhage of the GB. We report ultrasonographic(US) and computed tomographic(CT) findings of two cases of HC. Hemorrhagic fluid filled in the inflamed GB lumen was initially seen as homogeneous hyperdense and hyperattenuated lesion on both US and CT, respectively. As resolution of the hematoma and gangrenous change of the GB wall progress, US showed inhomogeneous mixed echogenic lesion in the GB having partially indistinct border, mimicking an invasive mass. At this stage, CT still showed homogeneous hyperdense hematoma and a small amount of fluid in the GB, without evidence of contrast enhancement.

  12. Optical tomographic detection of rheumatoid arthritis with computer-aided classification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2009-02-01

    A recent research study has shown that combining multiple parameters, drawn from optical tomographic images, leads to better classification results to identifying human finger joints that are affected or not affected by rheumatic arthritis RA. Building up on the research findings of the previous study, this article presents an advanced computer-aided classification approach for interpreting optical image data to detect RA in finger joints. Additional data are used including, for example, maximum and minimum values of the absorption coefficient as well as their ratios and image variances. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and area under the curve AUC. Results were compared to different benchmarks ("gold standard"): magnet resonance, ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Maximum accuracies (AUC=0.88) were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratios and image variances and using ultrasound as gold standard.

  13. Computed tomographic and cross-sectional anatomy of the normal pacu (Colossoma macroponum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alaina; Weber, E P Scott; Murphy, Chris J; Zwingenberger, Alison

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and define the normal cross-sectional gross and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy for a species of boney fish to better gain insight into the use of advanced diagnostic imaging for future clinical cases. The pacu (Colossoma macropomum) was used because of its widespread presence in the aquarium trade, its relatively large body size, and its importance in the research and aquaculture settings. Transverse 0.6-mm CT images of three cadaver fish were obtained and compared to corresponding frozen cross sections of the fish. Relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level; the Hounsfield unit density of major organs was established. The images presented good anatomic detail and provide a reference for future research and clinical investigation. PMID:24712183

  14. Myocardial stunning in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: recovery predicted by single photon emission computed tomographic thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young woman with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy confirmed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization presented with chest pain and features of a large left ventricular aneurysm. The initial diagnosis was myocardial ischemia with either an evolving or an ancient myocardial infarction. Subsequently, verapamil therapy was associated with complete resolution of the extensive left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, normalization of left ventricular ejection fraction and a minimal myocardial infarction. Normal thallium uptake on single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy early in the hospital course predicted myocardial viability in the region of the aneurysm. Thus, orally administered verapamil may reverse spontaneous extensive myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and possibly limit the extent of myocardial infarction in such circumstances

  15. Ultrasonic and computed tomographic diagnosis of extranodal abdominal involvement with lymphatic leukemia and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sonographic and computed tomographic manifestation of extranodal abdominal lymphoma and leukemia are presented. Hepatosplenomegaly was found in 26 of 31 cases studied by ultrasound. Localized splenic involvement was manifested in 4 cases of lymphoma and 2 cases of lymphatic leukemia. Its ultrasonic appearance was hypoechoic lesion in 4 cases and mixed pattern in 1 case. CT revealed low density areas in spleen after contrast enhancement. One lymphoma and 2 lymphatic leukemia had renal involvement as hypo - aechoic lesion in ultra-sonography and non - enhanced area on CT. These splenic and renal localized involvement was diminished by treatment. Hyperechoic lesion in liver was found in 1 case of lymphoma, and demonstrated as highly enhanced area on CT before treatment and non - enhanced area after treatment. The wall thickening of gall bladder was found in deteriorated lymphoma and diminished in proportion to remission of disease. (author)

  16. Fluoroscopic and computed tomographic features of the pharyngeal airway in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratt, P M; Dee, P; Atkinson, R L; Armstrong, P; Wilhoit, S C

    1983-04-01

    Because it has been suggested that patients with obstructive sleep apnea have a narrower pharyngeal airway than normal persons, we performed lateral fluoroscopy and computed tomographic (CT) scans of the pharynx in patients with this syndrome. Fluoroscopy in 6 sleeping patients showed that the obstruction always began during inspiration when the soft palate touched the tongue and posterior pharyngeal wall. The CT scans in 9 awake subjects demonstrated that the narrowest section of the airway in patients and in control subjects was the region posterior to the soft palate. The cross-sectional area of this region was significantly narrower in patients than it was in control subjects (p less than 0.001). Because a narrow airway would be more likely to collapse during inspiration than a normal one would (Bernoulli's Principle), we conclude that the narrow airways we observed in awake patients may be an important contributing factor in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:6838055

  17. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm3 for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and stylized

  18. Angiomyolipoma of the liver. CT during arterial portography and MR findings; Angiomyolipome hepatique. Aspects en imagerie par resonance magnetique et au cours du portoscanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyer, P.; Bluemke, D.A.; Fishman, E.K. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Hruban, R.H. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Pathobiology

    1995-01-01

    A case is reported of a 40 year-old woman with a `form fruste` of tuberous sclerosis, multiple angiomyolipomas of the kidney, and an angiomyolipoma of the liver. On magnetic resonance imaging the hepatic mass was markedly hyperintense to liver on short TR/short TE spin-echo sequence. Spiral computed tomography during arterial portography showed hepatic mass in the right hemiliver with areas of negative attenuation values suggesting fat content. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of an angiomyolipoma of the liver. Computed tomography during arterial portography is a commonly performed preoperative imaging modality. Therefore, recognition of angiomyolipoma of the liver by this technique is important, because this benign mesenchymal neoplasm may not require resection. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Inclusion of computed tomographic colonography on pre-operative CT for patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the inclusion of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) involving faecal tagging and no laxatives on the computed tomography (CT) study routinely used in staging patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: CTC was performed on 25 patients who had a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma, with pathological correlation. Researchers recorded the accuracy of the CTC for staging colorectal cancer, as well as any changes to the plans for surgery based on this exam. The patients’ tolerance of the preparation required and the quality of the exams was also evaluated. Results: All exams were well-tolerated, and only one had unsatisfactory quality. CTC identified all the carcinomas and had an overall accuracy of 80%, 60.1% and 100% for the evaluation of tumour depth, lymph nodes and metastases respectively. CTC identified all polyps greater than 9 mm. Following CTC, changes to surgical plans were observed in 20.8% of the cases, all with incomplete optical colonoscopies. Conclusions: CTC proved useful for the pre-operative evaluation of patients with a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma, affecting plans for surgery in a expressive number of patients with an incomplete colonoscopy.

  20. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  1. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis identified by coronary computed tomographic angiography in asymptomatic morbidly obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. McCullough

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common public health problem and obese individuals in particular have a disproportionate incidence of acute coronary events. This study was undertaken to identify coronary artery lesions as well as associated clinical features, risk factors and demographics in patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m2 without known coronary artery disease (CAD. Morbidly obese subjects were prospectively recruited to undergo coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA using a dual-source computed tomography (CT system. CAD was defined as the presence of any atherosclerotic lesion in any one coronary artery segment. The presence, location, and severity of atherosclerosis were related to patient characteristics. Forty-one patients (28 women, mean age, 50.4±10.0 years, mean BMI, 43.8±4.8 kg/m2 served as the study population. Of these, 25 patients (61% had at least one coronary stenosis. All but 2 patients within the CAD cohort had coronary artery calcium (CAC scores >0, and most plaques identified (75.4% were non-calcified. There was a predilection of calcified and non-calcified atherosclerosis involving the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery compared with other coronary segments. Univariate predictors of CAD included older age, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In this preliminary study of young morbidly obese patients, CCTA detected a high prevalence of calcified and non-calcified CAD, although the later predominated.

  2. Two methods of Haustral fold detection from computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ananda S.; Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Linguraru, Marius G.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    Virtual colonoscopy (VC) has gained popularity as a new colon diagnostic method over the last decade. VC is a new, less invasive alternative to the usually practiced optical colonoscopy for colorectal polyp and cancer screening, the second major cause of cancer related deaths in industrial nations. Haustral (colonic) folds serve as important landmarks for virtual endoscopic navigation in the existing computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system. In this paper, we propose and compare two different methods of haustral fold detection from volumetric computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy images. The colon lumen is segmented from the input using modified region growing and fuzzy connectedness. The first method for fold detection uses a level set that evolves on a mesh representation of the colon surface. The colon surface is obtained from the segmented colon lumen using the Marching Cubes algorithm. The second method for fold detection, based on a combination of heat diffusion and fuzzy c-means algorithm, is employed on the segmented colon volume. Folds obtained on the colon volume using this method are then transferred to the corresponding colon surface. After experimentation with different datasets, results are found to be promising. The results also demonstrate that the first method has a tendency of slight under-segmentation while the second method tends to slightly over-segment the folds.

  3. Anatomical Computed Tomographic Study of the Heart and some Mediastinal Vessels of the Rabbit - Oryctolagus cuniculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatomical computed tomographic study of the heart and some mediastinal vessels of the rabbit - Oryctolagus cuniculus. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 18: 784-788 The aim of the study is to utilize the computed tomography the anatomical study of the rabbit heart and some of its mediastinal vessels. We investigated seven sexually mature, healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, aged 12 months. The animals were anesthetized. The bodies of the thoracic vertebrae were used as bone markers when performing the imaging. At the level of the third and fourth thoracic segment were found only vascular structures. At the fifth thoracic vertebrae a partial heart silhouette was observed, and the complete one – at the seventh. At the third, fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae an image of the ascending aorta was found, at the third and fourth one – aortic arch, at the fifth segment – the beginning of the descending aorta. The results confirm the thesis, that the rabbit is a suitable biological model for morphological and functional studies of the heart

  4. Epitheloid Variant of Angiomyolipoma in a Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasu Reddy Challa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid angiomyolipoma of kidney is a type of Perivascular endothelial cell derived tumor with an aggressive behaviour with specific pathological, immunohistochemistrical and genetic characteristics. They can occur in a pure form or in assosciation with classical angiomyolipoma. It can be assosciated with tuberous sclerosis in 50% of cases. Our case is a possible case of tuberous sclerosis with epitheloid angiomyolipoma, hepatic angiomyolipoma and lymphangioleiomyomatosis with normal MRI brain and no cutaneous features. Radical nephrectomy with biopsy of hepatic lesion was performed. Histopathological examination revealed epitheloid variant with features of angiomyolipoma. It is six months post surgery and patient is doing well with no evidence of recurrence. Epitheloid angiomyolipoma is a rare malignancy with only 120 cases reported in literature.

  5. Assessment of Potential Live Kidney Donors and Computed Tomographic Renal Angiograms at Christchurch Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Stephen; Armstrong, Sarah; McGregor, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the outcome of potential live kidney donors (PLKD) assessment program at Christchurch Hospital and, also, to review findings of Computed Tomographic (CT) renal angiograms that led to exclusion in the surgical assessment. Methods. Clinical data was obtained from the database of kidney transplants, Proton. Radiological investigations were reviewed using the hospital database, Éclair. The transplant coordinator was interviewed to clarify information about PLKD who did not proceed to surgery, and a consultant radiologist was interviewed to explain unfavorable findings on CT renal angiograms. Results. 162 PLKD were identified during the period January 04–June 08. Of those, 65 (40%) proceeded to have nephrectomy, 15 were accepted and planned to proceed to surgery, 13 were awaiting further assessment, and 69 (42.5%) did not proceed to nephrectomy. Of the 162 PLKD, 142 (88%) were directed donors. The proportion of altruistic PLKD who opted out was significantly higher than that of directed PLKD (45% versus 7%, P = 0.00004). Conclusions. This audit demonstrated a positive experience of live kidney donation at Christchurch Hospital. CT renal angiogram can potentially detect incidental or controversial pathologies in the kidney and the surrounding structures. Altruistic donation remains controversial with higher rates of opting out. PMID:27034659

  6. Results of computer-tomographic examination in different forms and course of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are reported of a clinical and computer-tomographic study of 103 schizophrenic patients. Those with simple form of the disease had most pronounced evidence of dilated III and lateral ventricles (41.8% of the cases for the III ventricle and 72.4% for the lateral ventricles). All patients with circular, simple and catatonic form had signs of pathology of the cortical sulci. Regarding the ventricular system evidences of pathology prevailed in cases of impetus-progredient and constantly progredient course, whereas in respect to cortical pathology, the results were almost identical in all three types of psychosis - 95.2% of cases of constantly progredient and 95.6% - of impetus-progredient course. Attention was called to the 'surprising' data of organic brain injury in patients with paranoid and circular form of the disease, as well as in the most benign (from clinical point of view) impetus course. It is assumed that morphologic changes in the brain of schizophrenic patients are a natural phenomenon, but so far have not been a subject of comprehensive studies, maybe because of prejudice or lack of appropriate methods for examination of the brain during life's time. 6 figs., 15 refs

  7. Coronary computer tomographic angiography for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with end-stage liver disease is essential prior to liver transplantation (LT) as cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 64-slice coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CCS) to predict the postoperative cardiovascular risk of patients assessed for LT. In this single center, observational study we included 54 consecutive patients who were assessed for LT and consequently transplanted. Twenty-four patients (44%) presented with a high CCS above 300 and/or a significant stenosis (>50% percent narrowing due to stenotic plaques) and were further referred to coronary angiography. Three of these patients had a more than 70% LAD stenosis with subsequent angioplasty (n = 1) or conservative therapy (n = 2). The other patients showed only diffuse CAD without significant stenosis. The remaining 30 patients with normal CTA findings were listed for LT without further tests. None of the 54 patients developed cardiovascular events peri- and postoperatively. This study indicated that CTA combined with CCS is a useful non-invasive imaging technique for pre-LT assessment of coronary artery disease and safe tool in the risk assessment of peri- and postoperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing LT

  8. Evaluation of computed tomographic and radiographic myelography in normal miniature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the myelography was studied in miniature pigs. Radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images of the whole spine were obtained at clinically healthy twelve miniature pigs of 4 (8.7-10 kg) and 12 (26-31 kg) months. The assessments of the spinal cord were made in accordance with the Pavlov's method and compared area ratio [at spinal cord (SC), vertebral canal (VC) and vertebral body (VB)]. The Pavlov's ratio in the cervical spine was significant larger than that of thoracolumbar in radiographic myelography. On CT myelography, the area of the spinal cord had a significant difference between the cervical and thoracolumbar spine. Among the cervical spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB), vertebral canal and vertebral body (VC : VB) were minimum at the level of 4th cervical spine in both ages, while maximum at the level of 6th cervical spine in both months. In case of lumbar spine, the ratios of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) were the largest at the level of 4th lumbar spine in 4 months and at the level of 3rd lumbar spine in 12 months. In addition, the ratio of spinal cord and vertebral body (SC : VB) of the cervical spinal cord was significant lower at 4 months but the lumbar spinal cord showed lower pattern at 12 months old miniature pigs

  9. Thoracic pathologies on scout views and bolus tracking slices for computed tomographic cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M.; Fiehler, J.; Buhk, J.H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology; Henes, F.O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence of additional thoracic pathologic findings (TPF) detected on scout views and corresponding bolus tracking slices (SVBT) for computed tomographic cerebral angiography (CTCA) and to test the reliability and accuracy of these findings. The study collective included 505 consecutive patients who underwent multidetector CTCA. Appendant SVBT of all patients were reviewed for any pathologic findings and patient medical reports were analyzed, if any medical treatment was initiated for the detected pathologic findings. In 18 patients thoracic CT scans were performed in the same session. These were additionally reviewed by two blinded observers to test for intra- and interobserver reliability as well as for accuracy of detecting thoracic pathologies on SVBT. TPF were detected in 165 (33 %) SVBT. The five most common pathologic findings were: pleural effusion, 12 %; pneumonia, 8 %; atelectasis/dystelecatsis, 6 %; pericardial effusion, 2 % and elevated diaphragm, 1 %. For 48 % of these findings medical treatment was initiated. SVBT showed a sensitivity of 53 %, a specificity of 99 %, a positive predictive value of 89 %, a negative predictive value of 94 % and accuracy of 94 % for the detection of TPF. The intraobserver reliability was very good and the interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement. SVBT for CTCA should be reviewed with care by radiologists, since additional TPF can affect patient management. Nevertheless, despite a high specificity of SVBT for detecting TPF, an only moderate sensitivity has to be taken into account.

  10. A morphological study of the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the morphological variance in the mandibular molar region using reconstructed helical computed tomographic (CT) images. In addition, we discuss the necessity of CT scanning as part of the preoperative assessment process for dental implantation, by comparing the results with the findings of panoramic radiography. Sixty patients examined using CT as part of the preoperative assessment for dental implantation were analyzed. Reconstructed CT images were used to evaluate the bone quality and cross-sectional bone morphology of the mandibular molar region. The mandibular cortical index (MCI) and X-ray density ratio of this region were assessed using panoramic radiography in order to analyze the correlation between the findings of the CT images and panoramic radiography. CT images showed that there was a decrease in bone quality in cases with high MCI. Cross-sectional CT images revealed that the undercuts on the lingual side in the highly radiolucent areas in the basal portion were more frequent than those in the alveolar portion. This study showed that three-dimensional reconstructed CT images can help to detect variances in mandibular morphology that might be missed by panoramic radiography. In conclusion, it is suggested that CT should be included as an important examination tool before dental implantation. (author)

  11. Evaluation of hepatic arterial anatomy by multidetector computed tomographic angiography in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Papatya; Yuce, Ihsan; Keles, Sait; Kantarci, Mecit

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to define the different courses and percentages of hepatic artery that were detected during preoperative evaluation of living liver donors by multidetector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA). We evaluated 150 donors before hepatic transplantation. All of the donors were evaluated by multislice CT scan with 256 detectors. For each patient, arterial, portal and venous phase images were obtained. The hepatic arterial variations were evaluated by the same radiologist according to Michels' classification. Common hepatic arterial anatomy (type I) was observed in 95 donors (63.3%). Other arterial variations were determined in the remaining 55 donors (36.6%). The second common variation was type XI which did not match with the description of Michels' classification variation in 15 donors (10%). The remaining variations described in Michels' classification were seen at lower rates. Type VII or X variation was not seen. MDCTA is a useful method to identify the blood supply of the liver before the liver transplantations, and surgeons can make their plan on the basis of CT data. PMID:26910605

  12. Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Tamaki, Yoshio; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Higuchi, Keiko; Sakaino, Kouji; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Shioya, Mariko [Gunma Cancer Center, Ota (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LY) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) of the thyroid gland are rare malignant tumors, and the initial symptoms of these diseases are very similar. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of the two diseases using computed tomographic (CT) scans in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis. Ten patients with LY and 10 with AC were analyzed. Differences in the CT findings of the two diseases were evaluated before treatment and statistically tested with either Student's t-test or the chi-square test. In the analysis of characteristics of CT imaging, the existence of calcification and necrosis, and heterogeneous tumor were dominant findings in AC, and there was a statistically significant difference in frequency between the two diseases (p<0.01). Calcification detected in AC was usually multiple and/or gross (mean size: {phi}8.2 mm). All lymphadenopathies were delineated as having the same homogeneous attenuation as the tumors in the thyroid gland in LY, but were shown as irregular rim enhancement in AC. The CT features of the two diseases are characteristic in terms of calcification, necrosis, and tumor composition. Evaluation by means of CT imaging is useful in distinguishing between LY and AC. (author)

  13. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  14. Utility of Computed Tomographic Enteroclysis/Enterography for the Assessment of Mucosal Healing in Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Hashimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. When determining therapeutic strategy, it is important to diagnose small intestinal lesions in Crohn's disease (CD precisely and to evaluate mucosal healing as well as clinical remission in CD. The purpose of this study was to compare findings from computed tomographic enteroclysis/enterography (CTE with those from the mucosal surface and to determine whether the state of mucosal healing can be determined by CTE. Materials and Methods. Of the patients who underwent CTE for CD, 39 patients were examined whose mucosal findings could be confirmed by colonoscopy, capsule endoscopy, balloon endoscopy, or with the resected surgical specimens. Results. According to the CTE findings, patients were determined to be in the active CD group (n=31 or inactive CD group (n=8. The proportion of previous surgery, clinical remission, stenosis, and CDAI score all showed significant difference between groups. Mucosal findings showed an association with ulcer in 93.6% of active group patients but in only 12.5% of inactive group patients (P<0.0001, whereas mucosal healing was found in 62.5% of inactive group patients but in only 3.2% of active group patients (P<0.0001. Conclusion. CTE appeared to be a useful diagnostic method for assessment of mucosal healing in Crohn's disease.

  15. Coronary computer tomographic angiography for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodocy, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.jodocy@klinikum-minden.de [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Abbrederis, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.abbrederis@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Graziadei, Ivo W., E-mail: ivo.graziadei@i-med.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Vogel, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.vogel@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine II (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pachinger, Otmar, E-mail: otmar.pachinger@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M., E-mail: gudrun.feuchtner@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Friedrich, Guy, E-mail: guy.friedrich@uki.at [Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology), Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-09-15

    The assessment of the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with end-stage liver disease is essential prior to liver transplantation (LT) as cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 64-slice coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CCS) to predict the postoperative cardiovascular risk of patients assessed for LT. In this single center, observational study we included 54 consecutive patients who were assessed for LT and consequently transplanted. Twenty-four patients (44%) presented with a high CCS above 300 and/or a significant stenosis (>50% percent narrowing due to stenotic plaques) and were further referred to coronary angiography. Three of these patients had a more than 70% LAD stenosis with subsequent angioplasty (n = 1) or conservative therapy (n = 2). The other patients showed only diffuse CAD without significant stenosis. The remaining 30 patients with normal CTA findings were listed for LT without further tests. None of the 54 patients developed cardiovascular events peri- and postoperatively. This study indicated that CTA combined with CCS is a useful non-invasive imaging technique for pre-LT assessment of coronary artery disease and safe tool in the risk assessment of peri- and postoperative cardiovascular events in patients undergoing LT.

  16. Morphologic analysis of Japanese adult sacroiliac joint using computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to study the relationship of angles in adult sacroiliac joints (SJ) with laterality, age, gender, degeneration, childbearing in different locations. The study was performed in 92 healthy Japanese adult volunteers (46 males and 46 females, aged 21∼86 years) who had no low back complaints. Axial computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained using an X-VIGOR apparatus (Toshiba Medical Inc. Japan). The angle measurements were taken directly using soft National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image 1.61 (Scion Inc. USA). We examined possible factors. Statistical evaluation was calculated using t-test by soft SPSS (SPSS Inc. Japan). Our findings indicated that SJ angles had no relationships with laterality, gender. But from upper part to lower part, the average of SJ angle was 7.61 deg±8.7 deg, 5.16 deg±7.3 deg, -0.85 deg±7.3 deg respectively in the left and 6.56 deg±9.4 deg, 4.10 deg±7.2 deg, -2.30 deg±7.0 deg in the right. The difference is significant between lower part and upper-middle part (P<0.05). Our results provided new anatomic and morphological data for better understandings of SJ in the clinic work. (author)

  17. A computational study of tomographic measurement of carbon monoxide at minor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a chemical species tomography system, this paper carries out various computational steps to address the problem of measuring minor species concentration using single-pass, short path-length absorption techniques in the mid-infrared. It focuses on the imaging of carbon monoxide (CO) in combustion exhaust as a case study, with an average concentration of 10 ppm over a 50 mm diameter cross-section, taking account of the presence of other absorbing species. CO absorption transitions R6, R7, R9 and R10 are identified as possible measurement targets. The joint effects of spectral absorption linewidth and laser source linewidth are considered at length, resulting in recommendations for laser linewidth to achieve appropriate levels of CO absorption signal purity. Measurement strategies are considered for achievement of the necessary sensitivity, noise and bandwidth performance. A feasible beam arrangement for tomographic imaging is discussed, providing 48 measurements of path concentration integral. Representative phantom reconstructions are presented, with encouraging results for application to such dynamic gaseous subjects

  18. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  19. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC); colorectal cancer diagnosis with CTC in an Auckland population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the sensitivity of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in the detection of colorectal cancer in our population and evaluate the reasons why these lesions may be missed on CTC. All patients who underwent CTC in the 65-month period from 1 January 2004 to 1 July 2009 were included in the analysis. Demographic data and CTC findings were recorded, according to the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System. Data were cross-matched with the National Cancer Registry results for colorectal cancer cases between 1 January 2004 and 1 October 2009, 3 months longer to include any delayed diagnoses. There were 2026 consecutive CTC patients, comprising 52.6% female, average age of 60 years; range 19–87. Approximately 84% were symptomatic. There were 45 confirmed colorectal cancers among this patient group in the National Cancer Registry during the relevant time period compared with 43 suspected cancers on CTC, giving a miss rate of 2 of 45, or 4.4%. The sensitivity of 95% for CTC in the detection of colorectal cancer compares favourably with the published national and international data.

  20. Computed tomographic fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomographic (CT) fluoroscopy-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (TTNB) with an 18-gauge automatic biopsy gun for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Between March 1996 and January 1998, 50 patients in whom pulmonary lesions could not be diagnosed cytopathologically with fiberoptic bronchoscopy or were not clearly visualized with fluoroscopy underwent CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB. Final pathological diagnoses were 23 lung carcinomas, five pulmonary metastases and 22 benign lesions. Sufficient tissue for analysis was obtained from 48 of the 50 lesions (96%). The overall diagnostic yield of CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB was 90%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for malignancy were 89%, 100% and 94%, respectively. In 20 of the 22 cases (91%) of benign lesions, histological analysis yielded correct and specific diagnoses. Complications occurred in 22 of the 50 cases (44%). The most common complication was pneumothorax, which occurred in 21 of the 50 cases (42%). Chest tube insertion was required in 6 (12%). Although CT fluoroscopy could not decrease the complication rate, CT fluoroscopy-guided TTNB with an automatic biopsy gun appears to be a promising technique for diagnosing pulmonary lesions, particularly benign lesions. (author)

  1. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  2. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Sato, Yoko [Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Shinzato, Takashi [Nakagami General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Fujita, Jiro, E-mail: fujita@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Li, Huiping [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  3. Quantitative analysis of periapical lesions on cone beam computed tomograph and periapical radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect the progression of experimentally induced periapical lesions on periapical radiograph and cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT) by quantitative analysis. After the removal of coronal pulps from premolars of two Beagle dogs, the root canals of premolars were exposed to oral environment during one week and then sealed for 70 days. Digital periapical radiographs and CBCTs were taken at baseline and every 7 days for 77 days after pulp exposure. We examined occurrence and areas of periapical bone resorption. Three comparative groups of CBCT radiographs were prepared by average projection of thin slabs with different bucco-lingual thicknesses (0.1, 3.0, and 8.0 mm) using a 3D visualization software. Radiographic densities were compensated by image normalization. Digital images were processed with mathematical morphology operations. The radiographic density and morphological features of periapical lesions were compared among three groups of CBCT in different time points. In the CBCT group with 0.1 mm thickness, radiographic density (p<0.05) and trabecular bone area (p<0.01) were significantly decreased at the fifth week. However, in the CBCT groups with 3 mm and 8 mm thickness and periapical radiographs, none of densitometric and morphological features showed any significant differences in different time points. Radiographic density of periapical lesion showed increasing tendency at the eleventh week after pulp exposure. Radiographic detection of periapical lesions was possible at the fifth week after pulp contamination by quantitative method and was affected by buccolingual bone thickness.

  4. Quantitative analysis of periapical lesions on cone beam computed tomograph and periapical radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hoa; Lee, Wan; Kim, Kyung Soo; Roh, Young Chea; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, De Sok [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To detect the progression of experimentally induced periapical lesions on periapical radiograph and cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT) by quantitative analysis. After the removal of coronal pulps from premolars of two Beagle dogs, the root canals of premolars were exposed to oral environment during one week and then sealed for 70 days. Digital periapical radiographs and CBCTs were taken at baseline and every 7 days for 77 days after pulp exposure. We examined occurrence and areas of periapical bone resorption. Three comparative groups of CBCT radiographs were prepared by average projection of thin slabs with different bucco-lingual thicknesses (0.1, 3.0, and 8.0 mm) using a 3D visualization software. Radiographic densities were compensated by image normalization. Digital images were processed with mathematical morphology operations. The radiographic density and morphological features of periapical lesions were compared among three groups of CBCT in different time points. In the CBCT group with 0.1 mm thickness, radiographic density (p<0.05) and trabecular bone area (p<0.01) were significantly decreased at the fifth week. However, in the CBCT groups with 3 mm and 8 mm thickness and periapical radiographs, none of densitometric and morphological features showed any significant differences in different time points. Radiographic density of periapical lesion showed increasing tendency at the eleventh week after pulp exposure. Radiographic detection of periapical lesions was possible at the fifth week after pulp contamination by quantitative method and was affected by buccolingual bone thickness.

  5. Impact of Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings on Planning of Cancer Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Structural Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard Durand; Gregory Gladish; Elie Mouhayar; Syed Wamique Yusuf; Jose Banchs; Daher, Iyad N.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Exclusion of underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential in the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Presence and severity of CAD can also impact the choice of therapy in cancer patients. The value of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in this setting has not been reported. Methods. We collected data on the clinical presentation and indications for CCTA performed from January to December 2008 at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center ...

  6. Ultrasonic and X-ray computer tomographic examinations in the diagnosis of pyoinflammatory diseases of the abdominal and retroperitoneal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive ultrasonic and x-ray computer-aided tomographic (RCAT) examinations were carried out in 97 patients with 120 pyoinflammatory foci in the abdominal cavity of ultrasonic examinations was 68 %, that of RCAT 88 %. RCAT wassuperior to ultrasonic examinations in the diagnosis of extraorganic. Ultrasonic examinations should be widely used as a primary method and should to a certain measure determine the necessity of RCAT use in the diagnosis of pyoinflammatory diseases of the adbominal cavity and retroperitoneal space organs

  7. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic...

  8. Comparison of the Multidetector-row Computed Tomographic Angiography Axial and Coronal Planes' Usefulness for Detecting Thoracodorsal Artery Perforators

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Gyu Kim; Soo Hyang Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background During the planning of a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) free flap, preoperative multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography is valuable for predicting the locations of perforators. However, CT-based perforator mapping of the thoracodorsal artery is not easy because of its small diameter. Thus, we evaluated 1-mm-thick MDCT images in multiple planes to search for reliable perforators accurately. Methods Between July 2010 and October 2011, 19 consecutive patients...

  9. Complimentary Imaging Modalities for Investigating Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Capsule Endoscopy, Double-Balloon Enteroscopy, and Computed Tomographic Enterography

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Chu; Sheng Wu; Yuting Qian; Qi Wang; Juanjuan Li; Yanping Tang; Tingting Bai; Lifu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The complimentary value of computed tomographic enterography (CTE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) combined with capsule endoscopy (CE) was evaluated in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Methods. Patients who received CE examinations at Ruijin Hospital between July 2007 and July 2014 with the indication of OGIB were identified, and those who also underwent DBE and/or CTE were included. Their clinical information was retrieved, and results from each te...

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus Infection: A Case Report of Serial Computed Tomographic Findings in a Young Male Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Won Jin; Lee, Ki-Nam; Kang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic findings of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), a novel coronavirus infection, have been rarely reported. We report a 30-year-old male presented with fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, who was diagnosed with MERS. A chest computed tomographic scan revealed rapidly developed multifocal nodular consolidations with ground-glass opacity halo and mixed consolidation, mainly in the dependent and peripheral areas. After treatment, follow-up imaging showed that these abnormalities m...

  11. Therapeutic decision and management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage based on computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdashti, A R; Rufenacht, D A; Delavelle, J; Reverdin, A; de Tribolet, N

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of high quality computed tomographic angiography (CTA) to replace digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in cases of ruptured saccular aneurysms and perform early surgical clipping or coiling on the basis of CTA alone. In a prospective study, 100 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) diagnosed by computed tomography underwent CTA. CTA revealed a total of 118 aneurysms including all ruptured aneurysms. A decision of direct surgical clipping, endovascular coiling or therapeutic abstention was made in 89 cases (89%) on the basis of CTA alone. Sixty-one direct surgical procedures were performed after CTA. Twenty-six cases underwent DSA for immediate endovascular treatment of the ruptured aneurysm. In 11 cases (11%), a DSA was performed prior to the therapeutic decision because of unclear aneurysm. Four cases were not treated because of initial poor clinical grade. The surgical findings were compared with CTA data and were considered accurate in all but one case. All patients underwent postoperative DSA within 10 days after SAH. The sensitivity and the specificity of CTA for the detection of all aneurysms, as compared with postoperative DSA, were 95.1 and 100%, respectively. A total of six unruptured aneurysms were missed initially, but were visible retrospectively on CTA in all but one case and were found in patients with multiple aneurysms in whom the ruptured aneurysm was detected by CTA. Current quality CTA allows reliable pretreatment planning for the majority of cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and diminishes the pretreatment evaluation time critically. Complementary pretreatment DSA is required in situations where CTA characteristics of the ruptured aneurysm is unsatisfactory. PMID:12779201

  12. Automatic centerline extraction of coronary arteries in coronary computed tomographic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanyu; Kitslaar, Pieter; Frenay, Michel; Broersen, Alexander; Boogers, Mark J; Bax, Jeroen J; Reiber, Johan H C; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2012-04-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a non-invasive imaging modality for the visualization of the heart and coronary arteries. To fully exploit the potential of the CCTA datasets and apply it in clinical practice, an automated coronary artery extraction approach is needed. The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a fully automatic centerline extraction algorithm for coronary arteries in CCTA images. The algorithm is based on an improved version of Frangi's vesselness filter which removes unwanted step-edge responses at the boundaries of the cardiac chambers. Building upon this new vesselness filter, the coronary artery extraction pipeline extracts the centerlines of main branches as well as side-branches automatically. This algorithm was first evaluated with a standardized evaluation framework named Rotterdam Coronary Artery Algorithm Evaluation Framework used in the MICCAI Coronary Artery Tracking challenge 2008 (CAT08). It includes 128 reference centerlines which were manually delineated. The average overlap and accuracy measures of our method were 93.7% and 0.30 mm, respectively, which ranked at the 1st and 3rd place compared to five other automatic methods presented in the CAT08. Secondly, in 50 clinical datasets, a total of 100 reference centerlines were generated from lumen contours in the transversal planes which were manually corrected by an expert from the cardiology department. In this evaluation, the average overlap and accuracy were 96.1% and 0.33 mm, respectively. The entire processing time for one dataset is less than 2 min on a standard desktop computer. In conclusion, our newly developed automatic approach can extract coronary arteries in CCTA images with excellent performances in extraction ability and accuracy. PMID:21637981

  13. Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs

    OpenAIRE

    Lukeneder, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The first 3D visualisation of a heteromorph cephalopod species from the Southern Alps (Dolomites, northern Italy) is presented. Computed tomography, palaeontological data and 3D reconstructions were included in the production of a movie, which shows a life reconstruction of the extinct organism. This detailed reconstruction is according to the current knowledge of the shape and mode of life as well as habitat of this animal. The results are based on the most complete shell known thus far of t...

  14. Computed 3D visualisation of an extinct cephalopod using computer tomographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    The first 3D visualisation of a heteromorph cephalopod species from the Southern Alps (Dolomites, northern Italy) is presented. Computed tomography, palaeontological data and 3D reconstructions were included in the production of a movie, which shows a life reconstruction of the extinct organism. This detailed reconstruction is according to the current knowledge of the shape and mode of life as well as habitat of this animal. The results are based on the most complete shell known thus far of the genus Dissimilites. Object-based combined analyses from computed tomography and various computed 3D facility programmes help to understand morphological details as well as their ontogentical changes in fossil material. In this study, an additional goal was to show changes in locomotion during different ontogenetic phases of such fossil, marine shell-bearing animals (ammonoids). Hence, the presented models and tools can serve as starting points for discussions on morphology and locomotion of extinct cephalopods in general, and of the genus Dissimilites in particular. The heteromorph ammonoid genus Dissimilites is interpreted here as an active swimmer of the Tethyan Ocean. This study portrays non-destructive methods of 3D visualisation applied on palaeontological material, starting with computed tomography resulting in animated, high-quality video clips. The here presented 3D geometrical models and animation, which are based on palaeontological material, demonstrate the wide range of applications, analytical techniques and also outline possible limitations of 3D models in earth sciences and palaeontology. The realistic 3D models and motion pictures can easily be shared amongst palaeontologists. Data, images and short clips can be discussed online and, if necessary, adapted in morphological details and motion-style to better represent the cephalopod animal. PMID:24850976

  15. Three dimensional reconstruction of computed tomographic images by computer graphics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three dimensional computer reconstruction system for CT images has been developed in a commonly used radionuclide data processing system using a computer graphics technique. The three dimensional model was constructed from organ surface information of CT images (slice thickness: 5 or 10 mm). Surface contours of the organs were extracted manually from a set of parallel transverse CT slices in serial order and stored in the computer memory. Interpolation was made between a set of the extracted contours by cubic spline functions, then three dimensional models were reconstructed. The three dimensional images were displayed as a wire-frame and/or solid models on the color CRT. Solid model images were obtained as follows. The organ surface constructed from contours was divided into many triangular patches. The intensity of light to each patch was calculated from the direction of incident light, eye position and the normal to the triangular patch. Firstly, this system was applied to the liver phantom. Reconstructed images of the liver phantom were coincident with the actual object. This system also has been applied to human various organs such as brain, lung, liver, etc. The anatomical organ surface was realistically viewed from any direction. The images made us more easily understand the location and configuration of organs in vivo than original CT images. Furthermore, spacial relationship among organs and/or lesions was clearly obtained by superimposition of wire-frame and/or different colored solid models. Therefore, it is expected that this system is clinically useful for evaluating the patho-morphological changes in broad perspective. (author)

  16. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzoni, Fernando Ferreira, E-mail: gazzoni4@gmail.com [Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Av. Cristovão Colombo 4105, ap.603-C, Post Code: 90560-005, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Severo, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: severo@santacasa.tche.br [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2400, 2° andar, Post Code: 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Radiology Department, Av. Pedro Calmon, n° 550 – Cidade Universitária, Post Code: 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pasqualotto, Alessandro, E-mail: acpasqualotto@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sartori, Ana Paula Garcia, E-mail: ana_sartori@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schio, Sadi, E-mail: smschio@hotmail.com [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Camargo, José, E-mail: jjcamargo@terra.com.br [Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Rua 24 de outubro 925/903, Post Code: 90510-002, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients.

  17. Computed tomographic-guided iodine-125 interstitial implants for malignant thoracic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiming [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Chen, Jin; Chen, Qunlin [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Lai, Qingquan; Cai, Siqing [The Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 34 Zhongshan Bei Road, Quanzhou 362000 (China); Luo, Kaidong [The Department of Radiology, Longyan Hosptial of Traditional Chinese Medical, 59 Longteng Middle Road, Longyan 364000 (China); Lin, Zhengyu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy using iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) radioactive seeds under computed tomographic (CT) guidance for malignant thoracic tumors. Materials and methods: Forty-one patients (34 males, 7 females; 18–90 years; mean, 63.7 years) with 77 lesions (3 in the mediastinum, 7 in the chest wall, 67 in the lung) underwent percutaneous interstitial implantation of {sup 125}I radioactive seeds under CT guidance. A treatment planning system (TPS) was employed to calculate the number and distribution of seeds preoperatively. An 18-G needle was inserted into the lesions under CT guidance and send the seeds according to TPS. Two patients with mediastinal lesions undergoing seed implantation received an artificial pneumothorax. One patient with lung carcinoma adjacent to the anterior mediastinum underwent seed implantation through the sternum. Follow-up CT was done every 2 months postoperatively. Results: The procedure was successful in all patients. No major procedure-associated death occurred. The mean duration of follow-up was 19.4 ± 1.3 months (3–49 months). A complete response (CR) was seen in 49 lesions (63.6%), partial response (PR) in 9 lesions (11.7%), stable disease (SD) in 12 lesions (12.8%), and progressive disease (PD) in 7 lesions (7.4%). The overall response rate (CR + PR) was 75.3%; the local control rate (CR + PR + SD) was 90.9%. The 1-, 2- and 3-year progression-free rates for local tumors were 91%, 88% and 88%, respectively. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 87%, 74% and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: Implantation of CT-guided {sup 125}I seeds is feasible and effective for patients with malignant thoracic tumors.

  18. Association between renal dysfunction and the mixed plaque of coronary artery on computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary artery plaque is related to development of coronary artery disease (CAD), and chronic kidney disease is associated with CAD. However, the association of renal dysfunction (RD) with coronary artery plaque characteristics has not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the association between RD and coronary artery plaque characteristics in patients with suspected CAD, who underwent multislice computed tomographic angiography (CTA). A total of 918 patients were classified into 4 groups: group with no plaque (NP) (48.9%), group with calcified plaque (CP) (16.0%), group with noncalcified plaque (NCP) (22.4%), and group with mixed plaque (MP) (12.7%). NCP is considered as rupture-prone soft plaque, and CP as more stable lesion. The mean of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 82.5±15.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the prevalence of RD (defined as eGFR 2) was 6.3%. The prevalence of RD was 3.3% in the NP group, 10.2% in the CP group, 5.3% in the NCP group, and 14.5% in the MP group (P<0.001 by ANOVA tests). The adjusted odds ratio for RD was 3.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.04) for the MP group, compared with the NP group. The presence of RD showed an independent association with the MP counts (r=0.155, P<0.001); however, there was no association between RD and other plaque characteristics. In conclusion, RD is associated with MP rather than CP or NCP, compared with NP, which may reflect one of the developmental processes of CAD in patients with RD. (author)

  19. Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic and angiographic features of exophytically grown gastric smooth muscle tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonographic (US), computed tomographic (CT) and angiographic (AG) features of exophytic gastric smooth muscle tumors were analysed in two subjects. The first case was a 28-year-old female who had a tumor in the right upper quadrant. Imaging investigations indicated leiomyoma. She underwent operation, and the tumor found was a huge (11x10x8cm) gastric leiomyoma grown exophytically. The second case was a 68-year-old female whose chief complaints were anorexia and weightloss. An upper gastrointestinal X-ray examination showed a leakage of barium meal from the stomach to a huge abnormal cavity in the region of left hypochondrium. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large leiomyosarcoma associated with central necrosis, forming a fistula protruding into the gastric lumen. Characteristic findings of the three kinds of imaging diagnostics in these tumors were as follows: Leiomyoma: With US, the abdominal tumor produced a cystic homogeneous echo pattern scattered with hyperechoic spots. With Ct, smooth, homogeneous and low density areas were seen and these were homogeneously enhanced by contrast media. With AG, vessels around the tumor were ring-shaped, and the tumor was clearly and homogeneously stained at venous phase. The diagnosis of the primary tumor was easy to make through identification of the tumor's feeding arteries. Leimyosarcoma: US indicated a tumor mixed with non-homogeneous solid and cystic patterns. In part of the tumor and in a metastatic lesion in the liver, hyperechoic rims and central sonolucent caviation were seen. With CT, the tumor showed non-homogeneous low densities, and their margins were irregular and undefined, which were emphasized by contrast media. Angiographically, vessels surrounding the tumor were found to be irregular. In the venous phase, the tumor stain was also irregular and non-homogeneous. The diagnosis of the primary tumor was difficult to make using any of the methods. (J.P.N.)

  20. Computed Tomographic Virtual Colonoscopy to Screen for Colorectal Neoplasia in asymptomatic adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the performance characteristics of computed tomographic (CT) virtual colonospy for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in an average-risk screening population. A total of 1233 symptomatic adults (mean age, 57.8 years) underwent same-day virtual and optical colonoscopy. Radiologists used the three-dimensional endoluminal display for the initial detection of polyps on CT virtual colonoscopy. For the initial examination of each colonic segment, the colonoscopists were unaware of the findings on virtual colonoscopy, which were revealed to them before any subsequent reexamination. The sensitivity and specificity of virtual colonoscopy and the sensitivity of optical colonoscopy were calculated with the use of the findings of the final, unblinded optical colonoscopy as the reference standard. The sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 93.8 percent for polyps at least 10 mm in diameter, 93.9 percent for polyps at least 8 mm in diameter, and 88.7 percent for polyps at least 6 mm in diameter. The sensitivity of optical colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 87.5 percent, 91.5 percent, and 92.3 percent for the three sizes of polyps, respectively. The specificity of virtual colonoscopy for adenomatous polyps was 96.0 percent for polyps at least 10 mm in diameter, 92.2 percent for polyps at least 8 mm in diameter, and 79.6 percent for polyps at least 6 mm in diameter.Two polyps were malignant; both were detected on virtual colonoscopy, and one of them was missed on optical colonoscopy before the results on virtual colonoscopy were revealed. CT virtual colonoscopy with the use of a three-dimensional approach is an accurate screening method for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic average-risk adults and compares favorably with optical colonoscopy in terms of the detection of clinically relevant lesions

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomographic Colonography: A Prospective Comparison with Colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of detecting colorectal polyps with computed tomographic colonography (CTC) and subsequent polypectomy with primary colonoscopy (CC), using CC as the alternative strategy. Material and Methods: A marginal analysis was performed regarding 103 patients who had had CTC prior to same-day CC at two hospitals, H-I (n 53) and H-II (n = 50). The patients were randomly chosen from surveillance and symptomatic study populations (148 at H-I and 231 at H-II). Populations, organizations, and procedures were compared. Cost data on time consumption, medication, and minor equipment were collected prospectively, while data on salaries and major equipment were collected retrospectively. The effect was the (previously published) sensitivities of CTC and CC for detection of colorectal polyps ≥6 mm (H-I, n = 148) or ≥5 mm (H-II, n = 231). Results: Thirteen patients at each center had at least one colorectal polyp ≥6 mm or ≥5 mm. CTC was the cost-effective alternative at H-I (Euro 187 vs. Euro 211), while CC was the cost-effective alternative at H-II (Euro 239 vs. Euro 192). The cost-effectiveness (costs per finding) mainly depended on the sensitivity of CTC and CC, but the depreciation of equipment and the staff's use of time were highly influential as well. Conclusion: Detection of colorectal polyps ≥6 mm or ≥5 mm with CTC, followed by polypectomy by CC, can be performed cost-effectively at some institutions with the appropriate hardware and organization keywords

  2. High-resolution computed tomographic findings of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings at presentation in lung transplant patients diagnosed with pulmonary Aspergillus infection. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from 23 patients diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis. Imaging studies were performed 2–5 days after the onset of symptoms. The patient sample comprised 12 men and 11 women aged 22–59 years (mean age, 43.6 years). All patients had dyspnea, tachypnea, and cough. Diagnoses were established with Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassays for galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage and recovery of symptoms, and HRCT findings after voriconazole treatment. The HRCT scans were reviewed independently by two observers who reached a consensus decision. Results: The main HRCT pattern, found in 65% (n = 15) of patients, was centrilobular tree-in-bud nodules associated with bronchial thickening. This pattern was described in association with areas of consolidation and ground-glass opacities in 13% (n = 3) of patients. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities were the main pattern in 22% (n = 5) of patients. The pattern of large nodules with and without the halo sign was observed in 13% (n = 3) of patients, and were associated with consolidation and ground-glass opacities in one case. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in lung transplant patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were bilateral bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular opacities with the tree-in-bud pattern. Ground-glass opacities and/or bilateral areas of consolidation were also common findings. Pulmonary nodules with the halo sign were found in only 13% of patients

  3. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F. [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Oels, M. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Grotemeyer, D. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Baldus, S.E. [Institute of Pathology (Germany); Rump, L.C. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Sandmann, W. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Voiculescu, A. [Department of Nephrology (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  4. Radiation dose to patients and image quality evaluation from coronary 256-slice computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang-Kuang [Department of Radiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuan Pei University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Tung-Hsin [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ching-Ching [Department of Radiological Technology, Tzu Chi College of Technology, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Jung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jason J.S., E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.t [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Section 2, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-21

    The aim of this study is to assess radiation dose and the corresponding image quality from suggested CT protocols which depends on different mean heart rate and high heart rate variability by using 256-slice CT. Fifty consecutive patients referred for a cardiac CT examination were included in this study. All coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) examinations were performed on a 256-slice CT scanner with one of five different protocols: retrospective ECG-gating (RGH) with full dose exposure in all R-R intervals (protocol A), RGH of 30-80% pulsing window with tube current modulation (B), RGH of 78{+-}5% pulsing window with tube current modulation (C), prospective ECG-triggering (PGT) of 78% R-R interval with 5% padding window (D) and PGT of 78% R-R interval without padding window (E). Radiation dose parameters and image quality scoring were determined and compared. In this study, no significant differences were found in comparison on image quality of the five different protocols. Protocol A obtained the highest radiation dose comparing with those of protocols B, C, D and E by a factor of 1.6, 2.4, 2.5 and 4.3, respectively (p<0.001), which were ranged between 2.7 and 11.8 mSv. The PGT could significantly reduce radiation dose delivered to patients, as compared to the RGH. However, the use of PGT has limitations and is only good in assessing cases with lower mean heart rate and stable heart rate variability. With higher mean heart rate and high heart rate variability circumstances, the RGH within 30-80% of R-R interval pulsing window is suggested as a feasible technique for assessing diagnostic performance.

  5. Tuberous sclerosis with bilateral renal angiomyolipoma and wunderlich's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case describes a 47-year-old female with tuberous sclerosis associated with bilateral giant renal angiomyolipomas. She underwent an initial renal angioembolization in August 2006. After four months, she required emergency nephrectomy due to spontaneous hemorrhage from the angiomyolipoma (Wunderlich's syndrome). Life threatening Wunderlich's syndrome requires emergency nephrectomy, however, renal preservation can be achieved by elective nephron sparing surgery. (author)

  6. Angiomyolipoma of the tunica dartos of the scrotum in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Hayashi; Satoko Shiyanagi; Itsuro Nagae; Kazuhiko Kasuya; Kenji Katsumata; Atsuyuki Yamataka; Akihiko Tsuchida

    2015-01-01

    A 12-month-old boy presented with left scrotal swelling. The mass was irregular, soft, fleshy, and nontender. It adhered to the scrotal skin and gradually enlarged. Operative findings revealed a mass fixed to the scrotal fundus and diagnosed as angiomyolipoma. This is apparently the first report of scrotal angiomyolipoma in infancy.

  7. 18F-FDG PET/CT in detection of sarcomatous degeneration of renal angiomyolipoma in setting of tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) of kidneys are one of the common extracranial manifestations of tuberous sclerosis (TSC). AMLs when large may cause life-threatening hemorrhage, but seldom undergo malignant degeneration. We describe the appearance of renal AML degenerated to angiosarcoma on 18F-flruorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT)

  8. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Koyama, Takashi; Swee, Ronald G.; Inwards, Carrie Y. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, MN 55905, Rochester (United States)

    2003-12-01

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  9. Clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance findings in 34 patients with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the radiographic features of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS), including the computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings, and to correlate them with the histopathologic findings. A retrospective review was carried out of 72 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCCS. Imaging studies were available for 34 patients: conventional radiographs (n=28), CT scans (n=14), and MR images (n=15). Radiographic studies were reviewed by three radiologists who rendered a consensus opinion; the studies were correlated with the histopathologic findings. Of the 34 patients with imaging studies, 30 were male and 4 were female (mean age 38.6 years; range 11-74 years). Twenty-two lesions were in long bones (15, proximal femur; 1, distal femur; 1, proximal tibia; 5, proximal humerus) and 11 were in flat bones (5, vertebra; 4, rib; 1, scapula; 1, innominate). One lesion occurred in the tarsal navicular bone. Typically, long bone lesions were located in the epimetaphysis (19/22) and were lucent with a well-defined sclerotic margin and no cortical destruction or periosteal new bone formation. More than one-third of the long bone lesions contained matrix mineralization with a characteristic chondroid appearance. Pathologic fractures were present in six long bone lesions (4, humerus; 2, femur). Lesions in the proximal humerus were more likely to have indistinct margins (4/5) and extend into the diaphysis. Flat bone lesions were typically lytic and expansile and occasionally demonstrated areas of cortical disruption. Typically, matrix mineralization, when present, was amorphous. MR imaging, when available, was superior to conventional radiographs for demonstrating the intramedullary extent of a lesion as well as soft tissue extension. CT images better delineated the presence of cortical destruction and the character of matrix mineralization patterns. CCCS lesions were typically low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and moderately or significantly

  10. Clinical utility of multislice computed tomographic angiography for detection of cerebral vasospasm in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, S P; Kim, T S; Kim, Y S; Moon, K S; Lee, J K; Kim, J H; Kim, S H

    2006-10-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been used as the standard method for detecting cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multislice computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a relatively recent method used for evaluating the vasculature of the intracranial arteries. The purpose of this study was to compare multislice CTA and DSA for the detection and quantification of cerebral vasospasm after SAH, and to analyze the usefulness of multislice CTA. Eight patients with SAH underwent initial CTA with DSA within 72 hours after the onset of symptoms and follow-up multislice CTA and DSA 8 to 48 days after SAH. Five arterial locations were established in the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery, the M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) on both multislice CTA and DSA images. Vasospasm was classified as none, mild (up to 30% reduction in luminal diameter), moderate (31-60% reduction), and marked (at least 60% reduction) using the scale of Schneck and Kricheff. The multislice CT system used the following parameters: 1.25 mm collimation and 3.75 pitch with a 4-channel system. The degree of vasospasm revealed by the multislice CTA was significantly correlated with the degree of vasospasm revealed by DSA. In general, most discrepancies between CTA and DSA were in the detection of mild and moderate vasospasm. We found that the consistency between multislice CTA and DSA was greater for mild (100%, n=3) or moderate (100%, n=3) vasospasm than none (n=1) or marked vasospasm (n=1). However, it was unclear whether multislice CTA was more specific for a proximal location (A1, M1, PCA) or distal location (A2, M2) for evaluation of cerebral arteries. Multislice CTA can detect angiographic vasospasm after SAH with an accuracy similar to that of DSA. Multislice CTA is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in detecting mild and moderate cerebral vasospasm. It is less accurate for detecting no vasospasm

  11. Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography: a potentially useful tool for safer free tissue transfer to complicated regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Cifci, Mehmet; Kelahmetoglu, Osman;

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer to...... kept in mind, especially inthe patients with peripheral vascular disease. 3D-MSCTA has the potential to replace digital subtraction angiography for planning of microvascular reconstructions and newer devices with higher resolutions will probably increase the reliability of this technique. (c) 2009...

  12. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  13. Angiomyolipoma arising in the gluteal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Constantine Bramis; Othon Mich; George Liapis; Evangelos Felekourasx; Vassiliki Kyriakou; John Griniatsos

    2007-01-01

    @@ Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a tumour of uncertain histogenesis originally believed to be a hamartomatous lesion, but recently recognized as a usually benign clonal mesenchymal neoplasm.1 Along with lymphagiomyomatosis (LAM), clear cell "sugar"tumour (CCST) and clear cell myelomelanocytic tumour (CCMMT), AML was classified in the so called perivascular epithelioid cell (PEComa) neoplasm family.1 Kidney constitutes the principal site of its development.Extrarenal AMLs are rare and to the best of our knowledge, only two cases of AML development in the soft tissues have been reported so far.2,3 We presented a 23 years old female patient with an AML arising in the left gluteal region.

  14. Ileal angiomyolipoma manifested by small intestinal intussusception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Ho Lee; Jong Hun Kim; Doo Hyun Yang; Yong Hwang; Myoung Jae Kang; Young Kon Kim; Min Ro Lee

    2009-01-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs), a form of benign mesenchymal hamartoma, arise primarily in the kidneys of patients with or without tuberous sclerosis. Extra-renal AMLs are very rare and are most commonly found in the liver.AMLs of the small intestine are exceedingly rare. Here,a case of a 28-year-old man, who presented with ileal intussusception caused by ileal AML is reported. The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings of ileal AMLs are discussed and the literature on small intestinal AMLs is reviewed.

  15. Renal angiomyolipoma : superselective arterial embolization and long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of superselective arterial embolization in symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma by assessing tumoral changes and clinical symptoms in long term follow up after embolization For the treatment of their condition, nine patients with symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma underwent ten superselective arterial embolization procedures. In all patients, angiomyolipoma had been diagnosed by computed tomography(CT), and in two, had been confirmed by ultrasonography-guided aspiration biopsy. The embolic materials used were absolute alcohol in four sessions, absolute alcohol mixed with lipiodol in three, and Giantruco coils in three. In all patients, follow-up after embolization lasted for between 12 and 54 months, and involved the use of CT. We reviewed retrospectively patients' clinical symptoms, and changes in the size and internal components of tumors, as seen on preembolization and postembolization CT scans. On postembolization angiography, devascularization of the tumor was seen in all patients; the initial symptoms disappeared and tumor size decreased during the follow up period. In nine patients, tumor size decreased after embolization by between 26 and 92%. During the long term (over 12 months) follow up of all patients, seven tumors with a considerable angiomyogenic component markedly decreased in size, but tumors in which the mature fatty component was substantial became only slightly smaller. Reembolization was performed in one patient. Superselective arterial embolization is effective in the management of symptomatic renal AML; during long-term follow-up, tumors became smaller and clinical symptoms improved. Embolization is more effective in tumors in which the angiomyogenic component is large

  16. Spontaneously reversible portal vein thrombosis complicating acute pancreatits - computed tomographic findings; Computertomographische Verlaufsbeobachtungen der spontanen Rueckbildung von Portalvenenthrombosen bei akuter Pankreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Lorenz, F.; Vlahovic, J. [Klinikum Niederberg Velbert (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Kirchner, E.M. [Klinikum Duisburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin

    2008-07-01

    Portal vein thrombosis complicating acute pancreatitis is more often diagnosed today due to the improved imaging techniques (computed tomography, ultrasound, nmr). Nevertheless the outcome of recent portal vein thrombosis is ill-known. We report on the computed tomographic findings and clinical course of portal vein thrombosis in two patients suffering from acute pancreatitis. Both patients showed spontaneous recanalization of the thrombosis. (orig.)

  17. Combination of Superselective Arterial Embolization and Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of a Giant Renal Angiomyolipoma Complicated with Caval Thrombus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos N.; Moschouris, Hippocrates; Marmaridou, Kiriaki; Kiltenis, Michail; Kladis-Kalentzis, Konstantinos; Malagari, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of a 78-year-old male patient with multiple angiomyolipomas of a solitary right kidney. The largest of these tumors (maximum diameter: 13.4 cm) caused significant extrinsic compression of the inferior vena cava complicated by thrombosis of this vessel. Treatment of thrombosis with anticoagulants had been ineffective and the patient had experienced a bleeding episode from the largest right renal angiomyolipoma, which had been treated by transarterial embolization in another institution, 4 months prior to our intervention. Our approach included superselective transarterial embolization of the dominant, right kidney angiomyolipoma with hydrogel microspheres, which was combined, 20 days later, with ultrasonographically guided radiofrequency ablation. Both interventions were uneventful. Computed tomography 2 months after ablation showed a 53% reduction in tumor volume, reduced space-occupying effect on inferior vena cava, and resolution of caval thrombus. Nine months after intervention the patient has had no recurrence of thrombosis or hemorrhage and no tumor regrowth has been observed. The combination of superselective transarterial embolization and radiofrequency ablation seems to be a feasible, safe, and efficient treatment of large renal angiomyolipomas. PMID:27293932

  18. Mapping Faults from 3-D Tomographic Velocity Model using Image Processing / Computer Vision Algorithms: Application to Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, K.

    2011-12-01

    Three dimensional velocity models constructed through seismic tomography are seldom digitally processed further for imaging structural features. A study conducted to evaluate the potential for imaging subsurface discontinuities in horizontal and vertical direction from three dimensional velocity models using image processing/computer vision techniques has provided significant results. Three-dimensional velocity models constructed through tomographic inversion of active source and/or earthquake traveltime data are generally built from an initial 1-D velocity model that varies only with depth. Regularized tomographic inversion algorithms impose constraints on the roughness of the model that help to stabilize the inversion process. Final velocity models obtained from regularized tomographic inversions have smooth three-dimensional structures that are required by the data. Final velocity models are usually analyzed and interpreted either as a perturbation velocity model or as an absolute velocity model. Compared to perturbation velocity model, absolute velocity model has an advantage of providing constraints on lithology. Both velocity models lack the ability to provide sharp constraints on subsurface faults. However, results from the analysis of the 3-D velocity model from northern Cascadia using Roberts, Prewitt, Sobel, and Canny operators show that subsurface faults that are not clearly interpretable from velocity model plots can be identified through this approach. This analysis resulted in inferring the locations of Tacoma Fault, Seattle Fault, Southern Whidbey Island Fault, and Darrington Devils Mountain fault much clearly. The Coast Range Boundary Fault, previously hypothesized on the basis of sedimentological and tectonic observations is inferred clearly from processed images. Many of the fault locations so imaged correlate with earthquake hypocenters indicating their seismogenic nature.

  19. Computed tomographic study of 50 patients with hypodense hepatic injuries in childhood; Estudo de 50 casos por tomografia computadorizada de lesoes hipodensas hepaticas fundamentais na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues; Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Baracat, Jamal; Martins, Daniel Lahan [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: iminniti@fcm.unicamp.br; Pereira, Ricardo Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2006-03-15

    Objective: To describe the different tomographic findings in hypodense hepatic lesions in children and its differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: computed tomographic studies were obtained from 50 patients (age range: 0-16 years) with low-density liver lesions previously diagnosed by ultrasound. Images were made before and after administration of intravenous contrast medium. Image findings were analyzed and afterwards correlated with anatomopathological diagnosis. Results: forty-seven of 50 cases were confirmed, 30 by anatomopathological diagnosis. Most of then were benign lesions, hemangioma in 20%. Such lesions presented a homogeneous contrast absorption, mainly at the delayed phase, differing from malignant lesions. Metastasis was the most frequently found malignant lesion (18%). Conclusion: computed tomographic study is of great value in complementing the diagnosis of hypodense hepatic lesions in children, and must follow ultrasound diagnosis as a routine procedure. (author)

  20. Computed tomographic diagnosis of splenic and hepatic damages in malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy eight patients with varying malignancy non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were examined. Signs of extranodal damage of the spleen and liver were studied. Spleno- and hepatomegalia were signs of the commonest diffuse visceral involvements. In terms of the malignancy (low- or high-grade), splenomegalia was seen in 71.4 and 82.5 % of patients and hepatomegalia was observed in 43.9 and 28.6 %, respectively. In addition, irregular visceral outlines, tuberosity, changed density of the parenchyma and its homogeneity. A high correlation was found between the enlargement of the viscera and their decreased parenchymal density. Focal visceral involvements are less difficult to be diagnosed than diffuse ones, but they are much rarer. Computerized tomographic findings indicate the malignancy of a process

  1. Segmental neurofibromatosis associated with renal angiomyolipomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim-Tan; Chiu, Melvin

    2008-07-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis (SN) is a rare disorder characterized by neurofibromas or neurofibromas with café-au-lait spots limited to one region of the body without crossing the midline. Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are rare benign neoplasms usually found in association with tuberous sclerosis (TS). Similar to neurofibromatosis (NF), TS has a high spontaneous mutation rate and a family history often is absent. Although both are autosomal dominant diseases with neural involvement, there are few reports in the literature demonstrating a link between the 2 disorders. We report a case of SN associated with renal AMLs. To our knowledge, there has been only 1 prior report of renal AML associated with NF type 1 (NF1), and there have been no prior reports of SN associated with AML. PMID:18712027

  2. Computed-tomographic density measurement of supersonic flow field by colored-grid background oriented schlieren (CGBOS) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique is one of the visualization techniques that enable the quantitative measurement of density information in the flow field with very simple experimental setup. The principle of BOS is similar to the conventional schlieren technique, which exploits the bending of light caused by refractive index change corresponding to density change in the medium and both techniques are sensible to density gradient. In this report we propose colored-grid background oriented schlieren (CGBOS) technique. The experiments were carried out in a supersonic wind tunnel of test section size 0.6 × 0.6 m2 at JAXA-ISAS. A colored-grid pattern was used as background image and density gradient in vertical and horizontal direction was obtained. Computed tomographic reconstructions of 3D density information of the supersonic flow field around an asymmetric body from multi-directional CGBOS images were examined

  3. Comparison of alveolar ridge preservation method using three dimensional micro-computed tomographic analysis and two dimensional histometric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Seung Hee; Park, Hee Jung; Lee, Sophia; Kim, Taeil; Lee, Young Kyu; Heo, Min Suk [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of alveolar ridge preservation methods with and without primary wound closure and the relationship between histometric and micro-computed tomographic (CT) data. Porcine hydroxyapatite with polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was implanted into a canine extraction socket. The density of the total mineralized tissue, remaining hydroxyapatite, and new bone was analyzed by histometry and micro-CT. The statistical association between these methods was evaluated. Histometry and micro-CT showed that the group which underwent alveolar preservation without primary wound closure had significantly higher new bone density than the group with primary wound closure (P<0.05). However, there was no significant association between the data from histometry and micro-CT analysis. These results suggest that alveolar ridge preservation without primary wound closure enhanced new bone formation more effectively than that with primary wound closure. Further investigation is needed with respect to the comparison of histometry and micro-CT analysis.

  4. Computed tomographic findings of radiation-induced acute adrenal injury with associated radiation nephropathy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation nephropathy was first recognized in 1906. The kidney is a radiosensitive organ with a tolerance dose (5% complications in 5 years) of 20 Gray. The imaging findings of acute and chronic radiation induced renal injury are previously described. Radiation-induced adrenal injury, to our knowledge, has not been described in the literature. Unlike the kidneys and other upper abdominal organs, the adrenal glands are traditionally thought to be radio-resistant, protected from radiation-induced injury by proximity to adjacent organs and by the adrenal medulla which reportedly has increased radio-resistance. We present the computed tomographic imaging findings of a patient with acute radiation induced adrenal injury which resulted in adrenal insufficiency following radiotherapy of an adjacent thecal metastasis

  5. Hepatic Rupture Caused by Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzyme, and Low Platelet Count Syndrome: A Case Report with Computed Tomographic and Conventional Angiographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheong Bok; Ahn, Jae Hong; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Foundation, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The authors recently obtained successful clinical outcome after embolization of the hepatic artery and right inferior phrenic artery in a pregnant patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome causing hepatic rupture. We report the computed tomographic and conventional angiographic findings in a case of HELLP syndrome, resulting in hepatic infarction and rupture with active bleeding.

  6. Diagnostic procedures in the evaluation of solitary angiomyolipomas of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigert, F.; Ringelmann, W.; Voeth, C.

    1983-11-01

    The use of excretion urography, sonography, ultrasound-controlled fine-needle puncture, computed tomography and angiography is described in four histologically confirmed cases of solitary renal angiomyolipomas. For the second time, involvement of the inferior vena cava by a benign hamartoma is described. An important advance is the recognition of a characteristic collection of findings consisting of strong echogenicity on ultrasound and fat equivalent hypodensity on CT, together with the cytological findings, which are described for the first time. It was possible to make the diagnosis with a high degree of certainty in two patients, with important therapeutic implications.

  7. Electrophysiological and cranial computed tomographical follow-up study on a case of late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrophysiological and cranial computed tomographical follow-up studies were carried out on a male suffering from late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLF) during the ages from 3 to 7 and the following results were obtained. 1. Electroencephalographic findings. (1) Spike and slow waves were noted in the occipital area initially when he was 3 years old, and these abnormalities spread rapidly to entire cereberum thereafter. (2) Occipital spikes and spike-slow waves synchronized with low frequency photic stimuli (1 -- 3 c/s) were confirmed as an important diagnostic indicator of CLS. 2. Other electrophysilogical findings. Findings of both silent electroretinogram and hyper-responded sensory evoked potential by median nerve stimulation, performed when he was 5 years old, were also important diagnostic indicators in addition to EEG findings. 3. Cranial computed tomography (CCT), CCT revealed mild cortical atrophy of the cereberum and cerebellum when he was 4 years old. Yearly CCT examinations from 4 to 7 years of age showed marked progressive diffuse atrophy, suggesting more severe involvement of gray matter than white matter. (author)

  8. Detection of common bile duct stones: comparison between endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and helical-computed-tomographic cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: New modalities, namely, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and helical computed-tomographic cholangiography (HCT-C), have been introduced recently for the detection of common bile duct (CBD) stones and shown improved detectability compared to conventional ultrasound or computed tomography. We conducted this study to compare the diagnostic ability of EUS, MRCP, and HCT-C in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. Methods: Twenty-eight patients clinically suspected of having CBD stones were enrolled, excluding those with cholangitis or a definite history of choledocholithiasis. Each patient underwent EUS, MRCP, and HCT-C prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), the result of which served as the diagnostic gold standard. Results: CBD stones were detected in 24 (86%) of 28 patients by ERCP/IDUS. The sensitivity of EUS, MRCP, and HCT-C was 100%, 88%, and 88%, respectively. False negative cases for MRCP and HCT-C had a CBD stone smaller than 5 mm in diameter. No serious complications occurred while one patient complained of itching in the eyelids after the infusion of contrast agent on HCT-C. Conclusions: When examination can be scheduled, MRCP or HCT-C will be the first choice because they were less invasive than EUS. MRCP and HCT-C had similar detectability but the former may be preferable considering the possibility of allergic reaction in the latter. When MRCP is negative, EUS is recommended to check for small CBD stones

  9. Angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts (AMLEC: a rare but distinct variant of angiomyolipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Uma NM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts (AMLEC is a recently described distinct cystic variant of angiomyolipoma (AML. To date 15 cases of AMLEC have been reported in 2 case series. We report the 16th case in a 39-year-old female. Her left kidney tumor was discovered incidentally. Partial nephrectomy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of three components: 1 epithelial cysts lined by cuboidal to hobnail cells; 2 compact subepithelial mullerian-like AML stroma with admixed chronic inflammation; and 3 muscle-predominant AML with dysmorphic blood vessels exterior to the subepithelial stroma. Immunohistochemically, the subepithelial stroma stained most intensely with HMB-45 and Melan-A, whilst the muscle-predominant AML areas stained most intensely with smooth muscle actin and desmin. Estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and CD10 stained most intensely in the subepithelial stroma. The cyst lining was positive for pancytokeratin, but negative for HMB-45, Melan-A, ER, PR, and CD10. The patient is alive with no evidence of disease, 12 months postoperatively, and yearly follow-up CT scans are planned.

  10. Computed tomographic-arteriographic correlates in acute basal ganglionic infraction of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen children who presented with acute hemiparesis and basal ganglionic infarction were studied by computed tomography and arteriography (11 patients). Arteriography demonstrated focal vascular disease in 10 patients. Current management of these pediatric patients requires computed tomography, arteriography and complete laboratory investigation. (orig.)

  11. Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in the assessment of severity of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate the role of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of severity and right ventricular function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Materials and methods: Clinical and radiological data of 56 patients with CTEPH January 2006–October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. All patients received CTPA with a 64-row CT using the retrospective ECG-Gated mode before digital subtraction pulmonary angiography and right-heart catheterization. CTPA findings including Right Ventricular diameter (RVd) and left ventricular diameter (LVd) were measured at the end diastole. CT Pulmonary Artery Obstruction Indexes including Qanadli Index and Mastora Index were used in the assessment of severity of pulmonary arterial obstruction. Hemodynamic parameters and pulmonary hypertension classification were evaluated by right-heart catheterization in all patients. Right ventricular function was measured with echocardiography in 49 patients. Results: Qanadli Index and Mastora Index respectively were (37.93 ± 14.74)% and (30.92 ± 16.91)%, which showed a significant difference (Z = −5.983, P = 0.000) and a good correlation (r = 0.881, P = 0.000). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with pulmonary hypertension classification (r = −0.009, P = 0.920) or New York Heart Association heart function classification (r = −0.031, P = 0.756). Neither Qanadli nor Mastora Index correlated with any echocardiographic right ventricular parameters (P > 0.05), while RVd/LVd by CTPA correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular functional parameters (P 2. CTPA findings correlated with hemodynamic variables. Backward linear regression analysis revealed that the RVd/LVd, Right Ventricular Anterior Wall Thickness (RVAWT), Main Pulmonary Artery trunk diameter (MPAd) were shown to be independently associated with mean Pulmonary Artery Pressure (mPAP) levels (model: r2 = 0.351, P = 0.025; RVd

  12. Aneurysm in a Large Sporadic Renal Angiomyolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Omran, Bedoor; Ansari, Naseem

    2016-05-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are the most common mesenchymal renal neoplasms and are classified as neoplasms of perivascular epithelioid cells (PEComa). AML is usually a benign neoplasm arising most often in the kidney although it has been described in a wide variety of sites. Most patients are adults, and one-third suffer from tuberous sclerosis. We describe a case of renal AML in a 54-year-old Bahraini woman who presented to the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital with right flank pain and hematuria, and who was known to have rheumatoid arthritis but had no cutaneous or other stigmata of tuberous sclerosis. It is the largest AML reported in Bahrain and is also striking for the fact that it contained an intratumoral aneurysm that ruptured causing symptoms leading to the radiological diagnosis of renal mass. Furthermore, the occurrence of an aneurysm in sporadic AML, as in our case, is rare since the large majority tend to be seen in association with tuberous sclerosis. PMID:27162594

  13. Report of a case successfully treated with partial nephrectomy for renal angiomyolipoma. Reliability of CT-scanning in the diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Shozo; Ihara, Hideari; Ishibashi, Michio

    1983-10-01

    A case of a 57-year-old woman with right renal angiomyolipoma is reported. In this case, correct preoperative diagnosis was obtained from B-mode ultrasonogram, urogram, enhanced CT-scanning and selective renal angiogram, and a partial nephrectomy including the tumor mass was performed. She is doing well now almost 10 months following the surgery with no signs of recurrence. Our experience of four patients with angiomyolipoma including the present case showed that CT-scanning is most useful in the diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma. Literature was reviewed briefly in favor of a conservative surgery in patients with renal angiomyolipoma.

  14. Various radiological appearances of angiomyolipomas in the same kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obuz, F.; Karabay, N.; Secil, M.; Igvci, E.; Kovanlikaya, A. [Department of Radiology, Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Yoeruekoglu, K. [Department of Pathology, Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2000-06-01

    A 21-year-old woman with tuberous sclerosis presented with abdominal distension and flank pain. Imaging studies, including CT and MR imaging, revealed bilateral renal mass lesions, containing fat and suggesting the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. However the imaging characteristics of one of these lesions differed from the others with no radiologically detectable fat tissue in this solid lesion suggesting renal cell carcinoma. Histopathological examination of this lesion in the left kidney revealed an angiomyolipoma with minimal fat tissue. The radiological diagnosis of angiomyolipomas with minimal fat tissue remains difficult and the differential diagnosis is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Renoduodenal Fistula After Transcatheter Embolization of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipomas is a routinely performed, nephron-sparing procedure with a favorable safety profile. Complications from this procedure are typically minor in severity, with postembolization syndrome the most common minor complication. Abscess formation is a recognized but uncommon major complication of this procedure and is presumably due to superinfection of the infarcted tissue after arterial embolization. In this case report, we describe the formation of a renoduodenal fistula after embolization of an angiomyolipoma, complicated by intracranial abscess formation and requiring multiple percutaneous drainage procedures and eventual partial nephrectomy

  16. Renoduodenal Fistula After Transcatheter Embolization of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, Rahul A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Feldman, Adam S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery (United States); Walker, T. Gregory, E-mail: tgwalker@partners.org [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipomas is a routinely performed, nephron-sparing procedure with a favorable safety profile. Complications from this procedure are typically minor in severity, with postembolization syndrome the most common minor complication. Abscess formation is a recognized but uncommon major complication of this procedure and is presumably due to superinfection of the infarcted tissue after arterial embolization. In this case report, we describe the formation of a renoduodenal fistula after embolization of an angiomyolipoma, complicated by intracranial abscess formation and requiring multiple percutaneous drainage procedures and eventual partial nephrectomy.

  17. Cranium-brain trauma in computed tomographs - diagnosis and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the successful treatment of intracranial complications in the case of cranium-brain trauma a quick and exact diagnosis is necessary. The goal of this work was to test and evaluate the effectivity of computed tomography for neurotraumatology. Using 565 patients, who were acutely or at one time suffering from a cranium-brain trauma, the high validity of computed tomography for these injuries was proven. The following areas in question were studied with respect to the value of computed tomography in comparison to them: angiography, X-ray diagnostic, echoencephalography, brain scintigraphy, electroencephalography and neurological-psychopathological findings from cranium-brain trauma. Statement possibilities and difficulties of computed tomography are discussed in the cases of the following neurotraumatological diseases: extracranial hematomas; acute cranium-brain traumas; traumatic arachnoidal bleeding; diffuse brain edema; transtentorial herniation and brain contusions. At the end the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the case of cranium-brain trauma are presented. (orig.)

  18. Positron tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specifications of position emission tomographs used for examination of brain and internal organs of human beings are presented. The tomograph comprises a detecting system, devices for detector displacement, sighting, calibration, electronics units (discriminators-formers, coincidence circuits, coders, buffer memory), detectors for detecting system position, bed for patient. Spatial resolution of the tomograph is determined by sizes of the detectors and their dispositin relatively to the object of examination. Besides, it depends on positron path in the investigated medium, deflections of the angle of scatter of annihilation quanta from 180 deg, distribution of points of gamma-quantum interaction by depth of the detector, filter and algorithm of image reconstruction, motion of organs of a patient, motion of labelled pharm-preparation in the organism. Such factors as absorption of annihilation radiation by substance of an object, radiation scattering and registration of random coincidences essentially affect the quality of tomographic image. It is shown that use of asseblies of microchannel plates and a scintillator on the base of barium fluoride permits to produce a coordinate-sensitive detector for a tomograph complying with highest requirements

  19. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC, RADIOGRAPHIC, AND ENDOSCOPIC TRACHEAL DIMENSIONS IN ENGLISH BULLDOGS WITH GRADE 1 CLINICAL SIGNS OF BRACHYCEPHALIC AIRWAY SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Benjamin M; Boroffka, Susanne A E B; Haagsman, Annika N; Ter Haar, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal hypoplasia is commonly seen in English Bulldogs affected with brachycephalic airway syndrome. Previously published diagnostic criteria for tracheal hypoplasia in this breed have been a radiographic tracheal diameter:tracheal inlet ratio (TD:TI) < 0.12 or a tracheal diameter:third rib diameter ratio (TD:3R) < 2.0. Computed tomography has become increasingly used for airway evaluation, however published information is lacking regarding CT tracheal dimensions in English Bulldogs. Objectives of this prospective cross-sectional study were to describe radiographic and CT tracheal dimensions in a sample of clinically normal English Bulldogs and compare these values with tracheoscopy scores. Computed tomography (n = 40), radiography (n = 38), and tracheoscopy (n = 40) studies were performed during a single general anesthesia session for each included dog. Tracheal measurements were recorded at three locations: cervical, thoracic inlet, and thorax. Tracheal diameters were narrowest at the thoracic inlet with all techniques. Computed tomographic measurements averaged 19% greater than radiographic measurements. All included dogs had radiographic tracheal measurements greater than the previously published criteria for tracheal hypoplasia. Mean CT TD:TI was 0.26 (± 0.03, 0.20-0.33), and mean CT TT:3R was 2.27 (± 0.24, 1.71-2.74). Radiographic TD:TI and CT TD:TI were significantly correlated (P = 0.00); however radiographic TT:3R and CT TT:3R were not significantly correlated (P = 0.25). Tracheoscopy identified hypoplastic changes in all dogs and tracheoscopy scores were not correlated with CT or radiography diameter measurements. In conclusion, findings indicated that some CT and radiographic tracheal diameter measurements were comparable in English Bulldogs however diameters for both imaging techniques were not comparable with tracheoscopy scores. PMID:26202379

  20. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...... intercostal spaces cranially. Conclusion The approach to image analysis reported permits the creation of various maps showing adipose thickness or correlation of thickness with other variables by location on the surface of the pig. The method identified novel adipose thickness measurement positions...

  1. Multislice computed tomographic patterns of muscle bridging of left anterior descending artery and their relation to atheromatous coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of atheromatous coronary artery disease in patients with myocardial bridge. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIC/NIHD Rawalpindi from September 2010 to November 2010. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing MSCT angiography for diagnosis of CAD having an abnormal finding were included. Patients with history of prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), coronary stenting and with chronic total occlusions were excluded. Computed Tomographic (CT) examinations were performed with a dual-source CT scanner. Scanning parameters: detector collimation, 2 x 32 x 0.6 mm; slice collimation, 2 x 64 x 0.6 mm; gantry rotation time, 330 milliseconds; tube current-time product, 350 m As per rotation and tube potential 120 kV. Reconstructions done and data transmitted to workstations and analyzed. Myocardial bridge (MB) was diagnosed and evaluated when an intramuscular segment of LAD artery was visualized on axial, volume rendered and multiplanar reformation (MPR) images. Results: Out of 232 patients 32% had MB. Males were three times more likely to have Myocardial bridge (MB). Mid and distal LAD showed 54% and 45% MBs respectively. Fourteen percent had evidence of atherosclerosis proximal to MB segment. Mean length and depth of MB segment was 18mm and 1.8mm respectively. Superficial type was most common (44%), followed by deep type (33%) while RV type was least common (23%). Conclusion: Frequency of patients with myocardial bridge having concomitant atheromatous coronary artery disease was 14%. (author)

  2. Comparison of the Multidetector-row Computed Tomographic Angiography Axial and Coronal Planes' Usefulness for Detecting Thoracodorsal Artery Perforators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Gyu Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background During the planning of a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP free flap,preoperative multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT angiography is valuablefor predicting the locations of perforators. However, CT-based perforator mapping of thethoracodorsal artery is not easy because of its small diameter. Thus, we evaluated 1-mm-thickMDCT images in multiple planes to search for reliable perforators accurately.Methods Between July 2010 and October 2011, 19 consecutive patients (13 males, 6females who underwent MDCT prior to TDAP free flap operations were enrolled in this study.Patients ranged in age from 10 to 75 years (mean, 39.3 years. MDCT images were acquired ata thickness of 1 mm in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes.Results The thoracodorsal artery perforators were detected in all 19 cases. The reliableperforators originating from the descending branch were found in 14 cases, of which 6 hadtransverse branches. The former were well identified in the coronal view, and the latter in theaxial view. The location of the most reliable perforators on MDCT images corresponded wellwith the surgical findings.Conclusions Though MDCT has been widely used in performing the abdominal perforatorfree flap for detecting reliable perforating vessels, it is not popular in the TDAP free flap.The results of this study suggest that multiple planes of MDCT may increase the probabilityof detecting the most reliable perforators, along with decreasing the probability of missingavailable vessels.

  3. Positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT). CBCTs from 127 subjects were analysed. A total of 134 maxillary first molars were classified according to their vertical and horizontal positional relationship to the maxillary sinus floor and measured according to the distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary first molar. Type III (The root projected laterally on the sinus cavity but its apex is outside the sinus boundaries) was dominated between 10 and 19 years and type I (The root apex was not in contact with the cortical borders of the sinus) was dominated (P<0.05) between 20 and 72 years on the vertical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. The maxillary sinus floor was located more at the apex (78.2%) than at the furcation (21.3%) for the palatal root. The distance from the root apex to the maxillary sinus floor confined to type I was increased according to the ages (P<0.05). Type M (The maxillary sinus floor was located between the buccal and the palatal root) was most common (72.4%) on the horizontal relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. CBCT can provide highly qualified images for the maxillary sinus floor and the root apex of the maxillary first molar.

  4. Complimentary Imaging Modalities for Investigating Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Capsule Endoscopy, Double-Balloon Enteroscopy, and Computed Tomographic Enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ye; Wu, Sheng; Qian, Yuting; Wang, Qi; Li, Juanjuan; Tang, Yanping; Bai, Tingting; Wang, Lifu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The complimentary value of computed tomographic enterography (CTE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) combined with capsule endoscopy (CE) was evaluated in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Methods. Patients who received CE examinations at Ruijin Hospital between July 2007 and July 2014 with the indication of OGIB were identified, and those who also underwent DBE and/or CTE were included. Their clinical information was retrieved, and results from each test were compared with findings from the other two examinations. Results. The overall diagnostic yield of CE was comparable with DBE (73.9% versus 60.9%) but was significantly higher than the yield of CTE (87% versus 25%, p < 0.001). The diagnostic yield of angiodysplasia at CE was significantly higher than CTE (73% versus 8%, p < 0.001) and DBE (39.1% versus 17.4%, p = 0.013), while no significant difference was found between the three approaches for small bowel tumors. DBE and CTE identified small bowel diseases undetected or undetermined by CE. Conversely, CE improved diagnosis in the cases with negative CTE and DBE, and findings at initial CE directed further diagnosis made by DBE. Conclusions. Combination of the three diagnostic platforms provides complementary value in the diagnosis of OGIB. PMID:26858753

  5. Complimentary Imaging Modalities for Investigating Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Capsule Endoscopy, Double-Balloon Enteroscopy, and Computed Tomographic Enterography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The complimentary value of computed tomographic enterography (CTE and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE combined with capsule endoscopy (CE was evaluated in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB. Methods. Patients who received CE examinations at Ruijin Hospital between July 2007 and July 2014 with the indication of OGIB were identified, and those who also underwent DBE and/or CTE were included. Their clinical information was retrieved, and results from each test were compared with findings from the other two examinations. Results. The overall diagnostic yield of CE was comparable with DBE (73.9% versus 60.9% but was significantly higher than the yield of CTE (87% versus 25%, p<0.001. The diagnostic yield of angiodysplasia at CE was significantly higher than CTE (73% versus 8%, p<0.001 and DBE (39.1% versus 17.4%, p=0.013, while no significant difference was found between the three approaches for small bowel tumors. DBE and CTE identified small bowel diseases undetected or undetermined by CE. Conversely, CE improved diagnosis in the cases with negative CTE and DBE, and findings at initial CE directed further diagnosis made by DBE. Conclusions. Combination of the three diagnostic platforms provides complementary value in the diagnosis of OGIB.

  6. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. Materials and Methods CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. Results In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. Conclusion The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions. PMID:27358821

  7. Computed tomographic features of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve in pediatric patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diameters of the various bony canals of the inner ear in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and establish criteria for detecting hypoplasia of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve. Measurements obtained in 118 patients without inner ear malformations among 160 patients with unilateral SNHL were analyzed. The diameters of the internal auditory canal and the bony canals of the cochlear, vestibular, and facial nerves were measured on transverse or coronal computed tomographic images. Mean values (±standard deviation (SD)) were compared between the affected and unaffected ears, and statistical analysis was done. The diameter of the bony canal of the cochlear nerve was significantly smaller in affected ears than in unaffected ears (P<0.01). The affected ears could be divided into groups with (72 ears) and without (46 ears) bony canal stenosis. Most (60%) of the patients with unilateral SNHL showed a significant difference in the diameters of the bony canals of the cochlear nerve between the affected and unaffected sides; moreover, the mean value was significantly smaller in affected ears. The diameter of <1.7 mm on transverse images or <1.8 mm on coronal images suggests hypoplasia. (author)

  8. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro; Yuki, Hideaki; Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Honda, Keiichi; Yoshimura, Akira; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  9. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  10. The use of a computed tomographic application for mobile devices in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Eduardo Massaharu; Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current technical report was to introduce a computed tomographic (CT) application for mobile devices as a diagnostic tool for analyzing CT images. An iPad and an iPhone (Apple, Cuppertino, CA) were used to navigate through multiplanar reconstructions of cone beam CT scans, using an application derived from the OsiriX CT software. Tools and advantages of this method were recorded. In addition, images rendered in the iPad were manipulated during dental implant placement and grafting procedures to follow up and confirm the implant digital planning in real time. The study population consisted of 10 patients. In all cases, it was possible to use image manipulation tools, such as changing contrast and brightness, zooming, rotating, panning, performing both linear and area measurements, and analyzing gray-scale values of a region of interest. Furthermore, it was possible to use the OsiriX application in the dental clinic where the study was conducted, to follow-up the analyzed implant placement and grafting procedures at the chairside. The current findings suggest that technological and practical methods to visualize radiographic images are invaluable resources to improve training, teaching, networking, and the performance of real-time follow-up of oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of introducing this new technology in the clinical routine. PMID:25565229

  11. Renal ultrasonographic and computed tomographic appearance, volume, and function of cats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Jean K; DiBartola, Stephen P; Léveillé, Renée

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic (US) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in cats; to compare renal volume in cats with ADPKD (n = 5; mean age 59 +/- 10 months)) and normal cats (n = 5; mean age 66 +/- 10 months) using 2 imaging modalities, US and CT; and to calculate cyst volume using CT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by 2 methods: 99mTc-diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DPTA) scintigraphic uptake and 99-Tc-DTPA plasma clearance. Sonographically, ADPKD affected kidneys were characterized by multiple anechoic to hypoechoic, round to irregularly shaped structures with variation in size. Affected kidneys had indistinct corticomedullary junctions and foci of mineralization. Intravenous (IV) contrast medium administration allowed more definitive identification of cysts with CT, and identification of distortion of renal pelves by cysts. A significant difference (Welch ANOVA, P = 0.05) was detected between the US-estimated renal volumes of normal and affected cats. No statistically significant differences were detected in CT volume (between the normal and affected cats, or between US and CT volume measurements) or the 2 GFR methods. In this group of clinically normal, middle-aged ADPKD cats, renal function was within normal limits and not significantly different than normal. PMID:12175002

  12. Whole body computed tomographic findings of each one case with primary aldosteronism and Cushing syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We here report each one case with primary aldosteronism (male, 28 years old) and Cushing syndrome (female, 37 years old). Both of the cases showed characteristic clinical signs of hypertension and typical laboratory findings of adreno-hormonal assays. In performance of whole body computed tomography, clear pictures of tumorous adenomas in both cases were taken and the sizes of adenomas in picture were completely same as the masses obtained by the lateral adrenectomies. As a result, the whole body computed tomography is very useful to diagnose the diseases of adrenal adenoma and hyperplasia. (author)

  13. Computed tomographic evaluation of comminuted middle phalangeal fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comminuted fractures of the middle phalanx have been well described in the horse. Choice of treatment, surgical planning and prognosis have traditionally been based upon evaluation of radiographs. However, the complex nature of comminuted fractures makes radiographic interpretation difficult. Computed tomography (CT) allows the production of cross-sectional images with spatial separation of structures which are superimposed on survey radiographs. This allows accurate assessment of the number and direction of fracture lines within the bone. In this paper we report the use of CT in the evaluation of 6 comminuted middle phalangeal fractures. Computed tomography is potentially useful in deciding the type of treatment, surgical planning and determining the prognosis

  14. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged. PMID:22654139

  15. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic features of 4 cases of canine congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Berlanda, Michele; Zotti, Alessandro; Brandazza, Giada; Poser, Helen; Calò, Pietro; Bernardini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance and computed tomography features of 4 cases of canine congenital vertebral anomalies (CVAs) are discussed. Two of the cases represent unusual presentations for such anomalies that commonly affect screw-tail or toy breeds. Moreover, the combination of CVAs and a congenital peritoneo-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia has never before been imaged.

  16. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  17. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) examination for computer tomographic identification of lesions of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROC examination was based on patient computer tomograms, in which lesions of the liver were simulated by image manipulation. The window width for optimal recognition of the lesions was found to be 128 Hounsfield units (HU). Evaluation of Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) by diameters and contrasts of the lesions yielded a contrast detail diagram largely reflecting conditions in clinical practice. The detectability - measured via the smallest visible diameter of the lesions - is inferior by the factor 3 to 60 to the results obtained with hole pattern phantoms. For example, in computer tomograms lesions of the liver of 24 mm and 4 HU or also 11 mm and 10 HU yield 70% true positive and 10% false positive findings. (orig.)

  18. Computed tomographic assessment of noninvasive intranasal infusions in dogs with fungal rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of infusate administered to 12 dogs with fungal rhinitis, using a noninvasive, intranasal technique, was evaluated by computed tomography (CT). In every dog, contrast medium was identified on the postinfusion CT images, within the frontal sinuses, and throughout all areas of the nasal cavity. Adverse effects were transient and mild. The results of this study indicate that intranasal infusion may be a viable alternative to trephination of the frontal sinuses to administer antifungal medications in dogs with fungal rhinitis

  19. Prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus pathologies in dental patients on cone-beam computed tomographic images

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Raghav; Karjodkar, Freny R.; Subodh Sontakke; Kaustubh Sansare

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to infer and to record the prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus pathologies in patients presenting with dental problems using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans performed for maxillofacial diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has evaluated 201 patients (402 maxillary sinuses consecutive CBCT) for various incidental maxillary sinus pathologies by two observers. Pathologic findings were categorized as m...

  20. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    OpenAIRE

    Narender Kumar Magu; Sarita Magu; Rajesh Kumar Rohilla; Amit Batra; Abhishek Jaipuria; Amanpreet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT) is a...

  1. Micro-computed tomographical imaging of soft biological materials using contrast techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj, K.A.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Wismans, P.G.P.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J. A.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to introduce high-resolution computed tomography (micro-CT) for scaffolds made from soft natural biomaterials, and to compare these data with the conventional techniques scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Collagen-based scaffolds were used as examples. Unlike mineralized tissues, collagen scaffolds do not provide enough X-ray attenuation for micro-CT imaging. Therefore, various metal-based contrast agents were applied and evaluated using two structural...

  2. Computed tomographic analysis of deformity and dimensional changes in the eyeball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 40 patients with a confirmed ophthalmic diagnosis and a change in the dimensions or configuration of the eyeball. Abnormalities studied included coloboma, microphthalmus, buphthalmos, axial myopia, macrophthalmus, phthisis bulbi, trauma, neoplasm, posterior staphyloma, granuloma, pseudotumor, and surgicalscleral banding for retinal detachment. CT findings could be grouped into three categories depending upon whether the eye was small, large, or normal in size, with the findings in each group allowing distinction of most disease processes

  3. Computed Tomographic Angiography under Sedation in the Diagnosis of Suspected Canine Pancreatitis: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, A.M.; Twedt, D.C.; Kraft, S L; Marolf, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is highly accurate for diagnosing pancreatitis in humans. The diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs is based on clinical signs, laboratory findings, and ultrasonographic (US) changes. There are, however, inherent limitations in relying on laboratory and ultrasound findings for the clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives We hypothesized that CT angiography would be a rapid and reliable method to confirm pancreatitis in dogs compared to ...

  4. Computed tomographic analysis of deformity and dimensional changes in the eyeball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D.R.; Foulks, G.N.

    1984-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 40 patients with a confirmed ophthalmic diagnosis and a change in the dimensions or configuration of the eyeball. Abnormalities studied included coloboma, microphthalmus, buphthalmos, axial myopia, macrophthalmus, phthisis bulbi, trauma, neoplasm, posterior staphyloma, granuloma, pseudotumor, and surgicalscleral banding for retinal detachment. CT findings could be grouped into three categories depending upon whether the eye was small, large, or normal in size, with the findings in each group allowing distinction of most disease processes.

  5. Computed Tomographic Anatomy of the Nose in Meso- and Brachyzephalic Cats and Potential Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nöller, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In order to enlighten the dark labyrinth of the nasal cavity, a comparative examination of brachycephalic (short-headed or round shaped respectively) and mesocephalic (normal shaped or mesatocephalic respectively) cats was carried out. The study was based on 26 Persian and 18 domestic cats in total, with the chance of examining 13 animals (9 Persians and 4 domestic cats) under anaesthesia. Thus, computed tomography (CT) with concomitant intravenous contrast media application of six animals (4...

  6. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-file Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe R; Yavagal, Chandrashekar; Naik, Saraswathi V

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Primary root canals are considered to be most challenging due to their complex anatomy. "Wave one" and "one shape" are single-file systems with reciprocating and rotary motion respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation time of wave one and one shape files in primary root canals using a cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) analysis. Study design: This is an experimental, in vitro study comparing the two groups. Materials and methods: A total of 24 extracted human primary teeth with minimum 7 mm root length were included in the study. Cone beam computed tomographic images were taken before and after the instrumentation for each group. Dentin thickness, centering ability, canal transportation, and instrumentation times were evaluated for each group. Results: A significant difference was found in instrumentation time and canal transportation measures between the two groups. Wave one showed less canal transportation as compared with one shape, and the mean instrumentation time of wave one was significantly less than one shape. Conclusion: Reciprocating single-file systems was found to be faster with much less procedural errors and can hence be recommended for shaping the root canals of primary teeth. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Yavagal C, Dixit K, Naik SV. Reciprocating vs Rotary Instrumentation in Pediatric Endodontics: Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Analysis of Deciduous Root Canals using Two Single-File Systems. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):45-49. PMID:27274155

  7. Moisture distribution computed from electrical impedance tomographic data of a bentonite clay/sand material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisture contents values were calculated from electrical impedance-computed tomography measurements and compared with thermocouple psychrometer moisture values. The measurements were taken, in situ and under isothermal conditions, in a bentonite clay/sand packed borehole at the Underground Research Laboratory. Two sets of impedances moisture contents were calculated from the impedance valves--independent of each other. For one set, impedance measurements were fitted to the psychrometer moisture values in a least-squares fit to a generalized calibration curve and, for the second set, an impedance-moisture relationship from laboratory calibrations was applied. The impedance-computed moisture content data showed low scatter and the trends were consistent between the three sets of values. However, the moisture content data computed from the calibration curve were more consistent with those expected from physical arguments. The moisture values from the psychrometer readings were offset and, consequently, so were those produced after applying the fitting strategy. Internal redistribution of moisture appears to have had a more significant effect on the system than did inflow at the boundary. Inflow did cause a significant change but this was localized, during this period, to the outer ∼ 0.05 m of the test hole. No comment was made as to what internal processes caused these responses. (author) 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Fusion imaging of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and SPECT ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy: initial experience and potential benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Benjamin [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); University of Sydney, Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Bailey, Dale [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); University of Sydney, Schools of Physics and Medical Radiation Science, Sydney (Australia); Roach, Paul; Bailey, Elizabeth [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); King, Gregory [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Leonards (Australia); University of Sydney, Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); The Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Camperdown (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of fusing ventilation and perfusion data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy together with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) data. We sought to determine the accuracy of this fusion process. In addition, we correlated the findings of this technique with the final clinical diagnosis. Thirty consecutive patients (17 female, 13 male) who had undergone both CTPA and SPECT V/Q scintigraphy during their admission for investigation of potential pulmonary embolism were identified retrospectively. Image datasets from these two modalities were co-registered and fused using commercial software. Accuracy of the fusion process was determined subjectively by correlation between modalities of the anatomical boundaries and co-existent pleuro-parenchymal abnormalities. In all 30 cases, SPECT V/Q images were accurately fused with CTPA images. An automated registration algorithm was sufficient alone in 23 cases (77%). Additional linear z-axis scaling was applied in seven cases. There was accurate topographical co-localisation of vascular, parenchymal and pleural disease on the fused images. Nine patients who had positive CTPA performed as an initial investigation had co-localised perfusion defects on the subsequent fused CTPA/SPECT images. Three of the 11 V/Q scans initially reported as intermediate could be reinterpreted as low probability owing to co-localisation of defects with parenchymal or pleural pathology. Accurate fusion of SPECT V/Q scintigraphy to CTPA images is possible. This technique may be clinically useful in patients who have non-diagnostic initial investigations or in whom corroborative imaging is sought. (orig.)

  9. Fusion imaging of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and SPECT ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy: initial experience and potential benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of fusing ventilation and perfusion data from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy together with computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) data. We sought to determine the accuracy of this fusion process. In addition, we correlated the findings of this technique with the final clinical diagnosis. Thirty consecutive patients (17 female, 13 male) who had undergone both CTPA and SPECT V/Q scintigraphy during their admission for investigation of potential pulmonary embolism were identified retrospectively. Image datasets from these two modalities were co-registered and fused using commercial software. Accuracy of the fusion process was determined subjectively by correlation between modalities of the anatomical boundaries and co-existent pleuro-parenchymal abnormalities. In all 30 cases, SPECT V/Q images were accurately fused with CTPA images. An automated registration algorithm was sufficient alone in 23 cases (77%). Additional linear z-axis scaling was applied in seven cases. There was accurate topographical co-localisation of vascular, parenchymal and pleural disease on the fused images. Nine patients who had positive CTPA performed as an initial investigation had co-localised perfusion defects on the subsequent fused CTPA/SPECT images. Three of the 11 V/Q scans initially reported as intermediate could be reinterpreted as low probability owing to co-localisation of defects with parenchymal or pleural pathology. Accurate fusion of SPECT V/Q scintigraphy to CTPA images is possible. This technique may be clinically useful in patients who have non-diagnostic initial investigations or in whom corroborative imaging is sought. (orig.)

  10. Highly aggressive epithelioid renal angiomyolipoma with a very poor prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; WANG Ping; WANG Chao-jun; CAI Song-liang; REN Guo-ping; LI Yan-yuan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is hamartomas composed of blood vessels, smooth muscle and fatty tissue. In most cases, it is a tumor with benign behavior that may appear sporadically or be associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).~((1,2)) Rare cases of clinically aggressive or malignant AML have been reported.~((3-8))

  11. Sector computed tomographic spine scanning in the diagnosis of lumbar nerve root entrapment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of lumbar nerve root entrapment was made by sector computed tomography (CT) scanning in 25 patients whose myelograms were normal at the site of the CT scan abnormalities. Sector CT scanning demonstrates preoperatively which neural foramina are narrow. This information, correlated with the patient's history and physical examination, indicates which foramina should be operated on and prevents unnecessary exploration of normal neutral foramina. CT findings were confirmed surgically in 14 patients. Eleven of these 14 patients had excellent postoperative results and remain pain free

  12. Evidence for dysanapsis using computed tomographic imaging of the airways in older ex-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheel, A William; Jordan A. Guenette; Yuan, Ren; Holy, Lukas; Mayo, John R; McWilliams, Annette M.; Lam, Stephen; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the relationship between lung size and airway size in men and women of varying stature. We also asked if men and women matched for lung size would still have differences in airway size and if so where along the pulmonary airway tree would these differences exist. We used computed tomography to measure airway luminal areas of the large and central airways. We determined airway luminal areas in men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) who were matched for age, body mass index, smo...

  13. Paranasal sinus osteoma in an American miniature horse: computed tomographic evaluation and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3-year-old American Miniature Horse stallion was presented with a suspected mass in the right nasal region. The horse experienced nasal discharge from the right nostril and difficulty breathing. Computed tomography revealed a subcutaneous soft tissue swelling visible on the right side of the face. A 3 times 4 cm paranasal sinus osteoma located dorsal and medial to the first molar was surgically removed. The most common location of osteomas in horses is paranasal sinuses. The American Miniature Horse presented in this case is consistent with observations made by others, that sinus osteomas in horses occur almost exclusively in young mate horses. The reason for this tendency is unknown

  14. Computed tomographic, electrocardiographic and clinical investigations in patients with ischemic strokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is a widely available and reliable method for the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease. It allows in the first hours of the occurrence of vascular events to be established the type of brain stroke and creates conditions for timely fibrinolytic or surgical treatment. In many cases where it cannot be performed echocardiographic examination modern electrocardiography (ECG) makes it possible to demonstrate the presence of cardiac disease. These two methods in combination with neurological status create conditions for determining the treatment strategy for ischemic brain stroke (IBS). We studied 222 patients (92 men and 110 women with a middle age 59.7 years) selected randomized. At a computed tomography study in the early hours of IBS were found pathological findings in 115 patients (51.8%) slightly more often in women. IBS in the carotid system were greatly predominant in comparison with those in the vertebrobasilar system (VBS), which can be explained with the blood flow to the brain stem. When ECG is most commonly met diagnosis: hypertension HSSN 111 stage II - III functional class NYUHA, ischemic cardiomyopathy in 64 patients overall, with almost equal frequency in men 30 (17.5%) and women - 34 (19.8%). In neurological examination significantly predominant clinical symptoms karoditnata vasculature, in 154 patients (69.3%) compared to that of the VBS- 68 (30.7%). Fulfilled study shows the need for better coordination of the activities of specialists in diagnostic imaging and neurologists for their work in specialized hospitals (Stroke Units). (authors)

  15. X-ray and gamma-ray transmission computed tomographic imaging of archaeological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray or gamma-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that produces two-dimensional cross-section images of an object without the need to physically section it. CT is also known by the acronym CAT, for computerised axial tomography or computed-aided tomography. The invention of CT techniques revolutionised the field of medical diagnostic imaging because it provided more detailed and useful information than any previous non-invasive imaging techniques. The method is increasingly being used in industry, aerospace, geosciences and archaeology. This paper presents a brief overview of X-ray or gamma-ray transmission tomography. It is not intended to be a technical treatise but is hoped that it would raise awareness and promote opportunities for further collaboration amongst the nuclear research community, including archaeologists and those in the conservation profession. The theoretical aspects of CT scanner, the system configurations and the adopted algorithm for image reconstruction are discussed. In addition, a few examples of CT images for archaeological objects are presented. The examples were purposely chosen to illustrate clearly and precisely the fundamental concepts of this sophisticated field. (Author)

  16. Imaging of Anal Fistulas: Comparison of Computed Tomographic Fistulography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Changhu [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Lu, Yongchao [Traditional Chinese Medicine Department, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Zhao, Bin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Du, Yinglin [Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Institute, Jinan 250014 (China); Wang, Cuiyan [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Jiang, Wanli [Department of Radiology, Taishan Medical University, Taian 271000 (China)

    2014-07-01

    The primary importance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in evaluating anal fistulas lies in its ability to demonstrate hidden areas of sepsis and secondary extensions in patients with fistula in ano. MR imaging is relatively expensive, so there are many healthcare systems worldwide where access to MR imaging remains restricted. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has played a limited role in imaging fistula in ano, largely owing to its poor resolution of soft tissue. In this article, the different imaging features of the CT and MRI are compared to demonstrate the relative accuracy of CT fistulography for the preoperative assessment of fistula in ano. CT fistulography and MR imaging have their own advantages for preoperative evaluation of perianal fistula, and can be applied to complement one another when necessary.

  17. Computed tomographic findings in a calf with actinomycosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a case of actinomycosis in a five-month-old Holstein calf is described. The patient displayed a hard and immobile swelling in the mandible and fever. Computed tomography (CT) imaging of the skull was performed under deep sedation and revealed an asymmetrical appearance of the mandible with the presence of intra-mandibular hypodense lesions. Haematologic and serum biochemical profiles revealed leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypergammaglobulinaemia. Treatment consisted of flushing the lesion and administration of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The calf responded to therapy and had recovered almost completely four months later. The present case indicates that CT is an effective non-invasive means of identifying mandibular lesions in cattle

  18. Electroencephalographic and computed X-ray tomographic findings in 99 Japanese cases of herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Satoshi; Takasu, Toshiaki; Tamura, Masato; Otani, Sugishi.

    1988-10-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms (EEG) and computed tomograms (CT) obtained from 99 Japanese patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Abnormal findings of EEG were seen in 89 patients (99 %). Focal abnormality, which was frequently detected in the first EEG recording, was seen in 68 patients (76 %). Periodic synchronous discharge was observed in 25 patients (28 %). There were abnormal findings on CT in 88 patients (81 %). Low and high density areas were seen in 64 patients (73 %) and 26 patients (37 %), respectively, with the most frequent site being the temporal lobe. Mass effect was demonstrated in 33 patients (37 %). Electroencephalography detected the abnormal findings earlier than CT during the early stage of HSE in many instances. There was concordance between EEG and CT in the detection of HSE lesions in 45 patients (58 %). (Namekawa, K.).

  19. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rafful, Patricia Piazza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zanetti, Gláucia [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares [Department of Radiology, Medical School of Rio Preto (FAMERP) and Ultra X, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, Marcos Duarte [Department of Imaging, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions.

  20. Computed Tomographic Features in a case of Bilateral Neoplastic Cryptorchidism with Suspected Torsion in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eStokowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male German Shepherd dog presented for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and initial bloodwork revealed palpable abdominal masses, mild non-regenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia. Survey radiography and abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of bilateral abdominal masses and lymphadenopathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT was performed in order to further investigate the origin of the intraabdominal masses, confirming two enlarged cryptorchid testes, one of which had an associated CT whirl sign. Histopathology of the testes and lymph nodes revealed bilateral malignant Sertoli cell tumors and seminomas with lymph node metastasis of both neoplasms. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the benefits of CT in the diagnosis of cryptorchid testes and describe an additional organ that may display CT whirl sign.

  1. Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the heart and vascular system have become the major medical health care problem in developed countries. These disorders not only represent the most significant cause of death, but also are responsible for acute and chronic illness involving a broad spectrum of disability. Cardiac diagnosis is one of the most challenging areas for diagnostic imaging, because the heart moves continuously. This chapter presents an overview of the field of x-ray transmission tomography with specific reference to its use in evaluating heart disease. The arguments for developing this new technique are presented, as well as a description of how currently available computed tomography (CT) whole body scanners are being used in cardiovascular diagnosis. Finally, the future role and potential of CT are discussed

  2. Correlation between computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of parenchymal lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the gold standard method for the assessment of morphological changes in the pulmonary parenchyma. Although its spatial resolution is lower than that of CT, MRI offers the advantage of characterizing different aspects of tissue based on the degree of contrast on T1-weighted image (WI) and T2-WI. In this article, we describe and correlate the MRI and CT features of several common patterns of parenchymal lung disease (air trapping, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, cavitation, consolidation, emphysema, ground-glass opacities, halo sign, interlobular septal thickening, masses, mycetoma, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, reverse halo sign and tree-in-bud pattern). MRI may be an alternative modality for the collection of morphological and functional information useful for the management of parenchymal lung disease, which would help reduce the number of chest CT scans and radiation exposure required in patients with a variety of conditions

  3. High-resolution computed tomographic appearance of the intrasellar contents in women of childbearing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our experience with high-resolution computed tomography has indicated that the accepted norms for appearance and size of the pituitary gland may not be entirely valid for women of childbearing age. Fifty women with normal menstrual histories and who were not taking oral contraceptives were studied. The study consisted of overlapping 1.5-mm sections through the pituitary fossa in the coronal position only, using a bolus of contrast material followed by a continuous drip during the study. The results indicate that the top of the normal range of gland height is well over the accepted 7 mm and that focal defects within the gland are common. Other variables such as gland shape, width, and overall density were also evaluated

  4. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation and Diagnosis of Mandibular First Molar with 6 Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Pasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal treatment of tooth with aberrant root canal morphology is very challenging. So thorough knowledge of both the external and internal anatomy of teeth is an important aspect of root canal treatment. With the advancement in technology it is imperative to use modern diagnostic tools such as magnification devices, CBCT, microscopes, and RVG to confirm the presence of these aberrant configurations. However, in everyday endodontic practice, clinicians have to treat teeth with atypical configurations for root canal treatment to be successful. This case report presents the management of a mandibular first molar with six root canals, four in mesial and two in distal root, and also emphasizes the use and importance of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT as a diagnostic tool in endodontics.

  5. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovacik, L.; Jones, O.C.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the work on the research project on this cooperative program between DOE and Hitachi, Ltd. Major advances were made in the computational reconstruction of images from electrical excitation and response data with respect to existing capabilities reported in the literature. A demonstration is provided of the imaging of one or more circular objects within the measurement plane with demonstrated linear resolution of six parts in two hundred. At this point it can be said that accurate excitation and measurement of boundary voltages and currents appears adequate to obtain reasonable images of the real conductivity distribution within a body and the outlines of insulating targets suspended within a homogeneous conducting medium. The quality of images is heavily dependent on the theoretical and numerical implementation of imaging algorithms. The overall imaging system described has the potential of being both fast and cost effective in comparison with alternative methods. The methods developed use multiple plate-electrode excitation in conjunction with finite element block decomposition, preconditioned voltage conversion, layer approximation of the third dimension and post processing of boundary measurements to obtain optimal boundary excitations. Reasonably accurate imaging of single and multiple targets of differing size, location and separation is demonstrated and the resulting images are better than any others found in the literature. Recommendations for future effort include the improvement in computational algorithms with emphasis on internal conductivity shape functions and the use of adaptive development of quadrilateral (2-D) or tetrahedral or hexahedral (3-D) elements to coincide with large discrete zone boundaries in the fields, development of a truly binary model and completion of a fast imaging system. Further, the rudimentary methods shown herein for three-dimensional imaging need improving.

  6. Use of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography to Guide Management of Patients With Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle C.; Hunter, Amanda; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie; Smith, Joel; Berry, Colin; Boon, Nicholas A.; Clark, Elizabeth; Flather, Marcus; Forbes, John; McLean, Scott; Roditi, Giles; van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Timmis, Adam D.; Newby, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 4,146 patients were randomized to receive standard care or standard care plus coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the consequences of CCTA-assisted diagnosis on invasive coronary angiography, preventive treatments, and clinical outcomes. Methods In post hoc analyses, we assessed changes in invasive coronary angiography, preventive treatments, and clinical outcomes using national electronic health records. Results Despite similar overall rates (409 vs. 401; p = 0.451), invasive angiography was less likely to demonstrate normal coronary arteries (20 vs. 56; hazard ratios [HRs]: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23 to 0.68]; p < 0.001) but more likely to show obstructive coronary artery disease (283 vs. 230; HR: 1.29 [95% CI: 1.08 to 1.55]; p = 0.005) in those allocated to CCTA. More preventive therapies (283 vs. 74; HR: 4.03 [95% CI: 3.12 to 5.20]; p < 0.001) were initiated after CCTA, with each drug commencing at a median of 48 to 52 days after clinic attendance. From the median time for preventive therapy initiation (50 days), fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction was halved in patients allocated to CCTA compared with those assigned to standard care (17 vs. 34; HR: 0.50 [95% CI: 0.28 to 0.88]; p = 0.020). Cumulative 6-month costs were slightly higher with CCTA: difference $462 (95% CI: $303 to $621). Conclusions In patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease, CCTA leads to more appropriate use of invasive angiography and alterations in preventive therapies that were associated with a halving of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590) PMID:27081014

  7. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term "small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm. Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II. Fractures which united (n = 54 had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16, which had a small average head size (49 cu cm and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05. Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  8. Analysis of fibrosing process in diffuse alveolar damage. Computed tomographic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), CT-pathologic correlation was studied using inflated fixed lungs having diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Twenty five cases of DAD as determined by post-mortem pathologic examinations were investigated. The lungs were inflated and fixed with a fixative including polyethylene glycol 400, 95% ethyl alcohol, 37% formaldehyde and water, then contact radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) images of the specimens were obtained and histologic sections were prepared. Direct one-to-one correlative studies between HRCT images, macroscopic, submacroscopic and histological features prepared from the same slices were carried out. Ground-glass opacity correlated mainly to acute stage of DAD with extant alveoli. Air-space consolidation correlated to a filling process of the distal air-spaces with dense fibrosis or severe exudations. Fibrosis in the area of air-space consolidation was recognized by a distortion in lung architecture, bronchiectasis, and air-bronchiologram as seen on HRCT images. CT may have the potential to characterize pulmonary structural changes such as those seen in the fibrosing process in DAD. (author)

  9. Computed tomographic findings of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease - pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract (CIT) most often affecting the terminal ileum and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and weight loss are the most common clinical symptoms. Abdominal complications of CD, both intestinal and extraintestinal, are frequent and variable. The most common intestinal complications include ileocolitis with external or internal fistulas and abscess formation, strictures, and bowel obstruction. Less common are free perforation, intussusception, and malignancy. The extraintestinal complications include nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, portal vein gas, and thromboembolic events. Nowadays, computed tomography (CT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy of various intra-abdominal pathological processes, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of patients wit known CD for the assessment of bowel wall involvement, the mesenteric extent of the disease, and inn-abdominal complications. In addition, as CT is frequently performed to evaluate patients with acute abdomen, it may encounter clinically unsuspected complications in patients with CD. This article reviews the CT features of various intra-abdominal complications of CD. (author)

  10. Prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus pathologies in dental patients on cone-beam computed tomographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Raghav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to infer and to record the prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus pathologies in patients presenting with dental problems using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT scans performed for maxillofacial diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has evaluated 201 patients (402 maxillary sinuses consecutive CBCT for various incidental maxillary sinus pathologies by two observers. Pathologic findings were categorized as mucosal thickening (MT, opacification (OPA, polypoidal-mucosal thickening (PT, others (antrolith and discontinuity of the sinus fl oor and no pathologic findings. Correlations for pathologic findings and the factors of age and gender were calculated. Results: The prevalence for total incidental findings is 59.7%. The present study showed MT (35.1% as most prevalent finding followed by OPA in (16.6%, PT in 7.2% and others in 0.7%. There was no statistically significant difference between gender and between the age groups. There was no statistically significant difference between different indications groups for CBCT scans. Conclusions: The incidental maxillary sinus abnormalities are highly prevalent in the asymptomatic dental patients; hence oral radiologists should be aware of these incidental findings and comprehensively evaluate the entire captured CBCT volume, which can help in early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the patient.

  11. New Data on a Computer and Tomographic Anatomy and Topography of the Retroperitoneal Area Great Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashenko S.N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to obtain live morphometric findings in anatomy and topography of the great vessels of the retroperitoneal area with CT-scanning. Materials and Methods. The axial computer tomograms have been studied. Under examination there were 140 patients at the age of 20—80 years without pathology of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal area. Results. The new live data on anatomy of the great vessels of the retroperitoneal area in men and women of different age groups have been received. The diameters of the abdominal aorta, an inferior vena cava and their branches have been studied. Individual, age and sexual differences of the vessels` live anatomy and topography are described. An analysis of the vessel interrelations between each other, with the surrounding organs and anatomical formations have been carried out. Conclusion. A CT-investigation allows to distinctly describe live anatomy and topography and make a morphometry of the great vessels of the retroperitoneal area.

  12. Computed tomographic and Doppler sonographic correlations in patients with ischemic strokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Ischemic strokes (cerebral infarctions) constitute 80% of the acute disorders of the brain circulation. They most frequently occur in atherosclerosis of the extra- and intracranial vessels and/or arterial hypertension heart diseases (ischemic heart disease, rhythm and conductive disorders), cerebral vasculitis, blood diseases originating from hypercoagulability (thrombocytosis), etc. One of the well studied and adequately supported by documents risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (RF for CVD) are the asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) and the symptomatic stenosis, especially the haemodynamically significant ones. Materials and methods: Two hundred twenty two patients with ischemic brain strokes originating from carotid stenosis, hypertension and heart diseases were studied. The correlation between the size and localization of the brain stroke was studied through computer tomography, while the grade of the carotid stenosis was determined with the help of Doppler sonography. Results and discussion: Significant correlations between the size and localization of the ischemic foci and the grade of the carotid stenosis in patients with brain stroke were found in a considerable number of patients. In most of the patients the electrocardiography tests showed the presence of heart diseases, a fact which gives evidence for the generalization of the vessel disorders in these patients. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the high diagnostic value of the combination of these two methods, on the one hand is sufficiently informative, on the other hand are generally available

  13. Four-dimensional computed tomographic imaging in the wrist: proof of feasibility in a cadaveric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Shian-Chao; Berger, Richard A. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Orthopedics Biomechanics Laboratory, Rochester, MN (United States); Primak, Andrew N.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, CT Innovation Center, Rochester, MN (United States); Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    High-resolution real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the moving wrist may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of joint instability. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of using retrospectively gated spiral computed tomography (CT) to perform four-dimensional (4D) imaging of the moving wrist joint. A cadaver forearm from below the elbow was mounted on a motion simulator which performed radioulnar deviation of the wrist at 30 cycles per minute. An electronic trigger from the simulator provided the ''electrocardiogram'' (ECG) signal required for gated reconstructions. Four-dimensional and 3D images were compared by a blinded observer for image quality and presence of artifacts. Image quality of 4D images was found to be excellent at the extremes of radial and ulnar deviation (end-motion phases). Some artifacts were seen in mid-motion phases. 4D CT musculoskeletal imaging is feasible. Four-dimensional CT may allow clinicians to assess functional (dynamic) instabilities of the wrist joint. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomographic examination of muscle volume, cross-section and density in patients with dysgnathia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: the individual jaw position is determined by the masticatory muscle among other factors. Before surgical treatment of malocclusions, thorough evaluation of the muscles is required to estimate the relapse risk. Materials and methods: by means of computer tomography, lateral radiographs of the skull and denture models, the relationships between morphological parameters of the masticatory muscles and the jaw bone were analyzed. Furthermore, possible causes for the extent of the malocclusion are described. Results: a patient group with deep overbite was found to have significantly higher muscle densities (measured in Hounsfield units [HU]) in the medial pterygoideus muscle (59.89±3.91 HU to 48.94±4.14 HU, p2 to 3.8±0.4 cm2, p<0.05). Conclusion: the results show a correlation between different jaw positions and masticatory muscles. They also suggest that the function of each muscle may be different. Additional examinations of the muscle structures are required for verification of the influence of the masticatory muscles on facial morphology. (orig.)

  15. Four-dimensional computed tomographic imaging in the wrist: proof of feasibility in a cadaveric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the moving wrist may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of joint instability. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of using retrospectively gated spiral computed tomography (CT) to perform four-dimensional (4D) imaging of the moving wrist joint. A cadaver forearm from below the elbow was mounted on a motion simulator which performed radioulnar deviation of the wrist at 30 cycles per minute. An electronic trigger from the simulator provided the ''electrocardiogram'' (ECG) signal required for gated reconstructions. Four-dimensional and 3D images were compared by a blinded observer for image quality and presence of artifacts. Image quality of 4D images was found to be excellent at the extremes of radial and ulnar deviation (end-motion phases). Some artifacts were seen in mid-motion phases. 4D CT musculoskeletal imaging is feasible. Four-dimensional CT may allow clinicians to assess functional (dynamic) instabilities of the wrist joint. (orig.)

  16. Computed tomographic cephalometric analysis of chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations of craniofacial and upper airway structures are recognized to contribute to the phenomenon of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Most previous cephalometric studies were performed using erect lateral radiographs in Caucasian patients. The present project aims to determine cephalometric measurements, utilizing CT, in normal Chinese subjects and in Chinese patients with OSA. Computed tomography of 25 patients with OSA (proven using overnight polysomnography), and of 25 age-, sex-, height-, bodyweight- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects were prospectively performed. Thirteen standard bony and soft-tissue measurements were obtained from the CT lateral scout view of the head and neck, taken with each subject in the neutral supine position. The cross-sectional area was calculated at two axial levels (velopharynx and hypopharynx). The measurements in the two groups, OSA and control subjects, were compared. The measurements for hyoid position (P=0.00), nasal cavity length (P=0.01), mandibular prognathism (P = 0.05), tongue size (P = 0.02), oropharyngeal airway space (P = 0.02), posterior tongue airway space (P = 0.04) and cross-sectional areas at the level of the velopharynx (P = 0.00) and hypopharynx (P = 0.01) differed significantly between the two groups. In conclusion, CT cephalometric measurements show that certain anatomical variations in the head and neck are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of OSA in Chinese patients. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Nasolacrimal system aeration on computed tomographic imaging: effects of patient positioning and scan orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyz CN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Craig N Czyz,1 Thomas S Bacon,2 Andrew W Stacey,3 Eva N Cahill,4 Bryan R Costin,5 Boris I Karanfilov,6 Kenneth V Cahill5 1Section Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ohio University/OhioHealth, 2Department of Medical Education, Mount Carmel Health Systems, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Department of Biology, Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, William H Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA; 6The Sinus Institute of Ohio, Dublin, OH, USA Purpose: To determine the impact of patient positioning and scan orientation on the appearance of air in the nasolacrimal drainage system on computed tomography (CT imaging, and the repeatability of the observations.Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of CT images for 92 patients.Results: Air was found to be present more fully in the upright-position group as compared with the supine-position group. Comparing axial and coronal scan orientation, no difference in aeration was found, except for the nasolacrimal duct in the upright-position group.Conclusion: Patient position should be accounted for in diagnostic conclusions and treatment decisions based on CT. Keywords: axial, coronal, nasolacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct

  18. Single-photon emission computed tomographic findings and motor neuron signs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    123I-amphetamine-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed on 16 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and upper motor neuron signs. Significant decreased blood flow less than 2 SDs below the mean of controls was observed in the frontal lobe in 4 patients (25%) and in the frontoparietal lobe including the cortical motor area in 4 patients, respectively. The severity of extermity muscular weakness was significantly correlate with decrease in blood flow through the frontal lobe (p<0.05) and through the frontoparietal lobe (p<0.001). A significant correlation was also noted to exist between the severity of bulbar paralysis and decrease in blood flow through the frontoparietal lobe. No correlation, however, was observed between rCBF and severity of spasticity, presence or absence of Babinski's sign and the duration of illness. Although muscular weakness in the limbs and bulbar paralysis are not pure upper motor neuron signs, the observed reduction in blood flow through the frontal or frontoparietal lobes appears to reflect extensive progression of functional or organic lesions of cortical neurons including the motor area. (author)

  19. Computed tomographic imaging of dogs with primary laryngeal or tracheal airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krystina; Hartman, Susan; Matheson, Jodi; O'Brien, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen dogs with clinical signs attributable to nonneoplastic obstruction of the larynx, trachea, or large bronchi underwent computed tomography (CT) imaging. In 16 of the 17 dogs, CT was performed without general anesthesia using a positioning device. Fifteen of these 16 dogs were imaged without sedation or general anesthesia. Three-dimensional (3D) internal rendering was performed on each image set based on lesion localization determined by routine image planes. Visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, video fluoroscopy, and necropsy were used for achieving the cause of the upper airway obstruction. The CT and 3D internal rendering accurately indicated the presence and cause of upper airway obstruction in all dogs. CT findings indicative of laryngeal paralysis included failure to abduct the arytenoid cartilages, narrowed rima glottis, and air-filled laryngeal ventricles. Laryngeal collapse findings depended on the grade of collapse and included everted laryngeal saccules, collapse of the cuneiform processes and corniculate processes, and narrowed rima glottis. Trachea abnormalities included hypoplasia, stenosis, or collapse syndrome. The CT findings in tracheal hypoplasia consisted of a severely narrowed lumen throughout the entire length. Tracheal stenosis was represented by a circumferential decrease in tracheal lumen size limited to one region. Tracheal collapse syndrome was diagnosed by severe asymmetric narrowing. Lobar bronchi collapse appeared in CT images as a narrowed asymmetric lumen diameter. CT imaging of unanesthetized dogs with upper airway obstruction compares favorably with traditional definitive diagnostic methods. PMID:21447037

  20. Rotational profile of the lower extremity in achondroplasia: computed tomographic examination of 25 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hae-Ryong; Suh, Seung-Woo [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rare Diseases Institute, Seoul (Korea); Choonia, Abi-Turab [Laud Clinic, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mumbai (India); Hong, Suk Joo; Cha, In Ho [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seok-Hyun [Dongguk University Ilsan Buddist Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Goyang (Korea); Park, Jong-Tae [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Department of Occupational and Enviornmental Medicine, Ansan (Korea)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate lower-extremity rotational abnormalities in subjects with achondroplasia using computed tomography (CT) scans. CT scans were performed in 25 subjects with achondroplasia (13 skeletally immature, mean age 8.7 years; 12 skeletally mature, mean age 17.6 years). In a total of 50 bilateral limbs, CT images were used to measure the angles of acetabular anteversion, femoral anteversion, and tibial external torion. Measurement was performed by three examiners and then repeated by one examiner. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were analyzed, and results were compared with previously reported normal values. Mean values for skeletally immature and skeletally mature subjects were 13.6{+-}7.5 and 21.5{+-}6.4 respectively for acetabular anteversion, 27.1{+-}20.8 and 30.5{+-}20.1 for femoral torsion, and 21.6{+-}10.6 and 22.5{+-}10.8 for tibial torsion. Intra- and interobserver agreements were good to excellent. Acetabular anteversion and femoral anteversion in skeletally mature subjects were greater than normal values in previous studies. Both skeletally immature and mature subjects with achondroplasia had decreased tibial torsion compared to normal skeletally immature and mature subjects. Lower-extremity rotational abnormalities in subjects with achondroplasia include decreased tibial external torsion in both skeletally immature and mature subjects, as well as increased femoral and acetabular anteversion in skeletally mature subjects. (orig.)

  1. Rotational profile of the lower extremity in achondroplasia: computed tomographic examination of 25 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate lower-extremity rotational abnormalities in subjects with achondroplasia using computed tomography (CT) scans. CT scans were performed in 25 subjects with achondroplasia (13 skeletally immature, mean age 8.7 years; 12 skeletally mature, mean age 17.6 years). In a total of 50 bilateral limbs, CT images were used to measure the angles of acetabular anteversion, femoral anteversion, and tibial external torion. Measurement was performed by three examiners and then repeated by one examiner. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were analyzed, and results were compared with previously reported normal values. Mean values for skeletally immature and skeletally mature subjects were 13.6±7.5 and 21.5±6.4 respectively for acetabular anteversion, 27.1±20.8 and 30.5±20.1 for femoral torsion, and 21.6±10.6 and 22.5±10.8 for tibial torsion. Intra- and interobserver agreements were good to excellent. Acetabular anteversion and femoral anteversion in skeletally mature subjects were greater than normal values in previous studies. Both skeletally immature and mature subjects with achondroplasia had decreased tibial torsion compared to normal skeletally immature and mature subjects. Lower-extremity rotational abnormalities in subjects with achondroplasia include decreased tibial external torsion in both skeletally immature and mature subjects, as well as increased femoral and acetabular anteversion in skeletally mature subjects. (orig.)

  2. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

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    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  3. Three-dimensional helical computed tomographic evaluation of three obturation techniques: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chokkalingam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of three obturation techniques namely lateral condensation, EQ Fil (backfill obturation and thermafil (core carrier obturation techniques using three-dimensional (3D helical computed tomography (CT by volume rendering method. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. Biomechanical preparation was done in all the teeth using rotary instruments. All three sets of teeth were placed in helical CT slice scanner and were imaged before obturation. The three sets were then obturated by following methods: Group I: lateral condensation, Group II: EQ Fil (backfill and Group III: thermafil (core carrier obturation.Volume of the pulp chamber and gutta-percha after obturation were calculated using volume rendering technique and adequacy of the obturation techniques were calculated. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Multiple-Range Tukey Test by Tukey-HSD procedure Results: Mean change in lateral condensation (0.005±0.002 was significantly higher than that of thermafil obturation (0.002±0.001 [P<0.05]. Conclusions: Conventional lateral condensation technique showed maximal inadequacy of obturation and thermafil obturation technique showed the least inadequacy of obturation when the volume of the specimens were calculated and reconstructed

  4. Fine needle aspiration biopsy under computed tomographic control of mediastinal lesions - our 4 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents our experience in the field of invasive diagnosis of mediastinal lesions for the period 2001-2004. We discuss the problems of marking the lesion, speeding the procedure and the complication risk. 69 patients (40 women and 29 men, age range 28-71) underwent fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) under CT-control. We carried out the biopsies by cutting needles 22 G, under control of GE Sytec 3000 and Somaton Emotion Siemens. 58 biopsies were suitable for both cytological and histological diagnosis and 11 were obtained only cytological diagnosis. In 53 cases the material was collected from the very first insertion of the needle while in the other 16 cases a correction of the biopsy angle and/or zone under CT was performed. Six patients had a partial pneumothorax as a complication and no one had a haemothorax. Conclusion: the accurate placement of the needle tip within the lesion is difficult even under the control of the modern computed tomography due to: 1) adjacent bone (ribs, sternum); 2) passing through pulmonary tissue thick more than 3 cm. (authors)

  5. Computed tomographic findings of abdominal complications of Crohn's disease - pictorial essay

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    Zissin, R. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Hertz, M. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Osadchy, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Novis, B. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Dept. of Gastroenterology, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gayer, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Assaf Harode Medical Center, Zrifin, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2005-02-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, transmural, inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract (CIT) most often affecting the terminal ileum and colon. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, and weight loss are the most common clinical symptoms. Abdominal complications of CD, both intestinal and extraintestinal, are frequent and variable. The most common intestinal complications include ileocolitis with external or internal fistulas and abscess formation, strictures, and bowel obstruction. Less common are free perforation, intussusception, and malignancy. The extraintestinal complications include nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, fatty liver, portal vein gas, and thromboembolic events. Nowadays, computed tomography (CT) provides superb anatomic detail and diagnostic accuracy of various intra-abdominal pathological processes, and it thus has become an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of patients wit known CD for the assessment of bowel wall involvement, the mesenteric extent of the disease, and inn-abdominal complications. In addition, as CT is frequently performed to evaluate patients with acute abdomen, it may encounter clinically unsuspected complications in patients with CD. This article reviews the CT features of various intra-abdominal complications of CD. (author)

  6. Computed tomographic findings of leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 52 hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents and 12 normal controls on the mid-portion of the thigh and the largest-diameter section of the calf. Muscle size and average CT density of the muscle were measured. The salient feature was hypertrophic gracilis muscle of the hemiplegic side. Other muscles were more atrophied with lower CT density compared with those of the contralateral side. The size of the quadriceps muscle was especially small. The ratio of the quadriceps to all the thigh muscles in cross section was significantly smaller in affected side of hemiplegics than that of normal controls. This was observed even in normal side of the hemiplegics but the ratios of adductor and flexor muscles of the thigh showed no difference. Hypertrophy of gracilis muscle with high CT density was observed only on hemiplegic side. Muscle atrophies were marked in non-ambulatory patients. The ratios of quadriceps and saltorius muscles of thigh in non-ambulatory patients were significantly smaller than those of ambulatory patients. It could not be detected that there is relationship of the sevirity of the muscle atrophy and parietal lobe dysfunction. This atrophy considered to be the result of disuse of the paralyzed leg and pyramidal tract dysfunction. (author)

  7. Computed tomographic differentiation between alcoholic and gallstone pancreatitis: Significance of distribution of infiltration or fluid collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Sun Kim; Yongsoo Kim; Sung-Kyu Kim; Hyunchul Rhim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of various computed tomography (CT) findings including distribution of infiltration or fluid collection in differentiating the major etiologies of acute pancreatitis.METHODS: We reviewed 75 relatively severe cases of acute pancreatitis of alcoholic (n=43) or biliary stone(n=32) etiology having infiltration or fluid collection on CT. We compared the pancreatic size, CT grading,presence or absence of biliary calculi, and dilatation of pancreatic or bile duct. We also evaluated degree and the distribution of infiltration and fluid collection in each group.RESULTS: The sizes of pancreas were not different between alcohol group and stone group. Alcohol group showed higher CT grading than stone group (P<0.05). Presence of biliary stone and duct dilatation was statistically significant in differentiating etiology (P <0.05). Alcohol group showed significantly prominent peripancreatic pathology than stone group only in left peritoneal compartment (P = 0.020).CONCLUSION: Alcoholic pancreatitis tends to form more prominent peripancreatic changes than gallstone pancreatitis in relatively severe cases. This is evident on the anterior aspect of left abdomen. Although clinical history and some CT findings usually are a major determinant of the etiology, this pattern of peripancreatic pathology may have an ancillary role in determining the etiologies of acute pancreatitis in the equivocal cases.

  8. Intention tremor after head injury. Clinical features and computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Namba, Hiroki; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo.

    1989-02-01

    Eight cases of intention tremor as a late complication of head injury were investigated. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 24 years. All received severe head injuries and lapsed into coma immediately afterward (Glasgow Coma Scale scores /le/8). Six patients exhibited decerebration or decortication. Hemiparesis was present in six cases and oculomotor nerve palsy in four. In the chronic stage, all patients displayed some degree of impairment of higher cortical function and five had dysarthria and/or ataxia. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans within 3 hours after the injury were obtained in five cases, of which four showed a hemorrhagic lesion in the midbrain or its surroundings. Other CT findings were diffuse cerebral swelling (four cases), intraventricular hemorrhage (three), and multiple hemorrhagic lesions (two). In the chronic stage, generalized cortical atrophy or ventricular enlargement was noted in five cases. These clinical features and CT findings indicate diffuse brain damage as well as midbrain damage and may reflect shearing injury. (author).

  9. Single-photon emission computed tomographic findings and motor neuron signs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Terao, Shin-ichi; Sobue, Gen; Higashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Suga, Hidemichi; Mitsuma, Terunori [Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    {sup 123}I-amphetamine-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed on 16 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and upper motor neuron signs. Significant decreased blood flow less than 2 SDs below the mean of controls was observed in the frontal lobe in 4 patients (25%) and in the frontoparietal lobe including the cortical motor area in 4 patients, respectively. The severity of extermity muscular weakness was significantly correlate with decrease in blood flow through the frontal lobe (p<0.05) and through the frontoparietal lobe (p<0.001). A significant correlation was also noted to exist between the severity of bulbar paralysis and decrease in blood flow through the frontoparietal lobe. No correlation, however, was observed between rCBF and severity of spasticity, presence or absence of Babinski`s sign and the duration of illness. Although muscular weakness in the limbs and bulbar paralysis are not pure upper motor neuron signs, the observed reduction in blood flow through the frontal or frontoparietal lobes appears to reflect extensive progression of functional or organic lesions of cortical neurons including the motor area. (author).

  10. Significance of frontal cortical atrophy in Parkinson's disease: computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-five patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated clinically and with brain computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the incidence of frontal cortical and subcortical atrophy. Twenty cases of age-related healthy control group were also scanned. The CT criteria of frontal cortical atrophy that was used in this study were the maximum width of frontal hemispheric cortical sulci and width of anterior interhemispheric fissure between frontal lobes comparing with maximum width of hemispheric cortical sulci except frontal lobes. And the criteria of frontal subcortical atrophy were bifrontal index bicaudate index, and Evans index. The results are as follows: 1. Cortical atrophic changes in Parkinson's disease were more prominent in frontal lobe rather than other causes of cortical atrophy. 2. Frontal cortical and subcortical atrophic changes were also more prominent in Parkinson's disease rather than age-related control group. 3. Subcortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe were always associated with cortical atrophic changes. 4. Changes of basal ganglia were hardly seen in Parkinson's disease. 5. Cortical atrophic changes in frontal lobe must be the one of significant findings in Parkinson's disease

  11. A statistical observation on some subjects in the whole body computed tomographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the whole body CT (computed tomography) unit (GE, CT/T) was installed in our hospital in April, 1982, a total of 2884 cases have been examined by this whole body scanner for one year from April, 1982 to March, 1983. An analysis of the relationship between the situations of the subjects in and the results of whole body CT examination disclosed some very interesting facts. Up to the present time such a study has scarcely made. That is why we wanted to make this report. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Whole body CT examinations were performed on the patients of advanced age more frequently than on those of young age and performed most frequently on the group in the sixties. 2. The number of CT examinations performed on head and abdomen of the patients was 86.7% of a total of 2884 cases. 3. Enhanced CT examinations were perfomed on 26.1% of 2884 cases and most frequently on the group in the teens. 4. The percentage of the abnormal findings found in 2884 cases was 61.5% and this rate was higher than that shown in the reports made by us in 1980 and 1982, respectively. (author)

  12. Combined application of virtual imaging techniques and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of virtual imaging combined with three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) for intracranial aneurysms has not been fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the value of combined application of virtual imaging techniques and 3D-CTA in diagnosing patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the acute stage. Methods Eighty patients with non-traumatic SAH received 3D-CTA examinations. The raw CT data of these patients were reconstructed and transferred into the 3D mode through the surgical plan system based on virtual reality (VR) image, and the 3D virtual images of skulls and brain blood vessels were acquired. The location, size and shape of aneurysms and their anatomic relationship with adjacent tissues were measured from many points of view. Results Seventy-three aneurysms were detected in 68 of the 80 patients, but 2 aneurysms were detected in 2 of the 5 patients who had been found free of aneurysms previously and had received 3D-CTA examinations for a second time one month later. The 3D virtual images produced by the virtual imaging system were clear and vivid, and they could reveal the location and size of the aneurysm and its relations to the parent artery and skull directly. Conclusions The imaging of 3D-CTA is convenient, reliable and fast in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms and can be regarded as the first choice for the diagnosis and treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Combined with the surgical plan system based on the VR image, 3D-CTA may obtain more imaging information about aneurysms.

  13. Femoral neck anteversion, acetabular anteversion and combined anteversion in the normal Indian adult population: A computed tomographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Aditya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal femoral neck anteversion (FNA and/or acetabulum anteversion (AA have long been implicated in the etiogenesis of hip osteoarthritis (OA, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and impingement, instability and wear in total hip arthroplasty (THA. Since studies on the Indian population are sparse on this topic, the purpose of this study was to report the normal values of FNA, AA and the combined anteversion (CA= FNA+ AA in Indian adults. Materials and Methods: FNA, AA and CA were prospectively measured in 172 normal hips in 86 Indian adults using standardized computed tomographic (CT methods and this data was compared with the established Western values. Results: The median values and interquartile ranges were 8 o (6.5-10.0 o for FNA, 19 o (16.0-22.0 o for AA and 27 o (23.5-30.0 o for CA. AA and CA values were significantly (P< 0.05 lower in males, and there was also a trend towards lower FNA in males. Although a negative correlation was observed between the FNA and AA, this was not strong and may not be clinically relevant. Conclusion: When compared with the Western data, the FNA values were 3-12 o lower and the CA values were 3-5 o lower in Indian adults. The AA values were comparable, but were skewed towards the higher side. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical relevance of our basic science data in pathogenesis of OA, and to validate it in relation to hip surgeries like corrective osteotomies and THA.

  14. Clinical usefulness of multi-planar reconstruction images of three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography for internal carotid artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images of three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) for the diagnosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms is described. Eleven unruptured ICA aneurysms including six cases of IC-cavernous aneurysm, two cases of IC-ophthalmic artery aneurysm, two cases of IC-posterior communicating artery aneurysm and one cases of IC-anterior choroidal artery aneurysm, were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 3D-CTA and its MPR images. 3D-CTA and DSA were useful to identify the aneurysmal neck in small aneurysms, but it was difficult to identify the aneurysmal neck in small aneurysms by 3D-CTA-MPR images. DSA and MRA were not useful for identifying the aneurysmal neck in aneurysms more than 10 mm in diameter, as a precise viewing of the neck could not be found due to their large size. For large aneurysms, neither was 3D-CTA useful for identifying the aneurysmal neck when their large size and surrounding bony structures overlapped the aneurysmal neck. On the other hand, 3D-CTA-MPR was very useful for identifying the aneurysmal neck without overlapping by surrounding bony structures. 3D-CTA-MPR images clearly visualized the calcification of the wall. 3D-CTA-MPR images are obtained from 3D-CTA source images without any additional stress to the patients, and they are more useful for the diagnosis as well as demonstration of the aneurysmal neck particularly in more than large aneurysms. (author)

  15. Clinical usefulness of multi-planar reconstruction images of three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography for internal carotid artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Akimasa; Hara, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Yamauchi, Shigeru; Tsuchida, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Daikokuya, Hideo [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    2002-03-01

    The usefulness of multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images of three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) for the diagnosis of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms is described. Eleven unruptured ICA aneurysms including six cases of IC-cavernous aneurysm, two cases of IC-ophthalmic artery aneurysm, two cases of IC-posterior communicating artery aneurysm and one cases of IC-anterior choroidal artery aneurysm, were examined by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 3D-CTA and its MPR images. 3D-CTA and DSA were useful to identify the aneurysmal neck in small aneurysms, but it was difficult to identify the aneurysmal neck in small aneurysms by 3D-CTA-MPR images. DSA and MRA were not useful for identifying the aneurysmal neck in aneurysms more than 10 mm in diameter, as a precise viewing of the neck could not be found due to their large size. For large aneurysms, neither was 3D-CTA useful for identifying the aneurysmal neck when their large size and surrounding bony structures overlapped the aneurysmal neck. On the other hand, 3D-CTA-MPR was very useful for identifying the aneurysmal neck without overlapping by surrounding bony structures. 3D-CTA-MPR images clearly visualized the calcification of the wall. 3D-CTA-MPR images are obtained from 3D-CTA source images without any additional stress to the patients, and they are more useful for the diagnosis as well as demonstration of the aneurysmal neck particularly in more than large aneurysms. (author)

  16. Localization of ectopic parathyroid glands using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging: comparison with magnetic resonance and computed tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of technetium-99m sestamibi imaging for localization of ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism with that of magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Eleven patients with primary (n=3) or secondary (n=8) hyperparathyroidism were studied with 99mTc sestamibi parathyroid imaging CT and MR imaging. Images of the neck were acquired at 10 min and 2-3 after tracer injection. The three patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and five patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism underwent parathyroidectomy. The ectopic glands were confirmed by histopathological examination of the resected specimens. In respect of 20 parathyroid glands in the eight patients explored surgically, the sensitivity and specificity of sestamibi imaging were 70% (14/20) and 88%, respectively, those of CT, 40% (8/20) and 88%, and those of MR imaging, 60% (12/20) and 88%. Of these patients, three had parathyroid adenomas while five had hyperplasia (17 glands). Sestamibi imaging localized eight ectopic parathyroid glands, which were surgically confirmed (six were located in the thymus and two in the mediastinum). In one patient explored surgically, the ectopic gland was located outside the field of the MR coil. Although the remaining three cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism were not confirmed surgically, these patients demonstrated sestamibi uptake in five parathyroid glands, including three ectopic glands. MR imagedemonstrated abnormal parathyroid glands in the same regions as sestamibi imaging. Our data indicate that 99mTc-sestamibi imaging should be used initially to localize the ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism for anatomical guidance prior to MR or CT imaging

  17. Computed tomographic abnormalities in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease include the mosaic pattern of reduced lung attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maycher, B. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); O' Connor, R. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Long, R. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Medicine, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: richard.long@ualberta.ca

    2000-04-15

    To describe the range and frequency of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients who met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) case definition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Further, to report the effect of time and treatment on the progression of these abnormalities. The demographic, clinical and radiologic features of 10 patients with proven MAC lung disease (mean age 71 years, standard deviation 12 years) were described. The presence or absence of 14 CT abnormalities was recorded in each of 10 lung zones. The effects of time and treatment on the abnormalities were recorded. The patients' lung function was minimally impaired. Pretreatment CT scans showed small nodules in 47% of the lung zones, reduced lung attenuation in 41%, and bronchiectasis in 27%. Bronchiectasis was associated with nodules in 20 zones from 9 patients and with no nodules in 7 zones from 1 patient. Reduced attenuation was associated with bronchiectasis alone in 8 zones, with nodules alone in 25 zones and with both bronchiectasis and nodules in 8 zones. In patients without treatment, or with non-curative treatment, bronchiectasis developed or worsened in 12 of 26 zones and resolved or improved in none. In contrast, after curative treatment, small nodules disappeared completely in 10 of 21 zones and developed in none. Of 7 zones with only nodules and reduced attenuation before treatment, 6 had no abnormalities after treatment. Our data suggest that the 3 leading CT abnormalities in nodular-bronchiectatic MAC lung disease are small nodules, reduced attenuation and bronchiectasis. Reduced attenuation appeared to result from gas trapping and hypoxic vasoconstriction due to bronchiolocentric inflammatory nodules. Bronchiectasis appeared to be secondary to this bronchiolar disease. (author)

  18. Computed tomographic angiography criteria in the diagnosis of brain death - comparison of sensitivity and interobserver reliability of different evaluation scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Walecka, A. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Szczecin (Poland); Bohatyrewicz, R.; Solek-Pastuszka, J. [Pomeranian Medical University, Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Szczecin (Poland); Safranow, K. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Szczecin (Poland); Walecki, J. [The Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw (Poland); Rowinski, O. [Medical University of Warsaw, 2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Warsaw (Poland); Czajkowski, Z. [Regional Joint Hospital, Szczecin (Poland); Guzinski, M. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw (Poland); Burzynska, M. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Wroclaw (Poland); Wojczal, J. [Medical University of Lublin, Department of Neurology, Lublin (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    The standardized diagnostic criteria for computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in diagnosis of brain death (BD) are not yet established. The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivity and interobserver agreement of the three previously used scales of CTA for the diagnosis of BD. Eighty-two clinically brain-dead patients underwent CTA with a delay of 40 s after contrast injection. Catheter angiography was used as the reference standard. CTA results were assessed by two radiologists, and the diagnosis of BD was established according to 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales. Catheter angiography confirmed the diagnosis of BD in all cases. Opacification of certain cerebral vessels as indicator of BD was highly sensitive: cortical segments of the middle cerebral artery (96.3 %), the internal cerebral vein (98.8 %), and the great cerebral vein (98.8 %). Other vessels were less sensitive: the pericallosal artery (74.4 %), cortical segments of the posterior cerebral artery (79.3 %), and the basilar artery (82.9 %). The sensitivities of the 10-, 7-, and 4-point scales were 67.1, 74.4, and 96.3 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Percentage interobserver agreement in diagnosis of BD reached 93 % for the 10-point scale, 89 % for the 7-point scale, and 95 % for the 4-point scale (p = 0.37). In the application of CTA to the diagnosis of BD, reducing the assessment of vascular opacification scale from a 10- to a 4-point scale significantly increases the sensitivity and maintains high interobserver reliability. (orig.)

  19. Spiral Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Renal Arteries: A Prospective Comparison with Intravenous and Intraarterial Digital Subtraction Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in the evaluation of the renal arteries in comparison with intravenous (IVDSA) and intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA). Methods: In 18 patients, 35 CTAs and DSAs (27 IADSA, 8 IVDSA) of the renal arteries were performed. CTA was done with 2-3 mm collimation, 2-4 mm/sec table speed, after intravenous injection of 80 ml of contrast medium at 4 ml/sec with a scanning delay time of 14-21 sec. No previous circulation time curve was performed. CTA data were reconstructed with maximum intensity projection (MIP) and shaded surface display (SSD). The presence of stenosis was assessed on a three-point rating scale (grade 1-3). The quality of the examinations; visualization of the ostium, the main artery, and its branches; vessel sharpness, linearity, and intraluminal contrast filling were evaluated. We compared CTA with DSA. Results: CTA had 96% sensitivity, 77% specificity, and 89% accuracy in the detection of stenoses > 50%. Due to technical errors two stenoses were erroneously diagnosed as positive but there were no false negative diagnoses. The quality of CTA was good in 56% and moderate in 34% of cases. Visualization of the ostium and main artery was graded as 1.74 (out of 2) points and of the renal branches as 1.02 (out of 2) points. The quality of CTA images was worse than that of IADSA in 52%, equal in 41%, and better in 7% of cases. CTA was equal to IVDSA in 25% and better in 75% of the cases. Conclusion: CTA is an accurate noninvasive method for the evaluation of renal arteries. Examination quality is essential for the diagnosis. CTA is limited in its ability to visualize the branches of the renal artery and accessory arteries. CTA seems to be superior to IVDSA

  20. Computed tomographic abnormalities in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease include the mosaic pattern of reduced lung attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the range and frequency of abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) scans in patients who met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) case definition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease. Further, to report the effect of time and treatment on the progression of these abnormalities. The demographic, clinical and radiologic features of 10 patients with proven MAC lung disease (mean age 71 years, standard deviation 12 years) were described. The presence or absence of 14 CT abnormalities was recorded in each of 10 lung zones. The effects of time and treatment on the abnormalities were recorded. The patients' lung function was minimally impaired. Pretreatment CT scans showed small nodules in 47% of the lung zones, reduced lung attenuation in 41%, and bronchiectasis in 27%. Bronchiectasis was associated with nodules in 20 zones from 9 patients and with no nodules in 7 zones from 1 patient. Reduced attenuation was associated with bronchiectasis alone in 8 zones, with nodules alone in 25 zones and with both bronchiectasis and nodules in 8 zones. In patients without treatment, or with non-curative treatment, bronchiectasis developed or worsened in 12 of 26 zones and resolved or improved in none. In contrast, after curative treatment, small nodules disappeared completely in 10 of 21 zones and developed in none. Of 7 zones with only nodules and reduced attenuation before treatment, 6 had no abnormalities after treatment. Our data suggest that the 3 leading CT abnormalities in nodular-bronchiectatic MAC lung disease are small nodules, reduced attenuation and bronchiectasis. Reduced attenuation appeared to result from gas trapping and hypoxic vasoconstriction due to bronchiolocentric inflammatory nodules. Bronchiectasis appeared to be secondary to this bronchiolar disease. (author)

  1. Computed tomographic angiography study of the relationship between the lingual artery and lingual markers in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, T.-N., E-mail: dr-htn@hotmail.co [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated SIR RUN RUN SHAW Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016 (China); Zhou, L.-N.; Hu, H.-J. [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated SIR RUN RUN SHAW Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To determine the relationship between the lingual artery and lingual markers for preoperative evaluation of the lingual artery in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: A 16-section computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the lingual artery was performed in 87 inpatient cases with OSAHS, from December 2007 to May 2009. The course of the lingual artery and the anatomic relationship between the lingual artery and the lingual markers were analyzed using CTA imaging. Results: The course of the lingual artery with the tongue in a resting position was similar to that of the Big Dipper constellation (Plough) in the sagittal view of CTA imaging. The first segment of the lingual artery declined approximately 19.27 {+-} 5.24 mm, the middle segment of the lingual artery was forward approximately 19.30 {+-} 6.79 mm, and the ascending segment of the lingual artery rose approximately 52.49 {+-} 10.98 mm. The entry point where the lingual artery entered into the tongue was adjacent to the tip of the greater horn of the hyoid bone. The relationship between the second segment of the lingual artery and the greater horn of the hyoid bone was relatively steady with the tongue in whatever position. The interval between the bilateral greater horn of the hyoid bone equalled that between the bilateral lingual arteries. Conclusions: Recognizing some lingual markers in the patients with OSAHS, such as the greater horn of the hyoid bone, foramen cecum, circumvallate papilla, lingual vein and tongue midline, may facilitate the surgeon's ability to define the course of the lingual artery accurately in the treatment of OSAHS.

  2. Minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit anesthesia for computed tomographic measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of decreasing the volume of expensive xenon, anesthesia with minimal-flow xenon and semiclosed circuit were induced for computed tomographic LCBF measurement. Eighteen patients with ischemic cerebral disease were studied. Xenon inhalation programs were subdivided into three groups, each of them consisted of 6 patients. The formula for calculating fresh gas flow for low flow semiclosed circuit was introduced according to Shimoji's which was based on the original formula of Foldes. O2 concentration in circuit was predicted to be 25%. Mean xenon uptake for initial 20 minutes was predicted to be125 ml/min. or 360 ml/min. The first group started xenon inhalation during pure xenon inflow into semic losed circuit for two minutes and followed by about 68% xenon in O2 inhalation for 23 munites. FXe and VXe were fixed at 700 ml/min and 360 ml/min respectively. The second group was set at the same conditions as the first group except FXe and VXe as shown in Fig.2. The third group inhaled about 63% xenon-oxygen mixture affer four minutes pure xenon inflow. Xenon concentrations in trachea, carotid artery and jugular vein were estimated from the conversion into equivalent enhancement in CT units for every four minutes on line. Fig. 3 shows the O2 concentration change in semiclosed circuit, endtidal CO2 tension and percent change of mean arterial pressure. After 20 minutes xenon inhalation O2 concentration in each group closed to 25% which was predicted O2 concentration of the third group closed more rapidly to 25% than other groups. Normocarbia and stable hemodynamics could be confirmed throughout the procedures in each group. Fig. 5 shows xenon washin curves in trachea and xenon concentration change in carotid artery and jugular vein during xenon inhalation. The washin curves in trachea are quite different in each group. (J.P.N.)

  3. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Morita, Ken, E-mail: kenordic@carrot.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Muto, Natalia S., E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Okamoto, Syozou, E-mail: shozo@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Omatsu, Tokuhiko, E-mail: omatoku@nirs.go.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Oyama, Noriko, E-mail: ZAT04404@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kanegae, Kakuko, E-mail: IZW00143@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Nonomura, Katsuya, E-mail: k-nonno@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 {+-} 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 {+-} 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 {+-} 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 {+-} 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 {+-} 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 {+-} 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  4. Multidetector-Row Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings of Musculoskeletal Tumors: Retrospective Analysis and Correlation with Surgical Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable method in staging musculoskeletal tumors, it may not give enough information on the association between the tumor and the main vascular structures adjacent to the tumor. In this respect, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) may be a useful alternative imaging technique. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of CTA in determining vascular invasion in patients with musculoskeletal tumors and suspected vascular invasion by MRI, and to correlate the CTA findings with the surgical findings. Material and Methods: Twenty patients who had musculoskeletal tumors and lacked a fat plane between the tumor and adjacent vessels by MRI were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with CTA, and the CTA findings were reviewed by two radiologists to determine the presence of vascular invasion. Statistical analysis was carried out by using surgical findings as the gold standard. Results: There were nine women and 11 men (mean age 31 years) with either bone (n=9) or soft-tissue (n=11) tumors. Twelve patients without invasion according to the CTA examination were also surgically negative (true-negative cases). Of the eight patients with invasion shown by CTA, only three had adhesions and were considered surgically negative (false-positive cases). Five had invasions proven by surgery and were considered surgically positive (true-positive cases). Compared to the surgical findings, CTA had 100% sensitivity, 80% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 80% accuracy. Conclusion: CTA is a more accurate imaging technique than MRI in evaluating vascular invasion of musculoskeletal tumors, and provides valuable preoperative data

  5. Original Protocol Using Computed Tomographic Angiography for Diagnosis of Brain Death: A Better Alternative to Standard Two-Phase Technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Marcin; Sołek-Pastuszka, Joanna; Jurczyk, Krzysztof; Skrzywanek, Piotr; Guziński, Maciej; Czajkowski, Zenon; Mańko, Witold; Burzyńska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Walecka, Anna; Rowiński, Olgierd; Walecki, Jerzy; Bohatyrewicz, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The application of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the diagnosis of brain death (BD) is limited because of the low sensitivity of the commonly used two-phase method consisting of assessing arterial and venous opacification at the 60th second after contrast injection. The hypothesis was that a reduction in the scanning delay might increase the sensitivity of the test. Therefore, an original technique using CTA was introduced and compared with catheter angiography as a reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter trial, 84 clinically brain-dead patients were examined using CTA and catheter angiography. The sensitivities of original CTA technique, involving an arterial assessment at the 25th second and a venous assessment at the 40th second, and the standard CTA, involving an arterial and venous assessment at the 60th second, were compared to catheter angiography. RESULTS Catheter angiography results were consistent with the clinical diagnosis of BD in all cases. In comparison to catheter angiography, the sensitivity of original CTA technique was 0.93 (95%CI, 0.85-0.97; p<0.001) and 0.57 (95%CI, 0.46-0.68; p<0.001) for the standard protocol. The differences were statistically significant (p=0.03 for original CTA and p<0.001 for standard CTA). Decompressive craniectomy predisposes to a false-negative CTA result with a relative risk of 3.29 (95% CI, 1.76-5.81; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our original technique using CTA for the assessment of the cerebral arteries during the arterial phase and the deep cerebral veins with a delay of 15 seconds is a highly sensitive test for the diagnosis of BD. This method may be a better alternative to the commonly used technique. PMID:26250464

  6. Computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive pulmonary tuberculosis and their relationship with CD4+T-lymphocyte count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhong; LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang; WU Hao; BAO Dong-ying

    2011-01-01

    Background Factors of cell-mediated immunity and allergy together play their roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the computed tomographic demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and the relationship between its pathogenesis and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count.Methods The documented CT images of a total of 44 patients with HIV seropositive PTB, definitely diagnosed by etiological or pathological examinations, their clinical data and their CD4+ T-lymphocyte count were retrospectively reviewed.Results There were 15 cases of miliary tuberculosis, accounting for 34.1% of the total cases; 15 cases of nodular tuberculosis, 34.1%; 6 cases of ground-glass opacity, 13.6%; 5 cases of cord-liked fiber shadows, 11.4%; 16 cases of flaky and flocculating shadows, 36.4%; 5 cases of cavitation, 11.4%; 5 cases of tumor shadows, 11.4%; 2 cases of pleural thickening, 4.5% and 11 cases of pleural effusion, 25.0%; 1 case of calcification, 2.3%; 16 cases of lymphadenectasis,36.4%. The foci were located around the pulmonary hilum, anterior segment of superior lobe, basal segment of inferior lobe, medial lobe and lingual lobe. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was closely related to the imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB.Conclusions CT scanning can demonstrate various signs of PTB. CD4+ T-lymphocyte level determines the variety of imaging demonstrations of HIV seropositive PTB and its prognosis.

  7. Computed tomographic measurement of gluteal subcutaneous fat thickness in reference to failure of gluteal intramuscular injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbridge, B.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Academic Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: brent.burbridge@usask.ca

    2007-04-15

    Casual observation of gluteal region fat thickness on computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis leads to the hypothesis that, in some individuals intended intramuscular injections are not properly deposited in the gluteal muscle. We gathered and analyzed data to determine whether this hypothesis was true. CT scans of the pelvis were analyzed over an 18-day period in the tall of 2005. The thickness of gluteal region subcutaneous fat was measured in a standardized manner. Measurement of gluteal region subcutaneous fat thickness was performed for 298 pelvic CT scans. There were 150 male subjects and 148 female subjects. The average gluteal fat thickness for female subjects was 33.2 mm, whereas the average for male subjects was 23.1 mm. Analysis revealed a significant difference in gluteal region fat thickness between male and female subjects. A 37-mm needle, allowing for 6-mm penetration of the gluteal muscle, would not have entered the gluteal muscle fibres in 81 of 148 female subjects (54.7%), in 21 of 150 male subjects (14%), and in 102 of the 298 total sample (34.2%). Analysis revealed a significant difference between male and female subjects with regard to gluteal muscle needle penetration. An overall predicted failure rate of 34% was identified for intended gluteal intramuscular injections when the standard technique was used. This is important information for care providers who inject medications in the gluteal region. In a significant number of patients, the medications will be injected subcutaneously and not into the gluteal musculature, possibly altering the pharmacokinetics of the administered medication. An alternative injection site should probably be chosen to increase the success rate of intramuscular deposition of medications and vaccines in unselected adults. (author)

  8. Shaping ability of rotatory or reciprocating instruments in curved canals: a micro-computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Alexander Pompermayer; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Zaccara, Ivana Maria; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2016-06-14

    This study aimed to compare apical transportation, centering ratio, and working time during root canal preparation with Wizard Navigator (WN), WaveOne (WO), or ProTaper Universal (PT) and to describe deformation and fracture of these instruments. Thirty-six mesiobuccal roots from maxillary molars were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned and then sorted into three groups (n = 12): Wizard Navigator (WN), WaveOne (WO), and ProTaper Universal (PT). The root canals were prepared using WN, WO, or PT; the time of each canal preparation was timed; and the specimens were micro-CT re-scanned. The instruments were submitted to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after their use. The data on canal transportation at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm and preparation time were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney U test. The centering ratio was analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Both instrument deformation and fracture were described. Apical transportation was similar among groups at 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm. The WO group showed higher canal transportation at 5mm than the other groups (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in centering ratio among the groups. Preparation time in the WO group was significantly lower than in the other groups (p = 0.004). Small differences were observed in the surface area of all instruments. The WN, WO, and PT groups had a similar centering ratio without procedural errors or significant structural changes. At 5 mm from the apex, the WO group showed the largest canal transportation toward the furcation and root canal preparation was faster than in the WN and PT groups. PMID:27305517

  9. Computed tomographic measurement of gluteal subcutaneous fat thickness in reference to failure of gluteal intramuscular injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casual observation of gluteal region fat thickness on computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis leads to the hypothesis that, in some individuals intended intramuscular injections are not properly deposited in the gluteal muscle. We gathered and analyzed data to determine whether this hypothesis was true. CT scans of the pelvis were analyzed over an 18-day period in the tall of 2005. The thickness of gluteal region subcutaneous fat was measured in a standardized manner. Measurement of gluteal region subcutaneous fat thickness was performed for 298 pelvic CT scans. There were 150 male subjects and 148 female subjects. The average gluteal fat thickness for female subjects was 33.2 mm, whereas the average for male subjects was 23.1 mm. Analysis revealed a significant difference in gluteal region fat thickness between male and female subjects. A 37-mm needle, allowing for 6-mm penetration of the gluteal muscle, would not have entered the gluteal muscle fibres in 81 of 148 female subjects (54.7%), in 21 of 150 male subjects (14%), and in 102 of the 298 total sample (34.2%). Analysis revealed a significant difference between male and female subjects with regard to gluteal muscle needle penetration. An overall predicted failure rate of 34% was identified for intended gluteal intramuscular injections when the standard technique was used. This is important information for care providers who inject medications in the gluteal region. In a significant number of patients, the medications will be injected subcutaneously and not into the gluteal musculature, possibly altering the pharmacokinetics of the administered medication. An alternative injection site should probably be chosen to increase the success rate of intramuscular deposition of medications and vaccines in unselected adults. (author)

  10. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF MELANOMAS IN THE EQUINE HEAD: 13 CASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jonathon; Smith, Ken; Perkins, Justin; Sherlock, Ceri; Mair, Tim; Weller, Renate

    2016-05-01

    Melanomas are one of the most common neoplasms in the horse and are frequently found in the head region. There is a genetic predisposition in horses with a gray hair coat. Computed tomography (CT) is frequently used in referral practice to evaluate the equine head but there are few reports describing the CT appearance of melanomas in this location. The aim of this retrospective, case series study was to describe characteristics in a group of horses with confirmed disease. Case records from two referral hospitals were reviewed, and 13 horses were identified that had undergone CT of the head, with a diagnosis of melanoma based on cytology, histopathology, or visual assessment of black (melanotic) tissue. A median of 11 melanomas was identified per horse (range 3-60), with a total of 216 masses. Melanomas were found most frequently in the parotid salivary gland, guttural pouches, surrounding the larynx and pharynx and adjacent to the hyoid apparatus. In noncontrast CT images, all melanomas were hyperattenuating (median; 113.5 Hounsfield units (HU), IQR; 26 HU) compared to masseter musculature (median; 69 HU, IQR; 5.5 HU). Fifty-six (25.9%) masses were partially mineralized and 41 (19.4%) included hypoattenuating areas. Histopathological assessment of these melanomas suggested that the hyperattenuation identified was most likely a result of abundant intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. Melanomas of the equine head appeared to have consistent CT features that aided detection of mass lesions and their distribution, although histopathological analysis or visual confirmation should still be obtained for definitive diagnosis. PMID:26799704

  11. CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA: HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORAL BONE WITH SURGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakenahalli P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To correlate the sensitivity and specificity of High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT findings of temporal bone in chronic otitis media with surgical findings. MATERIALS & METHODS HRCT of temporal bone of fifty patients with chronic otitis media were evaluated prospectively between July 2012 and December 2013. The various pathological findings, complications and important anatomical variations were evaluated. These findings were compared with intraoperative findings. Statistical methods were carried out using SPSS for Windows (Version 16.0 and Minitab (Version 11.0 for windows. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive and false negative rates were calculated. The level of significance was considered significant for P-values <0.05. RESULTS HRCT is reliable for all the parameters like scutum erosion, ossicular erosion, mastoid pneumatisation, low lying dura, anterior lying sigmoid, Korner’s septum, cholesteatoma extension in middle ear and mastoid, and presence of complications like mastoiditis, mastoid abscess, mastoid cortex dehiscence, sigmoid sinus plate erosion, facial canal dehiscence, tegmen mastoideum erosion, labyrinthine fistula and intracranial complications with a P value <0.05 but not reliable for tegmen tympani erosion and posterior fossa dural plate erosion. Among the findings related to adjacent neurovascular structures, facial canal dehiscence was commonest followed by anterior lying sigmoid sinus and low lying dura. In ossicular erosion, incus was most commonly involved followed by stapes and malleus. Most of the mastoid in this study was sclerotic followed by pneumatised and diploic. The epitympanum and mastoid antrum were the most commonly involved areas in cholesteatoma followed by aditus, mastoid air cells, posterior tympanum, mesotympanum, hypotympanum, protympanum and perilabyrinthine air cells in decreasing order of frequency. CONCLUSIONS HRCT temporal bone is a reliable investigation in preoperative

  12. Setup Variations in Radiotherapy of Esophageal Cancer: Evaluation by Daily Megavoltage Computed Tomographic Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) scans to evaluate setup variations in anterior-posterior (AP), lateral, and superior-inferior (SI) directions and rotational variations, including pitch, roll, and yaw, for esophageal cancer patients treated with helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated by combined chemoradiation using helical tomotherapy were selected. After patients were positioned using their skin tattoos/marks, MVCT scans were performed before every treatment and automatically registered to planning kilovoltage CT scans according to bony landmarks. Image registration data were used to adjust patient setups before treatment. A total of 250 MVCT scans were analyzed. Correlations between setup variations and body habitus, including height, weight, relative weight change, body surface area, and patient age, were evaluated. Results: The standard deviations for systematic setup corrections in AP, lateral, and SI directions and pitch, roll, and yaw rotations were 1.5, 3.7, and 4.8 mm and 0.5 deg., 1.2 deg., and 0.8 deg., respectively. The appropriate averages of random setup variations in AP, lateral, and SI directions and pitch, roll, and yaw rotations were 2.9, 5.2, and 4.4 mm, and 1.0 deg., 1.2 deg., and 1.1 deg., respectively. Setup variations were stable throughout the entire course of radiotherapy in all three translational and three rotational displacements, with little change in magnitude. No significant correlations were found between setup variations and body habitus variables. Conclusions: Daily MVCT scans before each treatment can effectively detect setup errors and thereby reduce planning target volume (PTV) margins. This will reduce radiation dose to critical organs and may translate into lower treatment-related toxicities

  13. Evaluation of condylar positions in patients with temporomandibular disorders: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Madani, Azam Sadat; Mahdavi, Pirooze; Bagherpour, Ali; Darijani, Mansoreh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to compare the condylar position in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) and a normal group by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods In the TMD group, 25 patients (5 men and 20 women) were randomly selected among the ones suffering from TMD according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The control group consisted of 25 patients (8 men and 17 women) with normal temporomandibular joints (TMJs) who were referred to the radiology department in order to undergo CBCT scanning for implant treatment in the posterior maxilla. Linear measurements from the superior, anterior, and posterior joint spaces between the condyle and glenoid fossa were made through defined landmarks in the sagittal view. The inclination of articular eminence was also determined. Results The mean anterior joint space was 2.3 mm in the normal group and 2.8 mm in the TMD group, respectively. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between the superior and posterior joint spaces in both the normal and TMD groups, but it was only in the TMD group that the correlation coefficient among the dimensions of anterior and superior spaces was significant. There was a significant correlation between the inclination of articular eminence and the size of the superior and posterior spaces in the normal group. Conclusion The average dimension of the anterior joint space was different between the two groups. CBCT could be considered a useful diagnostic imaging modality for TMD patients. PMID:27358820

  14. Computed tomographic assessment of the surgical risks associated with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the surgical risks associated with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis by retrospectively examining chest computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed the records of 40 patients who underwent pulmonary resection for fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, for whom preoperative CT scans were available. The disease was categorized as class I, defined as a cavity within one lobe without remarkable pleural thickness, in 21 patients; class II, defined as a cavity extending beyond one lobe or within one lobe with remarkable pleural thickness, in 10 patients; and class III, defined as bilateral cavities, in 9 patients. Four of the nine patients with bilateral cavities underwent bilateral pulmonary resection and five underwent unilateral pulmonary resection. The study parameters were intraoperative blood loss, operative time, hospital stay, major operative morbidity, and hospital death. Intraoperative blood loss and operative time were significantly greater and hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with advanced disease (P=0.046, P=0.000, and P=0.143, respectively). Major surgical morbidity mainly occurred in association with advanced disease (P=0.028) at the following incidences: class I, 5%; class II, 30%; class III, 44.4%. Two hospital deaths occurred, both following bilateral pulmonary resection for class III disease, accounting for an overall 5% mortality rate. The surgical risks associated with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis were well correlated with anatomic involvement, according to the extent of cavitation and the severity of pleural thickness, as depicted by CT. Staged pulmonary resection or the combination of one-sided resection with other modalities is recommended for the treatment of bilateral cavities. (author)

  15. Spiral (Helical) computed tomographic imaging for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Vascular and pancreatic invasions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of several imaging techniques for diagnosing bile duct cancer have improved, however, its diagnosis at the early stage is still difficult. We discuss the significance of the spiral (helical) computed tomography (SCT) imaging for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer at an early stage. We performed, as a preoperative examination, SCT under intravenous angiography (IV-SCT) for all cases, which included 233 cases of benign bile duct diseases, 42 cases of gallbladder cancer and 22 cases of bile duct cancer. The accuracy rate of diagnosis ability of 42 cases of gallbladder cancer by IV-SCT was 91%, and that of portal vein invasion was 91%. In the cases of bile duct cancer, IV-SCT showed destructive images of the bile duct wall and the tumor images invaded into the pancreatic parenchyma, in the cases of invasion at the splenic vein and confluence site of the portal vein, IV-SCT gave clearer 3D images than conventional angiography. The accuracy rate of diagnosing pancreatic invasion in bile duct cancer by IV-SCT was 80%. However, it is still difficult to determine completely the layer structures of the bile duct and the invasion into the walls along the long axis. As the future development of SCT for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer, we expect further progression of diagnosis ability of bile duct cancer and the invasion level by the applying high resolution thin-section CT images or endoscopical images of the luminal organs in examining the bile duct. (K.H.)

  16. Computed tomographic and ultrasonographic evaluations of efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Yuji; Ohsuki, Masao; Kitano, Tohru; Taguchi, Hiroko; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Itoh, Madoka

    1984-12-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed in 50 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, using gelatin sponge soaked with carcinostatics. The efficaciy of this therapy was evaluated by changes of serum AFP, computed tomogram (CT) and ultrasonogram(US), pathological findings, and survival rate. The most characteristic changes in CT image after TAE were decrease in attenuation value and gas-formation in the tumor. Early change after TAE was classified into 3 types, i. e. type 1; low density area with round and clear margin, type 2; low density area with irregular and obscure margin, and type 3; slightly low density area. Recurrence of tumor within 3 months was seen in only 16.7% out of 22 cases showing type 1, in contrast with 84.6% in the second type of 26. Serial CT during more than 6 months revealed that regrowing of the the tumor into necrotized lesion occured in 77.8% of type 2, in contrast with 20% of type 1. Survival rate of type 1 and type 2 was 80% and 66.7%, respectively. Therefore, it was considered that CT was valuable in detection of recurrence in the primary lesion, but nearly useful in evaluation of extracapsular extension as well as US. Serial US of most effective cases of 8 showed the decrease in echogenicity early after TAE, gradual elevation of the interior echo-level after about 3 months and change to strong echo with acoustic shadow more than 6 months later. On the other hand, the re-elevation of echo-level was not observed in recurrent cases. The effectiveness of TAE seemed to be dominated by the charactors of the tumor such as encapsulation, tumor size and invasion into the portal vein. (author).

  17. Computed tomographic and ultrasonographic evaluations of efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed in 50 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, using gelatin sponge soaked with carcinostatics. The efficaciy of this therapy was evaluated by changes of serum AFP, computed tomogram (CT) and ultrasonogram(US), pathological findings, and survival rate. The most characteristic changes in CT image after TAE were decrease in attenuation value and gas-formation in the tumor. Early change after TAE was classified into 3 types, i. e. type 1; low density area with round and clear margin, type 2; low density area with irregular and obscure margin, and type 3; slightly low density area. Recurrence of tumor within 3 months was seen in only 16.7% out of 22 cases showing type 1, in contrast with 84.6% in the second type of 26. Serial CT during more than 6 months revealed that regrowing of the the tumor into necrotized lesion occured in 77.8% of type 2, in contrast with 20% of type 1. Survival rate of type 1 and type 2 was 80% and 66.7%, respectively. Therefore, it was considered that CT was valuable in detection of recurrence in the primary lesion, but nearly useful in evaluation of extracapsular extension as well as US. Serial US of most effective cases of 8 showed the decrease in echogenicity early after TAE, gradual elevation of the interior echo-level after about 3 months and change to strong echo with acoustic shadow more than 6 months later. On the other hand, the re-elevation of echo-level was not observed in recurrent cases. The effectiveness of TAE seemed to be dominated by the charactors of the tumor such as encapsulation, tumor size and invasion into the portal vein. (author)

  18. Computed tomographic (CT) study of the brains of 357 elderly demented patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that there is some limitation in the diagnostic effectiveness of brain computed tomography (CT) of dementia. Some investigators suggested certain correlation between brain atrophy and degree of psychological imparement in demented patients, but others did not agree with these suggestions. Authors have felt that the number of samples is very important in statistical analyses, thus they collected a great number of appropriate samples of dementia: that is, 59 of Alzheimer disease (AD), 120 of senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and 178 of vascular dementia (VD), and compared these CT findings with those of 100 non-demented people. Firstly, we observed no relation between aging and brain atrophy in any type of dementia while there was a certain relation in non-demented people. Secondly, the female brain could easily become atrophic physiologically and was more severely atrophic in case of dementia compared with the male brain. Thirdly, it was impossible to differentiate SDAT from VD only by measuring values of dilatation of ventricles (maximum width of the third ventricle and cella media index) and sylvian fissures (''sylvian index''). Finally, it was observed that there was deep relation between the results of clinical assessments and the degree of brain atrophy in SDAT, because individual specificity in the type of atrophy was not variable in this type of dementia. Moreover all functions: that is, motor, intellectual, and emotional functions in SDAT patients, were impaired in the same degree respectively. From these results, authors could know many available characteristics of atrophy in the brains of demented patients through the following easy methods of measurement: linear measure method and ventricular-brain method, because we could analyse a sufficient number of samples. (author)

  19. Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography in four patients with dissecting aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, three-dimensional computed angiography (CTA) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment planning of cerebral aneurysm presenting with or without sub-arachnoid haemorrhage, but the diagnostic value of CTA has not been established. This study evaluated the vertebrobasilar system. Four patients with acute dissecting aneurysms were examined by CTA, including 3 women and 1 man with a mean age of 60.5 ± 8.5 years (range: 52-67 years). There were three patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and one patient presenting with ischaemia. One patient underwent CTA twice and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) once, while one patient had both examinations three times. CTA was performed with a nonionic contrast medium (100 ml of iomeprol 350 mg I/ml) administrated via an auto-injector into an antecubital vein at 1.5-1.7 ml/s. To reconstruct three-dimensional images, the volume rendering method was utilized. All initial CTA studies were performed safely within 5 hours after onset. In patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, all lesions were demonstrated by finding either the 'pear and string sign' or a 'double shadow' on CTA. In the patient presenting with ischaemia, 'pearl and string sign' and ' double shadow' was shown after the second CTA, and follow-up CTA was able to demonstrate the change of the lesion morphology. All lesions had more irregular luminal surfaces than the non-lesional segment of the involved vessels. CTA was safe in patients with acute vertebrobasilar dissection and demonstrated either the 'pearl and string sign' or a 'double shadow' which were commonly showed on DSA. An 'irregular luminal surface sign' on CTA seems to be one of the characteristics of vertebrobasilar dissection. The view shown by CTA is not less useful than that by DSA to diagnosis and treatment planning in the acute phase of vertebrobasilar dissection, and can be employed to follow the changes of lesion morphology over time. (author)

  20. Exposed dose comparison between coronary computed tomographic angiography and coronary angiography. Basic examination by phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new type of coronary angiography (CAG) that uses 40 mm volumetric computed tomography (VCT) has great potential for cardiac disease. However, it is still necessary to be cognizant of exposure dose. We measured doses of CAG by both VCT and cardiovascular X-ray using a body phantom within 170 glass dosimeters. VCT protocols were 120 kV, 570 mA, and 0.35 sec/rot with and without the dose-reduction features (small cardiac X-ray beam filter and electrocardiogram (ECG) mA modulation). The cardiovascular X-ray protocol was Auto (65-77 kV) kV, Auto (41-46 mA) mA, 5 sec x 11 shots + 11 min fluoroscopy (minimum protocol for screening). VCT with and without the dose-reduction features has the same dose distribution, however, the dose-reduction features reduced the amount of dose by about 40-50%. For VCT with those features, measured dose was about 70 mGy in the cardiac area and 60 mGy at the skin of the back, whereas those of cardiovascular X-ray were 10 mGy and 30 mGy. We measured detailed dose distributions and variations in the phantom, and we also demonstrated the possibility of VCT's dose-reduction features. The CT dose was still higher than that of cardiovascular X-ray, however, there were advantages of CT scanning, for instance, information about calcification, soft plaque, and three-dimensional (3D) visualization. We think it is important to use both systems with an understanding of their advantages and limitations. (author)

  1. Computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): improvement of vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2011-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The MHES-LSR method may have the potential to improve PE detection.

  2. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Renal Angiomyolipomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of US-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML).Materials and MethodsFrom January 2011 to April 2014, seven patients (5 females and 2 males; mean age 51.4) with 11 renal AMLs (9 sporadic type and 2 tuberous sclerosis associated) with a mean size of 3.4 ± 0.7 cm (range 2.4–4.9 cm) were treated with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation under US guidance. Tumoral diameter, volume, and CT/MR enhancement were measured on pre-treatment, immediate post-ablation, and delayed post-ablation imaging. Clinical symptoms and creatinine were assessed on follow-up visits.ResultsAll ablations were technically successful and no major complications were encountered. Mean ablation parameters were ablation power of 65 W (range 60–70 W), using 456 mL of hydrodissection fluid per patient, over 4.7 min (range 3–8 min). Immediate post-ablation imaging demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 1.8 % (3.4–3.3 cm) and 1.7 % (27.5–26.3 cm3), respectively. Delayed imaging follow-up obtained at a mean interval of 23.1 months (median 17.6; range 9–47) demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 29 % (3.4–2.4 cm) and 47 % (27.5–12.1 cm3), respectively. Tumoral enhancement decreased on immediate post-procedure and delayed imaging by CT/MR parameters, indicating decreased tumor vascularity. No patients required additional intervention and no patients experienced spontaneous bleeding post-ablation.ConclusionOur early experience with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation demonstrates it to be a safe and effective modality to devascularize and decrease the size of renal AMLs

  3. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Renal Angiomyolipomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Mircea, E-mail: mcristescu@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Abel, E. Jason, E-mail: abel@urology.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Wells, Shane, E-mail: swells@uwhealth.org; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J., E-mail: tziemlewicz@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Hedican, Sean P., E-mail: hedican@surgery.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Lubner, Megan G., E-mail: mlubner@uwhealth.org; Hinshaw, J. Louis, E-mail: jhinshaw@uwhealth.org; Brace, Christopher L., E-mail: cbrace@uwhealth.org; Lee, Fred T., E-mail: flee@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of US-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML).Materials and MethodsFrom January 2011 to April 2014, seven patients (5 females and 2 males; mean age 51.4) with 11 renal AMLs (9 sporadic type and 2 tuberous sclerosis associated) with a mean size of 3.4 ± 0.7 cm (range 2.4–4.9 cm) were treated with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation under US guidance. Tumoral diameter, volume, and CT/MR enhancement were measured on pre-treatment, immediate post-ablation, and delayed post-ablation imaging. Clinical symptoms and creatinine were assessed on follow-up visits.ResultsAll ablations were technically successful and no major complications were encountered. Mean ablation parameters were ablation power of 65 W (range 60–70 W), using 456 mL of hydrodissection fluid per patient, over 4.7 min (range 3–8 min). Immediate post-ablation imaging demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 1.8 % (3.4–3.3 cm) and 1.7 % (27.5–26.3 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Delayed imaging follow-up obtained at a mean interval of 23.1 months (median 17.6; range 9–47) demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 29 % (3.4–2.4 cm) and 47 % (27.5–12.1 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Tumoral enhancement decreased on immediate post-procedure and delayed imaging by CT/MR parameters, indicating decreased tumor vascularity. No patients required additional intervention and no patients experienced spontaneous bleeding post-ablation.ConclusionOur early experience with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation demonstrates it to be a safe and effective modality to devascularize and decrease the size of renal AMLs.

  4. Report of a case successfully treated with partial nephrectomy for renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a 57-year-old woman with right renal angiomyolipoma is reported. In this case, correct preoperative diagnosis was obtained from B-mode ultrasonogram, urogram, enhanced CT-scanning and selective renal angiogram, and a partial nephrectomy including the tumor mass was performed. She is doing well now almost 10 months following the surgery with no signs of recurrence. Our experience of four patients with angiomyolipoma including the present case showed that CT-scanning is most useful in the diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma. Literatures were reviewed briefly in favor of a conservative surgery in patients with renal angiomyolipoma. (author)

  5. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  6. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  7. Transaxial positron emission tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer-controlled tomograph has got a set of six detector assemblies arranged in a hexagonal pattern around the object to be examined. For detectors gamma cameras or cross-beam cameras may be used. The density distribution of a substance absorbed in a cross-sectional layer of the body can be displayed on a monitor. Opposite detector assemblies are connected by a coincidence circuit. (DG)

  8. Neuroblastoma: computed tomographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Ahn, Chang Su; Kim, Myung Jun; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    To evaluate the characteristic CT findings of neuroblastoma, we studied neuroblastomas. We analysed CT findings of available 25 cases among pathologically proved 51 neuroblastomas from Jan. 1983 to Sept. 1990. The most frequent site of origin is adrenal gland (40%) and the second is retroperitoneum (32%) and the third ismediastinum (16%). Characteristic CT findings are as follows: Calcifications within the tumor is detected in 86% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 50% of mediastinal origin. Hemorrhagic and necrotic changes within the tumor is noted at 86% in the tumor of abdominal origin and 25% in mediastinal neuroblastomas. Contrast enhanced study showed frequently seperated enhanced appearance with/without solid contrast enhancement. Encasements of major great vessels such as aorta and IVC with/without displacement by metastatic lymph nodes or tumor are frequently seen in 90% of abdominal neuroblastomas. Multiple lymphadenopathy are detected in 95% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 25% of mediastinal neuroblastomas. The most common organ or contiguous direct invasion is kidney in 6 cases and the next one is liver but intraspinal canal invasion is also noted in 2 cases. We concluded that diagnosis of neuroblastoma would be easily obtained in masses of pediatric group from recognition of above characteristic findings.

  9. Tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, Natalia

    2009-10-01

    In the previous work [1], we discussed a ``technology'' of tomographic method and relations between the tomographic diagnostics in thermal (equilibrium) and nonthermal (nonequilibrium) plasma sources. The conclusion has been made that tomographic reconstruction in thermal plasma sources is the standard procedure at present, which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time, while the tomographic reconstruction of nonthermal plasma has a great potential at making a contribution to understanding the fundamental problem of substance behavior in strongly nonequilibrium conditions. Using medical terminology, one could say, that tomographic diagnostics of the equilibrium plasma sources studies their ``anatomic'' structure, while reconstruction of the nonequilibrium plasma is similar to the ``physiological'' examination: it is directed to study the physical mechanisms and processes. The present work is focused on nonthermal plasma research. The tomographic diagnostics is directed to study spatial structures formed in the gas discharge plasmas under the influence of electrical and gravitational fields. The ways of plasma ``self-organization'' in changing and extreme conditions are analyzed. The analysis has been made using some examples from our practical tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasma sources, such as low-pressure capacitive and inductive discharges. [0pt] [1] Denisova N. Plasma diagnostics using computed tomography method // IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2009 37 4 502.

  10. Spinopelvic dissociation: multidetector computed tomographic evaluation of fracture patterns and associated injuries at a single level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pushpender; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Lenchik, Leon; Wuertzer, Scott D; Miller, Anna N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) fracture patterns and associated injuries in patients with spinopelvic dissociation (SPD). Our institutional trauma registry database was reviewed from Jan. 1, 2006, to Sept. 30, 2012, specifically evaluating patients with sacral fractures. MDCT scans of patients with sacral fractures were reviewed to determine the presence of SPD. SPD cases were characterized into the following fracture patterns: U-shaped, Y-shaped, T-shaped, H-shaped, and burst. The following MDCT features were recorded: level of the horizontal fracture, location of vertical fracture, kyphosis between major fracture fragments, displacement of fracture fragment, narrowing of central spinal canal, narrowing of neural foramina, and extension into sacroiliac joints. Quantitative evaluation of the sacral fractures was performed in accordance with the consensus statement by the Spine Trauma Study Group. Medical records were reviewed to determine associated pelvic and non-pelvic fractures, bladder and bowel injuries, nerve injuries, and type of surgical intervention. Twenty-one patients had SPD, of whom 13 were men and eight were women. Mean age was 41.8 years (range 18.8 to 87.7). Five fractures (24 %) were U-shaped, six (29 %) H-shaped, four (19 %) Y-shaped, and six (29 %) burst. Nine patients (43 %) had central canal narrowing, and 19 (90 %) had neural foramina narrowing. Eleven patients (52 %) had kyphotic angulation between major fracture fragments, and seven patients (33 %) had either anterior (24 %) or posterior (10 %) displacement of the proximal fracture fragment. Fourteen patients (67 %) had associated pelvic fractures, and 20 (95 %) had associated non-pelvic fractures. Two patients (10 %) had associated urethral injuries, and one (5 %) had an associated colon injury. Seven patients (33 %) had associated nerve injuries. Six patients (29 %) had surgical fixation while 15 (71 %) were

  11. Pulmonary lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum based on computed tomographic observations of the primary complex of pulmonary histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Nabaa, Basim; Aburano, Tamio (Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical University and Hospital, Asahikawa (Japan)), Email: taka1019@asahikawa-med.ac.jp; Beek, Edwin Jr. von (Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Stanford, William (Department of Radiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States))

    2012-03-15

    Background. In the primary infection of pulmonary histoplasmosis, pulmonary lesions are commonly solitary and associated with hilar and/or mediastinal nodal diseases, which spontaneously resolve, resulting in calcifications in individuals with normal cellular immunity. Purpose. To assess the lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum from each pulmonary segment and lobe using computed tomographic (CT) observations of a calcified primary complex pulmonary histoplasmosis and predict which patients with N2 disease that would benefit from surgery. Material and Methods. We collected 585 CT studies of patients with primary complex histoplasmosis consisting of solitary calcified pulmonary lesions and calcified hilar and/or mediastinal nodal disease. Using the N stage criteria of non-small cell lung cancer, we assessed the distribution of the involved hilar and mediastinal nodes depending on the pulmonary segment of the lesion, with a focus on skip involvement. We also assessed the correlation between the incidence of N1and skip N2 involvement and the mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups. Results. Skip involvement was common in the apical segment (9/45, 20.0%), posterior segment (7/31, 22.6%), and mediolbasal segment (13/20, 65.0%) in the right lung, and in the apicoposterior segment (7/55, 12.7%), lateral basal segment (6/26, 23.1%), and posterobasal segment (16/47, 34.0%) in the left lung. The incidence of skip involvement in each segment showed a significant inverse correlation with that of N1 involvement (r = -0.51, P <0.05) in both lungs. The mean number of involved mediastinal nodal stations in the non-skip N2 and skip N2 groups in all segments of both lungs were 1.4 (434/301) and 1.2 (93/77), and the former was significantly greater than the latter (P <0.01). Conclusion. Our data showed a predictable pattern of segmental and lobar lymphatic drainage to the mediastinum and suggested that skip involvement could represent

  12. Nondestructive measurement of annual-rings of a living tree by means of a portable x-ray computed tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable X-ray computed tomographic (CT) scanner has been developed for nondestructive measurement of annual-rings of a living tree. The scanner can be used in the field environment and a vertically standing object as a living tree can be inserted into a throughhole of the scanner from a lateral side. Using this CT scanner, a series of experiments has been carried out and CT reconstructions of several kinds of trees have been obtained. The result shows that the CT scanner offers a very useful means for nondestructive measurement of annual-rings and water content of living trees. (author)

  13. Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrakis, George; Rannou, Fernando R; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility and limits in performing tomographic bioluminescence imaging with a combined optical-PET (OPET) system was explored by simulating its image formation process. A micro-MRI based virtual mouse phantom was assigned appropriate tissue optical properties to each of its segmented internal organs at wavelengths spanning the emission spectrum of the firefly luciferase at 37 °C. The TOAST finite-element code was employed to simulate the diffuse transport of photons emitted from biolumi...

  14. Nephron Sparing Surgery for Renal Angiomyolipoma with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombus in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Riviere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Angiomyolipoma is a common benign renal tumor. It is associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC in 20% of patients. Angiomyolipomas are classically multiple, bilateral, and growing; they may lead to complications such as Wunderlich syndrome or, in rare cases, to venous extension. Observation. a 74-year-old woman with TSC presented with an angiomyolipoma of the right kidney with inferior vena cava (IVC fatty thrombus. She underwent partial nephrectomy and thrombectomy. After a 7-year follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis and her renal function was preserved. Review of Literature. It is the 44th reported angiomyolipoma associated with IVC thrombus. The mean size of angiomyolipomas was 86.1 mm and 67.4% of patients were symptomatic. Pulmonary embolism was found in 6 patients. There were 2 cases of recurrence/metastatic outcome after radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. They were associated with epithelioid form. The mean size of epithelioid tumors was significantly bigger than in classical angiomyolipomas (127.1 mm versus 82.6 mm, P=0.037. With a median follow-up of 12 months, 91.3% of patients were recurrence and metastasis free, with 3 cases of nephron sparing surgery. Conclusion. Nephron sparing surgery for angiomyolipoma with IVC fatty thrombus can be safely performed in TSC, even in sporadic angiomyolipoma.

  15. Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility and limits in performing tomographic bioluminescence imaging with a combined optical-PET (OPET) system were explored by simulating its image formation process. A micro-MRI based virtual mouse phantom was assigned appropriate tissue optical properties to each of its segmented internal organs at wavelengths spanning the emission spectrum of the firefly luciferase at 37 deg. C. The TOAST finite-element code was employed to simulate the diffuse transport of photons emitted from bioluminescence sources in the mouse. OPET measurements were simulated for single-point, two-point and distributed bioluminescence sources located in different organs such as the liver, the kidneys and the gut. An expectation maximization code was employed to recover the intensity and location of these simulated sources. It was found that spectrally resolved measurements were necessary in order to perform tomographic bioluminescence imaging. The true location of emission sources could be recovered if the mouse background optical properties were known a priori. The assumption of a homogeneous optical property background proved inadequate for describing photon transport in optically heterogeneous tissues and led to inaccurate source localization in the reconstructed images. The simulation results pointed out specific methodological challenges that need to be addressed before a practical implementation of OPET-based bioluminescence tomography is achieved

  16. Multifocal renal angiomyolipoma presenting as massive intraabdominal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwaha Rashmi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipomata of the kidney are unusual lesions composed of abnormal thick walled blood vessels, smooth muscle and adipose elements. These are asymptomatic and occasionally present with flank pain, a palpable mass or gross hematuria. They may be associated with tuberous sclerosis. The risk of bleeding is increased with size, and lesions greater than 4 cm have more than 50% chance of significant bleeding. An unusual case of multifocal renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis and presenting as massive intra abdominal hemorrhage is reported.

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation of Large Renal Angiomyolipoma: Median-Term Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To study the feasibility of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of large angiomyolipomas (AMLs) using saline-cooled electrodes. Materials and Methods. Institutional Review Board approval for the study was received. Four patients (all female, age range 33–67 years) with large AMLs (maximal axis 6.1–32.4 cm) not suitable for embolotherapy or surgery consented to a trial of RFA. Procedures were performed under computerized tomographic guidance using 14G saline-infused electrodes. Two ablations (diameter 4–7 cm) were undertaken in each patient. Variables studied were technical success, treatment safety, alteration of tumor consistency, tumor size, effect on renal function, and medium-term freedom from haemorrhage. Results. All four patients underwent successful RFA without any intraprocedural complications. There has been no haemorrhage, or new renal specific symptom, during a minimum 48-month period, and normal renal function has been normal. On follow-up radiological imaging, the tumors have become fattier with involution of the soft-tissue elements (soft tissue–to–total tumor ratio decreased mean [range] of 0.26 [0.14–0.48] to 0.17 [0.04–0.34] U; p = 0.04 [paired Student t test]). Further evidence of treatment effect was the development of a capsule around the ablation zone, but there was no change in overall tumor volume (mean [range] 1,120 [118–2,845] to 1150 [90–3,013] ml; p = 1 [paired Student t test]). Conclusion. RFA of large AMLs is technically feasible using saline-infused electrodes. The soft-tissue elements decreased in volume; the tumors become fattier; and there has been no renal haemorrhage during a 48-month period.

  18. Computed tomographic observations pertinent to intracranial venous thrombotic and occulsive disease in childhood: state of the art, some new data, and hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected topics are discussed and new observations recorded regarding computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of intracranial venous thrombotic and occlusive disease in childhood. High density of the vein of Galen and adjacent venous sinuses (relative to brain) can be seen normally in children. A number of potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis are also disclosed. A case of cavernous sinus thrombosis with abnormal CT changes is included. In addition, the normal CT appearance of the cavernous sinus is described. In some cases, filling defects occur which appear to correlate with normal cranial nerves. An unusual case of venous sinus occlusion by neoplasm (sarcoma) is presented. Finally, new findings in the Sturge-Weber syndrome are analyzed. Enhancement of the brain in this condition may have its basis in altered circulation resulting from fundamental venous abnormalities

  19. Pseudoaneurysm After Spontaneous Rupture of Renal Angiomyolipoma in Tuberous Sclerosis: Successful Treatment with Percutaneous Thrombin Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a large perinephric pseudoaneurysm due to spontaneous rupture of renal angiomyolipoma, occluded by percutaneous thrombin injection under ultrasound guidance in a young woman affected by tuberous sclerosis

  20. Tomographic image via background subtraction using an x-ray projection image and a priori computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilovoltage x-ray projection images (kV images for brevity) are increasingly available in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for patient positioning. These images are two-dimensional (2D) projections of a three-dimensional (3D) object along the x-ray beam direction. Projecting a 3D object onto a plane may lead to ambiguities in the identification of anatomical structures and to poor contrast in kV images. Therefore, the use of kV images in IGRT is mainly limited to bony landmark alignments. This work proposes a novel subtraction technique that isolates a slice of interest (SOI) from a kV image with the assistance of a priori information from a previous CT scan. The method separates structural information within a preselected SOI by suppressing contributions to the unprocessed projection from out-of-SOI-plane structures. Up to a five-fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) was observed in selected regions of the isolated SOI, when compared to the original unprocessed kV image. The tomographic image via background subtraction (TIBS) technique aims to provide a quick snapshot of the slice of interest with greatly enhanced image contrast over conventional kV x-ray projections for fast and accurate image guidance of radiation therapy. With further refinements, TIBS could, in principle, provide real-time tumor localization using gantry-mounted x-ray imaging systems without the need for implanted markers.

  1. Polycythemia vera as a presentation of renal angiomyolipoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Ming-Shyan; Hung Yu-Shin; Wu Hsueh-Hua; Kuo Ming-Chung; Shiu Tzu-Fang; Chuang Cheng-Keng; Shih Lee-Yung; Chu Pao-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Angiomyolipoma is a common benign renal tumor composed of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and adipose tissue. It may be found incidentally during workup for suspected renal disease. Although angiomyolipoma may present as a palpable, tender renal mass with flank pain and gross or microscopic hematuria, many patients are asymptomatic. Erythrocytosis is an unusual presentation, and malignant transformation may be suspected. This report describes a rare case of a ...

  2. Malignant renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma associated with abdominopelvic hydatid cysts: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi, Youssef; Znati, Kaoutar; Iken, Ali; Bernoussi, Zakiya; Zouaidia, Fouad; Jahid, Ahmed; Nouini, Yassine; Mahassini, Najat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization defines epithelioid angiomyolipoma as a potentially malignant mesenchymal neoplasm characterized by proliferation of predominantly epithelioid cells and as closely related to the triphasic (classic) angiomyolipoma. It can be benign, potentially aggressive or malignant. The pathologist's role is crucial in making a positive diagnosis, providing appropriate patient management and assessing prognosis. In this report, we present a case of a patient with ...

  3. Management of a renal calculus larger than 4 cm in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated angiomyolipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Koichi; Takase, Yasukazu; Motoi, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    Renal calculi in patients with renal angiomyolipomas are difficult to treat because of the hemorrhagic potential of these tumors. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man having tuberous sclerosis complex-associated multifocal renal angiomyolipomas with a large renal calculus. The patient presented with left flank dullness and a previous history of spontaneous angiomyolipoma rupture. Intravenous pyelography revealed a 43 × 16 mm calculus in the pelvis and lower calyx of the left kidney. The ...

  4. Detection and assessment of circle of Willis aneurysms in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage with three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography: correlation with digital substraction angiography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P H; Yang, C F; Pan, H B; Chen, C; Ho, J T; Hsu, S S

    1999-10-01

    In this retrospective study, we examined the usefulness of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for the detection and assessment of circle of Willis aneurysms in patients with acute nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), using selective digital substraction angiography (DSA) as the gold standard. Thirty-five patients who presented with acute, nontraumatic SAH, diagnosed on the basis of unenhanced computed tomography or lumbar puncture findings or both, underwent both CTA and DSA. The CTA images were interpreted for the presence, location, size, and shape of the aneurysm, presence of a neck, and relationship of the aneurysm to adjacent arterial branches. The CTA and DSA images were then compared, with the latter images serving as the gold standard. DSA revealed 37 aneurysms in 32 patients and ruled out intracranial aneurysms in the remaining three. The sensitivity and specificity of CTA for aneurysm detection were 97% and 100%, respectively. The size of the smallest aneurysm shown was 4 mm, and the largest aneurysm was 21 mm. The size and lobularity of the aneurysms estimated from CTA images corresponded well with those estimated from DSA images. In addition, CTA provided a three-dimensional representation of the aneurysmal lesion, which was considered useful for surgical planning. Our results confirm the accuracy of CTA in comparison with DSA. Because of its reliability, minimal invasiveness, and rapidity, CTA may become the technique of choice for neuroradiologic work-up of SAH patients. DSA then would be used to diagnose intracranial aneurysms only in selected, questionable cases. PMID:10575836

  5. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric and computed tomographic features of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana (Iguana iguana), black and white tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, T; Selleri, P; Veladiano, I A; Zotti, A

    2013-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic studies of the coelomic cavity in four green iguanas, four black and white tegus and four bearded dragons were performed using a conventional CT scanner. Anatomical reference cross sections were obtained from four green iguana, four black and white tegu and six bearded dragon cadavers; the specimens were stored in a -20°C freezer for 24 h then sliced into 5-mm intervals. The frozen sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. The individual anatomical structures were identified by means of the available literature; these were labelled first on the anatomical images and then matched to the corresponding computed tomography images. The results provide an atlas of the normal cross-sectional and computed tomographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in the green iguana, the black and white tegu and the bearded dragon, which is useful in the interpretation of any imaging modality. PMID:23410482

  6. Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver: Cross-sectional imaging findings of 10 immunohistochemically-verified cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengJu Xu; Yan Shan; Fu-Hua Yan; Yuan Ji; Ying Ding; Mei-Lin Zhou

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging features of epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver (Epi-HAML), with pathology as a reference. METHODS: The CT/MRI findings (number, diameter,lobar location, and appearance of lesions) in a series of 10 patients with 12 pathologically proven epithelioid angiomyolipomas of the liver were retrospectively analyzed. The imaging features, including attenuation/signal intensity characteristics, presence of fat,hypervascular, outer rim, and vessels within lesion,were evaluated and compared with that of non-Epi-HAML in 11 patients (13 lesions). The Fisher exact test was used to compare difference in probability of imaging features between the two types.RESULTS: For 21 patients, CT images of 15 patients and MR images of six patients were available. No patient underwent two examinations. For the 15 patients with a CT scan, all HAML lesions in the two groups (10 Epi-HAML and seven non-Epi-HAML) manifested as hypoattenuation. For the six patients with MRI, all lesions (two Epi-HAML and six non-Epi-HAML) were hypointense on T1WI (fat suppression) and hyperintense on T2WI. There were 10 non-Epi-HAML,but only two Epi-HAML lesions showed the presence of fat, which significantly different between the two types (P = 0.005). On the dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) imaging, eight Epi-HAML, and 13 non-Epi lesions manifested as hypervascular. Punctate or curved vessels were displayed in 10 Epi-HAML as well as in nine non-Epi lesions and outer rim enhancement could be found with eight Epi-HAML as well as six non-Epi lesions.CONCLUSION: Little or no presence of adipose tissue was found to be an imaging feature of Epi-HAML, compared with the non-Epi type. In addition,hypervascularity with opacification of central punctiform or filiform vessels on DCE would be a characteristic enhancement pattern for Epi-HAML.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of early computed tomographic angiography for visualizing medium sized inferior and posterior projecting carotid system aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional angiography, generally referred to as intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, still remains the gold standard reference method for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms, helical computed tomography angiography is a new non-invasive volumetric imaging method. Objectives: This study was conducted to screen patients presenting with subarachnoid-hemorrhage by computed tomography angiography before conventional digital subtraction angiography and subsequently comparing the results for various aneurysm projections. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study, 99 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage were screened for aneurysms with computed tomography angiography followed by conventional digital subtraction angiography. There were 17 cases with negative angiograms in whom repeat angiograms, three months later were negative for 15 cases, while two cases were found to bear aneurysm on the repeat examination. Eighty two patients had at least one proven aneurysm on initial digital subtraction angiography and two on the repeat angiogram. Out of 84 patients, five underwent endovascular treatment and 79 patients who underwent surgical clipping were considered for projection evaluation. Results: Sensitivity of computed tomography angiography was 98.78percent(95percentconfidence interval [CI], 93.4-99.7percent), while the specificity was 100percent(95percentCI,81.57-100percent) and the kappa coefficient of agreement between computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography was 96.5percent. The most significant discrepancies with digital subtraction angiography findings were for visualizing the projection of inferior and posterior projecting proximal anterior circulation aneurysms. Conclusions: Helical computed tomography angiography was in good concordance with digital subtraction angiography for screening of cerebral aneurysms; however, for exact visualization of the aneurysm neck and its projection

  8. A unique case of Turner syndrome accompanying prolactinoma and unexpected elongated styloid process: Clinical and cone-beam computed tomographic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Ufuk; Yazicioglu, Iffet; Evlice, Ahmet; Oztunc, Haluk

    2013-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, with an estimated frequency among female live births of 1/2,000-3,000. The syndrome is characterized by the partial or complete absence of one X chromosome (45,X karyotype). We reported a unique case of a 40-year-old woman with TS accompanying unexpected elongated styloid process specific to Eagle syndrome (ES) and followed up-prolactinoma. The present article is the first report to define the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) features of TS accompanying ES. Patients with TS carry various risks that make treatment more complicated; thus advanced imaging techniques for proper treatment and follow-up are extremely important. In the light of CBCT examination, craniofacial abnormalities specific to TS and accompanying syndromes such as the crowding of teeth especially in the maxillary anterior region caused by maxillary narrowness, micrognatic maxilla and mandible, relative mandibular retrusion, malocclusion, open-bite, and an elongated styloid process (length of 32.7 mm) on the right side were illustrated in detail. PMID:23807938

  9. Clinical indications for computed tomographic colonography: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) Guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. CRC screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality [3, 4], and is currently used in several European countries. Colonoscopy is highly effective for detecting advanced neoplasia, and endoscopic polypectomy reduces subsequent CRCspecific incidence and mortality [5]. In Europe, colonoscopy is mainly used to investigate FOBT-positive or symptomatic patients, or as a preventive strategy in those with increased CRC risk [6]. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive imaging technique that is highly accurate for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous polyps. The technique is standardized [7], and CTC is more easily performed than barium enema. Evidence-based data suggest that CTC is the natural replacement for barium enema and a complementary rather than an alternative examination to colonoscopy. However, the clinical scenarios for which CTC is indicated remain unclear. To address this uncertainty - 20 years after the first presentation of CTC at a radiological meeting [8] - the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) decided to produce a common guideline regarding indications for CTC in clinical practice. Technical and quality issues of CTC have been deliberately excluded from this work as these have already been discussed separately [7].

  10. Differences in clinical features and computed tomographic findings between embolic and non-embolic acute ischemic stroke. A quantitative differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Minematsu, Kazuo; Sawada, Tohru; Omae, Teruo [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    A diagnosis based on the presumed mechanism of stroke onset is useful for management strategies in acute ischemic stroke. Ninety-two patients with embolic (cardiac or artery-to-artery) and 107 with non-embolic (thrombotic or hemodynamic) stroke were diagnosed on strict cerebral angiographic criteria alone. To clearly discriminate between these two groups, the neurological and computed tomographic (CT) findings were then compared. Rapidity of onset, vomiting, urinary incontinence, level of consciousness, cervical bruit, anisocoria, tongue deviation, sensory disturbance, and CT findings (location of hypodense area, findings of brain edema and hemorrhagic transformation) were discriminatory factors between the two groups (p<0.01). According to these 11 items, we prepared a numerical table for quantitative differential diagnosis. A diagnostic accuracy of 98.9% for embolic and 87.9% for non-embolic stroke in internal verification, and 90.0% and 82.9%, respectively, in external verification was observed. The differences in clinical features and CT findings between embolic and non-embolic stroke may reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of the occlusive process of cerebral artery as well as the extent and severity of ischemia. (author)

  11. Clinical indications for computed tomographic colonography: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spada, Cristiano; Barbaro, Federico; Petruzziello, Lucio [Catholic University, Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Stoker, Jaap; Haan, Margriet C. de [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alarcon, Onofre [Universidad de La Laguna, Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Facultad de Medicina, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea [Sapienza University of Rome, I.C.O.T. Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Bretthauer, Michael [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Health Economy and Health Management, University of Oslo, and Department of Transplantation Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, Oslo (Norway); Dumonceau, Jean-Marc [Gedyt Endoscopy Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferlitsch, Monika [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vienna (Austria); Halligan, Steve; Helbren, Emma; Plumb, Andrew; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hellstrom, Mikael [Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kuipers, Ernst J. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lefere, Philippe [Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Hooglede (Belgium); AZ Delta, Roeselare (Belgium); Mang, Thomas [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Neri, Emanuele [University of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Regge, Daniele [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo-Torino (Italy); Hassan, Cesare [Catholic University, Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Rome (Italy); Ospedale Nuovo Regina Margherita, Department of Gastroenterology, Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. CRC screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality [3, 4], and is currently used in several European countries. Colonoscopy is highly effective for detecting advanced neoplasia, and endoscopic polypectomy reduces subsequent CRCspecific incidence and mortality [5]. In Europe, colonoscopy is mainly used to investigate FOBT-positive or symptomatic patients, or as a preventive strategy in those with increased CRC risk [6]. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive imaging technique that is highly accurate for detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous polyps. The technique is standardized [7], and CTC is more easily performed than barium enema. Evidence-based data suggest that CTC is the natural replacement for barium enema and a complementary rather than an alternative examination to colonoscopy. However, the clinical scenarios for which CTC is indicated remain unclear. To address this uncertainty - 20 years after the first presentation of CTC at a radiological meeting [8] - the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) decided to produce a common guideline regarding indications for CTC in clinical practice. Technical and quality issues of CTC have been deliberately excluded from this work as these have already been discussed separately [7].

  12. Differences in clinical features and computed tomographic findings between embolic and non-embolic acute ischemic stroke. A quantitative differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnosis based on the presumed mechanism of stroke onset is useful for management strategies in acute ischemic stroke. Ninety-two patients with embolic (cardiac or artery-to-artery) and 107 with non-embolic (thrombotic or hemodynamic) stroke were diagnosed on strict cerebral angiographic criteria alone. To clearly discriminate between these two groups, the neurological and computed tomographic (CT) findings were then compared. Rapidity of onset, vomiting, urinary incontinence, level of consciousness, cervical bruit, anisocoria, tongue deviation, sensory disturbance, and CT findings (location of hypodense area, findings of brain edema and hemorrhagic transformation) were discriminatory factors between the two groups (p<0.01). According to these 11 items, we prepared a numerical table for quantitative differential diagnosis. A diagnostic accuracy of 98.9% for embolic and 87.9% for non-embolic stroke in internal verification, and 90.0% and 82.9%, respectively, in external verification was observed. The differences in clinical features and CT findings between embolic and non-embolic stroke may reflect the pathophysiological mechanisms of the occlusive process of cerebral artery as well as the extent and severity of ischemia. (author)

  13. Computed tomographic virtual intraarterial endoscopy after intravscular stent implantation: Phantom study and clinical assessment; CT-gestuetzte virtuelle intaarterielle Endoskopie nach Stentimplantation: Phantomstudien und erste klinische Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenwaldt, J. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik 1, Klinikum der Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Kopka, L. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik 1, Klinikum der Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Lotfi, S. [Abt. Thorax-, Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie, Klinikum der Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Grabbe, E. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik 1, Klinikum der Univ. Goettingen (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the facilities of computed tomographic virtual intraarterial endoscopy (VIE). Imaging of an intravascular stent in a phantom study and clinical assessment in 10 patients. Methods: The optimal scan parameters for different 3 D reconstructions (MIP, SSD, VIE) were determined in a vessel phantom with intravascular stent. Furthermore, in vitro stenoses were analysed and initial in vivo investigations were performed. Results: The quality of CT-angiography (CTA) depended on the scanning parameters. VIE allowed the reconstruction of the intravascular surface of a stent. Conclusion: VIE is a new kind of post-processing CTA reconstruction. It permits the visualisation of the intravascular structure of a stent. In vitro relevant stenoses were correctly detected. First clinical investigations support these results. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Anhand von Phantomstudien und von klinischen Untersuchungen soll die Wertigkeit der virtuellen intraarteriellen Endoskopie (VIE) fuer die Bildgebung von Stentimplantaten geprueft werden. Methoden: An einem Gefaessphantom mit implantiertem Stent wurden die optimalen Untersuchungsparameter fuer diverse dreidimensionale Rekonstruktionen (MIP, SSD, VIE) bestimmt. Zusaetzlich wurden verschiedene Experimentelle Stenosegrade dargestellt und erste Patientenuntersuchungen im Rahmen der Nachsorge nach Stenteinlage durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Die Qualitaet der CT-Angiographie (CTA) war entscheidend von der Wahl der Scanparameter abhaengig. Die VIE war in der Lage, die endoluminaeren Oberflaechen einer Stentstrecke darzustellen, die das Metallgitter der Stents ueberziehen. Schlussfolgerung: Die VIE stellt ein neues Nachverarbeitungsverfahren der CTA dar, welches erstmalig eine direkte Beurteilung des Gefaesslumens nach Stentimplantation zulaesst. Therapierelevante Stenosen konnten in vitro sicher nachgewiesen werden. Erste klinische Untersuchungen stuetzen diese Ergebnisse. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomographic angiography of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis based on volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral imaging display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiong; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Anhong; Huang, Yanping; Deng, Xuefei

    2015-12-01

    As damage to the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis may create catastrophic complications even after successful surgery, it is important to visualize and determine the normal features of the venous anastomosis with computed tomographic angiography. A total of 90 patients underwent a 64-detector row helical CT scan of head. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis was reconstructed by volume rendering, multi-planar reconstruction, and integral display algorithm. In particular, we examined the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian, in order to analyze the venous anastomosis. The superficial cerebral venous anastomosis varied across different individuals, and in this study, six types of anastomosis were found. In 28 % of patients, no venous anastomosis was found in the unilateral cerebral hemisphere. The display rate of the vein of Trolard, the vein of Labbe, and the vein of Sylvian in contributing to venous anastomosis was 70, 80, and 91 %, respectively. The number of vein of Trolard and vein of Labbe on the left side was greater than that of those on the right side. We implemented the 64-detector row helical CT as a rapid and noninvasive method to investigate the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis in our group of patients. We performed substantial image processing for the visualization of the superficial cerebral venous anastomosis; this would not only enable the early diagnosis of cerebral venous disease, but also protect the cerebral vein during neurosurgical intervention. PMID:26577709

  15. A unique case of Turner syndrome accompanying prolactinoma and unexpected elongated styloid process: Clinical and cone-beam computed tomographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evlice, Burcu; Tatli, Ufuk; Yazicioglu, Iffet; Oztunc, Haluk [Faculty of Dentistry, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey); Evlice, Ahmet [Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, with an estimated frequency among female live births of 1/2,000-3,000. The syndrome is characterized by the partial or complete absence of one X chromosome (45,X karyotype). We reported a unique case of a 40-year-old woman with TS accompanying unexpected elongated styloid process specific to Eagle syndrome (ES) and followed up-prolactinoma. The present article is the first report to define the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) features of TS accompanying ES. Patients with TS carry various risks that make treatment more complicated; thus advanced imaging techniques for proper treatment and follow-up are extremely important. In the light of CBCT examination, craniofacial abnormalities specific to TS and accompanying syndromes such as the crowding of teeth especially in the maxillary anterior region caused by maxillary narrowness, micrognatic maxilla and mandible, relative mandibular retrusion, malocclusion, open-bite, and an elongated styloid process (length of 32.7 mm) on the right side were illustrated in detail.

  16. Radiofrequency ablation of small symptomatic angiomyolipomas of the kidney: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The development of more sensitive imaging techniques caused an increase in the number of diagnosed small renal tumors. The small size of the lesions allows for their treatment with minimally invasive nephron-sparing methods. Approximately 2 - 3% of these lesions are proved to be angiomyolipomas (AML). AML is a rare benign tumor of the kidney, sometimes causing pain and hematuria. The most commonly required approach is observation but in case of recurrent symptoms or larger tumors which may cause bleeding, a more active treatment is needed. This paper demonstrated the evolution of our attitude leading to utilization of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as a minimally invasive option in the management of small symptomatic AMLs of the kidneys. Material/Methods: We presented clinical data of two cases of symptomatic AML tumors in the kidney, treated with RFA. The tumors were diagnosed on the basis of a contrast-enhanced CT (computed tomography) scan. The probe was inserted into the lesion percutaneously under USG (ultrasonography) guidance. Results: RFA proved to be an effective and safe method of treatment of renal AMLs. A follow-up carried out after 1.5 and 3 years, basing on contrast-enhanced CT tests, confirmed a complete ablation of the AML and decreased tumor size. Conclusions: Promising results of RFA in the management of AML may encourage urologists and radiologists to use this minimally invasive technology and to qualify patients for this treatment more often and thus to prevent potential complications in the future. (authors)

  17. Polycythemia vera as a presentation of renal angiomyolipoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ming-Shyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Angiomyolipoma is a common benign renal tumor composed of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and adipose tissue. It may be found incidentally during workup for suspected renal disease. Although angiomyolipoma may present as a palpable, tender renal mass with flank pain and gross or microscopic hematuria, many patients are asymptomatic. Erythrocytosis is an unusual presentation, and malignant transformation may be suspected. This report describes a rare case of a woman diagnosed with renal angiomyolipoma and polycythemia vera. The report discusses the differential diagnosis using erythropoietin, erythropoietin-receptor and Janus kinase 2. Case presentation A 79-year-old Chinese woman was diagnosed with erythrocytosis according to World Health Organization criteria. An upper left renal pole angiomyolipoma was successfully ablated after multiple phlebotomy treatments. Red cell count immediately returned to normal, but gradually increased after 4 months. Polycythemia vera was finally diagnosed by positive mutation of Janus kinase 2 and negative erythropoietin protein expression. Her clinical symptoms improved with regular phlebotomy and hydroxyurea treatment. Conclusion Concurrent occurence of angiomyolipoma and polycythemia vera is rare. Polycythemia vera can be easily missed. Polycythemia vera can be confirmed with high specificity and sensitivity by the acquired somatic mutation. Surgical intervention for this renal tumor should be avoided unless malignancy or renal cell carcinoma is suspected or to prevent spontaneous rupture of larger tumors.

  18. The Role of Partial Nephrectomy without Arterial Embolization in Giant Renal Angiomyolipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Rauf Coskuner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipoma is a benign neoplasm composed of varying admixtures of blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and adipose tissue. Because of an increased risk of spontaneous haemorrhage, surgical approach is needed greater than 4–8 cm size. We here report our partial nephrectomy experience in the 24 cm size giant angiomyolipoma. 26-year-old woman referred to our clinic with a 24 cm size angiomyolipoma in her lower pole of right kidney. The inferior vena cava was deviated to the left by the mass. All the blood tests were normal and we offered her the choices of partial nephrectomy or nephrectomy. Right subcostal approach was used. The patient underwent resection of the mass with a safety region of 1 cm. Frozen section evaluation was consistent with angiomyolipoma and free for surgical margin. Warm ischemia time was 35 min. and intraoperative bleeding volume was 200 cc. Postoperative 2nd day the drain was taken and hospital stay was 4 days. In literature we observed very rare angiomyolipoma cases with such a large dimension treated by partial nephrectomy without arterial embolization. If technically suitable partial nephrectomy is the main chioce in this kind of benign lesions in young patients.

  19. The Role of Partial Nephrectomy without Arterial Embolization in Giant Renal Angiomyolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskuner, Enis Rauf; Ozkan, Burak; Yalcin, Veli

    2012-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma is a benign neoplasm composed of varying admixtures of blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and adipose tissue. Because of an increased risk of spontaneous haemorrhage, surgical approach is needed greater than 4-8 cm size. We here report our partial nephrectomy experience in the 24 cm size giant angiomyolipoma. 26-year-old woman referred to our clinic with a 24 cm size angiomyolipoma in her lower pole of right kidney. The inferior vena cava was deviated to the left by the mass. All the blood tests were normal and we offered her the choices of partial nephrectomy or nephrectomy. Right subcostal approach was used. The patient underwent resection of the mass with a safety region of 1 cm. Frozen section evaluation was consistent with angiomyolipoma and free for surgical margin. Warm ischemia time was 35 min. and intraoperative bleeding volume was 200 cc. Postoperative 2nd day the drain was taken and hospital stay was 4 days. In literature we observed very rare angiomyolipoma cases with such a large dimension treated by partial nephrectomy without arterial embolization. If technically suitable partial nephrectomy is the main chioce in this kind of benign lesions in young patients. PMID:22536263

  20. Correlative multiple porosimetries for reservoir sandstones with adoption of a new reference-sample-guided computed-tomographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Junho; Lee, Jeong-Yil; Oh, Young Min

    2016-07-01

    One of the main interests in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering is to quantify the porosity of reservoir beds as accurately as possible. A variety of direct measurements, including methods of mercury intrusion, helium injection and petrographic image analysis, have been developed; however, their application frequently yields equivocal results because these methods are different in theoretical bases, means of measurement, and causes of measurement errors. Here, we present a set of porosities measured in Berea Sandstone samples by the multiple methods, in particular with adoption of a new method using computed tomography and reference samples. The multiple porosimetric data show a marked correlativeness among different methods, suggesting that these methods are compatible with each other. The new method of reference-sample-guided computed tomography is more effective than the previous methods when the accompanied merits such as experimental conveniences are taken into account.

  1. Histological and computed tomographic evaluation of a parasitic conjoined twin in hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus [Rafinesque] X Ictalurus furcatus [Lesueur]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C A; Thomas, M W; Cooley, A J; Waldbieser, G C; Bosworth, B G; Torrans, E L; Khoo, L H

    2014-06-01

    There is growing use of hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus ♀ X Ictalurus furcatus ♂) in commercial aquaculture to utilize hybrid vigour to improve production A conjoined twin specimen found during the course of production studies by the United States Department of Agriculture Catfish Genetic Research Unit (USDA-CGRU) was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL). After preliminary inspection, it was transported to Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine for further evaluation. The specimen was examined using both computed radiography and computed tomography antemortem. Following humane euthanasia, the specimen was examined both grossly and histologically. Tissues from both fish were also submitted for genetic analysis to determine whether twins were derived from the same egg. This report records the presentation and examination of a pair of conjoined hybrid catfish (I. punctatus X Ictalurus furcatus). PMID:23991936

  2. Correlative multiple porosimetries for reservoir sandstones with adoption of a new reference-sample-guided computed-tomographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jae Hwa; Kim, Junho; Lee, Jeong-Yil; Oh, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    One of the main interests in petroleum geology and reservoir engineering is to quantify the porosity of reservoir beds as accurately as possible. A variety of direct measurements, including methods of mercury intrusion, helium injection and petrographic image analysis, have been developed; however, their application frequently yields equivocal results because these methods are different in theoretical bases, means of measurement, and causes of measurement errors. Here, we present a set of porosities measured in Berea Sandstone samples by the multiple methods, in particular with adoption of a new method using computed tomography and reference samples. The multiple porosimetric data show a marked correlativeness among different methods, suggesting that these methods are compatible with each other. The new method of reference-sample-guided computed tomography is more effective than the previous methods when the accompanied merits such as experimental conveniences are taken into account. PMID:27445105

  3. Temporal evaluation of computed tomographic scans at a Level 1 trauma department in a central South African hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Tiemesmann; Jacques Raubenheimer; Coert de Vries

    2016-01-01

    Background: Time is a precious commodity, especially in the trauma setting, which requires continuous evaluation to ensure streamlined service delivery, quality patient care and employee efficiency.Objectives: The present study analyses the authors’ institution’s multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan process as part of the imaging turnaround time of trauma patients. It is intended to serve as a baseline for the institution, to offer a comparison with institutions worldwide and to imp...

  4. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    W Matthew Leevy; Steven Gerstler; Raghuraman Kannan; Chapaman, Sarah E.; Sasser, Todd A.; Bernadette Miramontes; Tony van Avermaete; Wathen, Connor A.; Nathan Foje

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphat...

  5. Downstream Testing and Subsequent Procedures After Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Following Coronary Stenting in Patients ≥65 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Mudrick, Daniel; Kaltenbach, Lisa A.; Shah, Bimal; Lytle, Barbara; Masoudi, Frederick A; Mark, Daniel B.; Federspiel, Jerome J.; Cowper, Patricia A.; Green, Cynthia; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Limited data are available on the use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients who have received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To evaluate patterns of cardiac testing including CCTA after PCI, we created a retrospective observational data set linking the National Cardiovascular Data Registry® CathPCI Registry® baseline data with longitudinal inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims data for patients who received coronary stenting between November 1, 2005 and ...

  6. Radiographic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of a chronic long digital extensor tendon avulsion in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long digital extensor tendon avulsion is reported in a 5 month old Great Dane, Clinically the dog presented with a unilateral weight-bearing pelvic limb lameness, Joint effusion was present and there was pain and crepitance associated with flexion of the stifle, Orthopedic evaluation and radiographs were suggestive of a long digital extensor tendon injury which was confirmed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, The injury was surgically repaired with screw and spikedwasher fixation

  7. Assessment of lung X-ray computed tomographic findings in patients with nonspecific pneumothorax in late postoperative periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are studied of examination of 54 patients operated on for nonspecific spontaneous pneumothorax (NSP). Conclusion is drawn that X-ray computed tomography (CT) is of high value. In addition to external respiratory function that identifies pulmonary functional changes, it is recommended that a comprehensive examination should include X-ray CT with parenchymal densitometry of the upper, middle and lower lung to reveal lung tissue structural changes. The examination of patients should be performed as soon as possible when the disease is detected and in the late postoperative period for early surgical correction of an emphysematous process in the lung

  8. Feature-guided analysis for reduction of false positives in CAD of polyps for computed tomographic colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the effect of our novel technique of feature-guided analysis of polyps on the reduction of false-positive (FP) findings generated by our computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for the detection of polyps from computed tomography colonographic data sets. The detection performance obtained by use of feature-guided analysis in the segmentation and feature analysis of polyp candidates was compared with that obtained by use of our previously employed fuzzy clustering technique. We also evaluated the effect of a feature called modified gradient concentration (MGC) on the detection performance. A total of 144 data sets, representing prone and supine views of 72 patients that included 14 patients with 21 colorectal polyps 5-25 mm in diameter, were used in the evaluation. At a 100% by-patient (95% by-polyp) detection sensitivity, the FP rate of our CAD scheme with feature-guided analysis based on round-robin evaluation was 1.3 (1.5) FP detections per patient. This corresponds to a 70-75 % reduction in the number of FPs obtained by use of fuzzy clustering at the same sensitivity levels. Application of the MGC feature instead of our previously used gradient concentration feature did not improve the detection result. The results indicate that feature-guided analysis is useful for achieving high sensitivity and a low FP rate in our CAD scheme

  9. The Differential Broadens. EUS FNA Appearance and Cytological Findings of Pancreatic Angiomyolipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferga C Gleeson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Angiomyolipoma is a rare tumor characterized histologically by a mixture of spindle cells, adipose tissue, epithelioid cells, and vascular tissue. It usually involves the kidney followed by the liver whereby the majority of affected patients are female, and many cases arise in the setting of tuberous sclerosis.Case report We report a case of a 33-yearold female with an asymptomatic incidental right renal mass suggestive of an angiomyolipoma in conjunction with numerous pancreatic masses. Conclusions The utility of EUS in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is well established. This is the first known reported EUS detection and FNA confirmation of angiomyolipoma metastatic to the pancreas and should now be added to the already broad differential of metastatic pancreatic tumors

  10. Association of achondroplasia with Down syndrome: difficulty in prenatal diagnosis by sonographic and 3-D helical computed tomographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akimune; Murotsuki, Jun; Kamimura, Miki; Kimura, Masato; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Kanno, Junko; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2015-05-01

    Achondroplasia and Down syndrome are relatively common conditions individually. But co-occurrence of both conditions in the same patient is rare and there have been no reports of fetal analysis of this condition by prenatal sonographic and three-dimensional (3-D) helical computed tomography (CT). Prenatal sonographic findings seen in persons with Down syndrome, such as a thickened nuchal fold, cardiac defects, and echogenic bowel were not found in the patient. A prenatal 3-D helical CT revealed a large head with frontal bossing, metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, and small iliac wings, which suggested achondroplasia. In a case with combination of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, it may be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence prenatally without typical markers of Down syndrome. PMID:25385298

  11. Use of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings to Modify Statin and Aspirin Prescription in Patients With Acute Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursnani, Amit; Celeng, Csilla; Schlett, Christopher L; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Zakroysky, Pearl; Lee, Hang; Ferencik, Maros; Fleg, Jerome L; Bamberg, Fabian; Wiviott, Stephen D; Truong, Quynh A; Udelson, James E; Nagurney, John T; Hoffmann, Udo

    2016-02-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is used in patients with low-intermediate chest pain presenting to the emergency department for its reliability in excluding acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, its influence on medication modification in this setting is unclear. We sought to determine whether knowledge of CCTA-based coronary artery disease (CAD) was associated with change in statin and aspirin prescription. We used the CCTA arm of the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computed Angiographic Tomography II multicenter, randomized control trial (R-II) and comparison cohort from the observational Rule Out Myocardial Infarction using Computed Angiographic Tomography I cohort (R-I). In R-II, subjects were randomly assigned to CCTA to guide decision making, whereas in R-I patients underwent CCTA with results blinded to caregivers and managed according to standard care. Our final cohort consisted of 277 subjects from R-I and 370 from R-II. ACS rate was similar (6.9% vs 6.2% respectively, p = 0.75). For subjects with CCTA-detected obstructive CAD without ACS, initiation of statin was significantly greater after disclosure of CCTA results (0% in R-I vs 20% in R-II, p = 0.009). Conversely, for subjects without CCTA-detected CAD, aspirin prescription was lower with disclosure of CCTA results (16% in R-I vs 4.8% in R-II, p = 0.001). However, only 68% of subjects in R-II with obstructive CAD were discharged on statin and 65% on aspirin. In conclusion, physician knowledge of CCTA results leads to improved alignment of aspirin and statin with the presence and severity of CAD although still many patients with CCTA-detected CAD are not discharged on aspirin or statin. Our findings suggest opportunity for practice improvement when CCTA is performed in the emergency department. PMID:26762723

  12. Computed tomographic analysis of tibiotarsal bone mineral density and content in turkeys as influenced by age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of tibiotarsal bones of growing turkeys as affected by birds' age, sex, and within-the-bone location, respectively, were determined by computed tomography. The research was performed on 165 heavy-type BIG 6 turkeys reared between weeks (wk) 3-16 of age. The computed tomography measurement, conducted at 18 and 50% of the bone length, comprised a bone fragment which was 0.07 mm thick for the compact and the spongious substance collectively. It should be noted that the diaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones in turkeys (580 mg/cubic cm) had significantly greater vBMD than the proximal metaphyses (300 mg/cubic cm). BMC was higher in metaphyses for both sexes. Significant differences between the BMC of the metaphyses and the diaphyses were observed in males and females at wk 3, 6 and 9, and at wk 3 and 12, respectively. vBMD in the diaphyses gradually attenuated with age for both sexes, from 688 mg/cubic cm (wk 3) to 532 mg/cubic cm (wk 16). vBMD of the metaphyses was constant in females, but in males it achieved maximum values of 350 mg/cubic cm at wk 6 and 12 and minimum of 260 mg/cubic cm at wk 9 and 16. Correlations between body weight and vBMD of the diaphyses were observed in males (r = -0.85, P less than 0.001) and females (r = -0.52, P less than 0.01). It can be concluded that vBMD loss in diaphyses diminished bone-breaking strength leading in investigated turkeys to deformities and bone fractures

  13. Inflammatory angiomyolipoma of the liver: a rare hepatic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Angiomyolipoma (AML is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the tumor, composed of a varying heterogeneous mixture of three tissue components: blood vessels, smooth muscle and adipose cells. Hepatic AML may demonstrate a marked histological diversity. We herein present one case of hepatic AML exhibiting prominent inflammatory cells in the background, which happened in a 61-year-old Chinese female patient, without signs of tuberous sclerosis. Histologically, the striking feature was the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells in the background, including small lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosnophils. The tumor cells were spindled and histiocytoid in shape, with slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, and arranged along the vessels or scattered among the inflammatory background. Sinusoid structure was obviously seen in the tumor. Mature adipocytes and thick-walled blood vessels were focally observed at the boundaries between the tumor and surrounding liver tissues. The tumor cells were positive immunostaining for HMB-45, Melan-A, and smooth muscle actin. The inflammatory AML should be distinguished from other tumors with inflammatory background such as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and follicular dendritic cell tumor and deserves wider recognition for its occurrence as a primary hepatic tumor. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1828633072762370

  14. Pericyte antigens in angiomyolipoma and PEComa family tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A; Asatrian, Greg; Barnhill, Raymond; Lugassy, Claire; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W

    2015-08-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are an uncommon family of soft tissue tumors with dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. Although PEComa family tumors commonly demonstrate a perivascular growth pattern, pericyte antigen expression has not yet been examined among this unique tumor group. Previously, we demonstrated that a subset of perivascular soft tissue tumors exhibit a striking pericytic immunophenotype, with diffuse expression of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Here, we describe the presence of pericyte antigens across a diverse group of PEComa family tumors (n = 19 specimens). Results showed that pericyte antigens differed extensively by histological appearance. Typical angiomyolipoma (AML) specimens showed variable expression of pericyte antigens among both perivascular and myoid-appearing cells. In contrast, AML specimens with a predominant spindled morphology showed diffuse expression of pericyte markers, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. AML samples with predominant epithelioid morphology showed a marked reduction in or the absence of immunoreactivity for pericyte markers. Lymphangiomyoma samples showed more variable and partial pericyte marker expression. In summary, pericyte antigen expression is variable among PEComa family tumors and largely varies by tumor morphology. Pericytic marker expression in PEComa may represent a true pericytic cell of origin, or alternatively aberrant pericyte marker adoption. Markers of pericytic differentiation may be of future diagnostic utility for the evaluation of mesenchymal tumors, or identify actionable signaling pathways for future therapeutic intervention. PMID:26123600

  15. Strong association of HMB-45 expression with renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign neoplasm consisting of varying mixtures of smooth muscle, blood vessels and fat. Although, most of these tumors are easy to recognize, some may pose a diagnostic dilemma due to unusual histologic features. Recently, it was suggested that melanosome-associated protein (HMB-45) immunoreactivity may be used for diagnostic confirmation of several neoplasm. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of HMB-45 in patients with AML. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey, during the period January 2000 to September 2003. HMB-45 immunoreactivity was analyzed in 6 patients with AML and in 34 patients with other renal and retroperitoneal pathologies, including 10 nephrectomized patients for non-neoplastic reasons by means of immunohistochemistry. Patients with AML were positive for HMB-45. Whereas, HMB-45 immunoreactivity was negative in all of the histologic specimens from the patients with renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal sarcomas, Wilms tumor, lipoma, leiomyoma, and nephrectomized kidneys of non-neoplastic reason. The association of AML with HMB-45 immunoreactivity was highly significant (p<0.001). Our findings suggest that HMB-45 may not be a melanocyte-restricted marker, and can be useful in differential diagnosis between AML and other tumors seen in kidney and retroperitoneal region. (author)

  16. Anatomical, radiographical and computed tomographic study of the limbs skeleton of the Euphrates soft shell turtle (Rafetus euphraticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Ahranjani, Behnaz; Shojaei, Bahador; Tootian, Zahra; Masoudifard, Madjid; Rostami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Euphrates turtle is the only soft shell turtle of Iran, and unfortunately is in danger of extinction due to multiple reasons. Imaging techniques, in addition to their importance in diagnosis of injuries to animals, have been used as non-invasive methods to provide normal anatomic views. A few studies have been conducted to understand body structure of the Euphrates turtle. Since there is only general information about the anatomy of turtle limbs, the normal skeleton of the Euphrates limbs was studied. For this purpose four adult Euphrates turtles were used. Digital radiographic examination was performed by computed radiographic (CR) in dorsoventral (DV) and lateral (L) positions. Spiral CT-scanning was done and 3D images of the bones were reconstructed for anatomical evaluation. For skeletal preparation, the skeleton was cleaned by a combination of boiling and mealworm methods and limbs’ bones were examined anatomically. In the present study, simultaneous anatomic, radiographic and CT studies of bones in individual turtles made us possible to describe bones anatomically and provided comparable and complementary conditions to represent the abilities of the radiography and CT for better understanding of the anatomy. Arrangement and the number of carpal and tarsal bones are used in turtles’ classification. Among the studied species, Euphrates turtle carpal and tarsal bones show the most similarities to the Apolone spinifera.

  17. Computed tomographic coronary angiography for diagnosing stable coronary artery disease. A cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the lifetime potential benefits and cost-effectiveness of using 64 multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as a noninvasive imaging modality for patients at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). A decision and cost-effective analysis using a Markov model was performed to compare 4 strategies: no examination, routine coronary angiography (CAG), CTCA, or medication without CAG or CTCA in persons at risk for stable CAD. Compared with the no examination and no treatment strategies, CTCA gained 0.551 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$15,581 (in 2007) per QALY. Routine CAG gained 0.012 QALYs compared with the CTCA strategy, with an ICER of US$445,276 per QALY. Using CTCA as the first-line examination for 60-year-old men at risk for stable CAD achieved gains of QALY comparable to that of routine CAG, but at a lower cost. (author)

  18. A comparative study of computed tomographic techniques for the detection of emphysema in middle-aged and older patient populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical-scan computed tomography (CT) is now widely utilized as a mass screening procedure for lung cancer. By adding 3 slices of high-resolution CT (HRCT) to the standard screening procedure, we were able to compare the efficacy of helical-scan CT and HRCT in detecting pulmonary emphysema. Additionally, the prevalence of emphysema detected by HRCT was examined as a function of patient age and smoking history. The subjects (106 men and 28 women) were all community-based middle-aged and older volunteers who participated in a mass lung cancer screening program. Based on visual assessments of the CT films, emphysema was detected in 29 subjects (22%) by HRCT, but in only 4 (3%) by helical-scan CT. Although the prevalence of emphysema was higher among subjects with a higher smoking index, no correlations with age were observed. We concluded that the efficacy of helical scan CT in detecting pulmonary emphysema can be significantly improved with the inclusion of 3 slices of HRCT, and confirmed that cigarette smoking is linked to the development of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  19. Bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area in skeletal Class III growing patients: A computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to investigate the bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area by computed tomography (CT) for placement of a miniplate as skeletal anchorage for maxillary protraction in skeletal Class III children. CT images of skeletal Class III children (7 boys, 9 girls, mean age: 11.4 years) were taken parallel to the Frankfurt horizontal plane. The bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area was measured at 35 locations on the right and left sides, perpendicular to the bone surface. The bone was thickest (5.0 mm) in the upper zygomatic bone and thinnest (1.1 mm) in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Generally, there was a tendency for the bone to be thicker at the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla. There was no clinically significant difference in bone thickness between the right and left sides; however, it was thicker in male than in female subjects. In the infrazygomatic crest area, the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla had the most appropriate thickness for placement of a miniplate in growing skeletal Class III children with a retruded maxilla.

  20. Bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area in skeletal Class III growing patients: A computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyub Soo; Choi, Hang Moon; Choi, Dong Soon; Jang, Insan; Cha, Bong Kuen [College of Dentistry and Research Institute of Oral Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to investigate the bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area by computed tomography (CT) for placement of a miniplate as skeletal anchorage for maxillary protraction in skeletal Class III children. CT images of skeletal Class III children (7 boys, 9 girls, mean age: 11.4 years) were taken parallel to the Frankfurt horizontal plane. The bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area was measured at 35 locations on the right and left sides, perpendicular to the bone surface. The bone was thickest (5.0 mm) in the upper zygomatic bone and thinnest (1.1 mm) in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Generally, there was a tendency for the bone to be thicker at the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla. There was no clinically significant difference in bone thickness between the right and left sides; however, it was thicker in male than in female subjects. In the infrazygomatic crest area, the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla had the most appropriate thickness for placement of a miniplate in growing skeletal Class III children with a retruded maxilla.

  1. Postmortem computed tomographic (PMCT) demonstration of the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Our subjects were 190 PMCT obtained within two hours of non-traumatic death [175 patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and 15 patients did not undergo CPR]. We evaluated the incidence and location of GI distension (0=no distension, 1=stomach and duodenum, 2=more distal than 1) and HPVG (0=no gas, 1=left lobe, 2=1+right anterior lobe, 3=2+right posterior lobe). GI distension (grade 0/1/2=58/55/62 patients) and HPVG (grade 0/1/2/3=114/10/28/23 patients) were observed in 175 patients who underwent CPR. The grade of HPVG increased significantly in accordance with the advancement of GI distension. Fifteen patients without undergoing CPR showed no GI distension but one patient showed grade 1 HPVG. PMCT indicates the presence of a relation between GI distension and HPVG. (author)

  2. Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Assessment of Mandibular Condylar Position in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction and in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Paknahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem. The clinical significance of condyle-fossa relationships in the temporomandibular joint is a matter of controversy. Different studies have evaluated whether the position of the condyle is a predictor of the presence of temporomandibular disorder. Purpose. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the condylar position according to gender in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD and healthy controls using cone-beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods. CBCT of sixty temporomandibular joints in thirty patients with TMD and sixty joints of thirty subjects without TMJ disorder was evaluated in this study. The condylar position was assessed on the CBCT images. The data were analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Results. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the condylar position between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Posterior condylar position was more frequently observed in women and anterior condylar position was more prevalent in men in the symptomatic group. However, no significant differences in condylar position were found in asymptomatic subjects according to gender. Conclusion. This study showed no apparent association between condylar positioning and clinical findings in TMD patients.

  3. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography in critically ill patients with suspected severe sepsis with no definite diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandry, Damien [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Tatopoulos, Alexis; Lemarie, Jeremie; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Gibot, Sebastien [University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); CHU de Nancy - Hopital Central, Service de Reanimation Medicale, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Chevalier-Mathias, Elodie [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Roch, Veronique [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Olivier, Pierre [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU Nancy, Pole d' imagerie, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep, Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France)

    2014-10-15

    Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. This prospective pilot study aimed to assess {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography (CTA), in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom the prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit with a suspected severe sepsis but no definite diagnosis after 48 h of extensive investigations were prospectively included and referred for a whole body FDG-PET/CTA. Results from FDG-PET/CTA were assessed according to the final diagnosis obtained after follow-up and additional diagnostic workup. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs. The FDG-PET/CTA exam 1) was responsible for only one desaturation and one hypotension, both quickly reversible under treatment; 2) led to suspect 16 infectious sites among which 13 (81 %) could be confirmed by further diagnostic procedures; and 3) triggered beneficial changes in the medical management of 12 of the 17 study patients (71 %). The FDG-PET/CTA images showed a single or predominant infectious focus in two cases where CTA was negative and in three cases where CTA exhibited multiple possible foci. Whole-body FDG-PET/CTA appears to be feasible, relatively safe, and provides reliable and useful information, when prospectively planned in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. The FDG-PET images are particularly helpful when CTA exhibits no or multiple possible sites. (orig.)

  4. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography in critically ill patients with suspected severe sepsis with no definite diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timely identification of septic foci is critical in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of unknown origin. This prospective pilot study aimed to assess 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), combined with whole-body computed tomographic angiography (CTA), in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom the prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit with a suspected severe sepsis but no definite diagnosis after 48 h of extensive investigations were prospectively included and referred for a whole body FDG-PET/CTA. Results from FDG-PET/CTA were assessed according to the final diagnosis obtained after follow-up and additional diagnostic workup. Seventeen patients were prospectively included, all on mechanical ventilation and 14 under vasopressor drugs. The FDG-PET/CTA exam 1) was responsible for only one desaturation and one hypotension, both quickly reversible under treatment; 2) led to suspect 16 infectious sites among which 13 (81 %) could be confirmed by further diagnostic procedures; and 3) triggered beneficial changes in the medical management of 12 of the 17 study patients (71 %). The FDG-PET/CTA images showed a single or predominant infectious focus in two cases where CTA was negative and in three cases where CTA exhibited multiple possible foci. Whole-body FDG-PET/CTA appears to be feasible, relatively safe, and provides reliable and useful information, when prospectively planned in patients with suspected severe sepsis and for whom prior diagnostic workup had been inconclusive. The FDG-PET images are particularly helpful when CTA exhibits no or multiple possible sites. (orig.)

  5. Development of a tomographic system adapted to 3D measurement of contaminated wounds based on the Cacao concept (Computer aided collimation Gamma Camera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) is a gamma camera using a collimator with large holes, a supplementary linear scanning motion during the acquisition and a dedicated reconstruction program taking full account of the source depth. The CACAO system was introduced to improve both the sensitivity and the resolution in nuclear medicine. This thesis focuses on the design of a fast and robust reconstruction algorithm in the CACAO project. We start by an overview of tomographic imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. After modelling the physical CACAO system, we present the complete reconstruction program which involves three steps: 1) shift and sum 2) deconvolution and filtering 3) rotation and sum. The deconvolution is the critical step that decreases the signal to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. We propose a regularized multi-channel algorithm to solve the deconvolution problem. We also present a fast algorithm based on Splines functions and preserving the high quality of the reconstructed images for the shift and the rotation steps. Comparisons of simulated reconstructed images in 2D and 3D for the conventional system (CPHC) and CACAO demonstrate the ability of CACAO system to increase the quality of the SPECT images. Finally, this study concludes with an experimental approach with a pixellated detector conceived for a 3D measurement of contaminated wounds. This experimentation proves the possible advantages of coupling the CACAO project with pixellated detectors. Moreover, a variety of applications could fully benefit from the CACAO system, such as low activity imaging, the use of high-energy gamma isotopes and the visualization of deep organs. Moreover the combination of the CACAO system with a pixels detector may open up further possibilities for the future of nuclear medicine. (author)

  6. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  7. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooley, Robert P., E-mail: robert.gooley@monashhealth.org [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Cameron, James D., E-mail: james.cameron@monash.edu [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Soon, Jennifer, E-mail: jenn.sa@gmail.com [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Loi, Duncan, E-mail: dloi2@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Chitale, Gauri, E-mail: gchi21@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Syeda, Rifath, E-mail: rssye1@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Meredith, Ian T., E-mail: ian.meredith@myheart.id.au [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  8. A Pilot Evaluation of a 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Scheme Based on Simultaneous Motion Estimation and Image Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Jun; Gu, Xuejun [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a 4-dimensional (4-D) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) reconstruction scheme based on simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) through patient studies. Methods and Materials: The SMEIR algorithm contains 2 alternating steps: (1) motion-compensated CBCT reconstruction using projections from all phases to reconstruct a reference phase 4D-CBCT by explicitly considering the motion models between each different phase and (2) estimation of motion models directly from projections by matching the measured projections to the forward projection of the deformed reference phase 4D-CBCT. Four lung cancer patients were scanned for 4 to 6 minutes to obtain approximately 2000 projections for each patient. To evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm on a conventional 1-minute CBCT scan, the number of projections at each phase was reduced by a factor of 5, 8, or 10 for each patient. Then, 4D-CBCTs were reconstructed from the down-sampled projections using Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, total variation (TV) minimization, prior image constrained compressive sensing (PICCS), and SMEIR. Using the 4D-CBCT reconstructed from the fully sampled projections as a reference, the relative error (RE) of reconstructed images, root mean square error (RMSE), and maximum error (MaxE) of estimated tumor positions were analyzed to quantify the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: The SMEIR algorithm can achieve results consistent with the reference 4D-CBCT reconstructed with many more projections per phase. With an average of 30 to 40 projections per phase, the MaxE in tumor position detection is less than 1 mm in SMEIR for all 4 patients. Conclusion: The results from a limited number of patients show that SMEIR is a promising tool for high-quality 4D-CBCT reconstruction and tumor motion modeling.

  9. Protein-Poly(amino acid) Nanocore-Shell Mediated Synthesis of Branched Gold Nanostructures for Computed Tomographic Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Sisini; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-06-29

    Anisotropic noble metal nanoparticles especially branched gold nanoparticles with a large absorption cross-section and high molar extinction coefficient have promising applications in biomedical field. However, sophisticated and cumbersome methodologies of synthesis along with toxic precursors pose serious concern for its use. Herein, we report the synthesis of branched gold nanostructures from protein (albumin) nanoparticles by a simple reduction method. Albumin nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified desolvation technique with poly-l-arginine (cationic poly amino acid) substituting the conventional toxic cross-linker, glutaraldehyde. In silico molecular docking was carried out to study the interaction of poly-l-arginine with albumin which revealed its binding to Pocket 1B of the A-chain of albumin. The poly-l-arginine-albumin core-shell nanoparticles of ∼100 nm in size served as a base for attachment of gold ions and its reduction to form 140 nm sized branched gold nanostructures conjugated with glutathione. These gold nanostructures exhibited near-infrared absorption λmax at 800 nm with extreme compatibility toward non cancerous (NIH 3T3), oral epithelial carcinoma (KB) cell lines, and human blood (red blood cells, platelets, and coagulation mechanisms) even up to a high concentration of 250 μg/mL. These structures demonstrated superior computed tomographic (CT) contrast ability and marked photothermal cytotoxicity on KB cells. This study reports for the first time a method to develop blood and cell compatible branched gold nanostructures from protein nanoparticles as a dual CT diagnostic and photothermal therapeutic agent. PMID:27243100

  10. FDG PET or PET/CT in Evaluation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chun-Yi; Chen, Hui-Yi; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Objective Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. Materials and Methods The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clin...

  11. Advanced computed tomographic anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis for prediction of fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the application of advanced coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) plaque analysis for predicting invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary lesions. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 71 single intermediate coronary lesions (≥50–80% stenosis) on CCTA prospectively underwent coronary angiography and FFR. Advanced anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis was performed based on CCTA data set to determine optimal criteria for significant flow impairment. A significant stenosis was defined as FFR ≤ 0.80. Results: FFR averaged 0.85 ± 0.09, and 19 lesions (27%) were functionally significant. FFR correlated with minimum lumen area (MLA) (r = 0.456, p < 0.001), minimum lumen diameter (MLD) (r = 0.326, p = 0.006), reference lumen diameter (RLD) (r = 0.245, p = 0.039), plaque burden (r = −0.313, p = 0.008), lumen area stenosis (r = −0.305, p = 0.01), lesion length (r = −0.692, p < 0.001), and plaque volume (r = −0.668, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between FFR and CCTA morphometric plaque parameters. By multivariate analysis the independent predictors of FFR were lesion length (beta = −0.581, p < 0.001), MLA (beta = 0.360, p = 0.041), and RLD (beta = −0.255, p = 0.036). The optimal cutoffs for lesion length, MLA, MLD, RLD, and lumen area stenosis were >18.5 mm, ≤3.0 mm2, ≤2.1 mm, ≤3.2 mm, and >69%, respectively (max. sensitivity: 100% for MLA, max. specificity: 79% for lumen area stenosis). Conclusions: CCTA predictors for FFR support the mathematical relationship between stenosis pressure drop and coronary flow. CCTA could prove to be a useful rule-out test for significant hemodynamic effects of intermediate coronary stenoses

  12. DOSIMETRIC CONSEQUENCES OF USING CONTRAST-ENHANCED COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES FOR INTENSITY-MODULATED STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY PLANNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Roback, Donald M; Larue, Susan M; Nolan, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Potential benefits of planning radiation therapy on a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan (ceCT) should be weighed against the possibility that this practice may be associated with an inadvertent risk of overdosing nearby normal tissues. This study investigated the influence of ceCT on intensity-modulated stereotactic body radiotherapy (IM-SBRT) planning. Dogs with head and neck, pelvic, or appendicular tumors were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. All IM-SBRT plans were constructed on a pre- or ceCT. Contours for tumor and organs at risk (OAR) were manually constructed and copied onto both CT's; IM-SBRT plans were calculated on each CT in a manner that resulted in equal radiation fluence. The maximum and mean doses for OAR, and minimum, maximum, and mean doses for targets were compared. Data were collected from 40 dogs per anatomic site (head and neck, pelvis, and limbs). The average dose difference between minimum, maximum, and mean doses as calculated on pre- and ceCT plans for the gross tumor volume was less than 1% for all anatomic sites. Similarly, the differences between mean and maximum doses for OAR were less than 1%. The difference in dose distribution between plans made on CTs with and without contrast enhancement was tolerable at all treatment sites. Therefore, although caution would be recommended when planning IM-SBRT for tumors near "reservoirs" for contrast media (such as the heart and urinary bladder), findings supported the use of ceCT with this dose calculation algorithm for both target delineation and IM-SBRT treatment planning. PMID:26242716

  13. Temporal evaluation of computed tomographic scans at a Level 1 trauma department in a central South African hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tiemesmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Time is a precious commodity, especially in the trauma setting, which requires continuous evaluation to ensure streamlined service delivery, quality patient care and employee efficiency.Objectives: The present study analyses the authors’ institution’s multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT scan process as part of the imaging turnaround time of trauma patients. It is intended to serve as a baseline for the institution, to offer a comparison with institutions worldwide and to improve service delivery.Method: Relevant categorical data were collected from the trauma patient register and radiological information system (RIS from 01 February 2013 to 31 January 2014. A population of 1107 trauma patients who received a MDCT scan was included in the study. Temporal data were analysed as a continuum with reference to triage priority, time of day, type of CT scan and admission status. Results: The median trauma arrival to MDCT scan time (TTS and reporting turnaround time (RTAT were 69 (39–126 and 86 (53–146 minutes respectively. TTS was subdivided into the time when the patient arrived at trauma to the radiology referral (TTRef and submission of the radiology request, to the arrival at the MDCT (RefTS location. TTRef was statistically significantly longer than RefTS (p < 0.0001. RTAT was subdivided into the arrival at the MDCT to the start of the radiology report (STR and time taken to complete the report (RT. STR was statistically significantly longer than RT (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The time to scan (TTS was comparable to, but unfortunately the report turnaround time (RTAT lagged behind, the findings of some first-world institutions.[PDF to follow

  14. Advanced computed tomographic anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis for prediction of fractional flow reserve in intermediate coronary lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P., E-mail: opolski.mp@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kepka, Cezary, E-mail: c.kepka@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Achenbach, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.achenbach@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Internal Medicine 2 (Cardiology), University of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Pregowski, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzypregowski74@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kruk, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszkruk2000@yahoo.com [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Staruch, Adam D., E-mail: adstarman@gmail.com [Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Kadziela, Jacek, E-mail: j.kadziela@ikard.pl [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Ruzyllo, Witold, E-mail: w.ruzyllo@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Witkowski, Adam, E-mail: witkowski@hbz.pl [Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: To determine the application of advanced coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) plaque analysis for predicting invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary lesions. Methods: Sixty-one patients with 71 single intermediate coronary lesions (≥50–80% stenosis) on CCTA prospectively underwent coronary angiography and FFR. Advanced anatomical and morphometric plaque analysis was performed based on CCTA data set to determine optimal criteria for significant flow impairment. A significant stenosis was defined as FFR ≤ 0.80. Results: FFR averaged 0.85 ± 0.09, and 19 lesions (27%) were functionally significant. FFR correlated with minimum lumen area (MLA) (r = 0.456, p < 0.001), minimum lumen diameter (MLD) (r = 0.326, p = 0.006), reference lumen diameter (RLD) (r = 0.245, p = 0.039), plaque burden (r = −0.313, p = 0.008), lumen area stenosis (r = −0.305, p = 0.01), lesion length (r = −0.692, p < 0.001), and plaque volume (r = −0.668, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between FFR and CCTA morphometric plaque parameters. By multivariate analysis the independent predictors of FFR were lesion length (beta = −0.581, p < 0.001), MLA (beta = 0.360, p = 0.041), and RLD (beta = −0.255, p = 0.036). The optimal cutoffs for lesion length, MLA, MLD, RLD, and lumen area stenosis were >18.5 mm, ≤3.0 mm{sup 2}, ≤2.1 mm, ≤3.2 mm, and >69%, respectively (max. sensitivity: 100% for MLA, max. specificity: 79% for lumen area stenosis). Conclusions: CCTA predictors for FFR support the mathematical relationship between stenosis pressure drop and coronary flow. CCTA could prove to be a useful rule-out test for significant hemodynamic effects of intermediate coronary stenoses.

  15. Evaluation of an X-Ray Dose Profile Derived from an Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter during Computed Tomographic Fluoroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Hasegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate scatter radiation dose to the subject surface during X-ray computed tomography (CT fluoroscopy using the integrated dose ratio (IDR of an X-ray dose profile derived from an optically stimulated luminescent (OSL dosimeter. We aimed to obtain quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during previous CT fluoroscopy. A multislice CT scanner was used to perform this study. OSL dosimeters were placed on the top and the lateral side of the chest phantom so that the longitudinal direction of dosimeters was parallel to the orthogonal axis-to-slice plane for measurement of dose profiles in CT fluoroscopy. Measurement of fluoroscopic conditions was performed at 120 kVp and 80 kVp. Scatter radiation dose was evaluated by calculating the integrated dose determined by OSL dosimetry. The overall percent difference of the integrated doses between OSL dosimeters and ionization chamber was 5.92%. The ratio of the integrated dose of a 100-mm length area to its tails (-50 to -6 mm, 50 to 6 mm was the lowest on the lateral side at 80 kVp and the highest on the top at 120 kVp. The IDRs for different measurement positions were larger at 120 kVp than at 80 kVp. Similarly, the IDRs for the tube voltage between the primary X-ray beam and scatter radiation was larger on the lateral side than on the top of the phantom. IDR evaluation suggested that the scatter radiation dose has a high dependence on the position and a low dependence on tube voltage relative to the primary X-ray beam for constant dose rate fluoroscopic conditions. These results provided quantitative evidence supporting the radiation protection methods used during CT fluoroscopy in previous studies.

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE EAR IN NONBRACHYCEPHALIC AND BRACHYCEPHALIC DOGS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgüero, Raquel; Herrtage, Michael; Holmes, Mark; Mannion, Paddy; Ladlow, Jane

    2016-03-01

    Prevalence of subclinical middle ear lesions in dogs that undergo computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging of the head has been reported up to 41%. A predisposition in brachycephalics has been suggested, however evidence-based studies are lacking. Aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to compare CT characteristics of the middle ear in groups of nonbrachycephalic and brachycephalic dogs that underwent CT of the head for conditions unrelated to ear disease, and test associations between thickness of the soft palate and presence of subclinical middle ear lesions. One observer recorded CT findings for each dog without knowledge of group status. A total of 65 dogs met inclusion criteria (25 brachycephalic, 40 nonbrachycephalic). Brachycephalic dogs had a significantly thicker bulla wall (P = 2.38 × 10(-26) ) and smaller luminal volume (P = 5.74 × 10(-20) ), when compared to nonbrachycephalic dogs. Soft palate thickness was significantly greater in the brachycephalic group (P = 2.76 × 10(-9) ). Nine of 25 brachycephalic dogs had material in the lumen of the tympanic cavity, compared to zero of 45 of nonbrachycephalics. Within the brachycephalic group, a significant difference in mean soft palate thickness was identified for dogs with material in the middle ear (12.2 mm) vs. air-filled bullae (9 mm; P = 0.016). Findings from the current study supported previous theories that brachycephalic dogs have a greater prevalence of subclinical middle ear effusion and smaller bulla luminal size than nonbrachycephalic dogs. Authors recommend that the bulla lumen volume formula previously developed for mesaticephalic dogs, (-0.612 + 0.757 [lnBW]) be adjusted to 1/3(-0.612 + 0.757 [lnBW]) for brachycephalic breeds. PMID:26765680

  17. Pre-operative contrast enhanced computer tomographic evaluation of cervical nodal metastatic disease in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pandeshwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT criteria in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis in 50 patients with an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSQCC. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with OSQCC who underwent clinical assessment, routine CECT scanning of cervical lymph node and radical neck dissection were analyzed. Radiologic criteria for diagnosing nodal metastasis in this imaging study were: A nodal size of 1 cm, the presence of central lucency despite the size of the lymph node and grouping of lymph nodes. These criteria were based on modified American Joint Committee on Cancer Radiological Nodal Staging Guidelines. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test/Fisher Exact test has been used to find the significant association of findings. Diagnostic statistics viz.: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were obtained. The results were considered significant when P value was less than 0.05. Results: On using a nodal size of 1 cm and the presence of central nodal necrosis (CNN as radiological criteria for nodal metastasis CT scanning staged 23 of the 27 histopathologically positive necks, providing accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 92%, and specificity of 84% in detection of nodal metastasis. A significant relationship between the incidence of CNN, different nodal densities, and primary tumor differentiation was observed. Conclusions: The nodal size cut-off of 1-1.5 cm had a maximal sensitivity of 90.91% and PPV of 86.96%. Furthermore, observation of nodal densities in the absence of frank CNN on the CT scan may be necessary especially in low grade primary tumor. CT assessment of cervical node metastasis was found acceptable, although adjuncts like ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration may further increase efficacy of CT scan in nodes lesser than 1 cm in size.

  18. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matthew Leevy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray Computed Tomography (CT is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphate, soft tissue is less dense and many are homogenous in density. This presents a challenge in distinguishing one type of soft tissue from another. A couple exceptions include the lungs as well as fat, both of which have unique densities owing to the presence of air or bulk hydrocarbons, respectively. In order to facilitate X-ray CT imaging of other structures, a range of contrast agents have been developed to selectively identify and visualize the anatomical properties of individual tissues. Most agents incorporate atoms like iodine, gold, or barium because of their ability to absorb X-rays, and thus impart contrast to a given organ system. Here we review the strategies available to visualize lung, fat, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and liver tissues of living mice using either innate contrast, or commercial injectable or ingestible agents with selective perfusion. Further, we demonstrate how each of these approaches will facilitate the non-invasive, longitudinal, in vivo imaging of pre-clinical disease models at each anatomical site.

  19. Use of Computed X-ray Tomographic Data for Analyzing the Thermodynamics of a Dissociating Porous Sand/Hydrate Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Stern, Laura A.; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2002-02-28

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a method that has been used extensively in laboratory experiments for measuring rock properties and fluid transport behavior. More recently, CT scanning has been applied successfully to detect the presence and study the behavior of naturally occurring hydrates. In this study, we used a modified medical CT scanner to image and analyze the progression of a dissociation front in a synthetic methane hydrate/sand mixture. The sample was initially scanned under conditions at which the hydrate is stable (atmospheric pressure and liquid nitrogen temperature, 77 K). The end of the sample holder was then exposed to the ambient air, and the core was continuously scanned as dissociation occurred in response to the rising temperature. CT imaging captured the advancing dissociation front clearly and accurately. The evolved gas volume was monitored as a function of time. Measured by CT, the advancing hydrate dissociation front was modeled as a thermal conduction problem explicitly incorporating the enthalpy of dissociation, using the Stefan moving-boundary-value approach. The assumptions needed to perform the analysis consisted of temperatures at the model boundaries. The estimated value for thermal conductivity of 2.6 W/m K for the remaining water ice/sand mixture is higher than expected based on conduction alone; this high value may represent a lumped parameter that incorporates the processes of heat conduction, methane gas convection, and any kinetic effects that occur during dissociation. The technique presented here has broad implications for future laboratory and field testing that incorporates geophysical techniques to monitor gas hydrate dissociation.

  20. Tomographs based on non-conventional radiation sources and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer techniques for tomographic reconstruction of objects X-rayed with a compact plasma focus (PF) are presented. The implemented reconstruction algorithms are based on stochastic searching of solutions of Radon equation, using Genetic Algorithms and Monte Carlo methods. Numerical experiments using actual projections were performed concluding the feasibility of the application of both methods in tomographic reconstruction problem. (author)

  1. Radiological classification of renal angiomyolipomas based on 127 tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prando Adilson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Demonstrate radiological findings of 127 angiomyolipomas (AMLs and propose a classification based on the radiological evidence of fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The imaging findings of 85 consecutive patients with AMLs: isolated (n = 73, multiple without tuberous sclerosis (TS (n = 4 and multiple with TS (n = 8, were retrospectively reviewed. Eighteen AMLs (14% presented with hemorrhage. All patients were submitted to a dedicated helical CT or magnetic resonance studies. All hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic lesions were grouped together since our objective was to analyze the presence of detectable fat. Out of 85 patients, 53 were monitored and 32 were treated surgically due to large perirenal component (n = 13, hemorrhage (n = 11 and impossibility of an adequate preoperative characterization (n = 8. There was not a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC with fat component in this group of patients. RESULTS: Based on the presence and amount of detectable fat within the lesion, AMLs were classified in 4 distinct radiological patterns: Pattern-I, predominantly fatty (usually less than 2 cm in diameter and intrarenal: 54%; Pattern-II, partially fatty (intrarenal or exophytic: 29%; Pattern-III, minimally fatty (most exophytic and perirenal: 11%; and Pattern-IV, without fat (most exophytic and perirenal: 6%. CONCLUSIONS: This proposed classification might be useful to understand the imaging manifestations of AMLs, their differential diagnosis and determine when further radiological evaluation would be necessary. Small (< 1.5 cm, pattern-I AMLs tend to be intra-renal, homogeneous and predominantly fatty. As they grow they tend to be partially or completely exophytic and heterogeneous (patterns II and III. The rare pattern-IV AMLs, however, can be small or large, intra-renal or exophytic but are always homogeneous and hyperdense mass. Since no renal cell carcinoma was found in our series, from an evidence-based practice, all renal mass with detectable

  2. Angiomyolipoma of the kidney: Clinico pathological and immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overview: Although angiomyolipoma (AML) is a relatively rare entity, it is the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the kidney. The aim of this study: To highlight the clinicopathological characteristics of AML and to assess the role of Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45), Melan-A, smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100 and cytokeratin in its diagnosis. Materials and methods: The study included 15 cases of AML. Clinical and radiological data were retrieved from the archival files and all cases were subjected to a histopathological evaluation as well as immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45, Melan-A, SMA, S-100, and cytokeratin. Results: AML was more common in females (female:male = 4:1), the mean age was 53.9 ± 6.45 years. 60% of patients were symptomatic while the remaining 40% were asymptomatic. A statistically significant relationship was found between size of the tumor and the presence of the symptoms (P = 0.02). Patients with tumor size less than 4 cm were asymptomatic, while those with tumor size larger than 4 cm had different symptoms. Thirteen cases were classic AML, while 2 cases were epithelioid AML. Classic AML demonstrated admixture of fatty tissue, thick-walled blood vessels, and smooth muscle, while epithelioid AML was composed mainly of epithelioid cells and contained no fat. HMB-45 was positive in all cases of AML (100%), Melan-A was positive in 13/15 (87%) while SMA was positive in 11/15 (73%) of AML with variable staining intensity. All cases of AML were negative for S-100 and cytokeratin. Conclusion: AMLs have characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features and their recognition is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment

  3. Radiological classification of renal angiomyolipomas based on 127 tumors

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    Prando, Adilson [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: aprando@mpc.com.br

    2003-05-15

    Purpose: Demonstrate radiological findings of 127 angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and propose a classification based on the radiological evidence of fat. Materials And Methods: The imaging findings of 85 consecutive patients with AMLs: isolated (n = 73), multiple without tuberous sclerosis (TS) (n = 4) and multiple with TS (n = 8), were retrospectively reviewed. Eighteen AMLs (14%) presented with hemorrhage. All patients were submitted to a dedicated helical CT or magnetic resonance studies. All hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic lesions were grouped together since our objective was to analyze the presence of detectable fat. Out of 85 patients, 53 were monitored and 32 were treated surgically due to large perirenal component (n = 13), hemorrhage (n = 11) and impossibility of an adequate preoperative characterization (n = 8). There was not a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with fat component in this group of patients. Results: Based on the presence and amount of detectable fat within the lesion, AMLs were classified in 4 distinct radiological patterns: Pattern-I, predominantly fatty (usually less than 2 cm in diameter and intrarenal): 54%; Pattern-II, partially fatty (intrarenal or exo phytic): 29%; Pattern-III, minimally fatty (most exo phytic and peri renal): 11%; and Pattern-IV, without fat (most exo phytic and peri renal): 6%. Conclusions: This proposed classification might be useful to understand the imaging manifestations of AMLs, their differential diagnosis and determine when further radiological evaluation would be necessary. Small (< 1.5 cm), pattern-I AMLs tend to be intra-renal, homogeneous and predominantly fatty. As they grow they tend to be partially or completely exo phytic and heterogeneous (patterns II and III). The rare pattern-IV AMLs, however, can be small or large, intra-renal or exo phytic but are always homogeneous and hyperdense mass. Since no renal cell carcinoma was found in our series, from an evidence-based practice, all renal mass with

  4. Radiological classification of renal angiomyolipomas based on 127 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Demonstrate radiological findings of 127 angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and propose a classification based on the radiological evidence of fat. Materials And Methods: The imaging findings of 85 consecutive patients with AMLs: isolated (n = 73), multiple without tuberous sclerosis (TS) (n = 4) and multiple with TS (n = 8), were retrospectively reviewed. Eighteen AMLs (14%) presented with hemorrhage. All patients were submitted to a dedicated helical CT or magnetic resonance studies. All hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic lesions were grouped together since our objective was to analyze the presence of detectable fat. Out of 85 patients, 53 were monitored and 32 were treated surgically due to large perirenal component (n = 13), hemorrhage (n = 11) and impossibility of an adequate preoperative characterization (n = 8). There was not a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with fat component in this group of patients. Results: Based on the presence and amount of detectable fat within the lesion, AMLs were classified in 4 distinct radiological patterns: Pattern-I, predominantly fatty (usually less than 2 cm in diameter and intrarenal): 54%; Pattern-II, partially fatty (intrarenal or exo phytic): 29%; Pattern-III, minimally fatty (most exo phytic and peri renal): 11%; and Pattern-IV, without fat (most exo phytic and peri renal): 6%. Conclusions: This proposed classification might be useful to understand the imaging manifestations of AMLs, their differential diagnosis and determine when further radiological evaluation would be necessary. Small (< 1.5 cm), pattern-I AMLs tend to be intra-renal, homogeneous and predominantly fatty. As they grow they tend to be partially or completely exo phytic and heterogeneous (patterns II and III). The rare pattern-IV AMLs, however, can be small or large, intra-renal or exo phytic but are always homogeneous and hyperdense mass. Since no renal cell carcinoma was found in our series, from an evidence-based practice, all renal mass with

  5. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  6. Concomitant mediastinal and extrarenal retroperitoneal angiomyolipomas in a patient who previously underwent ipsilateral radical nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Sheng-Chen Wen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of the tuberous sclerosis complex with angiomyolipoma (AML arising from the retroperitoneum and mediastinum has not been reported in the literature. We present the first case in which a patient presented with a combined retroperitoneal extrarenal and posterior mediastinal AML. Interestingly, the ipsilateral retroperitoneal AML emerged 15 years after radical nephrectomy for the left renal AML.

  7. Differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from angiomyolipoma of the liver with CT spectral imaging: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the value of computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from angiomyolipoma (AML) during the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP). Materials and method: Fifty-three patients underwent spectral CT during the AP and PP. Forty-five patients had 45 HCC and eight patients had eight AML. Iodine concentrations in the lesions were normalized to those of the aorta. The normalized iodine concentrations (NIC) and the lesion-normal parenchyma iodine concentration ratio (LNR) were calculated. The two-sample t-test was performed to compare quantitative parameters. Two readers qualitatively assessed lesion types on the basis of imaging features. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between the qualitative and quantitative studies. Results: NICs and LNRs in patients with HCC differed significantly from those in patients with AML: mean NICs were 0.25 ± 0.06 mg/ml versus 0.59 ± 0.03 mg/ml, respectively, during the AP and 0.52 ± 0.12 mg/ml versus 0.78 ± 0.03 mg/ml, respectively, during the PP. Mean LNRs were 2.97 ± 0.42 versus 5.85 ± 0.43, respectively, during the AP and 0.99 ± 0.17 versus 1.36 ± 0.05, respectively, during the PP. The NICs and LNRs for HCC were lower than those of AML during the AP and PP. The differences were significant (p < 0.05). The threshold NIC and LNR had high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating HCC from AML. Conclusion: CT spectral imaging with the quantitative analysis of iodine concentration may help increase the accuracy of differentiating HCC from AML

  8. Transarterial ethanol ablation for sporadic and non-hemorrhaging angiomyolipoma in the kidney

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    Takebayashi, Shigeo [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57, Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024 (Japan)], E-mail: take2922@urahp.yokohama-cu.ac.jp; Horikawa, Ayumi; Arai, Mito; Iso, Shinichiroh [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57, Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024 (Japan); Noguchi, Kazumi [Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy and side effects of transarterial ethanol ablation in sporadic and non-hemorrhaging angiomyolipomas (AMLs) in the kidney. Material and Methods: A total of 10 patients with solitary and sporadic AMLs underwent selective transarterial absolute ethanol ablation for prophylaxis against hemorrhage. We confirmed the ratio areas of tumor vessel on angiogram, those of infraction on post-ablation computed tomography (CT) and those of tumor reduction in a 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up CT. Results: Once or twice a single infusion of 1 or 2 ml absolute ethanol achieved in a total occlusion of 22 feeding arteries which consisted of 7 proximal interlobar arteries, 12 distal interlobar arteries and 3 renal capsular arteries. Nontarget occlusion did not occur by ethanol reflux in any cases but occurred causing spasms provoked by repeated inflation and deflation of the balloon in one case. Total occlusion of tumor vessels was observed in 7 patients and 92-95% occlusion in 3. Ethanol ablation produced 1.8-22.5% (mean 8.4 {+-} 6.8%) areas of infarctions but the outcome was not serious in all cases. Mean percentage areas of tumor reduction were 29.4 {+-} 10.6% in a 3-month follow-up, 45.7 {+-} 11.9% in a 6-month and 59.3 {+-} 11.5% in a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: Absolute ethanol ablation for sporadic and non-hemorrhaging AML is safe and effective in reducing majority of tumor area in a 1-year follow-up.

  9. Comparison of computed tomographic urography, magnetic resonance urography and the combination of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer

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    Wu, Guang-yu; Lu, Qing; Wu, Lian-ming [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China); Zhang, Jin [Department of Urinary Surgery, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China); Chen, Xiao-xi [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China); Xu, Jian-rong, E-mail: renjixujr@163.com [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1630, Dongfang Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of computed tomographic urography (CTU), static-fluid magnetic resonance urography (static-fluid MRU) and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Material and Methods: Between January 2010 and June 2011, patients with suspected UUT cancer underwent CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) within a 1-week period. The diagnostic performances of CTU, static-fluid MRU and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI for upper urinary tract cancer were prospectively evaluated. The ureteroscopic and histopathologic findings were compared with the imaging findings. Results: Compared to static-fluid MRU alone (sensitivity: 76/75%, reader 1/reader 2), combining DWI with MRI can increase the sensitivity (sensitivity: 84/84%, p = 0.031/p = 0.016) of upper urinary tract cancer diagnosis. CTU had greater sensitivity (95/94%) and accuracy (92/91%) than both static-fluid MRU (sensitivity: p < 0.001/p < 0.001 and accuracy: 83/81%, p = 0.001/p < 0.001) and static-fluid MRU with DWI (sensitivity: p = 0.023/p = 0.039 and accuracy: 87/85%, p = 0.042/p = 0.049) for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancers. Compared with CTU alone, CTU with DWI did not significantly increase sensitivity, specificity or accuracy. However, the diagnostic confidence was improved when the combined technique was used (p = 0.031/p = 0.024). Moreover, there was no significant change in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy or diagnostic confidence when static-fluid MRU was used in combination with CTU and DWI. Conclusion: Although there is a potential role for static-fluid MRU and static-fluid MRU with DWI in urinary tract imaging, CTU is still the better choice for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Combining DWI with CTU can help improve confidence in upper urinary tract cancer diagnoses.

  10. Video-assisted breast surgery and 3-dimensional computed tomographic mammary lymphography (1). Aesthetic results and curability of video-assisted breast surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I have studied endoscopic surgery for breast diseases and have studied 3-dimensional computed tomographic lymphography for sentinel node biopsy. In this chapter, I introduced my works of the endoscopic breast surgery. I devised a new endoscopic operation for breast diseases: video-assisted breast surgery. The goal of endoscopic breast surgery is to obtain better cosmetic outcomes. A 2.5-cm axillary or periareolar skin incision was made. Under video assistance, the mammary gland was partially or totally resected with a gasless method. A transaxillary retromammary route approach was used even for tumors of the medial aspect of the breast. For malignant tumors, sentinel node biopsy was performed, and axillary nodes were dissected. Breast reconstruction was performed simultaneously. Cosmetic results were assessed with a standard 4-step method and the method described in the Japanese guidelines for breast-conserving therapy. More-objective quantitative methods are breast retraction assessment, the method reported by the research group of Sawai, and ABNSW, a 5-item, 4-step method that evaluates asymmetry (A), breast shape (B), nipple deformation (N), skin condition (S), and wound scar (W). The cosmetic results in endoscopic breast surgery showed that almost 90% of patients received a total score greater than 11 points, which indicates that this video-assisted breast surgery achieves better cosmetic results. The reconstruction methods in breast-conserving therapy are mammary gland translocation, the lateral tissue flap filling method, and absorbable thread mesh filling. The filling methods are superior to the translocation at the point of less deformation of the breast shape. Reconstruction with filling methods will allow wider excision of the mammary gland while achieving better cosmetic results. Video-assisted breast surgery is less invasive, produces no scars on the breast skin, and achieves better aesthetic outcomes for patients with breast cancer. It also improves

  11. Comparison of computed tomographic urography, magnetic resonance urography and the combination of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of computed tomographic urography (CTU), static-fluid magnetic resonance urography (static-fluid MRU) and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Material and Methods: Between January 2010 and June 2011, patients with suspected UUT cancer underwent CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI (b = 1000 s/mm2) within a 1-week period. The diagnostic performances of CTU, static-fluid MRU and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI for upper urinary tract cancer were prospectively evaluated. The ureteroscopic and histopathologic findings were compared with the imaging findings. Results: Compared to static-fluid MRU alone (sensitivity: 76/75%, reader 1/reader 2), combining DWI with MRI can increase the sensitivity (sensitivity: 84/84%, p = 0.031/p = 0.016) of upper urinary tract cancer diagnosis. CTU had greater sensitivity (95/94%) and accuracy (92/91%) than both static-fluid MRU (sensitivity: p < 0.001/p < 0.001 and accuracy: 83/81%, p = 0.001/p < 0.001) and static-fluid MRU with DWI (sensitivity: p = 0.023/p = 0.039 and accuracy: 87/85%, p = 0.042/p = 0.049) for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancers. Compared with CTU alone, CTU with DWI did not significantly increase sensitivity, specificity or accuracy. However, the diagnostic confidence was improved when the combined technique was used (p = 0.031/p = 0.024). Moreover, there was no significant change in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy or diagnostic confidence when static-fluid MRU was used in combination with CTU and DWI. Conclusion: Although there is a potential role for static-fluid MRU and static-fluid MRU with DWI in urinary tract imaging, CTU is still the better choice for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Combining DWI with CTU can help improve confidence in upper urinary tract cancer diagnoses

  12. Preoperative radiological characterization of hepatic angiomyolipoma using magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumor of the liver composed of a mixture of smooth muscle cells, blood vessels and a variable amount of adipose tissue. Differentiating them from malignant liver tumors can often be very difficult. Case presentation We report the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man presenting with a large liver mass in the right lobe. The results of magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were consistent with a well-demarcated adipose tissue- containing tumor, showing prolonged hyperperfusion in comparison with the surrounding liver tissue. Surgery was performed and the diagnosis of hepatic angiomyolipoma was made with histopathology. Conclusion Preoperative radiological characterization using magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may improve diagnostic accuracy of hepatic angiomyolipoma. Identification of smooth muscle cells, blood vessels and adipose tissue with a positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45 is the final evidence for an angiomyolipoma.

  13. Design and performance of a new positron computed tomograph (P.C.T.) using the time-of-flight (T.O.F.) information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tomograph for positron imaging using the time of flight measurement is described. Fast CsF crystals are used in this first prototype. Compared to the classical reconstruction method, the results of adding this information is a substantial increase of sensitivity, a reduced random coincidence count rate, and slight decrease of a scatter contribution in the images. Further improvements in the T.O.F. accuracy can be expected in using faster crystals

  14. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm

  15. Computed tomographic anatomy of the larynx in mesaticephalic dogs Tomografía computarizada de la laringe en perros mesocefálicos

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    B Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to describe the normal anatomy of the larynx and its adjacent structures in mesaticephalic dogs by computed tomographic (CT images and correlate those with anatomical sections. For that, 2 clinically normal young-adult mesaticephalic dogs with body weight of 12.8 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively were used. Computed tomography of the larynx was performed in 2 dogs under general anesthesia and in dorsal recumbency. Transverse images of the larynx with a slice thickness of 3 mm and a gap of 2 mm interval were obtained using a soft tissue window. CT images were correlated with anatomical cross-sections views. The central cavity of the larynx that includes the laryngeal vestibule, glottis and infraglottic cavities were observed as hypodense areas in all CT images. Other spaces also identified included the piriform recess, the epiglottic vallecula and the laryngeal ventricles. The thyroid and the cricoid cartilages were clearly represented as linear hyperdense structures. The arytenoid cartilages were only minimally calcified due to the young age of the animals therefore poorly seen on CT. The epiglottis was identified as a transverse concave isodense structure. Results indicated that CT provides an excellent method for imaging evaluation of the complex anatomy of the larynx in dogs.El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir mediante tomografía computarizada (TC la anatomía normal de la laringe y sus estructuras anexas en perros mesocéfalos y además correlacionar las imágenes obtenidas con cortes anatómicos. Para ello se utilizaron dos perros adultos sin signos de alteraciones respiratorias con pesos de 12,8 a 18,5 kg respectivamente. En ambos animales se obtuvieron imágenes de TC a nivel de la laringe, bajo anestesia general y con los animales posicionados en decúbito dorsal. Los parámetros técnicos incluyeron imágenes de 3 mm de grosor y 2 mm de intervalo y utilizando una ventana para tejidos blandos. Posteriormente

  16. Long-term results of preventive embolization of renal angiomyolipomas: evaluation of predictive factors of volume decrease

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    Hocquelet, A.; Cornelis, F.; Le Bras, Y.; Meyer, M.; Tricaud, E.; Lasserre, A.S.; Grenier, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Urology and Vascular Imaging, Bordeaux (France); Ferriere, J.M.; Robert, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Urology Service, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective arterial embolization (SAE) of angiomyolipomas based on the percentage volume reduction after embolization and to identify predictive factors of volume decrease. Patients receiving prophylactic SAE of renal angiomyolipomas were included retrospectively over 3 years. The volume change after SAE and haemorrhagic or surgical events were recorded. Initial tumour volume, percentage tumour fat content, mean tumour density, embolic agent used, number of angiomyolipomas and tuberous sclerosis disease were evaluated as predictive factors of volume decrease. A total of 19 patients with 39 angiomyolipomas were included with median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range 21-37 months). All treatments were technically successful (92 % primary and 8 % secondary). No distal bleeding or any increase in size or surgical nephrectomy after SAE was recorded. Mean volume reduction was 72 % (±24 %). Volumes before SAE (R{sup 2} = 0.276; p = 0.001), percentage fat content (R{sup 2} = 0.612; p < 0.0001) and mean angiomyolipoma density (R{sup 2} = 0.536; p < 0.0001) were identified as predictive factors of volume decrease. In multivariate regression, only percentage fat content influenced volume decreases. SAE is an efficient treatment for angiomyolipoma devascularisation and volume reduction. A significant reduction of volume is modulated by the initial volume and tissue composition of the tumour. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic performance of combined single photon emission computed tomographic scintimammography and ultrasonography based on computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether the diagnostic performance of SPECT scintimammography (SMM) can be improved by adding computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of ultrasonography (US). We reviewed breast SPECT SMM images and corresponding US images from 40 patients with breast masses (21 malignant and 19 benign tumors.) The quantitative data of SPECT SMM were obtained as the uptake ratio of lesion to contralateral normal breast. The morphologic features of the breast lesions on US were extracted and quantitated using the automated CAD software program. The diagnostic performance of SPECT SMM and CAD of US alone was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The best discriminating parameter (D-value) combining SPECT SMM and the CAD of US was created. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of combined two diagnostic modalities were compared to those of a single one. Both SPECT SMM and CAD of US showed a relatively good diagnostic performance (area under curve=0.846 and 0.831, respectively). Combining the results of SPECT SMM and CAD of US resulted in improved diagnostic performance (area under curve=0.860), but there was no statistical difference in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the combined method and a single modality. It seems that combining the results of SPECT SMM and CAD of breast US do not significantly improve the diagnostic performance for diagnosis of breast cancer, compared with that of SPECT SMM alone. However, SPECT SMM and CAD of US may complement each other in differential diagnosis of breast cancer

  18. Tomographic PIV: principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the major developments in three-dimensional velocity field measurements using the tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The appearance of tomo-PIV dates back seven years from the present review (Elsinga et al 2005a 6th Int. Symp. PIV (Pasadena, CA)) and this approach has rapidly spread as a versatile, robust and accurate technique to investigate three-dimensional flows (Arroyo and Hinsch 2008 Topics in Applied Physics vol 112 ed A Schröder and C E Willert (Berlin: Springer) pp 127–54) and turbulence physics in particular. A considerable number of applications have been achieved over a wide range of flow problems, which requires the current status and capabilities of tomographic PIV to be reviewed. The fundamental aspects of the technique are discussed beginning from hardware considerations for volume illumination, imaging systems, their configurations and system calibration. The data processing aspects are of uppermost importance: image pre-processing, 3D object reconstruction and particle motion analysis are presented with their fundamental aspects along with the most advanced approaches. Reconstruction and cross-correlation algorithms, attaining higher measurement precision, spatial resolution or higher computational efficiency, are also discussed. The exploitation of 3D and time-resolved (4D) tomographic PIV data includes the evaluation of flow field pressure on the basis of the flow governing equation. The discussion also covers a-posteriori error analysis techniques. The most relevant applications of tomo-PIV in fluid mechanics are surveyed, covering experiments in air and water flows. In measurements in flow regimes from low-speed to supersonic, most emphasis is given to the complex 3D organization of turbulent coherent structures. (topical review)

  19. Radiation and contrast agent doses reductions by using 80-kV tube voltage in coronary computed tomographic angiography: A comparative study

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    Cao, Jian-xin [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China); Wang, Yi-min, E-mail: wym6669@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China); Lu, Jin-guo [Department of Cardiology, Asia Heart Hospital, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Yu; Wang, Peng; Yang, Cheng [Department of Radiology, Wuhan 161th Hospital, Wuhan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 80-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) with a reduced amount of contrast agent on qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters and on radiation dose in patients with a body mass index (BMI) <23.0 kg/m{sup 2}. Methods: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with a BMI <23.0 kg/m{sup 2} and a low calcium load undergoing retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source CCTA were randomized into two groups [standard-tube voltage (120-kV) vs. low-tube voltage (80-kV)]. The injection flow rate of contrast agent (350 mg I/mL) was adjusted to body weight of each patient (4.5–5.5 mL/s in the 120-kV group and 2.8–3.8 mL/s in the 80-kV group). Radiation and contrast agent doses were evaluated. Quantitative image quality parameters and figure of merit (FOM) of coronary artery were evaluated. Each coronary segment was evaluated for image quality on a 4-point scale. Results: Compared with the 120-kV group, effective dose and amount of contrast agent in the 80-kV group were decreased by 57.8% and 30.5% (effective dose:2.7 ± 0.5vs. 6.4 ± 1.3 mSv; amount of contrast agent:57.1 ± 3.2 vs. 82.1 ± 6.1 mL; both p < 0.0001), respectively. Image noise was 22.7 ± 2.1 HU for 120-kV images and 33.2 ± 5.2 HU for 80-kV images (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and left main coronary artery (LMA) were all lower in 80-kV than 120-kV images (SNR in the proximal RCA: 16.5 ± 1.8 vs. 19.4 ± 2.8; SNR in the LMA: 16.3 ± 2.0 vs.19.6 ± 2.7; CNR in the proximal RCA: 19.4 ± 2.3 vs.22.9 ± 3.0; CNR in the LMA: 18.8 ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 ± 2.9; all p < 0.0001). FOM were all significantly higher in 80-kV than 120-kV images (proximal RCA: 146.7 ± 45.1 vs. 93.4 ± 32.0; LMA: 139.1 ± 47.2 vs. 91.6 ± 31.1; all p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in image quality score between the two groups (3.3 ± 0

  20. Radiation and contrast agent doses reductions by using 80-kV tube voltage in coronary computed tomographic angiography: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of 80-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) with a reduced amount of contrast agent on qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters and on radiation dose in patients with a body mass index (BMI) <23.0 kg/m2. Methods: One hundred and twenty consecutive patients with a BMI <23.0 kg/m2 and a low calcium load undergoing retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated dual-source CCTA were randomized into two groups [standard-tube voltage (120-kV) vs. low-tube voltage (80-kV)]. The injection flow rate of contrast agent (350 mg I/mL) was adjusted to body weight of each patient (4.5–5.5 mL/s in the 120-kV group and 2.8–3.8 mL/s in the 80-kV group). Radiation and contrast agent doses were evaluated. Quantitative image quality parameters and figure of merit (FOM) of coronary artery were evaluated. Each coronary segment was evaluated for image quality on a 4-point scale. Results: Compared with the 120-kV group, effective dose and amount of contrast agent in the 80-kV group were decreased by 57.8% and 30.5% (effective dose:2.7 ± 0.5vs. 6.4 ± 1.3 mSv; amount of contrast agent:57.1 ± 3.2 vs. 82.1 ± 6.1 mL; both p < 0.0001), respectively. Image noise was 22.7 ± 2.1 HU for 120-kV images and 33.2 ± 5.2 HU for 80-kV images (p < 0.0001). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and left main coronary artery (LMA) were all lower in 80-kV than 120-kV images (SNR in the proximal RCA: 16.5 ± 1.8 vs. 19.4 ± 2.8; SNR in the LMA: 16.3 ± 2.0 vs.19.6 ± 2.7; CNR in the proximal RCA: 19.4 ± 2.3 vs.22.9 ± 3.0; CNR in the LMA: 18.8 ± 2.4 vs. 22.7 ± 2.9; all p < 0.0001). FOM were all significantly higher in 80-kV than 120-kV images (proximal RCA: 146.7 ± 45.1 vs. 93.4 ± 32.0; LMA: 139.1 ± 47.2 vs. 91.6 ± 31.1; all p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in image quality score between the two groups (3.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3

  1. Unusual Large Sporadic Angiomyolipoma Co-existing with Huge Simple Renal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil V Jagtap

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal Angiomyolipoma (AML is an unusual benign mesenchymal tumor with no malignant potential. It is composed of adipose tissue, smooth muscle and abnormal thick walled blood vessels. It can occur sporadically or may be associated with tuberous sclerosis. Sporadic angiomyolipoma (AML coexisting with simple renal cyst is extremely rare and only one case report is available in the literature. In our case, unique combination of sporadic AML along with simple renal cyst with huge size and weight was noted. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the second such case and first case from India. Due to its large size, complete nephrectomy was performed to avoid chances of rupture and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Post-operative period was uneventful and the patient ahs been on regular follow-up.

  2. Bilateral Renal Angiomyolipomas with Invasion of the Renal Vein: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Blick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An angiomyolipoma (AML is usually a benign, rare, and, more commonly, a unilateral renal tumour. Bilateral tumours are very rare, particularly in the absence of tuberous sclerosis complex. Only in a few isolated cases have features of malignancy been associated with an AML. We present a unique case of bilateral AMLs mimicking invasive tumours in the absence of any other features of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  3. Malignant epitheloid angiomyolipoma of the kidney in a child treated with sunitinib, everolimus and axitinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Elvan Caglar; Yilmaz, Eda Bengi; Yaman, Emel; Kaya, Simge; Taskinlar, Hakan; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Apaydin, Demir

    2015-01-01

    The malignant variant of epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) of the kidney is uncommon, extremely aggressive and behaves like a renal cell carcinoma. We present a case of a 12-year-old male with malignant EAML who was treated according to adult treatment protocols. To our knowledge, axitinib has not been used before in children. We conclude that adult protocols, in this rare case, could be safely used in rare childhood malignancies. PMID:26279736

  4. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Associated with Papillary Serous Carcinoma of the Peritoneum, Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and Angiomyolipoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuyoshi Iwasaka; Osamu Tokunaga; Mariko Hashiguchi; Tomihiro Wakamiya; Yasuo Sugita

    2011-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with benign and malignant tumors, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and angiomyolipoma (AML). We herein describe the TSC case of a 50-year-old woman having a papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSCP), LAM, and AML. On microscopic examination, the PSCP cells showed a cuboidal to columnar shape, proliferated into the papillae, and infiltrated into the peritoneal cavity and anterior thoracic wall. On immunohistochemical evaluation, ...

  5. Hepatic Angiomyolipoma Demonstrating Similar Imaging Characteristics as Hepatocellular Carcinoma: One Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign mesenchymal tumor that has been frequently reported in the kidney but rarely in the liver[1]. AML is composed of fat, vascular, and smooth muscle elements. Because the proportion of the constituents composed of AML are varied, hepatic AML may be clinically, radiologically and morphologically difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other hepatic lesions. Here we report a case with pathologically confirmed hepatic AML who was previously diagnosed as HCC based on imaging examinations.

  6. Incidental Monotypic (Fat-Poor) Renal Angiomyolipoma Diagnosed by Core Needle Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Uder; Abbas Agaimy; Maike Büttner; Schwab, Siegfried A.; Verena Kufer; Kerstin Amann

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old patient with a history of chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation because of acute myeloid leukaemia. An incidental 4 × 3 cm measuring renal mass was detected while performing a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for lumbago. The lesion was suspected to be either a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or a leukemic infiltration. To decide about further treatment a percutaneous core needle biopsy was performed. Histology showed a monotypic angiomyolipoma, a relati...

  7. Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver: clinicopathological correlation in a series of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare neoplasm that can be difficult to diagnose in cases of ecoguide biopsy. We studied 4 cases of female patients with a mean age of 51 years. None of the patients presented specific abdominal symptoms, or other tumour masses detected by chance. One of them had relevant personal history: Renal cell carcinoma. This same patient was diagnosed with a contralateral renal angiomyolipoma. None of the patients showed evidence of tuberous sclerosis. Three tumours have been diagnosed by biopsy and only in one patient was decided to completely remove the tumour surgically. None of the patients had evidence of recurrence of disease or an increase in tumour size over an average period of 45 months. Histologically, the tumours have been sub classified into angiomyolipomas epithelioid. In 50% of the cases, extramedullary haematopoiesis was observed. The first diagnostic impression using imaging methods included: Focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and metastasis. By immunohistochemistry, it has been demonstrated that all tumours expressing melanocytic markers (HMB45 and Melan A and markers of smooth muscle cells (smooth muscle actin. The diagnosis of these tumours is increasing due to programmes for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis. It must be taken into account their broad spectrum of morphological diversity to avoid incorrect diagnosis of a malignant neoplasm.

  8. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first generation of heterogenoeous anthropomorphic mathematical models to be used in dose calculations was the MIRD-5 adult phantom, followed by the pediatric MIRD-type phantoms and by the GSF sex-specific phantoms ADAM and EVA. A new generation of realistic anthropomorphic models is now introduced. The organs and tissues of these models consist of a well defined number of volume elements (voxels), derived from computer tomographic (CT) data; consequently, these models were named voxel or tomographic models. So far two voxel models of real patients are available: one of an 8 week old baby and of a 7 year old child. For simplicity, the model of the baby will be referred to as BABY and that of the child as CHILD. In chapter 1 a brief literature review is given on the existing mathematical models and their applications. The reasons that lead to the construction of the new CT models is discussed. In chapter 2 the technique is described which allows to convert any physical object into computer files to be used for dose calculations. The technique which produces three dimensional reconstructions of high resolution is discussed. In chapter 3 the main characteristics of the models of the baby and child are given. Tables of organ masses and volumes are presented together with three dimensional images of some organs and tissues. A special mention is given to the assessment of bone marrow distribution. Chapter 4 gives a short description of the Monte Carlo code used in conjunction with the models to calculate organ and tissue doses resulting from photon exposures. Some technical details concerning the computer files which describe the models are also given. (orig./HP)

  9. The effectiveness of arterial embolization in renal angiomyolipoma. 14th kyushu cooperative urological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial embolization has been used for the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML). However, long-term data of a large number of patients treated with embolization are not available. In this study we evaluate the effectiveness of embolization in AML. From January 1998 to December 2002, 267 patients (290 kidneys) with AML were seen at 61 institutes throughout Kyushu, Japan, and were retrospectively analyzed. AML was diagnosed by histology or computed tomography (CT) combined with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography. The percentage of post-embolization tumor size reduction was calculated by using the following formula: [(initial maximal tumor diameter - follow-up maximal tumor diameter) / initial maximal tumor diameter] x 100 (%). The mean age of 26 patients (31 kidneys) treated with embolization was 41.9 years (range, 20 to 71 yrs); 77% of the patients were female. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Presenting symptoms and signs for these 26 patients were incidental discovery in 11 (42.3%) and acute hemorrhage in 7 (26.9%). Arterial embolization was performed selectively in 28 kidneys and totally in 3 kidneys. Acute hemorrhage was controlled in 6 out of the 7 patients. Prophylactic embolization was performed in 11 asymptomatic patients with tumor size >3 cm and/or multiple tumors. Follow-up CT was performed for 25 embolization tumors. The average maximal tumor diameter just prior to embolization was 4.9±2.9 cm, becoming 2.9±2.7 cm following embolization. The maximal tumor diameter was reduced in 21 (84%) of the 25 embolization tumors, but did not change in the other 4 (16%). The average percentage of post-embolization tumor size reduction was 45.2±30.5% (mean follow-up duration, 28.1 months). There was a significant correlation between the percentage of tumor size reduction and the follow-up duration (R2=0.232, P=0.013). One patient underwent nephrectomy after embolization due to abscess formation, but the

  10. Angiomyolipoma with minimal fat: Differentiation from papillary renal cell carcinoma by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate whether helical computed tomography (CT) images can be used to differentiate angiomyolipomas (AMLs) with minimal fat from papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCCs) based on their morphological characteristics and enhancement features. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed consent was waived. Forty-four patients (21 with AMLs with minimal fat and 23 with PRCCs) who underwent enhanced helical CT before total or partial nephrectomy were included. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the histopathology results, read the CT images and recorded the attenuation value, morphological characteristics, and enhancement features of the tumours, which were subsequently evaluated. An independent samples t-test, χ2 test, and rank sum test were performed between the tumours. The predictive value of a CT finding was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: AML with minimal fat had an apparent female prevalence (p < 0.01). Intra-tumoural vessels were noted in 11 cases of AML with minimal fat and three PRCC cases (p < 0.01). The unenhanced attenuation characteristic was significantly different between the two diseases (p < 0.001). The absolute attenuation values (AAVs) and the corrected attenuation values (CAVs) of the AML with minimal fat group of unenhanced and two phases of enhanced images were greater compared with that of the PRCC group (p < 0.05). After contrast medium injection, the tumour enhancement value (TEV) of the AML with minimal fat group in the corticomedullary phase was greater than that of the PRCC group (p < 0.01). Most cases of both tumour types demonstrated early enhancement characteristics; the enhancement value of the AML with minimal fat group was greater compared with that of the PRCC group (p < 0.01). The unenhanced attenuation characteristic, intra-tumoural vessels, and CAVs of unenhanced and early excretory phase scans were valuable parameters to

  11. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation of angiomyolipoma with minimal fat from clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating between minimal fat angiomyolipoma (MFAML) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). Forty-one solid renal tumors without visible macroscopic fat on unenhanced computed tomography images were evaluated by MRI, including DW-MRI, and were diagnosed pathologically as CCRCC (n=36) or MFAML (n=5). To evaluate the heterogeneity of diffusion in each tumor, the signals of the tumors on DW-MRI were analyzed subjectively and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and histograms assessed objectively. Thirty-three of 36 CCRCC (92%) exhibited a heterogeneous signal on DW-MRI and several peaks in the ADC value histogram, whereas four of five MFAML exhibited a homogeneous signal on DW-MRI and a single prominent peak in the histogram. The standard deviations of the ADC values were significantly smaller for MFAML than for CCRCC (P=0.0015). In conclusion, DW-MRI can be considered a useful and noninvasive addition to the preoperative differentiation of CCRCC and MFAML. (author)

  12. Guided bone regeneration in standardized calvarial defects using beta-tricalcium phosphate and collagen membrane: a real-time in vivo micro-computed tomographic experiment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Sundar; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; ArRejaie, Aws; Nooh, Nasser; Al-Kindi, Mohammed; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures using graft materials have been used for reconstruction of osseous defects. The aim of the present in vivo micro-computed tomographic (µCT) and histologic study was to assess in real time the bone regeneration at GBR sites in standardized experimental calvarial defects (diameter 3.3 mm) using β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) with and without collagen membrane (CM). A single full-thickness calvarial defect was created on the left parietal bone in young female Wistar albino rats (n = 30) weighing approximately 300 g and aged about 6 weeks. The animals were randomly divided into three groups for treatment, based on calvarial defect filling material: (1) control group (n = 10); (2) β-TCP + CM group (n = 10); (3) β-TCP group (n = 10). Real-time in vivo µCT analyses were performed immediately after surgery and at 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks to determine the volume and mineral density of the newly formed bone (BVNFB, MDNFB) and remaining β-TCP particles (VRBP, MDRBP). The animals were killed at 10 weeks and calvarial specimens were evaluated histologically. In the control group, MDNFB increased significantly at 6 weeks (0.32 ± 0.002 g/mm(3), P < 0.01) compared to that at baseline. In β-TCP + CM group, BVNFB (1.10 ± 0.12 mm(3), P < 0.01) and MDNFB (0.13 ± 0.02 g/mm(3), P < 0.01) significantly increased at the 4th week than baseline. In the β-TCP group, BVNFB (1.13 ± 0.12 mm(3), P < 0.01) and MDNFB (0.14 ± 0.01 g/mm(3), P < 0.01) significantly increased at 6 weeks compared to that at baseline. Significant reduction in VRBP was neither seen in the β-TCP + CM group nor in the β-TCP group. While in the β-TCP + CM group MDRBP was reduced significantly at 6 weeks (0.44 ± 0.9 g/mm(3), P < 0.01) from baseline (0.98 ± 0.03 g/mm(3)), similar significant reduction in MDRBP from baseline (0.92 ± 0.07 g/mm(3)) was seen only at 10 weeks (0.45 ± 0.06 g/mm(3), P < 0

  13. Uniaxial Compression of Cellular Materials at a 10-1 s-1 Strain Rate Simultaneously with Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic is presented as a series of slides. Motivation for the work included the following: X-ray tomography is a fantastic technique for characterizing a material's starting structure as well as for non-destructive, in situ experiments to investigate material response; 3D X-ray tomography is needed to fully characterize the morphology of cellular materials; and synchrotron micro-CT can capture 3D images without pausing experiment. Among the conclusions reached are these: High-rate radiographic and tomographic imaging (0.25 s 3D frame rate) using synchrotron CT can capture full 3D images of hyper-elastic materials at a 10-2 strain rate; dynamic true in situ uniaxial loading can be accurately captured; the three stages of compression can be imaged: bending, buckling, and breaking; implementation of linear modeling is completed; meshes have been imported into LANL modeling codes--testing and validation is underway and direct comparison and validation between in situ data and modeled mechanical response is possible.

  14. Uniaxial Compression of Cellular Materials at a 10-1 s-1 Strain Rate Simultaneously with Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomographic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Brian M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The topic is presented as a series of slides. Motivation for the work included the following: X-ray tomography is a fantastic technique for characterizing a material’s starting structure as well as for non-destructive, in situ experiments to investigate material response; 3D X-ray tomography is needed to fully characterize the morphology of cellular materials; and synchrotron micro-CT can capture 3D images without pausing experiment. Among the conclusions reached are these: High-rate radiographic and tomographic imaging (0.25 s 3D frame rate) using synchrotron CT can capture full 3D images of hyper-elastic materials at a 10-2 strain rate; dynamic true in situ uniaxial loading can be accurately captured; the three stages of compression can be imaged: bending, buckling, and breaking; implementation of linear modeling is completed; meshes have been imported into LANL modeling codes--testing and validation is underway and direct comparison and validation between in situ data and modeled mechanical response is possible.

  15. Assessment in dogs tympanic bulla, through virtual tomographic endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogs usually have problems related to the auditory canal. For the diagnosis of these pathologies, it is necessary a physical examination and, in some cases radiographic examination and computed tomography. The tympanic bulla is not easily visualized radiographically, since there is many structures of the brain overlaying the image obtained. The computed tomography has been the technique of choice to assess this structure faithfully. A new alternative assessment of the tympanic bulla is tomographic virtual endoscopy, which allows an improvement of the image obtained through the virtual tomographic technique. This paper provides information on the use of computed tomography, and a new technique, tomographic virtual endoscopy, in order to make the improvement of these techniques, and prove the reliability of these changes in the diagnosis of ear canals of dogs. Therefore, we performed the computed tomography of the tympanic bulla on healthy animals, and later performed image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3D) mode for virtual endoscopy. (author)

  16. [Renal angiomyolipoma rupture as a cause of lumbar pain: report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Melissa; Calleja, Félix; Hola, José; Daviú, Antonio; Jara, Danilo; Vallejos, Humberto

    2008-08-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor formed by smooth muscle, adipose tissue and blood vessels. It is commonly found incidentally and its clinical manifestations are pain and abdominal mass or spontaneous tumor rupture with retroperitoneal bleeding. The clinical presentation of a hemorrhagic shock secondary to a retroperitoneal hematoma is uncommon. We report a 40 year-old male who presented to the emergency room with lumbar pain and deterioration of hemodynamic parameters. The CT scan showed a left renal injury associated to an expansive retroperitoneal process. The abdominal exploration, vascular control of the renal pedicle and nephrectomy allowed a successful outcome. PMID:18949188

  17. Concurrent renal angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Woo Kun; Sung, Deuk Jae; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Han, Na Yeon; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Jeog Hyeon [Anam Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Concurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and angiomyolipoma (AML) is a very rare condition, especially in patients without underlying tuberous sclerosis. We present three patients with concurrent RCC and AML in the ipsilateral kidney. Concurrent RCC is difficult to differentiate radiologically from a non-fatty component of an AML because they share several imaging findings. However, several noticeable radiologic features are helpful in the diagnosis of suspected cases. This report of two cases highlights the radiologic features that distinguish RCC from non-fatty components of AML.

  18. Producing a full-scale model from computed tomographic data with the rapid prototyping technique using the binder jet method: a comparison with the laser lithography method using a dry skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, I; Abe, K; Shiotani, S; Hirayama, Y

    2000-11-01

    Rapid prototyping using the binder jet method has recently been established and has already produced excellent results in industrial applications. The authors recently developed a technique for producing a full-scale model from computed tomographic (CT) data with the binder jet method as an approach to overcome the shortcomings of the laser lithography method, which is already widely used in medicine. They conducted a comparative investigation of full-scale models made with both techniques using a dry skull to determine the accuracy of the models. It was clearly demonstrated that the accuracy of the binder jet method was high enough to be used in craniomaxillofacial surgery because it was the same as the laser lithography method. This study employed data from the latest helical volume scan computed tomography device using a multidetector. The study showed that the new rapid prototyping technique was satisfactory in terms of speed, cost, installation environment, and accuracy of models, and that detailed shapes and structures can be reproduced well. Because this technique has many advantages over the laser lithography method, it should play a major role in craniomaxillofacial surgery and in other medical fields in combination with advances in CT devices. Although plaster is a more suitable fixation material when the emphasis is on the reproducibility of detailed structures, the binder jet method using starch is extremely useful for simulating operations and determining implant shapes because it allows for the prompt production of models. PMID:11314492

  19. Computerized tomographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized tomographic system for examining human breasts is described in detail. Conventional X-ray scanning apparatus has difficulty in achieving the levels of image definition and examination speeds required for mass screening. A novel method of scanning successive layers of the breast with a rotating X-ray beam is discussed and details of the control circuitry and sequence steps are given. The method involves immersing the breast in an inner fluid (e.g. water) filled container which is stationary during an examination and is surrounded by a large outer container which is also filled with the fluid; the inner and outer containers are always maintained at a constant height and the X-ray absorption across the fan-shaped beam is as close as possible to constant. (U.K.)

  20. Multicenter Phase 2 Trial of Sirolimus for Tuberous Sclerosis: Kidney Angiomyolipomas and Other Tumors Regress and VEGF- D Levels Decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabora, Sandra L.; Franz, David Neal; Ashwal, Stephen; Sagalowsky, Arthur; DiMario, Francis J.; Miles, Daniel; Cutler, Drew; Krueger, Darcy; Uppot, Raul N.; Rabenou, Rahmin; Camposano, Susana; Paolini, Jan; Fennessy, Fiona; Lee, Nancy; Woodrum, Chelsey; Manola, Judith; Garber, Judy; Thiele, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) related tumors are characterized by constitutively activated mTOR signaling due to mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. Methods We completed a phase 2 multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, for the treatment of kidney angiomyolipomas. Results 36 adults with TSC or TSC/LAM were enrolled and started on daily sirolimus. The overall response rate was 44.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 28 to 61); 16/36 had a partial response. The remainder had stable disease (47.2%, 17/36), or were unevaluable (8.3%, 3/36). The mean decrease in kidney tumor size (sum of the longest diameters [sum LD]) was 29.9% (95% CI, 22 to 37; n = 28 at week 52). Drug related grade 1–2 toxicities that occurred with a frequency of >20% included: stomatitis, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, bone marrow suppression (anemia, mild neutropenia, leucopenia), proteinuria, and joint pain. There were three drug related grade 3 events: lymphopenia, headache, weight gain. Kidney angiomyolipomas regrew when sirolimus was discontinued but responses tended to persist if treatment was continued after week 52. We observed regression of brain tumors (SEGAs) in 7/11 cases (26% mean decrease in diameter), regression of liver angiomyolipomas in 4/5 cases (32.1% mean decrease in longest diameter), subjective improvement in facial angiofibromas in 57%, and stable lung function in women with TSC/LAM (n = 15). A correlative biomarker study showed that serum VEGF-D levels are elevated at baseline, decrease with sirolimus treatment, and correlate with kidney angiomyolipoma size (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.54, p = 0.001, at baseline). Conclusions Sirolimus treatment for 52 weeks induced regression of kidney angiomyolipomas, SEGAs, and liver angiomyolipomas. Serum VEGF-D may be a useful biomarker for monitoring kidney angiomyolipoma size. Future studies are needed to determine benefits and risks of longer duration

  1. Computed tomographic aspects of primary brain tumors in dogs and cats; Aspectos tomograficos de tumores cerebrais primarios em caes e gatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Zardo, Karen Maciel; Santos, Debora Rodrigues dos; Silva, Luciana Carandina da; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem - FMVZ - UNESP/Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the years, the Veterinary Medicine has made great advances, enabling thus the diagnosis of many diseases. As a result of this new situation, there was an increased expectation of life of animals resulting in an increase in the number of clinical care of older animals. Thus, diseases considered unusual in the past, begin to be diagnosed more frequently, as is the case of brain damage. Recently, computed tomography has been widely used in Brazil as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of several diseases. This noninvasive imaging technique allows the identification and evaluation of lesions of central nervous tissue such as brain tumors. This provides information about the size, shape and location of the lesion, in addition to the magnitude of compression and invasion of adjacent structures by the tumor and its side effects (such as the peritumoral edema and hydrocephalus). The image obtained from computed tomography may suggest the presence of a certain type brain tumor, data of great importance for the prognosis and treatment of the animal. This review covers the computed tomography aspects of primary brain tumors such as meningiomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, choroid plexus tumors and ependymomas. However, despite the computed tomography provide much information about the changes inside the skull; no way replace histopathological examination in determining the definitive diagnosis. (author)

  2. Gynecologic electrical impedance tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjenevsky, A.; Cherepenin, V.; Trokhanova, O.; Tuykin, T.

    2010-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography extends to the new and new areas of the medical diagnostics: lungs, breast, prostate, etc. The feedback from the doctors who use our breast EIT diagnostic system has induced us to develop the 3D electrical impedance imaging device for diagnostics of the cervix of the uterus - gynecologic impedance tomograph (GIT). The device uses the same measuring approach as the breast imaging system: 2D flat array of the electrodes arranged on the probe with handle is placed against the body. Each of the 32 electrodes of the array is connected in turn to the current source while the rest electrodes acquire the potentials on the surface. The current flows through the electrode of the array and returns through the remote electrode placed on the patient's limb. The voltages are measured relative to another remote electrode. The 3D backprojection along equipotential surfaces is used to reconstruct conductivity distribution up to approximately 1 cm in depth. Small number of electrodes enables us to implement real time imaging with a few frames per sec. rate. The device is under initial testing and evaluation of the imaging capabilities and suitability of usage.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Enterography Findings in Crohn′s disease in the Pediatric Population and Correlation with Fluoroscopic and Multidetector Computed Tomographic Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Parul Patel; Margaret Ormanoski; Hoadley, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, fluoroscopic examinations such as enteroclysis, upper GI studies, and small bowel follow through exams have been the procedures of choice in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pediatric populations. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), it has subsequently become a complementary examination in imaging inflammatory bowel disease. A major advantage of MDCT over fluoroscopic examination is its ability to directly visualize bowel mucosa, as well a...

  4. Abnormal branching of the left lingular pulmonary artery diagnosed by three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography in a patient with lung cancer: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Dai; Mikubo, Masashi; Shiomi, Kazu; SATOH, YUKITOSHI

    2016-01-01

    Background In general, there are several anomalies of the pulmonary artery. The mediastinal lingular pulmonary artery is well-known for its abnormal branching from the pulmonary artery. However, other types of variation are rare. Case presentation We herein report the case of a patient with primary lung cancer who underwent left upper lobectomy in which the lingular pulmonary artery branching from the mediastinal basal artery was demonstrated by preoperative three-dimensional computed tomogra...

  5. Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Assessment of Canal Centering Ability and Transportation after Preparation with Twisted File and Bio RaCe Instrumentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiamars Honardar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of rotary Nickel-Titanium (NiTi instruments for endodontic preparation has introduced a new era in endodontic practice, but this issue has undergone dramatic modifications in order to achieve improved shaping abilities. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT has made it possible to accurately evaluate geometrical changes following canal preparation. This study was carried out to compare canal centering ability and transportation of Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary systems by means of cone-beam computed tomography.Thirty root canals from freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary teeth were selected. Teeth were mounted and scanned before and after preparation by CBCT at different apical levels. Specimens were divided into 2 groups of 15. In the first group Twisted File and in the second, BioRaCe was used for canal preparation. Canal transportation and centering ability after preparation were assessed by NNT Viewer and Photoshop CS4 software. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test and two-way ANOVA.All samples showed deviations from the original axes of the canals. No significant differences were detected between the two rotary NiTi instruments for canal centering ability in all sections. Regarding canal transportation however, a significant difference was seen in the BioRaCe group at 7.5mm from the apex.Under the conditions of this in vitro study, Twisted File and BioRaCe rotary NiTi files retained original canal geometry.

  6. FDG PET or PET/CT in evaluation of renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun Yi [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (China); Chen, Hui Yi [Dept. of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China); Ding, Hueisch Jy [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, E-DA Hospital I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China); Yen, Kuo Yang; Kao, Chia Hung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China)

    2013-04-15

    Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clinical and radiographic features. Six men and 15 women were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 57.14 ± 9.67 years old. The mean diameter of 21 renal AML on CT scans was 1.76 ± 1.00 cm (Min: 0.6 cm; Max: 4.4 cm). CT scans illustrated renal masses typical of AMLs, and the corresponding FDG PET scans showed minimal FDG activities in the area of the tumors. None of the 21 AMLs showed a maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) greater than 1.98. No statistically significant correlation was present between SUV{sub max} and tumor size. Renal AMLs demonstrate very low to low uptake on FDG PET and PET/CT imaging in this study. When a fat-containing tumor in the kidney is found on a CT scan, it is critical to differentiate an AML from a malignant tumor including an RCC, liposarcoma, and Wilms tumor. This study suggests that FDG PET or PET/CT imaging is useful for differentiating a renal AML from a fat-containing malignant tumor.

  7. FDG PET or PET/CT in evaluation of renal angiomyolipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiomyolipoma is the most common benign kidney tumor. However, literature describing FDG PET findings on renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is limited. This study reports the FDG PET and PET/CT findings of 21 cases of renal AML. The study reviews FDG PET and PET/CT images of 21 patients diagnosed with renal AML. The diagnosis is based on the classical appearance of an AML on CT scan with active surveillance for 6 months. The study is focused on the observation of clinical and radiographic features. Six men and 15 women were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 57.14 ± 9.67 years old. The mean diameter of 21 renal AML on CT scans was 1.76 ± 1.00 cm (Min: 0.6 cm; Max: 4.4 cm). CT scans illustrated renal masses typical of AMLs, and the corresponding FDG PET scans showed minimal FDG activities in the area of the tumors. None of the 21 AMLs showed a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) greater than 1.98. No statistically significant correlation was present between SUVmax and tumor size. Renal AMLs demonstrate very low to low uptake on FDG PET and PET/CT imaging in this study. When a fat-containing tumor in the kidney is found on a CT scan, it is critical to differentiate an AML from a malignant tumor including an RCC, liposarcoma, and Wilms tumor. This study suggests that FDG PET or PET/CT imaging is useful for differentiating a renal AML from a fat-containing malignant tumor.

  8. Microstructural and Tomographic Analyses in Geotechnical Assessment of Soil Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumor Maciej Kordian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two different approaches to microanalysis of the soil medium. It presents testing results collected by electromicroscopy, which requires special sample preparation, and a non-destructive method, requiring no sample preparation and using a computer-assisted tomograph. The paper presents:

  9. Central odontogenic fibroma (simple type) in a four year old boy: Atypical cone-beam computed tomographic appearance with periosteal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. A case of COF (simple type) of the mandible in a four-year-old boy is described in this report. The patient showed asymptomatic swelling in the right inferior border of the lower jaw for one week. A panoramic radiograph showed a poorly-defined destructive unilocular radiolucent area. Cone-beam computed tomography showed expansion and perforation of the adjacent cortical bone plates. A periosteal reaction with the Codman triangle pattern was clearly visible in the buccal cortex. Since the tumor had destroyed a considerable amount of bone, surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted

  10. Avaliação da inclinação do incisivo inferior através da tomografia computadorizada Computed tomographic evaluation of inferior incisor position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

    2008-12-01

    computadorizada, as diferenças não são clinicamente significativas.INTRODUCTION: Orthodontics has always used lateral cephalometric radiographs (LC as the main examination in the orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. The determination of incisor position is part of most cephalometric analysis, including Tweed analysis. However, all radiographic images have limitations, since it is a bidimensional image of a tridimensional structure and overlapping of bone and dental structures often occurs. Computed tomography (CT allows a trustworthy diagnostic, mainly for its tridimensional images possibility. In this situation it seems reasonable to question the classic cephalometric analysis, creating factors of comparison with computed tomography data. AIM: For this, it was considered the evaluation of the angle between the long axis of the inferior incisor and the mandibular plane (IMPA in the lateral cephalograph and in the computed tomography. METHODS: Nineteen patients, selected for orthodontic treatment, had constituted the sample of this study, 12 female and 7 male, with ages between 16 years and 4 months and 28 years and 2 months. After the collection of data made by two examiners, statistical analyses for the attainment of the errors intra and inter-examiners had been made, using level of significance of 5%. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It was concluded that IMPA can be measured in the lateral cephalometric radiographs with trustworthiness, even that its values were smaller when compared with the computed tomography.

  11. Central odontogenic fibroma (simple type) in a four year old boy: Atypical cone-beam computed tomographic appearance with periosteal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbiaee, Najme; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Sanaei, Alireza [Dept. of , Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. A case of COF (simple type) of the mandible in a four-year-old boy is described in this report. The patient showed asymptomatic swelling in the right inferior border of the lower jaw for one week. A panoramic radiograph showed a poorly-defined destructive unilocular radiolucent area. Cone-beam computed tomography showed expansion and perforation of the adjacent cortical bone plates. A periosteal reaction with the Codman triangle pattern was clearly visible in the buccal cortex. Since the tumor had destroyed a considerable amount of bone, surgical resection was performed. No recurrence was noted.

  12. The advantage of the three dimensional computed tomographic (3 D-CT for ensuring accurate bone incision in sagittal split ramus osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional and aesthetic dysgnathia surgery requires accurate pre-surgical planning, including the surgical technique to be used related with the difference of anatomical structures amongst individuals. Programs that simulate the surgery become increasingly important. This can be mediated by using a surgical model, conventional x-rays as panoramic, cephalometric projections and another sophisticated method such as a three dimensional computed tomography (3 D-CT. A patient who had undergone double jaw surgeries with difficult anatomical landmarks was presented. In this case the mandible foramens were seen highly relatively related to the sigmoid notches. Therefore, ensuring the bone incisions in sagittal split was presumed to be difficult. A 3D-CT was made and considered to be very helpful in supporting the pre-operative diagnostic.

  13. Spiral computed tomographic pulmonary angiography in patients with acute pulmonary emboli and no pre-existing comorbidity: a prospective prognostic panel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Mozayan, Maryam; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem [Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza [Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Lung and Respiratory Disease, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel F. [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the prognostic validity of the right ventricular to left ventricular diameter (RVD/LVD) ratio and Qanadli pulmonary artery obstruction score (PAOS) in hemodynamically stable patients with no pre-existing comorbidities. Sixty-three patients with no previous comorbidity were recruited for this study. The RVD/LVD ratio was calculated based on axial image measurements obtained from contrast-enhanced non-electrocardiography-gated spiral computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiographic studies. Patients were followed up for 60 days after the initial CT and study variables including demographic data, the RVD/LVD ratio and PAOS were compared between deceased cases and survivors via univariate and multivariate statistical models. The 60-day mortality rate was 22.2 %. The deceased and surviving groups were comparable for PAOS, whereas both the median age and RVD/LVD ratio were significantly higher in the first group. In multivariate analysis, however, age was the only significant, independent predictor of 60-day mortality (p = 0.02, Exp(B) = 1.06). At a cut-off age of 63 years the 60-day mortality was predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 64.3 % and 69.4 %, respectively. The RVD/LVD ratio and PAOS are not independent predictors of mortality in hemodynamically stable patients with acute PE and no pre-existing comorbidities. (orig.)

  14. Humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease: Computed tomographic features, histopathologic correlation and comparison between survivors and non-survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hee Mang; Lee, Jin Seong; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Jung, Ah Young; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Cho, Young Ah [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun; Hong, Soo-Jong [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon-Ok [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Se-Jin [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To report radiologic findings with histopathologic correlations of humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease (HD-chILD) and to compare computed tomography (CT) findings between survivors and non-survivors. Forty-seven children with HD-chILD (27.4 ± 12.4 months old) were categorized as survivors (n = 25) and non-survivors (n = 22). The patterns, distributions, and chronological changes in lung lesions at follow-up CT were investigated. Histopathologic correlations were performed in 23 patients. CT features were characterized by chronological changes, from consolidation to centrilobular opacities, and lesions eventually became faint centrilobular nodules. Histopathologic features were bronchocentric-distributed fibro-inflammatory lesions, which were more profound in the advanced stage than the early stage. Consolidation ≥30 % [hazard ratio (HR), 2.932], centrilobular opacities ≥60 % of the total lung volume (TLV; HR, 0.206) and spontaneous air leaks (HR, 3.457) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as per univariate analysis. Consolidation ≥30 % (HR, 3.519), centrilobular opacities ≥60 % (HR, 0.205) and diffuse ground glass opacity (GGO) ≥70 % of the TLV (HR, 3.521) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as determined via multivariate analysis. Distinctive chronological CT features were observed in the HD-chILD images. Spontaneous air leaks, consolidation, GGO, and centrilobular opacities were prognostic factors. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomographic examination of muscle volume, cross-section and density in patients with dysgnathia; Computertomographische Untersuchung von Muskelvolumen, -querschnitt und -dichte bei Dysgnathiepatienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedrange, T.; Haase, I.; Haase, J.; Harzer, W. [Poliklinik fuer Kieferorthopaedie des Univ. Carl Gustav Carus an der Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany); Hietschold, V.; Laniado, M. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik des Univ. Carl Gustav Carus an der Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: the individual jaw position is determined by the masticatory muscle among other factors. Before surgical treatment of malocclusions, thorough evaluation of the muscles is required to estimate the relapse risk. Materials and methods: by means of computer tomography, lateral radiographs of the skull and denture models, the relationships between morphological parameters of the masticatory muscles and the jaw bone were analyzed. Furthermore, possible causes for the extent of the malocclusion are described. Results: a patient group with deep overbite was found to have significantly higher muscle densities (measured in Hounsfield units [HU]) in the medial pterygoideus muscle (59.89{+-}3.91 HU to 48.94{+-}4.14 HU, p<0.01), masseter muscle, and genioglossus muscle (p<0.05) in comparison to open bite patients. Significant differences of the muscle cross-section were measured in the masseter muscle between patients with retroclined maxillary incisors and with an open bite (5.4{+-}0.7 cm{sup 2} to 3.8{+-}0.4 cm{sup 2}, p<0.05). Conclusion: the results show a correlation between different jaw positions and masticatory muscles. They also suggest that the function of each muscle may be different. Additional examinations of the muscle structures are required for verification of the influence of the masticatory muscles on facial morphology. (orig.)

  16. An appraisal of the computed axial tomographic appearance of the human mesentery based on mesenteric contiguity from the duodenojejunal flexure to the mesorectal level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human mesentery is now regarded as contiguous from the duodenojejunal (DJ) to anorectal level. This interpretation prompts re-appraisal of computed tomography (CT) images of the mesentery. A digital model and reference atlas of the mesentery were generated using the full-colour data set of the Visible Human Project (VHP). Seventy one normal abdominal CT images were examined to identify mesenteric regions. CT appearances were correlated with cadaveric and histological appearances at corresponding levels. Ascending, descending and sigmoid mesocolons were identifiable in 75 %, 86 % and 88 % of the CTs, respectively. Flexural contiguity was evident in 66 %, 68 %, 71 % and 80 % for the ileocaecal, hepatic, splenic and rectosigmoid flexures, respectively. A posterior mesocolic boundary corresponding to the anterior renal fascia was evident in 40 % and 54 % of cases on the right and left, respectively. The anterior pararenal space (in front of the boundary) corresponded to the mesocolon. Using the VHP, a mesenteric digital model and reference atlas were developed. This enabled re-appraisal of CT images of the mesentery, in which contiguous flexural and non-flexural mesenteric regions were repeatedly identifiable. The anterior pararenal space corresponded to the mesocolon. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Enterography Findings in Crohn′s disease in the Pediatric Population and Correlation with Fluoroscopic and Multidetector Computed Tomographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, fluoroscopic examinations such as enteroclysis, upper GI studies, and small bowel follow through exams have been the procedures of choice in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in pediatric populations. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT, it has subsequently become a complementary examination in imaging inflammatory bowel disease. A major advantage of MDCT over fluoroscopic examination is its ability to directly visualize bowel mucosa, as well as demonstrate extra-enteric complications of IBD such as abscesses, fistulae, and sinus tracts. The major disadvantage of CT however is exposure to ionizing radiation, especially in IBD patients of the pediatric age group who maybe repeatedly imaged due to exacerbations. As a result, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation and follow-up of pediatric patients with IBD. This pictorial essay will summarize the multi-modality imaging findings of IBD with emphasis on MRE including the imaging protocol and procedure. For the purposes of this article, patients less than 17 years of age have been considered to represent the pediatric population.

  18. Non-obstructive low attenuation coronary plaque predicts three-year acute coronary syndrome events in patients with hypertension. Multidetector computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial hypertension is an established risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is an accurate and less invasive technique for assessment of the degree of coronary artery luminal narrowing and characterization of coronary atherosclerosis. We therefore aimed to investigate the predictive power of MDCT for future ACS events and compared with traditional parameters in patients with hypertension. One hundred and thirty-four patients (93 men, mean age 70±11 years) with hypertension underwent MDCT for evaluation of coronary artery disease. MDCT analysis focused on the presence of plaques, the degree of stenosis, and the plaque characteristics. Traditional parameters included Framingham risk score, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index. During a mean follow-up of 39±10 months, ACS events occurred in 10 patients, including myocardial infarction (n=3) and unstable angina (n=7). Multivariate analysis identified total number of low attenuation plaques as an independent predictor of ACS events (p<0.001). We demonstrated that non-obstructive low attenuation coronary plaques on MDCT predicted more accurately future ACS events in patients with hypertension than traditional parameters. (author)

  19. Humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease: Computed tomographic features, histopathologic correlation and comparison between survivors and non-survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report radiologic findings with histopathologic correlations of humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease (HD-chILD) and to compare computed tomography (CT) findings between survivors and non-survivors. Forty-seven children with HD-chILD (27.4 ± 12.4 months old) were categorized as survivors (n = 25) and non-survivors (n = 22). The patterns, distributions, and chronological changes in lung lesions at follow-up CT were investigated. Histopathologic correlations were performed in 23 patients. CT features were characterized by chronological changes, from consolidation to centrilobular opacities, and lesions eventually became faint centrilobular nodules. Histopathologic features were bronchocentric-distributed fibro-inflammatory lesions, which were more profound in the advanced stage than the early stage. Consolidation ≥30 % [hazard ratio (HR), 2.932], centrilobular opacities ≥60 % of the total lung volume (TLV; HR, 0.206) and spontaneous air leaks (HR, 3.457) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as per univariate analysis. Consolidation ≥30 % (HR, 3.519), centrilobular opacities ≥60 % (HR, 0.205) and diffuse ground glass opacity (GGO) ≥70 % of the TLV (HR, 3.521) were significant factors associated with patient survival, as determined via multivariate analysis. Distinctive chronological CT features were observed in the HD-chILD images. Spontaneous air leaks, consolidation, GGO, and centrilobular opacities were prognostic factors. (orig.)

  20. An appraisal of the computed axial tomographic appearance of the human mesentery based on mesenteric contiguity from the duodenojejunal flexure to the mesorectal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, J.C.; Culligan, Kevin; Walsh, Leon G.; Sehgal, Rishab; Dunne, Colum; McGrath, Deirdre; Walsh, Dara [University Hospital Limerick, Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (4i), Graduate Entry Medical School and Department of Surgery, Limerick (Ireland); Moore, Michael [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Staunton, Marie [Mercy University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Scanlon, Timothy; Dewhurst, Catherine; Kenny, Bryan; O' Brien, Julie M. [University Hospital Limerick, Department of Radiology, Limerick (Ireland); O' Riordan, Conor [Kilkenny General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kilkenny (Ireland); Quondamatteo, Fabio; Dockery, Peter [National University of Ireland Galway, Anatomy, School of Medicine, Galway (Ireland)

    2016-03-15

    The human mesentery is now regarded as contiguous from the duodenojejunal (DJ) to anorectal level. This interpretation prompts re-appraisal of computed tomography (CT) images of the mesentery. A digital model and reference atlas of the mesentery were generated using the full-colour data set of the Visible Human Project (VHP). Seventy one normal abdominal CT images were examined to identify mesenteric regions. CT appearances were correlated with cadaveric and histological appearances at corresponding levels. Ascending, descending and sigmoid mesocolons were identifiable in 75 %, 86 % and 88 % of the CTs, respectively. Flexural contiguity was evident in 66 %, 68 %, 71 % and 80 % for the ileocaecal, hepatic, splenic and rectosigmoid flexures, respectively. A posterior mesocolic boundary corresponding to the anterior renal fascia was evident in 40 % and 54 % of cases on the right and left, respectively. The anterior pararenal space (in front of the boundary) corresponded to the mesocolon. Using the VHP, a mesenteric digital model and reference atlas were developed. This enabled re-appraisal of CT images of the mesentery, in which contiguous flexural and non-flexural mesenteric regions were repeatedly identifiable. The anterior pararenal space corresponded to the mesocolon. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of the high-resolution computed tomographic diagnosis of small solitary pulmonary nodule using evaluation of edge and internal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), we analyzed the results of an observer test in 26 cases with non-calcified SPN less than 3cm in maximal diameter including 13 malignant and 13 benign cases. Using evaluation of the edge and internal characteristics of the nodule, eight observers made differential diagnoses with five levels of confidence for SPN on both high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and conventional tomography (TOMO). The results of HRCT diagnoses were compared with those of TOMO diagnoses. HRCT diagnosis of SPN (Az=0.897) was significantly better than TOMO diagnosis (Az=0.705) in the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, because of the improvement in confidence level for malignant nodules in HRCT diagnosis. On the contrary, the diagnostic accuracy in benign nodules on HRCT was almost equal to that on TOMO. When one or more findings suggestive of malignancy, such as spicula or notching, were recognized, the nodules were diagnosed as possible malignancy. However, interindividual variations in interpretations of such findings were great among observers. In the differential diagnosis of SPN on HRCT, benign findings used were few compared with malignant findings. Our results indicate that (1) a method of handing interindividual variation of interpretations should be devised and (2) the diagnostic characteristics of each HRCT finding suggestive of benignity as well as malignancy, should be established in a larger series. (author)

  2. Hallazgos de tomografía computarizada en coenurosis cerebral crónica con hidrocéfalo secundario en una oveja joven Computed tomographic findings in chronic cerebral coenurosis associated with secondary hydrocephalus in a young ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue caracterizar, en una hembra ovina con signos clínicos de coenurosis cerebral, los hallazgos radiográficos observados mediante tomografía computarizada (TC. La TC de cráneo fue realizada sin contraste utilizando un escáner de cuarta generación. En las imágenes transversales de TC el quiste fue observado como una estructura hipodensa rodeada por un anillo hiperdenso y localizada en los hemisferios cerebrales a nivel del sistema ventricular. La presencia de ventriculomegalia y atrofia cortical indicaron la presencia de hidrocéfalo secundario. El Coenurus fue removido quirúrgicamente por trepanación a través del hueso frontal y luego de algunos días el animal recuperó su estado de salud. Los resultados observados indican que la TC constituye un método útil en demostrar la localización anatómica del quiste y en el planeamiento quirúrgico para la remoción de ésteThe purpose of this study was to describe the computed tomographic (CT features of a 14 month old ewe showing clinical signs of cerebral coenurosis. The CT analysis of the head was made using a fourth generation CT scanner. On transverse CT images the cyst was seen as an hipodense, ring enhanced mass located in the cerebral hemispheres and ventricular system. Ventriculomegaly and atrophy of the cortical tissue was also observed indicating the presence of secondary hydrocephalus. The Coenurus was surgically removed by skull trepanation through the frontal bone and after a few days the animal recovered its healthy status. CT proved to be useful in demonstrating the anatomic location of the cyst and was helpful in surgical planning

  3. Optimization of tomographic reconstruction workflows on geographically distributed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Tekin; Gürsoy, Dogˇa; Kettimuthu, Rajkumar; De Carlo, Francesco; Foster, Ian T

    2016-07-01

    New technological advancements in synchrotron light sources enable data acquisitions at unprecedented levels. This emergent trend affects not only the size of the generated data but also the need for larger computational resources. Although beamline scientists and users have access to local computational resources, these are typically limited and can result in extended execution times. Applications that are based on iterative processing as in tomographic reconstruction methods require high-performance compute clusters for timely analysis of data. Here, time-sensitive analysis and processing of Advanced Photon Source data on geographically distributed resources are focused on. Two main challenges are considered: (i) modeling of the performance of tomographic reconstruction workflows and (ii) transparent execution of these workflows on distributed resources. For the former, three main stages are considered: (i) data transfer between storage and computational resources, (i) wait/queue time of reconstruction jobs at compute resources, and (iii) computation of reconstruction tasks. These performance models allow evaluation and estimation of the execution time of any given iterative tomographic reconstruction workflow that runs on geographically distributed resources. For the latter challenge, a workflow management system is built, which can automate the execution of workflows and minimize the user interaction with the underlying infrastructure. The system utilizes Globus to perform secure and efficient data transfer operations. The proposed models and the workflow management system are evaluated by using three high-performance computing and two storage resources, all of which are geographically distributed. Workflows were created with different computational requirements using two compute-intensive tomographic reconstruction algorithms. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed models and system can be used for selecting the optimum resources, which in turn can

  4. Tuberous sclerosis with giant renal angiomyolipoma and sclerotic skeletal lesions in a geriatric patient: role of imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi M. Nagaraju

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis is a rare inherited neurocutaneous syndrome, which has multisystem involvement. We present a geriatric female patient with chronic abdominal pain who was diagnosed with giant renal angiomyolipoma (AML and multiple sclerotic skeletal lesions. Radiological imaging played an important role in identifying these two features and diagnosing tuberous sclerosis in our case. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2145-2149

  5. Computer-Aided Tomographic Analysis of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. Correlation with Pulmonary Physiologic Tests and Patient-Centred Measures of Perceived Dyspnea and Functional Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    dyspnea and functional disability. Computer-aided tomographic analysis is computationally efficient, and in combination with physiologic and patient-centred measures, it could allow a means for accurately assessing and monitoring the disease progression or response to therapy.

  6. Everolimus in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, angiomyolipomas, and pulmonary and skin lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz DN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David Neal Franz Department of Pediatrics, Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. It is characterized by the development of multiple, benign tumors in several organs throughout the body. Lesions occur in the brain, kidneys, heart, liver, lungs, and skin and result in seizures and epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, and renal and pulmonary organ system dysfunction, as well as other complications. Elucidation of the molecular pathways and etiological factors responsible for causing TSC has led to a paradigm shift in the management and treatment of the disease. TSC1 or TSC2 mutations lead to constitutive upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, which affects many cellular processes involved in tumor growth. By targeting mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, an orally active rapamycin derivative, clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in tumor burden have been achieved for the main brain (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal manifestations (angiomyolipoma associated with TSC. This review provides an overview of TSC, everolimus, and the clinical trials that led to its approval for the treatment of TSC-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. Keywords: everolimus, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, angiomyolipomas, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, facial angiofibromas, tuberous sclerosis complex

  7. Value of T2-weighted MR imaging in differentiating low-fat renal angiomyolipomas from other renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Accurate preoperative diagnosis of fat scanty angiomyolipomas is an important clinical issue. By evaluating the low signal intensity of angiomyolipomas in MR T2-weighted images the diagnostic accuracy can be elevated. Purpose: To retrospectively assess the usefulness of T2-weighted MR imaging for differentiating low-fat angiomyolipomas (AMLs) from other renal tumors. Material and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 71 patients with surgically proven renal masses (10 AMLs, 57 renal cell carcinomas [RCCs], and four oncocytomas), all of which showed no visible fat as well as gradual enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced CT. Signal intensity was measured in each renal mass and in the spleen on T2-weighted images, and each signal intensity ratio (SIR) was calculated; SIR values were then compared in the AML and non-AML groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the two parameters for differentiating the two groups. Results: The SIR values (77 ± 24% vs. 162 ± 79%, p = 0.002) were significantly lower in the AML than in the non-AML group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.926 for SIR. The sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of AMLs were 90% and 90.2%, using SIR cut-off of 92.5%. Conclusion: Signal intensity measurements on T2-weighted MR images can differentiate AML from non-AML in the kidney

  8. Expansion of the Multi-Link Frontier™ coronary bifurcation stent: micro-computed tomographic assessment in human autopsy and porcine heart samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kralev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions remains challenging, beyond the introduction of drug eluting stents. Dedicated stent systems are available to improve the technical approach to the treatment of these lesions. However dedicated stent systems have so far not reduced the incidence of stent restenosis. The aim of this study was to assess the expansion of the Multi-Link (ML Frontier™ stent in human and porcine coronary arteries to provide the cardiologist with useful in-vitro information for stent implantation and selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine ML Frontier™ stents were implanted in seven human autopsy heart samples with known coronary artery disease and five ML Frontier™ stents were implanted in five porcine hearts. Proximal, distal and side branch diameters (PD, DD, SBD, respectively, corresponding opening areas (PA, DA, SBA and the mean stent length (L were assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. PD and PA were significantly smaller in human autopsy heart samples than in porcine heart samples (3.54±0.47 mm vs. 4.04±0.22 mm, p = 0.048; 10.00±2.42 mm(2 vs. 12.84±1.38 mm(2, p = 0.034, respectively and than those given by the manufacturer (3.54±0.47 mm vs. 4.03 mm, p = 0.014. L was smaller in human autopsy heart samples than in porcine heart samples, although data did not reach significance (16.66±1.30 mm vs. 17.30±0.51 mm, p = 0.32, and significantly smaller than that given by the manufacturer (16.66±1.30 mm vs. 18 mm, p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Micro-CT is a feasible tool for exact surveying of dedicated stent systems and could make a contribution to the development of these devices. The proximal diameter and proximal area of the stent system were considerably smaller in human autopsy heart samples than in porcine heart samples and than those given by the manufacturer. Special consideration should be given to the stent deployment procedure (and to the follow

  9. Detection of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina in the acute setting: meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of multi-detector computed tomographic angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarno Giovanna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA has been increasingly used in the evaluation of the coronary arteries. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the diagnostic performance of MDCTA in the acute setting, for the detection of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and unstable angina pectoris (UAP. Methods A Pubmed and manual search of the literature published between January 2000 and June 2007 was performed. Studies were included that compared MDCTA with clinical outcome and/or CA in patients with acute chest pain, presenting at the emergency department. More specifically, studies that only included patients with initially negative cardiac enzymes suspected of having NSTEMI or UAP were included. Summary estimates of diagnostic odds ratio (DOR, sensitivity and specificity, negative (NLR and positive likelihood ratio (PLR were calculated on a patient basis. Random-effects models and summary receiver operating curve (SROC analysis were used to assess the diagnostic performance of MDCTA with 4 detectors or more. The proportion of non assessable scans (NAP on MDCTA was also evaluated. In addition, the influence of study characteristics of each study on diagnostic performance and NAP was investigated with multivariable logistic regression. Results Nine studies totalling 566 patients, were included in the meta-analysis: one randomised trial and eight prospective cohort studies. Five studies on 64-detector MDCTA and 4 studies on MDCTA with less than 64 detectors were included (32 detectors n = 1, 16 detectors n = 2, 16 and 4 detectors n = 1. Pooled DOR was 131.81 (95%CI, 50.90–341.31. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 (95%CI, 0.90–0.98 and 0.90 (95%CI, 0.87–0.93. The pooled NLR and PLR were 0.12 (95%CI, 0.06–0.21 and 8,60 (95%CI, 5.03–14,69. The results of the logistic regressions showed that none of the investigated variables had influence on the diagnostic

  10. Correlation of lung collapse and gas exchange - a computer tomographic study in sheep and pigs with atelectasis in otherwise normal lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Wolf

    Full Text Available Atelectasis can provoke pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications after general anaesthesia. Unfortunately, there is no instrument to estimate atelectasis and prompt changes of mechanical ventilation during general anaesthesia. Although arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 and intrapulmonary shunt have both been suggested to correlate with atelectasis, studies yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated these correlations.Shunt, PaO2 and atelectasis were measured in 11 sheep and 23 pigs with otherwise normal lungs. In pigs, contrasting measurements were available 12 hours after induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Atelectasis was calculated by computed tomography relative to total lung mass (Mtotal. We logarithmically transformed PaO2 (lnPaO2 to linearize its relationships with shunt and atelectasis. Data are given as median (interquartile range.Mtotal was 768 (715-884 g in sheep and 543 (503-583 g in pigs. Atelectasis was 26 (16-47 % in sheep and 18 (13-23 % in pigs. PaO2 (FiO2 = 1.0 was 242 (106-414 mmHg in sheep and 480 (437-514 mmHg in pigs. Shunt was 39 (29-51 % in sheep and 15 (11-20 % in pigs. Atelectasis correlated closely with lnPaO2 (R2 = 0.78 and shunt (R2 = 0.79 in sheep (P-values<0.0001. The correlation of atelectasis with lnPaO2 (R2 = 0.63 and shunt (R2 = 0.34 was weaker in pigs, but R2 increased to 0.71 for lnPaO2 and 0.72 for shunt 12 hours after induction of ARDS. In both, sheep and pigs, changes in atelectasis correlated strongly with corresponding changes in lnPaO2 and shunt.In lung-healthy sheep, atelectasis correlates closely with lnPaO2 and shunt, when blood gases are measured during ventilation with pure oxygen. In lung-healthy pigs, these correlations were significantly weaker, likely because pigs have stronger hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV than sheep and humans. Nevertheless, correlations improved also in pigs after blunting of HPV during ARDS. In humans, the observed

  11. Change over time in brain computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings in healthy elderly persons. A 10 year prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early detection, treatment and prevention of dementia have become increasingly important as the population ages. I have performed a follow-up study of changes in the brains of healthy elderly persons with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since 1982. One hundred thirty-three healthy elderly volunteers were first examined in 1982 with CT or MRI, electroencephalography, the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), blood pressure measurement, and interview. Subsequent examinations were done in 1986, 1989, and 1992. On CT, microinfarctions were found in 15.0% of subjects in 1982 and in 13.0% in 1986, and periventricular lucency (PVL) was found in 6.0% and 8.3%. The most frequent findings were vascular changes, which were observed in six persons (5.6%), followed by PVL, which was found in four persons (3.7%). Thus, vascular changes became more pronounced during the follow-up period. Lesions with high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2HSI) were found in 69.5% of subjects and increased in prevalence with age in the 1989 study. Such T2HSI lesions were found most frequently in the basal ganglia (61.9%), followed by the thalamus (39.0%), parietal lobe (37.0%), temporal lobe (12.7%), and the pons (8.5%). Of these lesions, lacunar infarctions showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and were found in 24.6% of subjects; their prevalence also increased with age. Results of BVRT were closely correlated with T2HSI lesions, suggesting that T2HSIs lesions may affect cognitive function. By 1992, 10 years after the start of the study, 34 (25.6%) of subjects had died and 19 (14.3%) had become demented. Subjects were divided into surviving and dead groups and dementia and non-dementia groups. Findings on CT and BVRT in this study have provided clear clinical indices of death and dementia, especially maximal width of third ventricule in impairment of the diagnosis of dementia. (author)

  12. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  13. Malignant hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma with recurrence in the lung 7 years after hepatectomy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yasunari; Omiya, Hideyasu; Takami, Koji; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kodama, Yoshinori; Mano, Masayuki; Nomura, Yoriko; Akiba, Jun; Yano, Hirohisa; Nakashima, Osamu; Ogawara, Mitsumasa; Mita, Eiji; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2016-12-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) arising in the liver is rare and usually benign, but it occasionally has malignant potential. A 58-year-old man with a liver tumor identified by a previous doctor with features suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma on computed tomography (CT) underwent anterior segmentectomy of the liver in 2006. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of exclusively epithelioid cells that were scatteredly positive for human melanoma black 45 on immunohistochemistry. Accordingly, primary hepatic epithelioid AML (eAML) was diagnosed. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital for follow-up after hepatectomy. He had event-free survival for nearly 7 years. In 2013, two well-defined round nodules were detected in the right lung field by chest CT, and partial pneumonectomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment. Histological examination of the resected lung tissue showed that it was morphologically and immunohistochemically identical to his primary hepatic eAML, leading to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis. This paper demonstrates a rare case of malignant hepatic eAML with late recurrence in the lung after hepatectomy. PMID:27037804

  14. Single photon tomographic imaging of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomographic imaging of the heart, utilizing gamma-emitting radionuclides, a rotating camera and computer reconstruction (SPECT), represents an important advance in cardiac nuclear imaging over standard 2-dimensional planar techniques. In addition to more precise 3-dimensional localization of cardiac lesions, tomography provides improved resistivity for lesion detection, improved lesion contrast, and enhanced ability to accurately quantify lesion severity and extent. The authors determined that tomographic imaging of exercise induced pefusion defects, using the flow tracer thallium-201, is superior to conventional planar imaging. By random selection, first one technique and then the other was performed in 3 groups of subjects: 54 patients with cardiac catheterization-proven coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as >50% stenosis of one or more major coronary arteries; 13 patients with no significant CAD at catheterization, and 20 normal volunteers, age 30-51. For SPECT imaging, 60 acquisitions were performed over 1800, transaxial images were reconstructed with a Hanning filter (cut-off 0.30), and data was reoriented to display short and long axis slices. Equal numbers of studies or normal volunteers and catheterization patients were interpreted without knowledge of patient identity using a five point scale. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, in which false positives were plotted against true positives, was used to determine the full sensitivity-specificity relationships for both imaging modalities. The SPECT ROC curve was higher and to the left, indicating improved performance

  15. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  16. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibort, A., E-mail: albertoi@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); López-Yela, A., E-mail: alyela@math.uc3m.es [Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@na.infn.it [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G., E-mail: marmo@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Simoni, A., E-mail: simoni@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G., E-mail: bhamathig@gmail.com [Physics Department, Center for Particle Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ventriglia, F., E-mail: ventriglia@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Università “Federico II” e Sezione INFN di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2012-03-26

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so-called Gauss–Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  17. On the tomographic description of classical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Sudarshan, E C G; Ventriglia, F

    2012-01-01

    After a general description of the tomographic picture for classical systems, a tomographic description of free classical scalar fields is proposed both in a finite cavity and the continuum. The tomographic description is constructed in analogy with the classical tomographic picture of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators. The tomograms of a number of relevant states such as the canonical distribution, the classical counterpart of quantum coherent states and a new family of so called Gauss--Laguerre states, are discussed. Finally the Liouville equation for field states is described in the tomographic picture offering an alternative description of the dynamics of the system that can be extended naturally to other fields.

  18. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Duk; Choi, Byung Ihn; Hong, Sung Mo; Chang, Kee Hyun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Cysticercosis, like other parasitic disease, is still endemic in many parts of the world, and is not infrequently found in Korea. The authors reviewed CT findings of 54 cases of the cysticercosis involving the central nervous system which were proven by pathology and clinical findings. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 3 : 1 and the most prevalent age group is the fifth decade. The most common symptom is seizure (56%). 2. Involved areas in the brain are parenchymal (66%), intraventricular (15%), leptomeningeal (40%) and the mixed (15%). 3. Pre-contrast CT findings are the round low density in 46 cases (85%), multiple pin- point calcification in 18 cases (33%), variable degrees of hydrocephalus in 20 cases (37%) and peripheral edematous change in 8 cases (15%). 4. Post- enhancement CT findings are complete or partial wall enhancement in 28 cases (50%), nodular enhancement in 18 cases (32%) and pin-point enhancement in 10 cases (18%) which represents the enhancement of the scolex per se. Basal cisternal enhancement is seen in one case, which is very unusual finding of cysticercosis cellulosae.

  19. Computed tomographic findings of intracranial cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysticercosis, like other parasitic disease, is still endemic in many parts of the world, and is not infrequently found in Korea. The authors reviewed CT findings of 54 cases of the cysticercosis involving the central nervous system which were proven by pathology and clinical findings. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 3 : 1 and the most prevalent age group is the fifth decade. The most common symptom is seizure (56%). 2. Involved areas in the brain are parenchymal (66%), intraventricular (15%), leptomeningeal (40%) and the mixed (15%). 3. Pre-contrast CT findings are the round low density in 46 cases (85%), multiple pin- point calcification in 18 cases (33%), variable degrees of hydrocephalus in 20 cases (37%) and peripheral edematous change in 8 cases (15%). 4. Post- enhancement CT findings are complete or partial wall enhancement in 28 cases (50%), nodular enhancement in 18 cases (32%) and pin-point enhancement in 10 cases (18%) which represents the enhancement of the scolex per se. Basal cisternal enhancement is seen in one case, which is very unusual finding of cysticercosis cellulosae

  20. Computed tomographic findings of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee [Koshin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is synonymous with bile duct carcinoma, and can originate in a small intrahepatic bile duct (peripheral type), a major intrahepatic duct including the hepatic hills, an extrahepatic duct, or near the papilla of Vater (central type). In a sense bile duct carcinoma of the peripheral type is cholangiocarcinoma of the liver; it has the same gross configuration as hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in difficulty to differentiate on the CT. The authors studied CT findings of 14 cases of pathologically proven peripheral type cholangiocarcinoma of the liver during the last 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. Of 14 cases, 8 were female and 6 were male, and the age ranged from 5th to 7th decades. 2. Preoperative clinical diagnosis were as follows: hepatoma 8 cases, abscess 5 cases and metastasis 1 case in order of frequency. 3. Diagnosis were confirmed by hepatic lobectomy in 7 cases, wedge resection in 5 cases and needle biopsy in 2 case. 4. Laboratory findings were not specific, but there were only 2 cases with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level. 5. Associated diseases were gallstones in 1 case, intrahepatic duct stones in 1 case, extrahepatic duct stones in 2 cases, acute or chronic cholecystitis in 5 cases and CS in 3 cases. 6. Angiographic and scintigraphic findings were helpful in differential diagnosis from hepatoma but ultrasonography was non-specific. 7. The number of tumor were solitary in 12 cases and multiple in 2 cases. Among solitary cases, the site of involvement of the liver were right lobe in 8 cases and left lobe in 4 cases. 8. Common CT features of the intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocinoma of the liver were irregular, inhomogeneous, occasionally peripherally enhancing, low density liver mass, frequently accompanied by diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. If there were normal alpha fetoprotein level, positive skin and/or stool examination for CS and diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic duct in low density liver tumor on the CT, one should consider peripheral cholangiocarcinoma of the liver than hepatoma.

  1. Computed tomographic findings of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholangiocarcinoma is synonymous with bile duct carcinoma, and can originate in a small intrahepatic bile duct (peripheral type), a major intrahepatic duct including the hepatic hills, an extrahepatic duct, or near the papilla of Vater (central type). In a sense bile duct carcinoma of the peripheral type is cholangiocarcinoma of the liver; it has the same gross configuration as hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in difficulty to differentiate on the CT. The authors studied CT findings of 14 cases of pathologically proven peripheral type cholangiocarcinoma of the liver during the last 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. Of 14 cases, 8 were female and 6 were male, and the age ranged from 5th to 7th decades. 2. Preoperative clinical diagnosis were as follows: hepatoma 8 cases, abscess 5 cases and metastasis 1 case in order of frequency. 3. Diagnosis were confirmed by hepatic lobectomy in 7 cases, wedge resection in 5 cases and needle biopsy in 2 case. 4. Laboratory findings were not specific, but there were only 2 cases with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level. 5. Associated diseases were gallstones in 1 case, intrahepatic duct stones in 1 case, extrahepatic duct stones in 2 cases, acute or chronic cholecystitis in 5 cases and CS in 3 cases. 6. Angiographic and scintigraphic findings were helpful in differential diagnosis from hepatoma but ultrasonography was non-specific. 7. The number of tumor were solitary in 12 cases and multiple in 2 cases. Among solitary cases, the site of involvement of the liver were right lobe in 8 cases and left lobe in 4 cases. 8. Common CT features of the intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocinoma of the liver were irregular, inhomogeneous, occasionally peripherally enhancing, low density liver mass, frequently accompanied by diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. If there were normal alpha fetoprotein level, positive skin and/or stool examination for CS and diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic duct in low density liver tumor on the CT, one should consider peripheral cholangiocarcinoma of the liver than hepatoma.

  2. Computed tomographic findings of ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of ovarian tumor has been mainly dependent on manual pelvic examination and ultrasonography. But in case of malignant ovarian tumor, CT has more advantages over ultrasonography in assessing anatomic details, relationships to bowel loops, precise extents of tumors and follow-up examinations after surgery. Authors analyzed CT features of 46 cases of pathologically proven ovarian tumors for recent 4 years at Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The most common tumor was serous cyst adenocarcinoma (9 cases: 20%), followed by metastases (8 cases: 17%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (7 cases: 15%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (5 cases: 11%), teratoma (5 cases: 11%), lymphoma (3 cases: 7%) and dysgerminoma (2 cases: 4%). 2. The ovarian tumors were variable in size from 2.5 cm to 33 cm in diameter. Most of the solid tumors were smaller than 10 cm in diameter and most of the cystic tumors were larger than 10 cm in diameter. Usually mucinous tumors were much larger than serous tumors. Mucinous cyst adenomas were the largest tumors. 3. Unilateral tumors (left 19, right 13 cases) were more common than bilateral tumors (12 cases). Bilateral tumors were seen in serous and mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, metastases and lymphoma. 4. CT features of mucinous cyst adenomas were smooth margins and thin wall of the tumor masses and multifaceted cysts with internal septa in all 7 cases. 5. In contrast, CT demonstration of bilaterally, irregular margin, thick wall, enhancing solid lesion, septal irregularity, adhesion to adjacent structures, peritoneal/omental implantation, ascites and hydronephrosis were signs suggesting malignancy. CT features of the serous cyst adenocarcinoma were mostly solid to mixed nature (83%), irregular margin (75%), enhancing solid lesion (67%), papillary growth (75%), internal septa (58%), multilocularity (58%) and calcification (25%) in descending order of frequency. 6. On CT, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma were irregular-marginated, thick-walled, cystic tumors with enhancing solid lesion, septal irregularity and signs of metastasis, although there were some cases having similar features of benign. 7. Among the extrapelvic CT findings of malignant epithelial ovarian tumor, peritoneal/omental implants (11 cases: 79%) and ascites (10 cases: 71%) were the most common, and indistinct uterus (6 cases: 43%), bowel adhesion (5 cases: 36%) and pseucomyxoma peritonei (2 cases) were descending order of frequency. 8. CT features of teratoma were diagnostic having at least three more of different tissue densities among fat, water, soft tissue and calcific densities. Also there were thick wall (4 cases) and fat-fluid level (1 case). 9. In 8 cases of ovarian metastases, there were solid type tumor smaller than 10cm in 4 cases and huge cystic in 2 cases. The site of primary cancer were stomach in 4 cases, colon, cervix, endometrium and unknown in each one case. 10. In 3 cases of malignant lymphoma, the CT features were solid in appearance, smaller than 10cm and accompanied by lymphadenopathy in all cases.

  3. Computed tomographic appearances of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated longitudinal changes in chest CT images in six cases (5 males and one female, age: 35-57 yr) of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis treated with bronchopulmonary lavage. Chest CT images on admission showed a mixed pattern of air-space consolidation and reticular or reticulonodular shadows in most cases and showed a peripheral clear zone in all cases. These shadows gradually diminished after bronchopulmonary lavage. Some cases revealed early improvement in the hilar zone while others had equal improvement in all lung lesions. In one case, consolidation was changed into reticular shadows by treatment. Previous reports have indicated that 'interstitial shadows which disappeared with lavage' reflect edematous thickening of interlobular septa. However, our longitudinal evaluation suggests that interstitial shadows on CT images may reflect not only real interstitial infiltration but also inhomogeneous distribution of intralobular deposits. (author)

  4. Computer tomographic localisation in primary aldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13 patients with verified primary aldosteronism (unilateral adrenal adenoma = 10, bilateral idiopathic hyperplasia = 3) underwent examination by CT and 131J-cholesterol-scintigraphy. CT-scan can be successfully employed for localization of unilateral adenoma exceeding 10 mm in diameter. Small lesions and hyperplasia are rare CT-findings. The value of 131J-cholesterol-scintigraphy for differentiation of the two main subgroups of primary aldosteronism - adenoma and hyperplasia - is limited. In our experience both noninvasive methods are helpful to avoid misleading interpretation. In controversial cases bilateral adrenal venous blood sampling by catheterization is mandatory. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomographic appearances of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, Yasuo; Uchiyama, Takashi; Nagao, Keiichi; Kuriyama, Takayuki (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Fujita, Akira; Hashizume, Ikko

    1994-03-01

    We evaluated longitudinal changes in chest CT images in six cases (5 males and one female, age: 35-57 yr) of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis treated with bronchopulmonary lavage. Chest CT images on admission showed a mixed pattern of air-space consolidation and reticular or reticulonodular shadows in most cases and showed a peripheral clear zone in all cases. These shadows gradually diminished after bronchopulmonary lavage. Some cases revealed early improvement in the hilar zone while others had equal improvement in all lung lesions. In one case, consolidation was changed into reticular shadows by treatment. Previous reports have indicated that 'interstitial shadows which disappeared with lavage' reflect edematous thickening of interlobular septa. However, our longitudinal evaluation suggests that interstitial shadows on CT images may reflect not only real interstitial infiltration but also inhomogeneous distribution of intralobular deposits. (author).

  6. Computer tomographic examination of the thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic value of CT in follicular thymic hyperplasia and in thymomas in 8 patients with myasthenia gravis and in 12 patients without myasthenia gravis suffering from thymic tumors was evaluated by correlating CT-findings to surgical results and pathological-histological findings. Thymic size of the six patients with histologically proven follicular hyperplasia were scattered within the normal range, but half of them were at the upper limit. Thymic tumors were differentiated between invasive and non invasive tumors by CT staging. Solid tumors with different histology could not be further classified; the attenuation values ranging from 15-55 HU were the same in tumors, follicular hyperplasia and normal thymus. (orig.)

  7. Xenon computed tomographic blood flow mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon CT flow information appears to be clinically useful in the diagnosis and management of a broad spectrum of clinical disorders. It also appears to be a useful tool for the experimental study of the cerebral circulation, with recent work also extending to application to the study of solid abdominal organs. The authors therefore found xenon CT CBF mapping to be a useful new blood flow methodology and are of the opinion that as CT technology improves, one will be able to obtain still better flow information with less accompanying radiation exposure and/or a reduction in the level of xenon inhalation required

  8. Varied computed tomographic appearance of intracranial cryptococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings in 12 cases of intracranial cryptococcal infection were reviewed. Five patients had a normal scan. Seven patients had communicating or noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Additional findings included meningeal opacification, cerebritis, abscess, and granuloma. Although not specific for cryptococcosis, the CT scan is helpful for evaluating and following the status of the ventricles, subarachnoid spaces, and meninges

  9. Varied computed tomographic appearance of intracranial cryptococcosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, S.H.; Jacoby, C.G.

    1982-06-01

    CT findings in 12 cases of intracranial cryptococcal infection were reviewed. Five patients had a normal scan. Seven patients had communicating or noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Additional findings included meningeal opacification, cerebritis, abscess, and granuloma. Although not specific for cryptococcosis, the CT scan is helpful for evaluating and following the status of the ventricles, subarachnoid spaces, and meninges.

  10. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, T.; Ito, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Tsuru, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kitaoka, K.

    1981-03-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick.

  11. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Fritz, S., E-mail: stefan.fritz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Vollherbst, D., E-mail: dominikvollherbst@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Zelzer, S., E-mail: s.zelzer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Wachter, M. F., E-mail: fredericwachter@googlemail.com; Bellemann, N., E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Gockner, T., E-mail: theresa.gockner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Mokry, T., E-mail: theresa.mokry@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmitz, A., E-mail: anne.schmitz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Aulmann, S., E-mail: sebastian.aulmann@mail.com [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany); Stampfl, U., E-mail: ulrike.stampfl@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P., E-mail: philippe.pereira@slk-kliniken.de [SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Kauczor, H. U., E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Radeleff, B. A., E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver.

  12. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm3, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm3, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver

  13. Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies TSC1/TSC2 Biallelic Loss as the Primary and Sufficient Driver Event for Renal Angiomyolipoma Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannikou, Krinio; Malinowska, Izabela A; Pugh, Trevor J; Yan, Rachel; Tseng, Yuen-Yi; Oh, Coyin; Kim, Jaegil; Tyburczy, Magdalena E; Chekaluk, Yvonne; Liu, Yang; Alesi, Nicola; Finlay, Geraldine A; Wu, Chin-Lee; Signoretti, Sabina; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad; Boehm, Jesse S; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2016-08-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a kidney tumor in the perivascular epithelioid (PEComa) family that is common in patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) but occurs rarely sporadically. Though histologically benign, renal angiomyolipoma can cause life-threatening hemorrhage and kidney failure. Both angiomyolipoma and LAM have mutations in TSC2 or TSC1. However, the frequency and contribution of other somatic events in tumor development is unknown. We performed whole exome sequencing in 32 resected tumor samples (n = 30 angiomyolipoma, n = 2 LAM) from 15 subjects, including three with TSC. Two germline and 22 somatic inactivating mutations in TSC2 were identified, and one germline TSC1 mutation. Twenty of 32 (62%) samples showed copy neutral LOH (CN-LOH) in TSC2 or TSC1 with at least 8 different LOH regions, and 30 of 32 (94%) had biallelic loss of either TSC2 or TSC1. Whole exome sequencing identified a median of 4 somatic non-synonymous coding region mutations (other than in TSC2/TSC1), a mutation rate lower than nearly all other cancer types. Three genes with mutations were known cancer associated genes (BAP1, ARHGAP35 and SPEN), but they were mutated in a single sample each, and were missense variants with uncertain functional effects. Analysis of sixteen angiomyolipomas from a TSC subject showed both second hit point mutations and CN-LOH in TSC2, many of which were distinct, indicating that they were of independent clonal origin. However, three tumors had two shared mutations in addition to private somatic mutations, suggesting a branching evolutionary pattern of tumor development following initiating loss of TSC2. Our results indicate that TSC2 and less commonly TSC1 alterations are the primary essential driver event in angiomyolipoma/LAM, whereas other somatic mutations are rare and likely do not contribute to tumor development. PMID:27494029

  14. Transcatheter arterial embolization as therapy of renal angiomyolipomas: The evolution in 15 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: This study aims at presenting the evolution of the embolization technique in treating renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) either diagnosed in patients with acute bleeding or discovered accidentally. Methods: Ten patients with renal AMLs have been through thirteen selective transcatheter arterial embolizations for 15 years. Two patients had tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with bilateral tumors and were embolized twice. Four embolic materials were employed: PVA particles, Gianturco coils, microspheres and microcoils. Catheterization was achieved by means of 5F Cobra 2 catheters and coaxial microcatheter systems. Results: On an emergency basis, embolization was a first-line treatment. In one case, surgery was necessary; in two patients, a second embolization was performed. When treatment was preventive, a single embolization proved to be sufficient, as well. There was no significant deterioration of the serum creatinine levels in the post-embolization period. Conclusion: Selective arterial embolization is a rather safe and effective technique to treat AMLs both urgently and preventively. Different embolic materials can be employed. Microspheres and microcatheters stand for new promising materials

  15. Hepatic angiomyolipoma-misdiagnosis as hepatocellular carcinoma: A report of 14 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Rong Zhong; Xiao Long Ji

    2000-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the liver, composed of a varying heterogeneous mixture of three tissue components: blood vessels, smooth muscle, and adipose cells. It has recently been proposed that the perivascular epithelial cell (PEC) is the common progenitor[1,2] Since its first description by Ishak in 1976[3], there have been more than 100 cases reported in the English literature[4-6]. With the advance of radiological techniques, many more tumors are being diagnosed by the means. But radiological findings of AML may only be suggestive of the lesion; its definitive diagnosis requires histological confirmation[9-19]. Some authors regard renal and hepatic AMLs, pulmonary and soft tissue lymphangiomyomatosis[2], pulmonary and pancreatic clear cell “sugar” tumor, and cardiac rhabdomyoma as closely related groups of tumors, based on their morphologic overlap and common immunoreactivity for HMB-45[l]. They show different microscopic appearances, however, according to their organ of origin. The goals of this study were to highlight more subtle morphology and to gain possible insights into the differential diagnosis that could provide important information about this disease.

  16. Comprehensive clinical and pathological analysis of aggressive renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma: report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jindan Luo,1 Ben Liu,1 Yanli Wang,2 Jun Li,2 Ping Wang,1 Jun Chen,1 Chaojun Wang1 1Department of Urology, 2Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China Abstract: Renal angiomyolipoma (AML is recognized as a benign hamartomatous lesion arising in the kidney with no obvious malignant potential. However, epithelioid AML (EAML, a rare variant of AML, is potentially malignant, with aggressive clinical features. It can occur in patients with or without tuberous sclerosis. Because EAML may mimic renal cell carcinoma in imaging studies, differentiation of this tumor from renal cell carcinoma preoperatively is difficult. At times, the lesions may extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava or metastasize to other organs such as the lung and liver. To clarify the biological nature of EAML, three specific cases that we encountered in clinical practice are analyzed and reported in detail. Keywords: kidney, malignant, inferior vena cava

  17. The diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy of hepatic angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate imaging diagnosis, differential diagnosis, surgery and interventional therapy of hepatic angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis. Methods: Clinical features, imaging appearances and interventional therapy for 2 cases of HAML in TS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The features of HAML in TS are as following: (1) Two cases were female with no history of hepatitis and hepatocirrhosis, liver function test and alpha fetoprotein were normal: (2) the tumor was shown as a multiple hyper-echoic mass with sharp margin on ultrasonography; well defined, fat density and intensity mass on computerized tomography (CT); hypervascular mass with early drainage of hepatic vein and tumor staining on angiography. (3) One case underwent interventional therapy. After 42 month follow up, the tumor was found to be diminished in size. Another case was under monitored with only the enucleating of left renal mass. The hepatic tumor showed no change after 10 months. Conclusions: The imaging appearances of HAML in TS are relatively characteristic. Super selective arterial embolization is an effective treatment for HAML in TS

  18. Transcatheter arterial embolization as therapy of renal angiomyolipomas: The evolution in 15 years of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatziioannou, A.; Gargas, D. [University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Radiology Department (Greece); Malagari, K. [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit, Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Kornezos, I., E-mail: kornezos@gmail.com [University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Radiology Department (Greece); Ioannidis, I.; Primetis, E. [University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Radiology Department (Greece); Moschouris, H. [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit, Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Gouliamos, A.; Mourikis, D. [University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital, Radiology Department (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: This study aims at presenting the evolution of the embolization technique in treating renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) either diagnosed in patients with acute bleeding or discovered accidentally. Methods: Ten patients with renal AMLs have been through thirteen selective transcatheter arterial embolizations for 15 years. Two patients had tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with bilateral tumors and were embolized twice. Four embolic materials were employed: PVA particles, Gianturco coils, microspheres and microcoils. Catheterization was achieved by means of 5F Cobra 2 catheters and coaxial microcatheter systems. Results: On an emergency basis, embolization was a first-line treatment. In one case, surgery was necessary; in two patients, a second embolization was performed. When treatment was preventive, a single embolization proved to be sufficient, as well. There was no significant deterioration of the serum creatinine levels in the post-embolization period. Conclusion: Selective arterial embolization is a rather safe and effective technique to treat AMLs both urgently and preventively. Different embolic materials can be employed. Microspheres and microcatheters stand for new promising materials.

  19. Evidence Supporting a Lymphatic Endothelium Origin for Angiomyolipoma, a TSC2(-) Tumor Related to Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Michael; Pacheco, Gustavo; Cheng, Tao; Li, Jefferine; Wang, Yitang; Henske, Elizabeth P; Schuger, Lucia

    2016-07-01

    Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a tumor closely related to lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Both entities are characterized by the proliferation of smooth muscle actin and melanocytic glycoprotein 100 (recognized by antibody HMB-45)-positive spindle-shaped and epithelioid cells. AML and LAM are etiologically linked to mutations in the tsc2 and tsc1 genes in the case of LAM. These genes encode the proteins tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-1 and TSC2, which are directly involved in suppressing the mechanistic target of rapamycin cell growth signaling pathway. Although significant progress has been made in characterizing and pharmacologically slowing the progression of AML and LAM with rapamycin, our understanding of their pathogenesis lacks an identified cell of origin. We used an AML-derived cell line to determine whether TSC2 restitution brings about the cell type from which AML arises. We found that AML cells express lymphatic endothelial cell markers consistent with lymphatic endothelial cell precursors in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, on TSC2 correction, AML cells mature into adult lymphatic endothelial cells and have functional attributes characteristic of this cell lineage, suggesting a lymphatic endothelial cell of origin for AML. These effects are dependent on TSC2-mediated mechanistic target of rapamycin inactivation. Finally, we demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of norcantharidin, a lymphangiogenesis inhibitor, as a potential co-adjuvant therapy in the treatment of AML. PMID:27289491

  20. Detector Based Radio Tomographic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yiğitler, Hüseyin; Jäntti, Riku; Kaltiokallio, Ossi; Patwari, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Received signal strength based radio tomographic imaging is a popular device-free indoor localization method which reconstructs the spatial loss field of the environment using measurements from a dense wireless network. Existing methods solve an associated inverse problem using algebraic or compressed sensing reconstruction algorithms. We propose an alternative imaging method that reconstructs spatial field of occupancy using a back-projection based reconstruction algorithm. The introduced sy...