Sample records for angiography visual estimation

  1. Improved dynamic CT angiography visualization by flow territory masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Christensen


    Full Text Available Backgound and Purpose: Computerized tomography (CT perfusion (or CTP source images from CT scanners with small detector widths can be used to create a dynamic CT angiogram (CTA similar to digital subtraction angiography (DSA. Because CTP studies use a single intravenous injection, all arterial territories enhance simultaneously, and individual arterial territories [i.e., anterior cerebral artery (ACA, middle cerebral artery (MCA, and posterior cerebral artery (PCA] cannot be delineated. This limits the ability to assess collateral flow patterns on dynamic CTAs. The aim of this study was to devise and test a postprocessing method to selectively color-label the major arterial territories on dynamic CTA. Materials and Methods: We identified 22 acute-stroke patients who underwent CTP on a 320-slice CT scanner within 6 h from symptom onset. For each case, two investigators independently generated an arterial territory map from CTP bolus arrival maps using a semiautomated method. The volumes of the arterial territories were calculated for each map and the average relative difference between these volumes was calculated for each case as a measure of interrater agreement. Arterial territory maps were superimposed on the dynamic CTA to create a vessel-selective dynamic CTA with color-coding of the main arterial territories. Two experts rated the arterial territory maps and the color-coded CTAs for consistency with expected arterial territories on a 3-point scale (excellent, moderate, poor. Results: Arterial territory maps were generated for all 22 patients. The median difference in arterial territory volumes between investigators was 2.2% [interquartile range (IQR 0.6-8.5%]. Based on expert review, the arterial territory maps and the vessel-selective dynamic CTAs showed excellent consistency with the expected arterial territories in 18 of 22 patients, moderate consistency in 2 patients, and poor consistency in another 2 patients. Conclusion: Using a

  2. Multislice computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: 3D visualizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghua Sun


    Multislice computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease due to its reduced invasiveness and high spatial and temporal resolution.As a reliable alternative to conventional angiography,multislice CT angiography has been recognized as the method of choice for detecting and diagnosing head and neck vascular disease,abdominal aortic aneurysm,aortic dissection,and pulmonary embolism.In patients with suspected coronary artery disease,although invasive coronary angiography still remains as the gold standard technique,multislice CT angiography demonstrates high diagnostic accuracy; in selected patients,it is considered as the first-line technique.The imaging diagnosis of cardiovascular disease is based on a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visualization tools to enhance the diagnostic value.This is facilitated by reconstructed visualizations which provide additional information about the extent of the disease,an accurate assessment of the spatial relationship between normal structures and pathological changes,and pre-operative planning and post-procedure follow-up.The aim of the present article is to present an overview of the diagnostic performance of various 2D and 3D CT visualizations in cardiovascular disease,including multiplanar reformation,maximum intensity projection,volume rendering,and virtual intravascular endoscopy.The recognition of the potential value of these visualizations will assist clinicians in efficiently using the muitislice CT imaging modality for the diagnostic management of patients with cardiovascular disease.

  3. Inraoperative and Histological Visualization of Disrupted Vulnerable Plaques following Diagnostic Angiography of Moderate Carotid Stenosis

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    Tatsushi Mutoh


    Full Text Available Background. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA remains an important tool for diagnosis of carotid stenosis but is associated with risk for periprocedural complications. This is the first report of direct intraoperative and histolopathologic visualization of DSA-related carotid plaque disruption. Case. A 64-year-old man diagnosed to have a 60% right carotid stenosis received diagnostic DSA for therapeutic decision-making. He developed transient left hand numbness and weakness immediately after the procedure. Intraoperative imaging during carotid endarterectomy revealed a fragile plaque with sharp surface laceration and intraplaque hemorrhage at the bifurcation. Microscopy of the specimen demonstrated a large atheromatous plaque with fibrous hypertrophy and intraplaque hemorrhage filled with recent hemorrhagic debris. Conclusion. The visualized carotid lesion was more serious than expected, warning the danger of embolization or occlusion associated with the catheter maneuvers. Thus the highest level of practitioner training and technical expertise that ensures precise assessment of plaque characteristics should be encouraged.

  4. Comparison of intra-aortic computed tomography angiography to conventional angiography in the presurgical visualization of the Adamkiewicz artery: first results in patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms

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    Clarencon, Frederic [Paris VI University, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Maria, Federico di; Cormier, Evelyne; Sourour, Nader; Gabrieli, Joseph; Iosif, Christina; Chiras, Jacques [Paris VI University, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Gaudric, Julien; Koskas, Fabien [Paris VI University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Jenny, Catherine [Paris VI University, Department of Radiophysics, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France)


    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of intra-aortic computed tomography angiography (IA-CTA) to that of regular spinal digital subtraction angiography for the presurgical location of the Adamkiewicz artery (AKA). Thirty patients (21 males, 9 females; mean age 64 years) had an IA-CTA for the location of the AKA before surgery of aneurysm (n = 24) or dissection (n = 6) of the thoracoabdominal aorta. After femoral artery puncture, a pigtail catheter was positioned at the origin of the descending aorta. CT acquisition was performed with an intra-aortic iodinated contrast media injection (15 mL/s, 120 mL). The visualization of the AKA and the location of the feeder(s) to the AKA were independently evaluated by two observers. Interrater agreement was calculated using a kappa test. Spinal angiogram by selective catheterization was systematically performed to confirm the results of the IA-CTA. The AKA was visualized by the IA-CTA in 27/30 cases (90 %); in 26/31 (84 %) cases, the continuity with the aorta was satisfactorily seen. Interrater agreement was good for the visualization of the AKA and its feeder(s): 0.625 and 0.87, respectively. In 75 % of the cases for which the AKA was visualized, the selective catheterization confirmed the results of the IA-CTA. In the remaining 25 % of the cases, the selective catheterization could not be performed due to marked vessels' tortuosity or ostium stenosis. IA-CTA is a feasible technique in a daily practice that presents a good sensitivity for the location of the AKA. (orig.)

  5. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.


    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  6. Use of performance curves in estimating number of procedures required to achieve proficiency in coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räder, Sune B E W; Jørgensen, Erik; Bech, Bo;


    media volume were used as indicators of quality of performance. We analyzed data from 4,200 coronary angiographies. Performance curves of seven trainees were compared with recommended reference levels and to those of seven interventional cardiologists. Results: On average, the number of procedures.......001 for all parameters. To approach the experts' level of DAP and contrast media use, trainees need 394 and 588 procedures, respectively. Performance curves showed large individual differences in the development of competence. Conclusion: On average, trainees needed 300 procedures to reach sufficient level...... needed for trainees to reach recommended reference levels was estimated as 226 and 353, for DAP and use of contrast media, respectively. After 300 procedures, trainees' procedure time, fluoroscopy time, DAP, and contrast media volume were significantly higher compared with experts' performance, P

  7. Exploiting magnetic resonance angiography imaging improves model estimation of BOLD signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghui Hu

    Full Text Available The change of BOLD signal relies heavily upon the resting blood volume fraction ([Formula: see text] associated with regional vasculature. However, existing hemodynamic data assimilation studies pretermit such concern. They simply assign the value in a physiologically plausible range to get over ill-conditioning of the assimilation problem and fail to explore actual [Formula: see text]. Such performance might lead to unreliable model estimation. In this work, we present the first exploration of the influence of [Formula: see text] on fMRI data assimilation, where actual [Formula: see text] within a given cortical area was calibrated by an MR angiography experiment and then was augmented into the assimilation scheme. We have investigated the impact of [Formula: see text] on single-region data assimilation and multi-region data assimilation (dynamic cause modeling, DCM in a classical flashing checkerboard experiment. Results show that the employment of an assumed [Formula: see text] in fMRI data assimilation is only suitable for fMRI signal reconstruction and activation detection grounded on this signal, and not suitable for estimation of unobserved states and effective connectivity study. We thereby argue that introducing physically realistic [Formula: see text] in the assimilation process may provide more reliable estimation of physiological information, which contributes to a better understanding of the underlying hemodynamic processes. Such an effort is valuable and should be well appreciated.

  8. Visualization of periventricular collaterals in moyamoya disease with flow-sensitive black-blood magnetic resonance angiography: preliminary experience. (United States)

    Funaki, Takeshi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Araki, Yoshio; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Susumu


    Fragile abnormal collaterals in moyamoya disease, known as "moyamoya vessels," have rarely been defined. While flow-sensitive black-blood magnetic resonance angiography (FSBB-MRA) is a promising technique for visualizing perforating arteries, as of this writing no other reports exist regarding its application to moyamoya disease. Six adults with moyamoya disease underwent FSBB-MRA. It depicted abnormal collaterals as extended lenticulostriate, thalamic perforating, or choroidal arteries, which were all connected to the medullary or insular artery in the periventricular area and supplied the cortex. This preliminary case series illustrates the potential for FSBB-MRA to reveal abnormal moyamoya vessels, which could be reasonably defined as periventricular collaterals.

  9. Estimation of visual motion in image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus


    The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... with a priori knowledge. We have surveyed a series of attempts to extract motion invariants. Specifically we have illustrate the use of local Fourier phase. The Fourier phase is shown to define the local shape of the signal, thus accurately localizing an event. Different strategies for local measurement...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....

  10. Generation and visualization of four-dimensional MR angiography data using an undersampled 3-D projection trajectory. (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Redmond, Michael J; Brodsky, Ethan K; Alexander, Andrew L; Lu, Aiming; Thornton, Francis J; Schulte, Michael J; Grist, Thomas M; Pipe, James G; Block, Walter F


    Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CE-MRA) has gained in popularity relative to X-ray Digital Subtraction Angiography because it provides three-dimensional (3-D) spatial resolution and it is less invasive. We have previously presented methods that improve temporal resolution in CE-MRA while providing high spatial resolution by employing an undersampled 3-D projection (3D PR) trajectory. The increased coverage and isotropic resolution of the 3D PR acquisition simplify visualization of the vasculature from any perspective. We present a new algorithm to develop a set of time-resolved 3-D image volumes by preferentially weighting the 3D PR data according to its acquisition time. An iterative algorithm computes a series of density compensation functions for a regridding reconstruction, one for each time frame, that exploit the variable sampling density in 3D PR. The iterative weighting procedure simplifies the calculation of appropriate density compensation for arbitrary sampling patterns, which improve sampling efficiency and, thus, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio, since it is does not require a closed-form calculation based on geometry. Current medical workstations can display these large four-dimensional studies, however, interactive cine animation of the data is only possible at significantly degraded resolution. Therefore, we also present a method for interactive visualization using powerful graphics cards and distributed processing. Results from volunteer and patient studies demonstrate the advantages of dynamic imaging with high spatial resolution.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊延; 王忠诚; 石祥恩


    Four cases of anterior communicating aneurysms are reported with clinical presentations of recurrent intracranial hemorrhage undisclosed in their cerbral angiography.Operative exploration revealed anterior communicating aneurysms in these patients.It is thought possible that these patients harbored aneurysms which failed to exhibit on angiograms due to temporary thrombosis or development of abnormal cerebral vessels.CT scanning was important for tdiagnosis of these patients.

  12. Classifying EEG Signals during Stereoscopic Visualization to Estimate Visual Comfort. (United States)

    Frey, Jérémy; Appriou, Aurélien; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin


    With stereoscopic displays a sensation of depth that is too strong could impede visual comfort and may result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. In particular, we show that either changes in event-related potentials' (ERPs) amplitudes or changes in EEG oscillations power following stereoscopic objects presentation can be used to estimate visual comfort. Our system reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average (up to 76%) and 74% on average when 7 consecutive variations are measured (up to 93%). Performances are stable (≈62.5%) when a simplified signal processing is used to simulate online analyses or when the number of EEG channels is lessened. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions. For example, it could be possible to match the stereoscopic effect with users' state by modifying the overlap of left and right images according to the classifier output.

  13. Estimation of x-ray parameters in digital coronary angiography for compensation of myocardial perfusion measurements

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    Storm, C.J.; Slump, C.H.; Hsieh, J.; Samei, E.


    Coronary angiography is the primary technique for diagnosing coronary abnormalities as it is able to locate precisely the coronary artery lesions. However, the clinical relevance of an appearing stenosis is not that easy to assess. In previous work we have analyzed the myocardial perfusion by compar

  14. Human Posture Estimation using Visual Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiayu XU


    Human-robot cooperation is one of the central research issues in robotics.Al kinds of sensors wil be used since the robot should understand human’s intention.This article wil focus on the human posture estimation by using Microsoft Kinect.The visual Information from Kinect can be acquired and used to extract the human skeletal information and further,calcu-late the human posture.The experiment results have been compared with a Qualisys system,which has been proved quite precisely.

  15. Multivariate density estimation theory, practice, and visualization

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    Scott, David W


    David W. Scott, PhD, is Noah Harding Professor in the Department of Statistics at Rice University. The author of over 100 published articles, papers, and book chapters, Dr. Scott is also Fellow of the American Statistical Association (ASA) and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. He is recipient of the ASA Founder's Award and the Army Wilks Award. His research interests include computational statistics, data visualization, and density estimation. Dr. Scott is also Coeditor of Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics and previous Editor of the Journal of Computational and

  16. Dual-source computed tomography: Estimation of radiation exposure of ECG-gated and ECG-triggered coronary angiography

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    Ketelsen, Dominik [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail:; Thomas, Christoph; Werner, Matthias; Luetkhoff, Marie H. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, Markus [Departments of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Tsiflikas, Ilias; Reimann, Anja [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Burgstahler, Christof [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Ottfried-Mueller-Strasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brodoefel, Harald; Kopp, Andreas F.; Claussen, Claus D.; Heuschmid, Martin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)


    Purpose: The aim of the study was to estimate radiation exposure of coronary calcium scoring and angiography using ECG-gated and ECG-triggered dual-source computed tomography. Materials and methods: An Alderson Rando phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used for all dose measurements. Effective dose was calculated according to ICRP 103. Radiation exposure was performed on a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) scanner with standard protocols for calcium scoring (DSCT-Ca) and coronary angiography (DSCTA) at different heart rates (40-100 beats/min). Furthermore, a scanning protocol with ECG-triggering as well as a standard chest CT scan were evaluated. Results: Depending on gender, heart rate and ECG-pulsing, the effective dose of a complete cardiac DSCT (DSCT-Ca and DSCTA) scan varies from 10.2 to 32.6 mSv. The effective radiation dose increased significantly with lower heart rates (p < 0.035). ECG-pulsing reduced the radiation exposure significantly in DSCTA (p < 0.001). Due to breast tissue in the primary scan range, females' doses showed an increase up to 69.9% compared to males in scan protocols without ECG-pulsing. Prospective ECG-triggered DSCTA resulted in estimated effective doses from 2.8 mSv (males) to 4.1 mSv (females). Conclusion: The ECG-pulsing technique has proven its effectiveness to reduce effective dose in coronary CT angiography and is recommended for all patients with regular heart rates. The patient's heart rate influences the radiation exposure with a significant decrease at higher heart rates. Due to its lower dose, ECG-triggered DSCTA should be implemented for special indications, i.e. for diagnosis of pathologies of the aortic root and the ascending aorta.

  17. Visual Gaze Estimation by Joint Head and Eye Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Lablack, A.; Sebe, N.; Djeraba, C.; Gevers, T.


    In this paper, we present an unconstrained visual gaze estimation system. The proposed method extracts the visual field of view of a person looking at a target scene in order to estimate the approximate location of interest (visual gaze). The novelty of the system is the joint use of head pose and e

  18. Visual acuity estimation from simulated images (United States)

    Duncan, William J.

    Simulated images can provide insight into the performance of optical systems, especially those with complicated features. Many modern solutions for presbyopia and cataracts feature sophisticated power geometries or diffractive elements. Some intraocular lenses (IOLs) arrive at multifocality through the use of a diffractive surface and multifocal contact lenses have a radially varying power profile. These type of elements induce simultaneous vision as well as affecting vision much differently than a monofocal ophthalmic appliance. With myriad multifocal ophthalmics available on the market it is difficult to compare or assess performance in ways that effect wearers of such appliances. Here we present software and algorithmic metrics that can be used to qualitatively and quantitatively compare ophthalmic element performance, with specific examples of bifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and multifocal contact lenses. We anticipate this study, methods, and results to serve as a starting point for more complex models of vision and visual acuity in a setting where modeling is advantageous. Generating simulated images of real- scene scenarios is useful for patients in assessing vision quality with a certain appliance. Visual acuity estimation can serve as an important tool for manufacturing and design of ophthalmic appliances.

  19. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... spaghetti. top of page How does the procedure work? Catheter angiography works much the same as a ... iodine. If angiography is essential, a variety of methods is used to decrease risk of allergy: You ...

  20. Comparison of Clinical Interpretation with Visual Assessment and Quantitative Coronary Angiography in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Contemporary Practice: The Assessing Angiography (A2) Project (United States)

    Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Lansky, Alexandra J.; Cohen, David J.; Jones, Philip G.; Kureshi, Faraz; Dehmer, Gregory J.; Drozda, Joseph P.; Walsh, Mary Norine; Brush, John E.; Koenig, Gerald C.; Waites, Thad F.; Gantt, D. Scott; Kichura, George; Chazal, Richard A.; O’Brien, Peter K.; Valentine, C. Michael; Rumsfeld, John S.; Reiber, Johan H.C.; Elmore, Joann G.; Krumholz, Richard A.; Weaver, W. Douglas; Krumholz, Harlan M.


    Background Studies conducted decades ago described substantial disagreement and errors in physicians’ angiographic interpretation of coronary stenosis severity. Despite the potential implications of such findings, no large-scale efforts to measure or improve clinical interpretation were subsequently made. Methods & Results We compared clinical interpretation of stenosis severity in coronary lesions with an independent assessment using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in 175 randomly selected patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at 7 U.S. hospitals in 2011. To assess agreement, we calculated mean difference in percent diameter stenosis between clinical interpretation and QCA and a Cohen’s weighted kappa statistic. Of 216 treated lesions, median percent diameter stenosis was 80.0% (Q1 and Q3, 80.0 and 90.0%) with 213 (98.6%) assessed as ≥70%. Mean difference in percent diameter stenosis between clinical interpretation and QCA was +8.2 ± 8.4%, reflecting an average higher percent diameter stenosis by clinical interpretation (P<0.001). A weighted kappa of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.36) was found between the 2 measurements. Of 213 lesions considered ≥70% by clinical interpretation, 56 (26.3%) were <70% by QCA though none was <50%. Differences between the 2 measurements were largest for intermediate lesions by QCA (50 to <70%) with variation existing across sites. Conclusions Physicians tended to assess coronary lesions treated with PCI as more severe than measurements by QCA. Almost all treated lesions were ≥70% by clinical interpretation, while approximately a quarter were <70% by QCA. These findings suggest opportunities to improve clinical interpretation of coronary angiography. PMID:23470859

  1. The role of visual information in numerosity estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia Gebuis

    Full Text Available Mainstream theory suggests that the approximate number system supports our non-symbolic number abilities (e.g. estimating or comparing different sets of items. It is argued that this system can extract number independently of the visual cues present in the stimulus (diameter, aggregate surface, etc.. However, in a recent report we argue that this might not be the case. We showed that participants combined information from different visual cues to derive their answers. While numerosity comparison requires a rough comparison of two sets of items (smaller versus larger, numerosity estimation requires a more precise mechanism. It could therefore be that numerosity estimation, in contrast to numerosity comparison, might rely on the approximate number system. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a numerosity estimation experiment. We controlled for the visual cues according to current standards: each single visual property was not informative about numerosity. Nevertheless, the results reveal that participants were influenced by the visual properties of the dot arrays. They gave a larger estimate when the dot arrays consisted of dots with, on average, a smaller diameter, aggregate surface or density but a larger convex hull. The reliance on visual cues to estimate numerosity suggests that the existence of an approximate number system that can extract numerosity independently of the visual cues is unlikely. Instead, we propose that humans estimate numerosity by weighing the different visual cues present in the stimuli.

  2. Electrocardiogram-gated coronary CT angiography dose estimates using ImPACT. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Haba, Tomonobu; Kawaguchi, Ai; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi


    The primary study objective was to assess radiation doses using a modified form of the Imaging Performance Assessment of Computed Tomography (CT) scanner (ImPACT) patient dosimetry for cardiac applications on an Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner, including the Ca score, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA, continuous CTA/cardiac function analysis (CFA), and CTA/CFA modulation. Accordingly, we clarified the CT dose index (CTDI) to determine the relationship between heart rate (HR) and X-ray exposure. As a secondary objective, we compared radiation doses using modified ImPACT, a whole-body dosimetry phantom study, and the k-factor method to verify the validity of the dose results obtained with modified ImPACT. The effective dose determined for the reference person (4.66 mSv at 60 beats per minute (bpm) and 33.43 mSv at 90bpm) were approximately 10% less than those determined for the phantom study (5.28 mSv and 36.68 mSv). The effective doses according to the k-factor (0.014 mSv•mGy-1•cm-1; 2.57 mSv and 17.10 mSv) were significantly lower than those obtained with the other two methods. In the present study, we have shown that ImPACT, when modified for cardiac applications, can assess both absorbed and effective doses. The results of our dose comparison indicate that modified ImPACT dose assessment is a promising and practical method for evaluating coronary CTA.

  3. Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation

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    Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang


    To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.

  4. Blood Loss Estimation Using Gauze Visual Analogue


    Ali Algadiem; Aleisa; Alsubaie; Buhlaiqah; Algadeeb; Alsneini


    Background Estimating intraoperative blood loss can be a difficult task, especially when blood is mostly absorbed by gauze. In this study, we have provided an improved method for estimating blood absorbed by gauze. Objectives To develop a guide to estimate blood absorbed by surgical gauze. Materials and Methods A clinical experiment was conducted using aspirated blood and common su...

  5. High-resolution coronary MR angiography for evaluation of patients with anomalous coronary arteries: visualization of the intramural segment

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    Biko, David M. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chung, Claudia; Chung, Taylor [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Hitt, David M. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Kurio, Gregory [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiology, Oakland, CA (United States); Reinhartz, Olaf [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Oakland, CA (United States)


    Anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the contralateral coronary sinus is a rare coronary anomaly associated with sudden death. The inter-arterial course is most closely associated with sudden death, but it has been suggested that the presence of an intramural segment of a right anomalous coronary is associated with more symptoms and therefore may be an important criterion for intervention in these patients. To demonstrate that MR angiography can accurately determine the presence or absence of an intramural segment in an anomalous coronary artery. All studies of children who underwent MR angiography for the evaluation of an anomalous coronary artery were retrospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists in consensus. Criteria for an intramural anomalous coronary artery were the presence of a small or slit-like ostium and the relative smaller size of the proximal intramural portion of the coronary artery in relation to the more distal epicardial coronary artery. The anomalous coronary artery was classified as not intramural if these two findings were absent. These findings were correlated with operative reports confirming the presence or absence of an intramural segment. Twelve patients (86%) met MR angiography criteria for the presence of an intramural course. Only 2 patients (14%) met MR angiography criteria for a non-intramural course. When correlating with intraoperative findings, MR angiography was successful in distinguishing between intramural and non-intramural anomalous coronary arteries in all cases (P = 0.01). MR angiography may be able to reliably identify the intramural segment of an anomalous coronary artery in older children using the imaging criteria of a small or slit-like ostium and relative decrease in size of the proximal portion of the anomalous coronary artery compared to the distal portion of the anomalous coronary artery. Determining the presence of the intramural segment may help with surgical planning and may be an important

  6. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Catheter Angiography? Angiography is a minimally invasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  7. In vivo validation of a blood vector velocity estimator with MR angiography

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    Hansen, K.L.; Udesen, J.; Thomsen, C.;


    was approximately 90 degrees for TO measurements. The correlation between the stroke volume estimated by TO and MRA was 0.91 (p Altman plot was additionally constructed where the mean difference was 0.2 ml with limits of agreement at -1...

  8. In Vivo Validation of a Blood Vector Velocity Estimator with MR Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Thomsen, Carsten;


    ° for TO measurements. The correlation between the stroke volume estimated by TO and MRA was 0.91 (p Altman plot was additionally constructed where the mean difference was 0.2 ml with limits of agreement at −1.4 ml and 1.9 ml. The results...

  9. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... medical conditions. Angiography uses one of three imaging technologies and, in most cases, a contrast material injection ... a tendency to bleed. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient ...

  10. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... with you. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Angiography may eliminate the need for surgery. If ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  11. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... injection of contrast material to examine blood vessels in key areas of the body for abnormalities such ... makes it possible to combine diagnosis and treatment in a single procedure. Catheter angiography produces very detailed, ...

  12. Catheter Angiography

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Catheter angiography is used to examine blood ... an hour away. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  13. Removing label ambiguity in learning-based visual saliency estimation. (United States)

    Li, Jia; Xu, Dong; Gao, Wen


    Visual saliency is a useful clue to depict visually important image/video contents in many multimedia applications. In visual saliency estimation, a feasible solution is to learn a "feature-saliency" mapping model from the user data obtained by manually labeling activities or eye-tracking devices. However, label ambiguities may also arise due to the inaccurate and inadequate user data. To process the noisy training data, we propose a multi-instance learning to rank approach for visual saliency estimation. In our approach, the correlations between various image patches are incorporated into an ordinal regression framework. By iteratively refining a ranking model and relabeling the image patches with respect to their mutual correlations, the label ambiguities can be effectively removed from the training data. Consequently, visual saliency can be effectively estimated by the ranking model, which can pop out real targets and suppress real distractors. Extensive experiments on two public image data sets show that our approach outperforms 11 state-of-the-art methods remarkably in visual saliency estimation.

  14. Topographical estimation of visual population receptive fields by FMRI. (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyun; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Keliris, Georgios A; Smirnakis, Stelios M


    Visual cortex is retinotopically organized so that neighboring populations of cells map to neighboring parts of the visual field. Functional magnetic resonance imaging allows us to estimate voxel-based population receptive fields (pRF), i.e., the part of the visual field that activates the cells within each voxel. Prior, direct, pRF estimation methods(1) suffer from certain limitations: 1) the pRF model is chosen a-priori and may not fully capture the actual pRF shape, and 2) pRF centers are prone to mislocalization near the border of the stimulus space. Here a new topographical pRF estimation method(2) is proposed that largely circumvents these limitations. A linear model is used to predict the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal by convolving the linear response of the pRF to the visual stimulus with the canonical hemodynamic response function. PRF topography is represented as a weight vector whose components represent the strength of the aggregate response of voxel neurons to stimuli presented at different visual field locations. The resulting linear equations can be solved for the pRF weight vector using ridge regression(3), yielding the pRF topography. A pRF model that is matched to the estimated topography can then be chosen post-hoc, thereby improving the estimates of pRF parameters such as pRF-center location, pRF orientation, size, etc. Having the pRF topography available also allows the visual verification of pRF parameter estimates allowing the extraction of various pRF properties without having to make a-priori assumptions about the pRF structure. This approach promises to be particularly useful for investigating the pRF organization of patients with disorders of the visual system.

  15. MR angiography (MRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, Kanehiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine


    The primary goal of vascular imaging is the visualization of morphology and hemodynamics. Catheter angiography has been regarded as a gold standard for this purpose. However, MR angiography (MRA) is now increasingly being recognized as an important noninvasive technique for the depiction of vascular diseases and is partially superseding catheter angiography. The author evaluated the usefulness of MRA in the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms and moyamoya disease. All aneurysms 5 mm or larger in diameter could be detected and most of those less than 5 mm in diameter were also detectable with using a combination of MIP images, target MIP images and source images. In moyamoya disease, the diagnosis could be made in all. For hemodynamic changes, flow directions in the circle of Willis could be visualized by phase-contrast MRA in a normal volunteer. In addition, MRA successfully showed the patency of surgical collaterals in cases of moyamoya disease. Despite some limitations compared with catheter angiography, MRA has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular abnormalities. Furthermore, screening of cerebral aneurysms or cerebrovascular occlusive diseases seems to be a new, and important indication for MRA. (author).

  16. Cortico-Cortical Receptive Field Estimates in Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen V Haak


    Full Text Available Human visual cortex comprises many visual areas that contain a map of the visual field (Wandell et al 2007, Neuron 56, 366–383. These visual field maps can be identified readily in individual subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during experimental sessions that last less than an hour (Wandell and Winawer 2011, Vis Res 718–737. Hence, visual field mapping with fMRI has been, and still is, a heavily used technique to examine the organisation of both normal and abnormal human visual cortex (Haak et al 2011, ACNR, 11(3, 20–21. However, visual field mapping cannot reveal every aspect of human visual cortex organisation. For example, the information processed within a visual field map arrives from somewhere and is sent to somewhere, and visual field mapping does not derive these input/output relationships. Here, we describe a new, model-based analysis for estimating the dependence between signals in distinct cortical regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Just as a stimulus-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of the stimulus contrast, the neural-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of responses elsewhere in the nervous system. When applied to two cortical regions, this function can be called the cortico-cortical receptive field (CCRF. We model the CCRF as a Gaussian-weighted region on the cortical surface and apply the model to data from both stimulus-driven and resting-state experimental conditions in visual cortex.

  17. Estimation of radiation exposure of retrospective gated and prospective triggered 128-slice triple-rule-out CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Fenchel, Michael; Thomas, Christoph; Boehringer, Nadine; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Kaempf, Michael; Claussen, Claus D; Heuschmid, Martin (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)), email:; Buchgeister, Markus (Depts. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany))


    Background: CT has become an important role in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain to exclude an aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and acute coronary artery syndrome. However, the additional radiation exposure is a cause of concern and dose saving strategies should be applied, if possible. Purpose: To estimate effective dose of retrospective gated and prospective ECG-triggered triple-rule-out computed tomography angiography (TRO-CTA). Material and Methods: An Alderson-Rando-phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters was used for dose measurements. Exposure was performed on a 128-slice single source scanner. The following scan parameters were used (retrospective ECG-gated): 120 kV, 190 mAs/rot., collimation 128x0.6 mm, rotation time 0.3 s. Protocols with a simulated heart rate (HR) of 60 and 100 bpm were performed using the standard ECG-pulsing as well as MinDose. Additionally, a prospective triggered TRO-CTA was acquired (HR 60 bpm). Results: The estimated effective dose of retrospective ECG-gated TRO-CTA ranged from 7.4-13.4 mSv and from 10.1-17.5 mSv for men and women, respectively. Due to radiosensitive breast tissue, women received a significant increased effective dose of up to 64.7% +- 0.03% (p = 0.028) compared to men. MinDose reduces radiation exposure of up to 33.0% +- 6.5% in comparison to standard ECG-pulsing (p < 0.001). The effective dose increased significantly with lower heart rates (p < 0.001). Prospective ECG-triggered TRO-CTA showed an effective dose of 5.9 mSv and 8.2 mSv for men and women, respectively. Compared to retrospective ECG-gated TRO-CTA a significant dose reduction was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Due to the significant different dose exposure, scan protocols should be specifically adapted in a patient- and problem-oriented manner

  18. Quantitative coronary angiography in the estimation of the functional significance of coronary stenosis: correlations with dobutamine-atropine stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. Baptista da Silva (José); M. Arnese (Mariarosaria); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); D.T.J. Keane (David); J. Escaned (Javier); C. di Mario (Carlo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Boersma (Eric)


    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of quantitative coronary angiography in the assessment of the functional significance of coronary stenosis as judged from the development of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine-atropine s

  19. Distributed Estimation, Coding, and Scheduling in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (United States)

    Yu, Chao


    In this thesis, we consider estimation, coding, and sensor scheduling for energy efficient operation of wireless visual sensor networks (VSN), which consist of battery-powered wireless sensors with sensing (imaging), computation, and communication capabilities. The competing requirements for applications of these wireless sensor networks (WSN)…

  20. Catheter Angiography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Images × Image Gallery Interventional radiologist performing an angiography exam View ... address): From (your name): Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your ...

  1. Temperature and oxygen visual estimator for carbonization process control (United States)

    Martínez, Fredy; Martínez, Fernando; Montiel, Holman


    This paper proposes a visual estimator for temperature and oxygen content for closed loop control of carbonization furnace in the production of activated carbon. The carbonization process involves thermal decomposition of vegetal material in the absence of air; this requires rigorous sensing and control of these two variables. The system consists of two cameras, a thermographic camera to estimate the temperature, and a traditional digital camera to estimate the oxygen content. In both cases we use similarity measures between images to estimate the value of the variables into the furnace, estimation that is used to control the furnace flame. The algorithm is tested with reference photos taken at the production plant, and the experimental results prove the performance of the proposed technique.

  2. Multislice CT Angiography of Fenestrated Endovascular Stent Grafting for Treating Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: a Pictorial Review of the 2D/3D Visualizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhonghua [Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Mwipatayi, Bibombe P [Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia); Allen, Yvonne B; Hartley, David E [Cook R and D, Perth (Australia); Lawrence-Brown, Michael M [Curtin University of Technology, Perth (Australia)


    Fenestrated endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm has been developed to treat patients with a short or complicated aneurysm neck. Fenestration involves creating an opening in the graft fabric to accommodate the orifice of the vessel that is targeted for preservation. Fixation of the fenestration to the renal arteries and the other visceral arteries can be done by implanting bare or covered stents across the graft-artery ostia interfaces so that a portion of the stent protrudes into the aortic lumen. Accurate alignment of the targeted vessels in a longitudinal aspect is hard to achieve during stent deployment because rotation of the stent graft may take place during delivery from the sheath. Understanding the 3D relationship of the aortic branches and the fenestrated vessel stents following fenestration will aid endovascular specialists to evaluate how the stent graft is situated within the aorta after placement of fenestrations. The aim of this article is to provide the 2D and 3D imaging appearances of the fenestrated endovascular grafts that were implanted in a group of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms, based on the multislice CT angiography. The potential applications of each visualization technique were explored and compared with the 2D axial images


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec


    Full Text Available A Visual Basic spreadsheet macro was written to automate the estimation of groundwater recharge from stream or spring hydrographs using the adapted Meyboom’s method. The program fits exponential regression model available in widely accessible platform (i.e. MS Excel to baseflow recessions that precede and follow groundwater recharge, and uses regression equations to calculate recharge volume that occur between these recessions. An example of field data from Croatia (Bulaž spring is given to illustrate its application.

  4. Perfusion Angiography in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Scalzo


    Full Text Available Visualization and quantification of blood flow are essential for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. For rapid imaging of the cerebrovasculature, digital subtraction angiography (DSA remains the gold standard as it offers high spatial resolution. This paper lays out a methodological framework, named perfusion angiography, for the quantitative analysis and visualization of blood flow parameters from DSA images. The parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF and cerebral blood volume (CBV, mean transit time (MTT, time-to-peak (TTP, and Tmax, are computed using a bolus tracking method based on the deconvolution of the time-density curve on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The method is tested on 66 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombectomy and/or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and also evaluated on an estimation task with known ground truth. This novel imaging tool provides unique insights into flow mechanisms that cannot be observed directly in DSA sequences and might be used to evaluate the impact of endovascular interventions more precisely.

  5. MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Hitoshi; Hamamoto, Ken (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)


    As the result of the application of the recently developed MR techniques, the diagnosis of the morphology and the function has been possible. MR angiography (MRA) is one of these new techniques, and provides vascular anatomy and hemodynamics. At present, there is the limitation in the indication of MRA for pediatric cerebral vascular diseases. However, the frequency of clinical application of MRA is expected to increase by rapidly progressed MR techniques. Of these MRA, time-of flight (TOF) MRA, and phase contrast (PC) MRA are now being examined clinically as main MRA methods for evaluating cerebrovascular diseases, such as Moyamoya disease, arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral aneurysm. During our study, 2D and 3D TOF MRA, and 2D PC and 3D PC MRA were performed for evaluating cerebrovascular diseases. The purpose of this paper is to explain the methods of these MRA, and clinical indications of MRA by showing representative clinical cases of cerebrovascular diseases. We consider that MRA ia a useful method for detecting and following-up pediatric cerebrovascular diseases at present time. It is necessary for radiologists to know the basis and clinical indications of MRA. (author).

  6. Transient cortical blindness after coronary artery angiography. (United States)

    Terlecki, Michał; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Rajzer, Marek; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Bryniarski, Leszek; Czarnecka, Danuta


    Coronary angiography is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease and therefore the prevalence of percutaneous coronary procedures such as angiography and angioplasty is high. The occurrence of cerebral complications after coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty is low and it mainly includes transient ischemic attack and stroke. The prevalence of transient cortical blindness after X-ray contrast media is low and it is usually seen after cerebral angiography. Until now only a few cases of transient cortical blindness have been described after coronary artery angiography. Regarding the spread of coronary angiography worldwide and in Poland this complication is uniquely rare. A 32-year-old man with multiple extrasystolic ventricular arrhythmia suggesting Brugada syndrome diagnosis according to morphology of the left bundle branch block and with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction was admitted to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Medical College of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Coronary angiography was performed in order to exclude ischemic etiology of the observed abnormalities. No arteriosclerotic lesions were found in coronary arteries. Transient cortical blindness was observed directly after angiography which may have been caused by the neurotoxic effect of the used X-ray contrast medium. In ophthalmologic and neurologic examination as well as in the cerebral computed tomography scan no pathologies were found. Visual impairment disappeared totally within several hours.

  7. Carotid angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Torkildsen


    Full Text Available After a brief review of the history of cerebral angiography, some of the most important points concerning the percutaneous angiographic technique have been described. The value of the angiographic examination in cases of cerebral gliomas has been studied, based upon a consecutive series of 127 verified cases of hemispherical gliomas. Of 31 cases of frontal glioma, 28 could be diagnosed by the angiographic method; of 33 cases of parietal glioma, the angiograms revealed the neoplasm in 27 instances; of 39 cases of temporal glioma, the tumor could be localized in 38 cases; of 13 cases of occipital glioma, the angiographic localization of the tumor was successfull in 9 instances; of 11. cases of glioma infiltrating the corpus callosum and (or the basal ganglia, the angiographic examination was successful in only 3 cases. The angiographic examination in cases of cerebral glioma, in my experience, yields a more satisfactory result as to the localization than does the pneumography. The only exception concerns the gliomas growing in the thalamus or in the basal ganglia. These are more easily localized by means of ventriculography. As to the differential diagnosis of the gliomas, tumor vessels could, be seen both in astrocytomas and in glioblastomas. Most cases of astrocytomas were however devoid of specific tumor vessels. When present they could not be definitely distinguished from those seen in glioblastomas, but the abnormal findings were far less numerous and definitely less pronounced in astrocytomas than in glioblastomas. In most cases the astrocytomas were characterized only by displacement of blood vessels of normal appearance, while the glioblastomas frequently-presented both displacement of normal appearing blood vessels and new formed blood vessels within the neoplasm itself. The pathological blood vessels in the tumor were frequently abnormal both regarding their topographical appearance and their type. Frequent findings were arterio

  8. A framework for organ dose estimation in x-ray angiography and interventional radiology based on dose-related data in DICOM structured reports (United States)

    Omar, Artur; Bujila, Robert; Fransson, Annette; Andreo, Pedro; Poludniowski, Gavin


    Although interventional x-ray angiography (XA) procedures involve relatively high radiation doses that can lead to deterministic tissue reactions in addition to stochastic effects, convenient and accurate estimation of absorbed organ doses has traditionally been out of reach. This has mainly been due to the absence of practical means to access dose-related data that describe the physical context of the numerous exposures during an XA procedure. The present work provides a comprehensive and general framework for the determination of absorbed organ dose, based on non-proprietary access to dose-related data by utilizing widely available DICOM radiation dose structured reports. The framework comprises a straightforward calculation workflow to determine the incident kerma and reconstruction of the geometrical relation between the projected x-ray beam and the patient’s anatomy. The latter is difficult in practice, as the position of the patient on the table top is unknown. A novel patient-specific approach for reconstruction of the patient position on the table is presented. The proposed approach was evaluated for 150 patients by comparing the estimated position of the primary irradiated organs (the target organs) with their position in clinical DICOM images. The approach is shown to locate the target organ position with a mean (max) deviation of 1.3 (4.3), 1.8 (3.6) and 1.4 (2.9) cm for neurovascular, adult and paediatric cardiovascular procedures, respectively. To illustrate the utility of the framework for systematic and automated organ dose estimation in routine clinical practice, a prototype implementation of the framework with Monte Carlo simulations is included.

  9. Effect of Visual Field Presentation on Action Planning (Estimating Reach) in Children (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto


    In this article, the authors examined the effects of target information presented in different visual fields (lower, upper, central) on estimates of reach via use of motor imagery in children (5-11 years old) and young adults. Results indicated an advantage for estimating reach movements for targets placed in lower visual field (LoVF), with all…

  10. Body Fat Assessment: A Comparison of Visual Estimation and Skinfold Techniques. (United States)

    Sterner, Thomas G.; Burke, Edmund J.


    This study compared skinfold measurements and visual estimation as methods of measuring percent body fat against underwater weighing, using a sample of 71 males. The results suggest some individuals can visually estimate percent fat about as accurately as skinfold measures do. (MT)

  11. Merging Psychophysical and Psychometric Theory to Estimate Global Visual State Measures from Forced-Choices (United States)

    Massof, Robert W.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Laby, Daniel M.; Kirschen, David; Meadows, David


    Visual acuity, a forced-choice psychophysical measure of visual spatial resolution, is the sine qua non of clinical visual impairment testing in ophthalmology and optometry patients with visual system disorders ranging from refractive error to retinal, optic nerve, or central visual system pathology. Visual acuity measures are standardized against a norm, but it is well known that visual acuity depends on a variety of stimulus parameters, including contrast and exposure duration. This paper asks if it is possible to estimate a single global visual state measure from visual acuity measures as a function of stimulus parameters that can represent the patient's overall visual health state with a single variable. Psychophysical theory (at the sensory level) and psychometric theory (at the decision level) are merged to identify the conditions that must be satisfied to derive a global visual state measure from parameterised visual acuity measures. A global visual state measurement model is developed and tested with forced-choice visual acuity measures from 116 subjects with no visual impairments and 560 subjects with uncorrected refractive error. The results are in agreement with the expectations of the model.

  12. Fusion of Delayed-enhancement MR Imaging and Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography to Visualize Radiofrequency Ablation Scar on the Pulmonary Vein. (United States)

    Shigenaga, Yutaka; Kiuchi, Kunihiko; Ikeuchi, Kazushi; Ikeda, Takayuki; Okajima, Katsunori; Yasaka, Yoshinori; Kawai, Hiroya


    Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) is reported to detect the radiofrequency (RF) ablation scar of pulmonary vein isolation. However, the precise localization of RF scar is difficult to recognize due to the poor anatomical information of the 3-dimensionally reconstructed DE-MRI. We report 2 cases in which fusion of DE-MRI and contrast-enhanced MR angiography facilitated the identification of RF scar, and we detail our fusion method.

  13. Reliability of visual assessment of non-contrast CT, CT angiography source images and CT perfusion in patients with suspected ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Seeters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Good reliability of methods to assess the extent of ischemia in acute stroke is important for implementation in clinical practice, especially between observers with varying experience. Our aim was to determine inter- and intra-observer reliability of the 1/3 middle cerebral artery (MCA rule and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS for different CT modalities in patients suspected of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We prospectively included 105 patients with acute neurological deficit due to suspected acute ischemic stroke within 9 hours after symptom onset. All patients underwent non-contrast CT, CT perfusion and CT angiography on admission. All images were evaluated twice for presence of ischemia, ischemia with >1/3 MCA involvement, and ASPECTS. Four observers evaluated twenty scans twice for intra-observer agreement. We used kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient to calculate agreement. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement for the 1/3 MCA rule and ASPECTS was fair to good for non-contrast CT, poor to good for CT angiography source images, but excellent for all CT perfusion maps (cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and predicted penumbra and infarct maps. Intra-observer agreement for the 1/3 MCA rule and ASPECTS was poor to good for non-contrast CT, fair to moderate for CT angiography source images, and good to excellent for all CT perfusion maps. CONCLUSION: Between observers with a different level of experience, agreement on the radiological diagnosis of cerebral ischemia is much better for CT perfusion than for non-contrast CT and CT angiography source images, and therefore CT perfusion is a very reliable addition to standard stroke imaging.

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Fovea Plana. (United States)

    Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Sarraf, David; Freund, K Bailey


    Fovea plana is characterized by the anatomical absence of the foveal pit in eyes with normal visual function. The authors have analyzed three cases of idiopathic fovea plana with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). As previously reported, the authors found the absence of a foveal avascular zone in all cases with OCTA; however, a preserved fusion of both the superficial and the deep capillary plexuses was found around the foveal center. This novel observation cannot be detected with conventional dye-based angiography, in which the deep capillary plexus is not visualized. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:670-673.].

  15. Tensor completion for estimating missing values in visual data

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Ji


    In this paper, we propose an algorithm to estimate missing values in tensors of visual data. The values can be missing due to problems in the acquisition process or because the user manually identified unwanted outliers. Our algorithm works even with a small amount of samples and it can propagate structure to fill larger missing regions. Our methodology is built on recent studies about matrix completion using the matrix trace norm. The contribution of our paper is to extend the matrix case to the tensor case by proposing the first definition of the trace norm for tensors and then by building a working algorithm. First, we propose a definition for the tensor trace norm that generalizes the established definition of the matrix trace norm. Second, similarly to matrix completion, the tensor completion is formulated as a convex optimization problem. Unfortunately, the straightforward problem extension is significantly harder to solve than the matrix case because of the dependency among multiple constraints. To tackle this problem, we developed three algorithms: simple low rank tensor completion (SiLRTC), fast low rank tensor completion (FaLRTC), and high accuracy low rank tensor completion (HaLRTC). The SiLRTC algorithm is simple to implement and employs a relaxation technique to separate the dependant relationships and uses the block coordinate descent (BCD) method to achieve a globally optimal solution; the FaLRTC algorithm utilizes a smoothing scheme to transform the original nonsmooth problem into a smooth one and can be used to solve a general tensor trace norm minimization problem; the HaLRTC algorithm applies the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMMs) to our problem. Our experiments show potential applications of our algorithms and the quantitative evaluation indicates that our methods are more accurate and robust than heuristic approaches. The efficiency comparison indicates that FaLTRC and HaLRTC are more efficient than SiLRTC and between Fa

  16. Coronary artery disease in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus estimated by electron beam computed tomography and electron beam computed tomography angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and EBCT angiography (EBCTA). Methods: Ninety-four cases were enrolled in this study including diabetes (n=28), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=30), coronary heart disease (CHD, n=11), and control (n=25). Cardiac EBCT plain scanning and EBCTA were performed on all of these subjects to evaluate coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores, and number of segments of stenosed coronary arteries. Both CAC and/or coronary artery stenosis were defined as patients with coronary artery lesions (CAL). Results CAC scores were not different with the control, diabetes, IGT, or CHD (P>0.05)groups. Compared to control (0.520±1.295), more stenosed coronary arteries segments (P<0.05) were detected in diabetes (2.964±1.915), IGT (2.200±2.024), and CHD (2.273±1.679). Number of stenosed artery segments were correlated with age (r=0.215, P=0.019),postprandial glucose (r=0.224, P=0.015), total cholesterol (r=0.323, P=0.000), and duration of diabetes (r=0.208, P=0.004). The incidences of CAL in diabetes (96.43%), IGT (93.33%), and CHD (90.91%) was substantially higher than that in normal control (56.00%, P<0.01).The odds ratio of CAL associated with having diabetes was estimated to be 7.514 (95% CI: 1.885-63.778). Conclusions Coronary artery lesions are prevalent in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes, implying a high CAD risk. EBCTA holds potential in depicting the details of CAL and can be used to track the progression of CAD in diabetes patients.

  17. Estimation of organ-absorbed radiation doses during 64-detector CT coronary angiography using different acquisition techniques and heart rates: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Kawashima, Hiroko (Dept. of Quantum Medical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)), email:; Noto, Kimiya; Takata, Tadanori; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki (Dept. of Radiological Technology, Kanazawa Univ. Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)); Shimono, Tetsunori (Dept. of Radiology, Hoshigaoka Koseinenkin Hospital, Hirakata (Japan)); Matsui, Osamu (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan))


    Background: Though appropriate image acquisition parameters allow an effective dose below 1 mSv for CT coronary angiography (CTCA) performed with the latest dual-source CT scanners, a single-source 64-detector CT procedure results in a significant radiation dose due to its technical limitations. Therefore, estimating the radiation doses absorbed by an organ during 64-detector CTCA is important. Purpose: To estimate the radiation doses absorbed by organs located in the chest region during 64-detector CTCA using different acquisition techniques and heart rates. Material and Methods: Absorbed doses for breast, heart, lung, red bone marrow, thymus, and skin were evaluated using an anthropomorphic phantom and radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLDs). Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated helical and ECG-triggered non-helical acquisitions were performed by applying a simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute (bpm) and ECG-gated helical acquisitions using ECG modulation (ECGM) of the tube current were performed by applying simulated heart rates of 40, 60, and 90 bpm after placing RPLDs on the anatomic location of each organ. The absorbed dose for each organ was calculated by multiplying the calibrated mean dose values of RPLDs with the mass energy coefficient ratio. Results: For all acquisitions, the highest absorbed dose was observed for the heart. When the helical and non-helical acquisitions were performed by applying a simulated heart rate of 60 bpm, the absorbed doses for heart were 215.5, 202.2, and 66.8 mGy for helical, helical with ECGM, and non-helical acquisitions, respectively. When the helical acquisitions using ECGM were performed by applying simulated heart rates of 40, 60, and 90 bpm, the absorbed doses for heart were 178.6, 139.1, and 159.3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: ECG-triggered non-helical acquisition is recommended to reduce the radiation dose. Also, controlling the patients' heart rate appropriately during ECG-gated helical acquisition with

  18. Reliability-Based Weighting of Visual and Vestibular Cues in Displacement Estimation. (United States)

    ter Horst, Arjan C; Koppen, Mathieu; Selen, Luc P J; Medendorp, W Pieter


    When navigating through the environment, our brain needs to infer how far we move and in which direction we are heading. In this estimation process, the brain may rely on multiple sensory modalities, including the visual and vestibular systems. Previous research has mainly focused on heading estimation, showing that sensory cues are combined by weighting them in proportion to their reliability, consistent with statistically optimal integration. But while heading estimation could improve with the ongoing motion, due to the constant flow of information, the estimate of how far we move requires the integration of sensory information across the whole displacement. In this study, we investigate whether the brain optimally combines visual and vestibular information during a displacement estimation task, even if their reliability varies from trial to trial. Participants were seated on a linear sled, immersed in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment. They were subjected to a passive linear motion involving visual and vestibular cues with different levels of visual coherence to change relative cue reliability and with cue discrepancies to test relative cue weighting. Participants performed a two-interval two-alternative forced-choice task, indicating which of two sequentially perceived displacements was larger. Our results show that humans adapt their weighting of visual and vestibular information from trial to trial in proportion to their reliability. These results provide evidence that humans optimally integrate visual and vestibular information in order to estimate their body displacement.

  19. Stent-assisted intracranial angioplasty: potentials and limitations of pre- and postinterventional CT angiography; Stentgestuetzte intrakranielle Angioplastie: Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der prae- und postinterventionellen CT-Angiografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloetzer, W.; Schmitz, B.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Huber, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurologie


    CT angiography (CTA) is a noninvasive technique for evaluating intracranial arterial stenoses and for following up on intracranial stents. We analyzed a series of patients to assess the capabilities of CTA with respect to preinterventional und postinterventional diagnostic imaging for stent-assisted intracranial angioplasty. We examined 8 patients with 9 symptomatic intracranial arterial stenoses before and after stent placement with CTA. CT angiographies were compared to the periprocedural conventional angiography with regard to the quality of the visualization as well as the dimensions of the identified stenoses and the implanted stents. The extent of the preinterventional intracranial stenoses identified with CTA differed between -15 % to + 12 % from conventional angiography. In any case we were able to assess stent position, expansion, and perfusion with postinterventional CTA. The mean residual stenosis after stent placement was 33 % (13 - 48 %) measured with conventional angiography and it was accurately estimated with a difference of {+-} 15 % in 5 of 9 stents by CTA. 4 residual stenoses were underestimated or overestimated between -20 % and + 26 %. Further CTA controls of several patients showed good visualization of in-stent neointimal hyperplasia. CTA is useful for stent planning and follow-up of symptomatic intracranial stenoses. Intracranial stents and their lumina are adequately visualized by CTA, especially in vertebrobasilar vessels. However, residual stenosis and restenosis especially in the intracranial internal carotid artery and in the presence of calcified plaques may be incorrectly estimated by CTA. In case of doubt patients must undergo invasive angiography. In summary the use of CTA is a possibility for the primary follow-up of intracranial stents. It cannot generally prevent further diagnostics, but it is a potential method for reducing invasive angiography. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of visual acuity estimates using three different letter charts under two ambient room illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hong Chen


    Full Text Available Background: Visual acuity is an essential estimate to assess ability of the visual system and is used as an indicator of ocular health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the consistency of acuity estimates from three different clinical visual acuity charts under two levels of ambient room illumination. Materials and Methods: This study involved thirty Malay university students aged between 19 and 23 years old (7 males, 23 females, with their spherical refractive error ranging between plano and −7.75D, astigmatism ranging from plano to −1.75D, anisometropia less than 1.00D and with no history of ocular injury or pathology. Right eye visual acuity (recorded in logMAR unit was measured with Snellen letter chart (Snellen, wall mounted letter chart (WM and projected letter chart (PC under two ambient room illuminations, room light on and room light off. Results: Visual acuity estimates showed no statistically significant difference when measured with the room light on and with the room light off (F1,372 = 0.26, P = 0.61. Post-hoc analysis with Tukey showed that visual acuity estimates were significantly different between the Snellen and PC (P = 0.009 and between Snellen and WM (P = 0.002. Conclusions: Different levels of ambient room illumination had no significant effect on visual acuity estimates. However, the discrepancies in estimates of visual acuity noted in this study were purely due to the type of letter chart used.

  1. Magnetic resonance angiography (United States)

    ... in the wall of the blood vessel) Aortic coarctation Aortic dissection Stroke Carotid artery disease Atherosclerosis of ... 13, 2016. Read More Aortic angiography Aortic dissection Coarctation of the aorta Coronary heart disease Hardening of ...

  2. Evaluation of Patients’ Exposure during Angiography and Angioplasty Procedures in the Angiography Department of Shahid Madani Hospital in Tabriz

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    Asghar Mesbahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary angiography and angioplasty procedures lead to significant radiation exposure of patients. In the current study, the average radiation dose to patients during angiography in the Angiography Department of Shahid-Madani Hospital was determined. Materials and Methods: An image intensifier based angiography unit (Philips BH 3000 was used for angiography procedures. The accuracy of the internal dosimeter was verified. Dose-area products (DAP of patients (236 cases during fluoroscopy and cine acquisition were recorded. Analyzing the data, the average radiation doses to patients for angiography and angioplasty and also for fluoroscopy and cine acquisition were determined. Additionally, the average fluoroscopy time for all patients was estimated. Results: The average DAPs of 23.7 and 91.5 Gycm2 were estimated for angiography and angioplasty respectively. Patient doses including fluoroscopy, cine acquisition and the total dose for angiography were 2, 7.7 and 3.8 times lower than angioplasty procedures respectively. Average fluoroscopy time was 1.9 times lower for angiography compared to angioplasty. Discussion and Conclusion: Fluoroscopy time and patient dose during fluoroscopy were in good agreement with other studies. However, the dose to patients during angioplasty was higher compared to other reports. To reduce patient dose in angioplasty procedures, the use of the lowest available frame rate, smallest field size and retraining of operators and technologists are recommended.

  3. High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance angiography: a feasibility study on biological and medical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boel Lene WT


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biomedical sciences, ex vivo angiography is a practical mean to elucidate vascular structures three-dimensionally with simultaneous estimation of intravascular volume. The objectives of this study were to develop a magnetic resonance (MR method for ex vivo angiography and to compare the findings with computed tomography (CT. To demonstrate the usefulness of this method, examples are provided from four different tissues and species: the human placenta, a rice field eel, a porcine heart and a turtle. Results The optimal solution for ex vivo MR angiography (MRA was a compound containing gelatine (0.05 g/mL, the CT contrast agent barium sulphate (0.43 mol/L and the MR contrast agent gadoteric acid (2.5 mmol/L. It was possible to perform angiography on all specimens. We found that ex vivo MRA could only be performed on fresh tissue because formalin fixation makes the blood vessels permeable to the MR contrast agent. Conclusions Ex vivo MRA provides high-resolution images of fresh tissue and delineates fine structures that we were unable to visualise by CT. We found that MRA provided detailed information similar to or better than conventional CTA in its ability to visualize vessel configuration while avoiding interfering signals from adjacent bones. Interestingly, we found that vascular tissue becomes leaky when formalin-fixed, leading to increased permeability and extravascular leakage of MR contrast agent.

  4. Motion visualization and estimation for flapping wing systems (United States)

    Hsu, Tzu-Sheng Shane; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Nguyen, Vincent Phuc; Patel, Trisha; Balachandran, Balakumar


    Studies of fluid-structure interactions associated with flexible structures such as flapping wings require the capture and quantification of large motions of bodies that may be opaque. As a case study, motion capture of a free flying Manduca sexta, also known as hawkmoth, is considered by using three synchronized high-speed cameras. A solid finite element (FE) representation is used as a reference body and successive snapshots in time of the displacement fields are reconstructed via an optimization procedure. One of the original aspects of this work is the formulation of an objective function and the use of shadow matching and strain-energy regularization. With this objective function, the authors penalize the projection differences between silhouettes of the captured images and the FE representation of the deformed body. The process and procedures undertaken to go from high-speed videography to motion estimation are discussed, and snapshots of representative results are presented. Finally, the captured free-flight motion is also characterized and quantified.

  5. Low-dose prospectively electrocardiogram-gated axial dual-source CT angiography in patients with pulsatile bilateral bidirectional Glenn Shunt: an alternative noninvasive method for postoperative morphological estimation.

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    Xiaopeng Ji

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical value of low-dose prospectively electrocardiogram-gated axial dual-source CT angiography (low-dose PGA scanning, CTA in patients with pulsatile bilateral bidirectional Glenn shunt (bBDG as an alternative noninvasive method for postoperative morphological estimation. METHODS: Twenty patients with pulsatile bBDG (mean age 4.2±1.6 years underwent both low-dose PGA scanning and conventional cardiac angiography (CCA for the morphological changes. The morphological evaluation included the anatomy of superior vena cava (SVC and pulmonary artery (PA, the anastomotic location, thrombosis, aorto-pulmonary collateral circulation, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, etc. Objective and subjective image quality was assessed. Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation on measurements between CTA and CCA. Effective radiation dose of both modalities was calculated. RESULTS: The CT attenuation value of bilateral SVC and PA was higher than 300 HU. The average subjective image quality score was 4.05±0.69. The morphology of bilateral SVC and PA was displayed completely and intuitively by CTA images. There were 24 SVC above PA and 15 SVC beside PA. Thrombosis was found in 1 patient. Collateral vessels were detected in 13 patients. No pulmonary arteriovenous malformation was found in our study. A strong correlation (R2>0.8, P0.The mean effective dose of CTA and CCA was 0.50±0.17 mSv and 4.85±1.34 mSv respectively. CONCLUSION: CT angiography with a low-dose PGA scanning is an accurate and reliable noninvasive examination in the assessment of morphological changes in patients with pulsatile bBDG.

  6. Spiral CT angiography of renal arteries: comparison with angiography

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    Wittenberg, G.; Kenn, W.; Tschammler, A.; Sandstede, J.; Hahn, D. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik der Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)


    A prospective study was carried out to determine the accuracy of spiral CT angiography (CTA) in the detection of renal artery stenosis (RAS). Eighty-two patients with arterial hypertension underwent CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to exclude RAS. For CTA a contrast medium bolus of 100-150 ml (flow rate 3 ml/s) was injected. A 24 or 40 s CTA was started at the origin of the superior mesenteric artery after a delay time determined by test bolus injection (collimation = 2 mm, pitch = 1/1.5). For stenosis detection transverse images supported by maximum intensity projections (MIP) or multiplanar reconstruction projections were used. Of 197 renal arteries examined (including 33 accessory arteries), 34 RAS were visualized using DSA. With CTA, one hemodynamic RAS was missed and one additional hemodynamic RAS was found. Sensitivity/specificity was calculated to be 94 %/98 %. For hemodynamically relevant RAS (> 50 %) the sensitivity/specificity was 96 %/99 %. CTA additionally depicted five adrenal masses. The high accuracy rate of RAS detection thus allows the use of CTA as a screening method in patients with arterial hypertension to exclude a renovascular cause. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 25 refs.

  7. Digital subtraction angiography of the cerebral vessels by intraarterial injection

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    Nagata, Izumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Jun; Mitsugi, Toru; Naruo, Yoshito; Takamiya, Makoto (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))


    Three hundred and fifty-seven digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in 184 neurosurgical patients by intraarterial injection. Examinations consisted of 192 carotid angiography, 110 vertebral angiography, 23 aortography, 11 spinal angiography and 21 other angiography. In all examinations, visualization of the vessels was excellent and the complications were never experienced. High contrast sensitivity of DSA resulted in better visualization of tumor stains, phlebogram, and arteries in cerebral arteriovenous malformations with large shunt blood flow than conventional angiography. Selective catheterization into each cerebral arteries was not necessarily demanded for good opacification of the vessels because of high sensitivity. High contrast sensitivity also permitted low concentration of contrast material, small dose of contrast material, and slow injection rate. Low concentration of contrast material reduced pain and heat during injection especially in the external carotid and vertebral angiography. Using slow injection, recoiling of catheter into the aorta was reduced, so that injection from the innominate and subclavian arteries for visualization of origin of the cerebral arteries were always successful. Full study of cerebral arteries by Seldinger's method, if necessary, was easily achieved using DSA even in patient with high age or with severe atherosclerosis. Bolus injection of small dose of contrast material as well as serial imaging was helpful in evaluating hemodynamics in the lesion. Real time display of DSA reduced the time required for angiography and was very convenient for artificial embolization. Besides these advantages, DSA became comparable to conventional angiography in spacial resolution by use of intraarterial injection and could be a preoperative genuine examination as well as a screening method.

  8. Position Estimation by Wearable Walking Navigation System for Visually Impaired with Sensor Fusion (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Tanzawa, Tsutomu; Kotani, Shinji

    A wearable walking navigation system without any special infrastructures has been developed to guide visually impaired. It is important to estimate a position correctly so that safe navigation can be realized. In our system, different sensor data are fused to estimate a pedestrian's position. An image processing system and a laser range finder were used to estimate the positions indoors. In this paper, we introduce the concept of “similarity” between map information and sensor data. This similarity is used to estimate the positions. Experimental results show that highly accurate position estimation can be achieved by sensor fusion. The positions in a linear passage were estimated using image processing data, and when the passage turns, the positions were estimated using LRF data.

  9. Visualization


    Balon, Andreja


    The present thesis entails the field of visualization which is divided into visualization along traditional lines and visualization in computer science. As the psychological aspect of image is of vital importance for visualization, it is shortly described in the beginning. Visualization in computer science is divided into three main fields: scientific visualization, program visualization and visual programming. An explanation and examples of approach to applications are given for each field....

  10. MR angiography in abdominal neoplasms

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    Squillaci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Crecco, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Grandinetti, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Maspes, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Lo Presti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Squillaci, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy)


    The role of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of vascular involvement was studied in 55 patients with abdominal neoplasms. A 2-D time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used in all patients. All patients underwent CT and MR examinations before MRA. Also, MR angiograms were compared with digital subtraction angiography in 22 cases, with Doppler US in 13 cases, and with surgical findings in 20 cases. In all patients with liver neoplasms (n=29) MRA demonstrated the absence of flow in the infiltrated segments. Pericapsular neovascularization was observed in 12 patients. Portal vein involvement was correctly detected in 27 patients. In all cases MRA demonstrated in relationship between the tumor and venous structures. Portosystemic shunts were visualized in 20 of 21 patients with portal hypertension. Vena cava thrombosis (3 cases), compression (5 cases), and displacement (2 cases) were correctly demonstrated. In renal (n=6) and adrenal gland (n=3) tumors renal vein compression was correctly detected in 2 cases, displacement in 1 case, and thrombosis in 3 cases, with only 1 false-positive finding. In 7 patients with pancreatic tumors MRA demonstrated splenic vein thrombosis in 2 cases and compression in 2 cases, with one false-positive finding. Our results indicate that MRA provides precise information regarding venous vascular involvement in abdominal neoplasms, but preoperative arterial mapping is still problematic. (orig.)

  11. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography (United States)

    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Brar, Manpreet; Marinescu, Anca I. C.; Sivaprasad, Sobha


    Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication. PMID:23772127

  12. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kopsachilis


    Full Text Available Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication.

  13. MR angiography with Vasovist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyen, Mathias [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail:


    Vasovist (Gadofosveset) is the first intravascular contrast agent approved for use with magnetic resonance angiography in the European Union. This blood pool contrast agent reversibly binds to albumin providing extended intravascular enhancement compared to existing extracellular magnetic resonance contrast agents. Prior to approval, Vasovist underwent extensive clinical and pre-clinical testing to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug. The clinical trials program included blinded, placebo-controlled dose ranging, efficacy in a variety of vascular beds (aorto-iliac, renal, pedal), examination of potential drug interaction with warfarin, and comparison with X-ray angiography. The clinical trials show that Vasovist-enhanced MR angiography is safe and well tolerated in patients with vascular disease, effective for the detection of vascular stenosis and aneurysms, significantly more accurate (both more sensitive and specific) than non-contrast MR angiography for the diagnosis of vascular stenoses, and similar to conventional angiography for the overall characterization of vascular disease, without the need for catheterization. This review article highlights the product characteristics of Vasovist, gives an overview of the clinical development program and discusses selected clinical applications.

  14. Visual feedback about time estimation is related to a right hemisphere activation measured by PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunia, CHM; de Jong, BM; van den Berg-Lenssen, MMC; Paans, AMJ


    In previous EEG experiments we have presented a time estimation task to our subjects, who bad to press a button with either the left or right index finger 3 s after an auditory warning stimulus (WS). Two seconds later a visual Knowledge of Results (KR) stimulus was presented on a screen in front, in

  15. Reliability-based weighting of visual and vestibular cues in displacement estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.C. ter; Koppen, M.G.M.; Selen, L.P.J.; Medendorp, W.P.


    When navigating through the environment, our brain needs to infer how far we move and in which direction we are heading. In this estimation process, the brain may rely on multiple sensory modalities, including the visual and vestibular systems. Previous research has mainly focused on heading estimat

  16. A Probabilistic Model of Visual Working Memory: Incorporating Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.


    When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…

  17. Mortality estimates from repeated visual censuses of a parrotfish (Sparisoma viride) population : Demographic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanRooij, JM; Videler, JJ


    Repeated visual censuses of different categories (juveniles, females, territorial and group males) of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride, a protogynous hermaphrodite) over a 3-year period indicated a relatively stable size and structure of the adult population. This allowed estimates of size

  18. Directional Tuning Curves, Elementary Movement Detectors, and the Estimation of the Direction of Visual Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van


    Both the insect brain and the vertebrate retina detect visual movement with neurons having broad, cosine-shaped directional tuning curves oriented in either of two perpendicular directions. This article shows that this arrangement can lead to isotropic estimates of the direction of movement: for any

  19. Cardiac CT Angiography in Congestive Heart Failure. (United States)

    Levine, Avi; Hecht, Harvey S


    Cardiac CT angiography has become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure. Differentiation of ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy; evaluation of myocardial perfusion; characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia; and delineation of congenital heart defects and valvular abnormalities are the primary diagnostic applications. Therapeutic use includes visualization of the coronary venous anatomy for optimal implementation of cardiac resynchronization therapy and evaluation of left ventricular assist devices and transplant vasculopathy.

  20. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ...

  1. Penggunaan Extended Kalman Filter Sebagai Estimator Sikap pada Sistem Kendali Servo Visual Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Cholis Basjaruddin


    Full Text Available Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is the non-linear version of Kalman filter and the said filter is usually used in nonlinear state estimation. In this study EKF is applied to process the image features of a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot. Data generated by the EKF then is to be processed to obtain the motion parameters. Simulation of visual servo control system was built with the aim to examine the use of the EKF as a pose estimator. The simulation results using Matlab show that the EKF is able to well estimate the robot pose. 

  2. A noise-optimized virtual monochromatic reconstruction algorithm improves stent visualization and diagnostic accuracy for detection of in-stent re-stenosis in lower extremity run-off CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Yamada, Ricardo T.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Stubenrauch, Andrew C.; Fuller, Stephen R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Rome (Italy); Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Todoran, Thomas M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)


    To evaluate the impact of noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI+) on stent visualization and accuracy for in-stent re-stenosis at lower extremity dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA). We evaluated third-generation dual-source DE-CTA studies in 31 patients with prior stent placement. Images were reconstructed with linear blending (F{sub 0}.5) and VMI+ at 40-150 keV. In-stent luminal diameter was measured and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated. Diagnostic confidence was determined using a five-point scale. In 21 patients with invasive catheter angiography, accuracy for significant re-stenosis (≥50 %) was assessed at F{sub 0}.5 and 80 keV-VMI+ chosen as the optimal energy level based on image-quality analysis. At CTA, 45 stents were present. DSA was available for 28 stents whereas 12 stents showed significant re-stenosis. CNR was significantly higher with ≤80 keV-VMI+ (17.9 ± 6.4-33.7 ± 12.3) compared to F{sub 0}.5 (16.9 ± 4.8; all p < 0.0463); luminal stent diameters were increased at ≥70 keV (5.41 ± 1.8-5.92 ± 1.7 vs. 5.27 ± 1.8, all p < 0.001) and diagnostic confidence was highest at 70-80 keV-VMI+ (4.90 ± 0.48-4.88 ± 0.63 vs. 4.60 ± 0.66, p = 0.001, 0.0042). Sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy for re-stenosis were higher with 80 keV-VMI+ (100, 100, 96.4 %) than F{sub 0}.5 (90.9, 94.1, 89.3 %). 80 keV-VMI+ improves image quality, diagnostic confidence and accuracy for stent evaluation at lower extremity DE-CTA. (orig.)

  3. Depth estimation and camera calibration of a focused plenoptic camera for visual odometry (United States)

    Zeller, Niclas; Quint, Franz; Stilla, Uwe


    This paper presents new and improved methods of depth estimation and camera calibration for visual odometry with a focused plenoptic camera. For depth estimation we adapt an algorithm previously used in structure-from-motion approaches to work with images of a focused plenoptic camera. In the raw image of a plenoptic camera, scene patches are recorded in several micro-images under slightly different angles. This leads to a multi-view stereo-problem. To reduce the complexity, we divide this into multiple binocular stereo problems. For each pixel with sufficient gradient we estimate a virtual (uncalibrated) depth based on local intensity error minimization. The estimated depth is characterized by the variance of the estimate and is subsequently updated with the estimates from other micro-images. Updating is performed in a Kalman-like fashion. The result of depth estimation in a single image of the plenoptic camera is a probabilistic depth map, where each depth pixel consists of an estimated virtual depth and a corresponding variance. Since the resulting image of the plenoptic camera contains two plains: the optical image and the depth map, camera calibration is divided into two separate sub-problems. The optical path is calibrated based on a traditional calibration method. For calibrating the depth map we introduce two novel model based methods, which define the relation of the virtual depth, which has been estimated based on the light-field image, and the metric object distance. These two methods are compared to a well known curve fitting approach. Both model based methods show significant advantages compared to the curve fitting method. For visual odometry we fuse the probabilistic depth map gained from one shot of the plenoptic camera with the depth data gained by finding stereo correspondences between subsequent synthesized intensity images of the plenoptic camera. These images can be synthesized totally focused and thus finding stereo correspondences is enhanced

  4. Effects of resting ischemia assessed by thallium scintigraphy on QRS scoring system for estimating left ventricular function quantified by radionuclide angiography in acute myocardial infarction patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePace, N.L.; Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting ischemia limits the usefulness of the QRS scoring system in predicting left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute infarction. We studied 48 patients after acute infarction by means of 12-lead ECG, thallium-201 scintigraphy, and radionuclide angiography. The thallium-201 scintigrams showed fixed defects in 25 patients, perfusion defects with partial or complete redistribution in the delayed images in 19 patients, and normal images in the remaining four patients. In the 48 patients there was a significant correlation between the QRS score and LVEF (r . -0.67; p less than 0.001). Patients with fixed defects showed a better correlation than patients with resting ischemia (r . -0.77 vs r . -0.60). A QRS score of 3 or less was used to separate patients with LVEF of 40% or greater from those with lower LVEF in patients with fixed defects (p . 0.0005), but this cutoff did not categorize patients with resting ischemia as to LVEF. Thus the presence of rest ischemia in patients with acute infarction may affect the correlation between QRS score and LVEF.

  5. Effects of resting ischemia assessed by thallium scintigraphy on QRS scoring system for estimating left ventricular function quantified by radionuclide angiography in acute myocardial infarction patients. (United States)

    DePace, N L; Hakki, A H; Iskandrian, A S


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting ischemia limits the usefulness of the QRS scoring system in predicting left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute infarction. We studied 48 patients after acute infarction by means of 12-lead ECG, thallium-201 scintigraphy, and radionuclide angiography. The thallium-201 scintigrams showed fixed defects in 25 patients, perfusion defects with partial or complete redistribution in the delayed images in 19 patients, and normal images in the remaining four patients. In the 48 patients there was a significant correlation between the QRS score and LVEF (r = -0.67; p less than 0.001). Patients with fixed defects showed a better correlation than patients with resting ischemia (r = -0.77 vs r = -0.60). A QRS score of 3 or less was used to separate patients with LVEF of 40% or greater from those with lower LVEF in patients with fixed defects (p = 0.0005), but this cutoff did not categorize patients with resting ischemia as to LVEF. Thus the presence of rest ischemia in patients with acute infarction may affect the correlation between QRS score and LVEF.

  6. Estimation of Visual Maps with a Robot Network Equipped with Vision Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Gil


    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach to the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM problem using a team of autonomous vehicles equipped with vision sensors. The SLAM problem considers the case in which a mobile robot is equipped with a particular sensor, moves along the environment, obtains measurements with its sensors and uses them to construct a model of the space where it evolves. In this paper we focus on the case where several robots, each equipped with its own sensor, are distributed in a network and view the space from different vantage points. In particular, each robot is equipped with a stereo camera that allow the robots to extract visual landmarks and obtain relative measurements to them. We propose an algorithm that uses the measurements obtained by the robots to build a single accurate map of the environment. The map is represented by the three-dimensional position of the visual landmarks. In addition, we consider that each landmark is accompanied by a visual descriptor that encodes its visual appearance. The solution is based on a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter that estimates the paths of the robots and the position of the visual landmarks. The validity of our proposal is demonstrated by means of experiments with a team of real robots in a office-like indoor environment.

  7. Vein visualization using a smart phone with multispectral Wiener estimation for point-of-care applications. (United States)

    Song, Jae Hee; Kim, Choye; Yoo, Yangmo


    Effective vein visualization is clinically important for various point-of-care applications, such as needle insertion. It can be achieved by utilizing ultrasound imaging or by applying infrared laser excitation and monitoring its absorption. However, while these approaches can be used for vein visualization, they are not suitable for point-of-care applications because of their cost, time, and accessibility. In this paper, a new vein visualization method based on multispectral Wiener estimation is proposed and its real-time implementation on a smart phone is presented. In the proposed method, a conventional RGB camera on a commercial smart phone (i.e., Galaxy Note 2, Samsung Electronics Inc., Suwon, Korea) is used to acquire reflectance information from veins. Wiener estimation is then applied to extract the multispectral information from the veins. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, an experiment was conducted using a color calibration chart (ColorChecker Classic, X-rite, Grand Rapids, MI, USA) and an average root-mean-square error of 12.0% was obtained. In addition, an in vivo subcutaneous vein imaging experiment was performed to explore the clinical performance of the smart phone-based Wiener estimation. From the in vivo experiment, the veins at various sites were successfully localized using the reconstructed multispectral images and these results were confirmed by ultrasound B-mode and color Doppler images. These results indicate that the presented multispectral Wiener estimation method can be used for visualizing veins using a commercial smart phone for point-of-care applications (e.g., vein puncture guidance).

  8. Penggunaan Extended Kalman Filter Sebagai Estimator Sikap pada Sistem Kendali Servo Visual Robot


    Noor Cholis Basjaruddin


    Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is the non-linear version of Kalman filter and the said filter is usually used in nonlinear state estimation. In this study EKF is applied to process the image features of a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot. Data generated by the EKF then is to be processed to obtain the motion parameters. Simulation of visual servo control system was built with the aim to examine the use of the EKF as a pose estimator. The simulation results using Matlab show ...

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases. (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Sambhav, Kumar


    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  10. Optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Chalam


    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD, retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA. Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  11. Effect of visual field presentation on action planning (estimating reach) in children. (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto


    In this article, the authors examined the effects of target information presented in different visual fields (lower, upper, central) on estimates of reach via use of motor imagery in children (5-11 years old) and young adults. Results indicated an advantage for estimating reach movements for targets placed in lower visual field (LoVF), with all groups having greater difficulty in the upper visual field (UpVF) condition, especially 5- and 7-year-olds. Complementing these results was an overall age-related increase in accuracy. Based in part on the equivalence hypothesis suggesting that motor imagery and motor planning and execution are similar, the findings support previous work of executed behaviors showing that there is a LoVF bias for motor skill actions of the hand. Given that previous research hints that the UpVF may be bias for visuospatial (perceptual) qualities, research in that area and its association with visuomotor processing (LoVF) should be considered.

  12. Defining the real-world reproducibility of visual grading of left ventricular function and visual estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction: impact of image quality, experience and accreditation. (United States)

    Cole, Graham D; Dhutia, Niti M; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Willson, Keith; Harrison, James; Raphael, Claire E; Zolgharni, Massoud; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P


    Left ventricular function can be evaluated by qualitative grading and by eyeball estimation of ejection fraction (EF). We sought to define the reproducibility of these techniques, and how they are affected by image quality, experience and accreditation. Twenty apical four-chamber echocardiographic cine loops (Online Resource 1-20) of varying image quality and left ventricular function were anonymized and presented to 35 operators. Operators were asked to provide (1) a one-phrase grading of global systolic function (2) an "eyeball" EF estimate and (3) an image quality rating on a 0-100 visual analogue scale. Each observer viewed every loop twice unknowingly, a total of 1400 viewings. When grading LV function into five categories, an operator's chance of agreement with another operator was 50% and with themself on blinded re-presentation was 68%. Blinded eyeball LVEF re-estimates by the same operator had standard deviation (SD) of difference of 7.6 EF units, with the SD across operators averaging 8.3 EF units. Image quality, defined as the average of all operators' assessments, correlated with EF estimate variability (r = -0.616, p visual grading agreement (r = 0.58, p visual grading of LV function and LVEF estimation is dependent on image quality, but individuals cannot themselves identify when poor image quality is disrupting their LV function estimate. Clinicians should not assume that patients changing in grade or in visually estimated EF have had a genuine clinical change.

  13. The exact estimation of visual acuity by VEP technology: a report of 726 cases of eye injury. (United States)

    Rao, Guangxun; Wu, Bingwei; Zhang, Lingli


    This study explored the accuracy of using visual evoked potentials (VEP) technology for visual acuity estimation. The enrolled 726 patients with post-traumatic unilateral decrease in visual acuity included the injured eyes served as the experimental group, and the healthy eyes as the control group. The least signal visual angle (LSVA), and amplitude and latency of P(100) were chosen as test indexes. The results under different experimental conditions were recorded by PRVEP technology. All data collected were processed and analyzed by SPSS software. The results showed that the coincidence between subjective and VEP visual acuity was 96.7% in control group, but there was very significant difference in experimental group. It was concluded that with the regression formulation for the amplitude of P(100) and vision under LSVA, visual acuity can be estimated more accurately and impartially.

  14. Emulating the Visual Receptive Field Properties of MST Neurons with a Template Model of Heading Estimation (United States)

    Perrone, John A.; Stone, Leland S.


    We have previously proposed a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. The model detectors were designed to extract self-translation (heading), self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer, and are arranged in cortical-like heading maps to perform this function. Heading estimation from optic flow has been postulated by some to be implemented within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether MST neurons can fulfill this role because some of their receptive-field properties appear inconsistent with a role in heading estimation. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST single-unit responses with the outputs of model detectors under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the basic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support heading estimation and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses which can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the primate superior temporal sulcus.

  15. Global Appearance Applied to Visual Map Building and Path Estimation Using Multiscale Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Amorós


    Full Text Available In this work we present a topological map building and localization system for mobile robots based on global appearance of visual information. We include a comparison and analysis of global-appearance techniques applied to wide-angle scenes in retrieval tasks. Next, we define multiscale analysis, which permits improving the association between images and extracting topological distances. Then, a topological map-building algorithm is proposed. At first, the algorithm has information only of some isolated positions of the navigation area in the form of nodes. Each node is composed of a collection of images that covers the complete field of view from a certain position. The algorithm solves the node retrieval and estimates their spatial arrangement. With these aims, it uses the visual information captured along some routes that cover the navigation area. As a result, the algorithm builds a graph that reflects the distribution and adjacency relations between nodes (map. After the map building, we also propose a route path estimation system. This algorithm takes advantage of the multiscale analysis. The accuracy in the pose estimation is not reduced to the nodes locations but also to intermediate positions between them. The algorithms have been tested using two different databases captured in real indoor environments under dynamic conditions.

  16. Evaluation of the pedal artery: comparison of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography with digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kang, Sung Gwon; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Cheol; Choi, Jeong Yeol; Kim, Dong Hyun [College of Medicine, Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for evaluation of the pedal artery. In 12 extremities of 11 patients, both digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MR angiography) were performed during the same week. Among ten of the 11 patients, the following conditions were present: atherosclerosis (n=4), diabetic foot (n=3), Buerger's disease (n=1), calciphylactic arteriopathy (n=1) and arteriovenous malformation of the foot (n=1). The remaining patient underwent angiography prior to flap surgery. For MR angiography, a 1.5T system using an extremity or head coil was used. A three-dimensional FISP (fast imaging with steady state precession) sequence was obtained before enhancement, followed by four sequential acquisitions (scan time, 20 secs, scan interval time, 10 secs) 10 seconds after intravenous bolus injection of normal saline (total 10 cc), following intravenous administration of gadolinium (0.02 mmol/kg, 3 ml/sec). Arterial segments of the ankle and foot were classified as the anterior or posterior tibial artery, the distal peroneal artery, the medial or lateral plantar artery, the pedal arch, and the dorsalis pedis artery. Two radiologists independently analysed visualization of each arteraial segment and the mean of visible arterial segments in one extreminty using CE-MR angiography and DSA. Among 84 arterial segments, 16 were invisible at both CE-MR angiography and DSA, while 39 were demonstrated by both modalities. Twenty-six segments were visible only at CE-MR angiography and three only at DSA. CE-MR angiography displayed a higher number of arterial segments than DSA (mean, 5.42 vs. mean 3.50, respectively), a difference which was statistically significant (p<0.000). The difference between each arterial segment was not statistically significant, except for the dorsalis pedis artery (t test, p<0.000). In that it provides additional information for

  17. CT coronary angiography vs. invasive coronary angiography in CHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hagen


    Full Text Available Scientific background: Various diagnostic tests including conventional invasive coronary angiography and non-invasive computed tomography (CT coronary angiography are used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD. Research questions: The present report aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of CT coronary angiography versus invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. in October 2010 and was completed with a manual search. The literature search was restricted to articles published from 2006 in German or English. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of the relevant publications. The medical evaluation was based on systematic reviews of diagnostic studies with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard and on diagnostic studies with intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard. Study results were combined in a meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CI. Additionally, data on radiation doses from current non-systematic reviews were taken into account. A health economic evaluation was performed by modelling from the social perspective with clinical assumptions derived from the meta-analysis and economic assumptions derived from contemporary German sources. Data on special indications (bypass or in-stent-restenosis were not included in the evaluation. Only data obtained using CT scanners with at least 64 slices were considered. Results: No studies were found regarding the clinical efficacy or prognostic value of CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Overall, 15 systematic reviews with data from 44 diagnostic studies using invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard (identification of obstructive

  18. Sonification of reference markers for auditory graphs: effects on non-visual point estimation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Metatla


    Full Text Available Research has suggested that adding contextual information such as reference markers to data sonification can improve interaction with auditory graphs. This paper presents results of an experiment that contributes to quantifying and analysing the extent of such benefits for an integral part of interacting with graphed data: point estimation tasks. We examine three pitch-based sonification mappings; pitch-only, one-reference, and multiple-references that we designed to provide information about distance from an origin. We assess the effects of these sonifications on users’ performances when completing point estimation tasks in a between-subject experimental design against visual and speech control conditions. Results showed that the addition of reference tones increases users accuracy with a trade-off for task completion times, and that the multiple-references mapping is particularly effective when dealing with points that are positioned at the midrange of a given axis.

  19. Quantification of Intracranial Aneurysm Morphodynamics from ECG-gated CT Angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firouzian, A.; Manniesing, R.; Metz, C.T.; Risselada, R.; Klein, S.; Kooten, F. van; Sturkenboom, M.C.; Lugt, A. van der; Niessen, W.J.


    Rationale and Objectives: Aneurysm morphodynamics is potentially relevant for assessing aneurysm rupture risk. A method is proposed for automated quantification and visualization of intracranial aneurysm morphodynamics from ECG-gated computed tomography angiography (CTA) data. Materials and Methods:

  20. The Exact Estimation of Visual Acuity by VEP Technology:A Report of 726 Cases of Eye Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶广勋; 吴炳为; 张玲莉


    This study explored the accuracy of using visual evoked potentials(VEP)technology for visual acuity estimation.The enrolled 726 patients with post-traumatic unilateral decrease in visual acuity included the injured eyes served as the experimental group,and the healthy eyes as the control group.The least signal visual angle(LSVA),and amplitude and latency of P100 were chosen as test indexes.The results under different experimental conditions were recorded by PRVEP technology.All data collected were processed...

  1. Magnetic resonance angiography of fetal vasculature at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelavalli, Jaladhar; Krishnamurthy, Uday; Yadav, Brijesh K.; Haacke, Ewart M. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Detroit, MI (United States); Jella, Pavan K.; Hendershot, Kelly; Cabrera, Maria D. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Mody, Swati S. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S. [Wayne State University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Detroit, MI (United States); Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, MD, and Detroit, MI (United States); Romero, Roberto [Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, MD, and Detroit, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wayne State University, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Detroit, MI (United States)


    Magnetic resonance angiography has not been used much previously for visualizing fetal vessels in utero for reasons that include a contraindication for the use of exogenous contrast agents, maternal respiratory motion and fetal motion. In this work, we report the feasibility of using an appropriately modified clinical time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging sequence for non-contrast angiography of human fetal and placental vessels at 3.0 T. Using this 2D angiography technique, it is possible to visualize fetal vascular networks in late pregnancy. (orig.)

  2. Coronary CT angiography and MR angiography of Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Poongnap-2dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea); Park, In-Sook; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Young Hwee [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)


    Although the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms has diminished in patients with Kawasaki disease, coronary artery involvement is still regarded as a major complication of the disease, significantly affecting morbidity and mortality. Recent technical advances in coronary CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) have led to the possibility of using these two imaging methods as minimally invasive alternatives to the more invasive diagnostic catheter angiography in evaluating coronary artery abnormalities, such as aneurysm, stenosis, and occlusion. In this article, we describe imaging techniques and findings of coronary CTA and MRA in Kawasaki disease. (orig.)

  3. [Adaptive estimation of contrast thresholds using the visual evoked potential (VEP)]. (United States)

    Meigen, Thomas; Kley, Franziska


    The visual evoked potential (VEP) can be used to objectively estimate sensory thresholds. Recently, we developed an adaptive procedure for this threshold estimation based on a Fourier analysis of steady-state responses during the recording. In this study we quantified the reduction in recording time of this adaptive procedure. Steady-state VEPs to pattern reversal (f = 8.3 Hz) of checkerboards with 8 contrast values between 0.64% and 82% were recorded monocularly. Adaptive and non-adaptive recordings were performed for full correction (fc) and for blurred stimulus patterns (+1.5 D and +3.0D). VEP contrast thresholds were defined by the lowest contrast condition that showed a significant response. An ANOVA of the VEP thresholds showed significant effects (p VEP, non-adaptive VEP) and "correction" (fc, fc + 1.5D, fc + 3.0D). Compared to non-adaptive recordings, adaptive recordings showed thresholds that were significantly reduced and closer to psychophysical contrast thresholds. By applying the adaptive procedure the recording time can be reduced by a factor of about 2 when compared to the non-adaptive procedure. The new adaptive VEP procedure may help to improve the correlation of electrophysiological and psychophysical estimates of sensory thresholds and may accelerate functional testing in the clinical routine.

  4. Distance estimation in a dynamic simulated environment: a visual field dependence problem? (United States)

    Vianin, Pascal; Baumberger, Bernard; Flückiger, Michelangelo


    Egocentric distance estimation implies that the subject perceives his own location in the environment. In a simulated environment, subjects have to transpose perceptively their own observation point in order to assume their virtual body position. As only visual information specifies this position, their ability to perceive the camera viewpoint should be linked to the field dependence independence factor (FDI). Field-independent subjects underestimated the mid-distance between their own virtual body position and a far-located target; their bisection was located between the projective (2-D) and the simulated (3-D) mid-distance which indicates their difficulty in considering the in-depth simulated spatial references. High correlations between the vertical estimation in the rod-and-frame test and the egocentric-distance-estimation task (with shifted camera) suggest a similar perceptive process in both tasks. This result is confirmed by the better performances of the field-dependent subjects in this condition. In conclusion, we discuss the relationship between FDI and the sense of presence in virtual environments.

  5. Variability in abundance of temperate reef fishes estimated by visual census.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Identifying sources of sampling variation and quantifying their magnitude is critical to the interpretation of ecological field data. Yet, most monitoring programs of reef fish populations based on underwater visual censuses (UVC consider only a few of the factors that may influence fish counts, such as the diver or census methodology. Recent studies, however, have drawn attention to a broader range of processes that introduce variability at different temporal scales. This study analyzes the magnitude of different sources of variation in UVCs of temperate reef fishes off Patagonia (Argentina. The variability associated with time-of-day, tidal state, and time elapsed between censuses (minutes, days, weeks and months was quantified for censuses conducted on the five most conspicuous and common species: Pinguipes brasilianus, Pseudopercis semifasciata, Sebastes oculatus, Acanthistius patachonicus and Nemadactylus bergi. Variance components corresponding to spatial heterogeneity and to the different temporal scales were estimated using nested random models. The levels of variability estimated for the different species were related to their life history attributes and behavior. Neither time-of-day nor tidal state had a significant effect on counts, except for the influence of tide on P. brasilianus. Spatial heterogeneity was the dominant source of variance in all but one species. Among the temporal scales, the intra-annual variation was the highest component for most species due to marked seasonal fluctuations in abundance, followed by the weekly and the instantaneous variation; the daily component was not significant. The variability between censuses conducted at different tidal levels and time-of-day was similar in magnitude to the instantaneous variation, reinforcing the conclusion that stochastic variation at very short time scales is non-negligible and should be taken into account in the design of monitoring programs and experiments. The present

  6. Variability in abundance of temperate reef fishes estimated by visual census. (United States)

    Irigoyen, Alejo J; Galván, David E; Venerus, Leonardo A; Parma, Ana M


    Identifying sources of sampling variation and quantifying their magnitude is critical to the interpretation of ecological field data. Yet, most monitoring programs of reef fish populations based on underwater visual censuses (UVC) consider only a few of the factors that may influence fish counts, such as the diver or census methodology. Recent studies, however, have drawn attention to a broader range of processes that introduce variability at different temporal scales. This study analyzes the magnitude of different sources of variation in UVCs of temperate reef fishes off Patagonia (Argentina). The variability associated with time-of-day, tidal state, and time elapsed between censuses (minutes, days, weeks and months) was quantified for censuses conducted on the five most conspicuous and common species: Pinguipes brasilianus, Pseudopercis semifasciata, Sebastes oculatus, Acanthistius patachonicus and Nemadactylus bergi. Variance components corresponding to spatial heterogeneity and to the different temporal scales were estimated using nested random models. The levels of variability estimated for the different species were related to their life history attributes and behavior. Neither time-of-day nor tidal state had a significant effect on counts, except for the influence of tide on P. brasilianus. Spatial heterogeneity was the dominant source of variance in all but one species. Among the temporal scales, the intra-annual variation was the highest component for most species due to marked seasonal fluctuations in abundance, followed by the weekly and the instantaneous variation; the daily component was not significant. The variability between censuses conducted at different tidal levels and time-of-day was similar in magnitude to the instantaneous variation, reinforcing the conclusion that stochastic variation at very short time scales is non-negligible and should be taken into account in the design of monitoring programs and experiments. The present study provides

  7. [Clinical study with angiography system using a flat panel detecter]. (United States)

    Ichida, Takao; Okusako, Kenji; Yokoyama, Kouji; Shougaki, Masachika; Ogawa, Takayoshi; Kawahata, Hideki; Nasu, Takehisa; Hosogai, Minoru; Okuyama, Kazuo; Hatagawa, Masakatsu


    We have been using an X-ray angiography system that incorporates a flat panel detector (FPD) since December 2001. This system is equipped with the scintillator-type FPD PaxScan 4030A from Varian Medical Systems, and for objective comparison of the image intensifier (I.I.) and FPD, the system is constructed so that these detectors can be used alternatively. Using this system and other X-ray angiography systems, visual studies have been conducted on the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images acquired by FPD and I.I. We have found from the clinical images that the FPD is superior to the I.I. in depiction of fine blood vessels as well as of physical characteristics. Fluoroscopy images acquired by the FPD were not entirely satisfactory, however the improvement made in its performance now permits equal use of the FPD and I.I. systems.

  8. CT angiography - abdomen and pelvis (United States)

    Computed tomography angiography - abdomen and pelvis; CTA - abdomen and pelvis; Renal artery - CTA; Aortic - CTA; Mesenteric CTA ... belly or pelvis Masses and tumors in the abdomen or pelvis, including cancer, when needed to help ...

  9. Aperture Fever and the Quality of AAVSO Visual Estimates: mu Cephei as an Example (United States)

    Turner, D. G.


    (Abstract only) At the limits of human vision the eye can reach precisions of 10% or better in brightness estimates for stars. So why did the quality of AAVSO visual estimates suddenly drop to 50% or worse for many stars following World War II? Possibly it is a consequence of viewing variable stars through ever-larger aperture instruments than was the case previously, a time when many variables were observed without optical aid. An example is provided by the bright red supergiant variable mu Cephei, a star that has the potential to be a calibrating object for the extragalactic distance scale if its low-amplitude brightness variations are better defined. It appears to be a member of the open cluster Trumpler 37, so its distance and luminosity can be established provided one can pinpoint the amount of interstellar extinction between us and it. mu Cep appears to be a double-mode pulsator, as suggested previously in the literature, but with periods of roughly 700 and 1,000 days it is unexciting to observe and its red color presents a variety of calibration problems. Improving quality control for such variable stars is an issue important not only to the AAVSO, but also to science in general.

  10. A new method for estimating population receptive field topography in visual cortex. (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyun; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Logothetis, Nikos K; Smirnakis, Stelios M; Keliris, Georgios A


    We introduce a new method for measuring visual population receptive fields (pRF) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The pRF structure is modeled as a set of weights that can be estimated by solving a linear model that predicts the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal using the stimulus protocol and the canonical hemodynamic response function. This method does not make a priori assumptions about the specific pRF shape and is therefore a useful tool for uncovering the underlying pRF structure at different spatial locations in an unbiased way. We show that our method is more accurate than a previously described method (Dumoulin and Wandell, 2008) which directly fits a 2-dimensional isotropic Gaussian pRF model to predict the fMRI time-series. We demonstrate that direct-fit models do not fully capture the actual pRF shape, and can be prone to pRF center mislocalization when the pRF is located near the border of the stimulus space. A quantitative comparison demonstrates that our method outperforms the direct-fit methods in the pRF center modeling by achieving higher explained variance of the BOLD signal. This was true for direct-fit isotropic Gaussian, anisotropic Gaussian, and difference of isotropic Gaussians model. Importantly, our model is also capable of exploring a variety of pRF properties such as surround suppression, receptive field center elongation, orientation, location and size. Additionally, the proposed method is particularly attractive for monitoring pRF properties in the visual areas of subjects with lesions of the visual pathways, where it is difficult to anticipate what shape the reorganized pRF might take. Finally, the method proposed here is more efficient in computation time than direct-fit methods, which need to search for a set of parameters in an extremely large searching space. Instead, this method uses the pRF topography to constrain the space that needs to be searched for the subsequent modeling.

  11. Accuracy of System Step Response Roll Magnitude Estimation from Central and Peripheral Visual Displays and Simulator Cockpit Motion (United States)

    Hosman, R. J. A. W.; Vandervaart, J. C.


    An experiment to investigate visual roll attitude and roll rate perception is described. The experiment was also designed to assess the improvements of perception due to cockpit motion. After the onset of the motion, subjects were to make accurate and quick estimates of the final magnitude of the roll angle step response by pressing the appropriate button of a keyboard device. The differing time-histories of roll angle, roll rate and roll acceleration caused by a step response stimulate the different perception processes related the central visual field, peripheral visual field and vestibular organs in different, yet exactly known ways. Experiments with either of the visual displays or cockpit motion and some combinations of these were run to asses the roles of the different perception processes. Results show that the differences in response time are much more pronounced than the differences in perception accuracy.

  12. Multidetector-row CT angiography of upper- and lower-extremity peripheral arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmann, J.K.; Wildermuth, S. [Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)


    With the introduction of multidetector-row CT (MDCT) technology indications for MDCT angiography have expanded to include assessment of the peripheral arteries of the upper and lower extremities. Combined with patient- and scanner-adjusted CT data acquisition and contrast medium application strategies, an accurate and reliable evaluation of the peripheral arteries of the upper and lower extremities is possible. MDCT angiography is cost-effective and accurate for detection of arterial stenosis and occlusion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MDCT angiography allows postoperative assessment of peripheral arterial bypass grafts, including bypass graft stenosis and occlusion, as well as presence of aneurysms or arteriovenous fistulas. In addition, MDCT angiography is helpful in particular for visualization of arterial bypass grafts with a complicated extra-anatomical course. Furthermore, pre-operative peripheral vascular mapping can be performed by using MDCT angiography. Finally, due to the integration of MDCT scanners in many trauma centres, MDCT angiography is increasingly being used for assessment of traumatic arterial injuries. This article gives an overview of technical aspects of peripheral MDCT angiography, including scanning parameters, contrast medium application, image postprocessing and radiation exposure, and summarizes the most frequent acute and non-acute indications of MDCT angiography for assessment of the upper- and lower-extremity peripheral arteries. (orig.)

  13. Time-to-Collision estimation from motion based on primate visual processing. (United States)

    Galbraith, John M; Kenyon, Garrett T; Ziolkowski, Richard W


    A population coded algorithm, built on established models of motion processing in the primate visual system, computes the time-to-collision of a mobile robot to real-world environmental objects from video imagery. A set of four transformations starts with motion energy, a spatiotemporal frequency based computation of motion features. The following processing stages extract image velocity features similar to, but distinct from, optic flow; "translation" features, which account for velocity errors including those resulting from the aperture problem; and finally, estimate the time-to-collision. Biologically motivated population coding distinguishes this approach from previous methods based on optic flow. A comparison of the population coded approach with the popular optic flow algorithm of Lucas and Kanade against three types of approaching objects shows that the proposed method produces more robust time-to-collision information from a real world input stimulus in the presence of the aperture problem and other noise sources. The improved performance comes with increased computational cost, which would ideally be mitigated by special purpose hardware architectures.

  14. Accuracy of using visual identification of white sharks to estimate residency patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Delaney

    Full Text Available Determining the residency of an aquatic species is important but challenging and it remains unclear what is the best sampling methodology. Photo-identification has been used extensively to estimate patterns of animals' residency and is arguably the most common approach, but it may not be the most effective approach in marine environments. To examine this, in 2005, we deployed acoustic transmitters on 22 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in Mossel Bay, South Africa to quantify the probability of detecting these tagged sharks by photo-identification and different deployment strategies of acoustic telemetry equipment. Using the data collected by the different sampling approaches (detections from an acoustic listening station deployed under a chumming vessel versus those from visual sightings and photo-identification, we quantified the methodologies' probability of detection and determined if the sampling approaches, also including an acoustic telemetry array, produce comparable results for patterns of residency. Photo-identification had the lowest probability of detection and underestimated residency. The underestimation is driven by various factors primarily that acoustic telemetry monitors a large area and this reduces the occurrence of false negatives. Therefore, we propose that researchers need to use acoustic telemetry and also continue to develop new sampling approaches as photo-identification techniques are inadequate to determine residency. Using the methods presented in this paper will allow researchers to further refine sampling approaches that enable them to collect more accurate data that will result in better research and more informed management efforts and policy decisions.

  15. Preoperative evaluation of the artery of adamkiewicz by MR angiography and CT angiography in patients with a thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Atsushi; Makita, Shinji; Moriai, Yoshiteru; Hiramori, Katsuhiko [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Nakajima, Takayuki; Kawazoe, Kohei [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). Memorial Heart Center


    Paraplegia is known as an extremely serious and important complication of surgical repair in patients with a thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is important to evaluate the artery of Adamkiewicz (AdA) before surgical repair to prevent paraplegia. But the AdA is difficult to visualize by the invasive and hazardous, conventional selective angiography. The aim of this study was to visualize AdA by MR angiography (MRA) and CT angiography (CTA). Twenty-one consecutive patients with a thoracic aortic aneurysm underwent both gadolinium-enhanced, three-dimensional MRA and CTA using multislice helical CT. The AdA was successfully visualized in 15 of the 21 patients (71.4%) by MRA, and in 17 of those 21 patients (80.9%) by CTA. Its continuity was depicted in 12 of 15 patients (80%) by MRA, and in 9 of 17 patients (47%) by CTA. AdA was visualized at 85.7% by MRA or CTA, respectively. This study shows that CTA is a much more sensitive method to detect AdA than MRA. On the other hand, MRA is better to evaluate the continuity of AdA from the descending aorta to the anterior spinal artery, than CTA. Therefore, MRA and CTA are both useful for a preoperative evaluation of AdA and its detailed vascular anatomy from the aorta to the anterior spinal artery. (author)

  16. [Transient cortical blindness--a complication after coronary angiography--case report]. (United States)

    Borowik, Helena; Kułakowska, Alina; Drozdowski, Wiesław; Dubicki, Artur; Kraśnicki, Paweł


    Transient cortical blindness is a very rare complication of cardiovascular and cerebral angiography procedures. We present a case of 63-years-old woman, who developed cortical blindness after coronary angiography. Computed tomography (CT) done immediately after blindness appearance showed bilateral hyperintensive areas (probably due to a leakage of contrast medium) in the occipital and parietal cerebral lobes. All visual symptoms disappeared during 48 hours and CT scan repeated after sight recovery did not show any focal lesions in the brain. A breakdown of the blood-brain barrier with direct contrast neurotoxicity seems to be the causal factor of neurological changes observed in our patient after coronary angiography.

  17. Are introspective reaction times affected by the method of time estimation? A comparison of visual analogue scales and reproduction. (United States)

    Bryce, Donna; Bratzke, Daniel


    In this study, we investigated whether the method of time estimation plays a role in the apparent limits of introspection in dual-task processing. Previous studies showed that when participants reported introspective reaction times after each trial of a dual task by clicking on a visual analogue scale, they appeared to be unaware of the dual-task costs in their performance. However, visual analogue scales have seldom been used in interval estimation, and they may be inappropriate. In the present study, after each dual-task trial, participants reported their introspective reaction times either via a visual analogue scale or via the method of reproduction. The results replicated the previous findings, irrespective of method. That is, even though responses to the second task slowed down with increasing task overlap, this slowing was only very weakly reflected in the introspective reaction times. Thus, the participants' failure to report the objective dual-task costs in their reaction times is a rather robust finding that cannot be attributed to the method employed. However, introspective reaction times reported via visual analogue scales were more closely related to the objective reaction times, suggesting that visual analogue scales are preferable to reproduction. We conclude that introspective reaction times represent the same information regardless of method, but whether that information is temporal in nature is as yet unsettled.

  18. Assessment of anemia during CT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Caroline, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Groth, Michael; Bley, Thorsten A.; Henes, Frank O. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, András [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)


    Objectives: Anemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on the single unenhanced trigger slice of pulmonary CT angiography scans for diagnosis of anemia. Material and Methods: 150 consecutive patients (median age 64 ± 16 years) with suspected PE underwent pulmonary CT angiography. Two radiologists, blinded to laboratory results, performed HU measurements in the single unenhanced trigger scan independently by region-based analysis (ROI). HU values from ascending and descending aorta and the calculated mean of both were correlated with serum hemoglobin levels. Inter- and intraobserver variability was determined for HU measurements, and ROC analysis was performed for diagnosis of anemia. Calculated linear models were used to assess formulas for estimation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. Results: HU measurements revealed high intra- and interrater reliability (ICC > 0.981 and ICC > 0.965, respectively). Calculated mean HU values showed a strong correlation with serum hemoglobin levels (r = 0.734), which allowed generation of different formulas for calculation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. ROC analyses confirmed a high sensitivity (80.4 for men; 91.3 for women) and specificity (84.0 for men; 84.9 for women) for diagnosing anemia. Conclusion: Diagnosis of anemia and quantification of hemoglobin levels upon a single unenhanced trigger scan of pulmonary CT angiography is feasible. We suggest disclosing the anemic state in the radiological report, independent of the presence of PE, since anemia carries increased risks of morbidity and mortality.

  19. Validation of a Mexican food photograph album as a tool to visually estimate food amounts in adolescents. (United States)

    Bernal-Orozco, M Fernanda; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Rodríguez-Rocha, Norma P; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Orozco-Valerio, María; Rovillé-Sausse, Françoise; León-Estrada, Sandra; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan D


    The aim of the present study was to validate a food photograph album (FPA) as a tool to visually estimate food amounts, and to compare this estimation with that attained through the use of measuring cups (MC) and food models (FM). We tested 163 foods over fifteen sessions (thirty subjects/session; 10-12 foods presented in two portion sizes, 20-24 plates/session). In each session, subjects estimated food amounts with the assistance of FPA, MC and FM. We compared (by portion and method) the mean estimated weight and the mean real weight. We also compared the percentage error estimation for each portion, and the mean food percentage error estimation between methods. In addition, we determined the percentage error estimation of each method. We included 463 adolescents from three public high schools (mean age 17·1 (sd 1·2) years, 61·8 % females). All foods were assessed using FPA, 53·4 % of foods were assessed using MC, and FM was used for 18·4 % of foods. The mean estimated weight with all methods was statistically different compared with the mean real weight for almost all foods. However, a lower percentage error estimation was observed using FPA (2·3 v. 56·9 % for MC and 325 % for FM, Pfoods, comparisons between methods showed FPA to be the most accurate tool for estimating food amounts.

  20. Hyperpolarized 13C MR angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Magnusson, Peter; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik


    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive technology that can be used for diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular disease; the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Hyperpolarized imaging agents provide signal enhancement of more than 10, 000 times, which implies large reduction...

  1. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation. (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Fisher, Robert N


    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species--giant panda, dugong, and California condor--to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.

  2. CT angiography by means of intra-arterial contrast infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Junichiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shiogai, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Yoshifumi; Hara, Mitsuhiro (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)


    CT angiography (CT-AG) by means of intra-arterial contrast infusion was carried out, and its clinical usefulness was evaluated in various intracranial lesions. The practical and diagnostic merits of CT-AG are as follows: a selective enhancement of the cerebral vessels by an extremely small amount of the contrast substance, accompanied by a satisfactory resolution of fine arterioles and arteries. The excellent ability of the CT to detect differences in the X-ray absorption coefficients surpasses that of cerebral angiography. An intracranial aneurysm which was not visualized by the angiography appeared between arterial branches upon CT-AG. The three-dimensional configuration of the aneurysmal body and its related artery, the pointing direction of the aneurysm, and the angle between the aneurysmal axis and the afferent artery were clearly shown. The fine structure of arteriovenous malformation could be shown concurrently with the cerebral tissue and the ventricle. The axial view of the circle of Willis gives important information for surgical intervention. Concerning brain tumors, the structural correlation between the tumor and the cerebral arteries became apparent when the CT-AG was carried out immediately after a conventional contrast-enhancement. Such a ''double contrast'' allows safe surgical access to the intracranial tumor. CT-AG in the case of ''Moyamoya'' disease visualized fine moyamoya vessels extending all over the cerebral hemisphere; those vessels were less prominent in the ordinary angiograms. The vascular networks of the arteriovenous malformation, which were not evident in the ordinary angiograms, were also revealed by the CT-AG. For the patient with poor prospects, CT-AG will be were valid as a screening study than ordinary angiography because of its less invasive procedure using a small amount of the contrast substance. CT-AG on a dynamic scan mode possible optimal timing in the visualization of the

  3. Contributions of visual and proprioceptive information to travelled distance estimation during changing sensory congruencies. (United States)

    Campos, Jennifer L; Butler, John S; Bülthoff, Heinrich H


    Recent research has provided evidence that visual and body-based cues (vestibular, proprioceptive and efference copy) are integrated using a weighted linear sum during walking and passive transport. However, little is known about the specific weighting of visual information when combined with proprioceptive inputs alone, in the absence of vestibular information about forward self-motion. Therefore, in this study, participants walked in place on a stationary treadmill while dynamic visual information was updated in real time via a head-mounted display. The task required participants to travel a predefined distance and subsequently match this distance by adjusting an egocentric, in-depth target using a game controller. Travelled distance information was provided either through visual cues alone, proprioceptive cues alone or both cues combined. In the combined cue condition, the relationship between the two cues was manipulated by either changing the visual gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 1) or the proprioceptive gain across trials (0.7×, 1.0×, 1.4×; Exp. 2). Results demonstrated an overall higher weighting of proprioception over vision. These weights were scaled, however, as a function of which sensory input provided more stable information across trials. Specifically, when visual gain was constantly manipulated, proprioceptive weights were higher than when proprioceptive gain was constantly manipulated. These results therefore reveal interesting characteristics of cue-weighting within the context of unfolding spatio-temporal cue dynamics.

  4. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of persistent fifth aortic arch in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yumin; Zhu, Ming; Sun, Aimin; Li, Yuhua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)


    Cine angiography and echocardiography have been utilized to diagnose congenital aortic arch anomalies. However, the visualization of great vessels by echocardiography is limited, while cine angiography requires cardiac catheterization with ionizing radiation. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a noninvasive modality suitable for visualization of congenital aortic arch anomalies. To evaluate the utility of contrast-enhanced MRA in the diagnosis of persistent fifth aortic arch, a rare congenital aortic arch anomaly, and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRA with that of echocardiography and cine angiography. In four pediatric patients, contrast-enhanced MRA studies were performed for diagnosing persistent fifth aortic arch. The findings of MRA were compared with echocardiographic findings and confirmed by cine angiography and operation. Transthoracic surface echocardiography noted an aberrant vessel arising from the ascending aorta in two of four patients; the etiology of this vessel was uncertain. In the other two patients a diagnosis of coarctation was made. Of the four patients, only one was diagnosed with interruption of the aortic arch. Contrast-enhanced MRA clarified uncertain echocardiographic findings, enabling the correct diagnosis of persistent fifth aortic arch with fourth aortic arch interruption in all four patients. Contrast-enhanced MRA is a safe, accurate, and fast imaging technique for the evaluation of persistent fifth aortic arch and may obviate the need for conventional cine angiography. Cardiac catheterization may be reserved for some types of complicated congenital heart disease and for obtaining hemodynamic information. (orig.)

  5. Angiographic leakage of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy on indocyanine angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Cheng-guo; WEN Feng; HUANG Shi-zhou; LUO Guang-wei; YAN Hong; WU Wei-ju; WU De-zheng


    Background There is no detailed report about the angiographic leakage of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV)lesions on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. This study aimed to investigate the angiographic leakage of polypoidal lesions in PCV on ICG angiography.Methods One hundred and forty-four eyes of 137 patients diagnosed as PCV were prospectively observed. Fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and ICG angiography were performed. Leakage of polypoidal lesions and clinical features were recorded according to the angiograms.Results In all 144 eyes, 110 eyes showed angiographic leakage (leakage group) on ICG angiography and three subtypes of leakage group were noted, which were polypoidal dilations leakage (47 eyes, 42.7%), branching vascular networks leakage (14 eyes, 12.7%) and leakage of both (49 eyes, 44.5%). The other 34 eyes showed regression of polypoidal lesions (regression group). In leakage group, the rates of pigment epithelial detachment (PED), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) <0.1 and old subretinal hemorrhages were 56.4% (62 eyes), 19.1% (21 eyes), and 4.6% (5 eyes)respectively, compared with 8.8% (3 eyes), 50% (17 eyes) and 38.2% (13 eyes) of regression group (P <0.001). The history of regression group was significantly longer (P <0.001).Conclusions Angiographic leakage and regression can be observed in PCV lesions. Leakage of both polypoidal dilations and branching vascular networks is the most common subtype in leakage group. PCV in leakage group is more likely to be related to PED, better BCVA and shorter history, while PCV regression group tends to relevant to old subretinal hemorrhage, worse BCVA and longer history. This may reflect that the former is active or in the early course while the later is resting or in the late phase of PCV.

  6. Transient cortical blindness following vertebral angiography in a young adult with cerebellar haemangioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, Viktor; Stojanovic, Sanja; Avramov, Predrag [Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Centre of Radiology, Novi Sad (RS); Koprivsek, Katarina [Institute of Oncology, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Sremska Kamenica (RS); Vulekovic, Petar [Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Neurosurgery Clinic, Novi Sad (RS)


    Transient cortical blindness is reported to occur in 0.3% to 1% of cerebral angiography procedures. It develops within minutes of contrast medium injection and lasts for up to several days. We report a long episode of transient cortical blindness in a 17-year-old boy with cerebellar haemangioblastoma, which started during the preoperative vertebral angiography and lasted for 5 days. CT performed 2 days after the sudden onset of bilateral visual loss showed multiple asymmetrical lesions within the brain parenchyma in the distribution of the posterior cerebral circulation. Even though the patient's vision was completely restored 5 days after angiography, repeat MRI performed 2 months after angiography showed improvement but with residual lesions in the thalami, cerebellum and occipital lobe. (orig.)

  7. Transient cortical blindness following vertebral angiography in a young adult with cerebellar haemangioblastoma. (United States)

    Till, Viktor; Koprivsek, Katarina; Stojanovic, Sanja; Avramov, Predrag; Vulekovic, Petar


    Transient cortical blindness is reported to occur in 0.3% to 1% of cerebral angiography procedures. It develops within minutes of contrast medium injection and lasts for up to several days. We report a long episode of transient cortical blindness in a 17-year-old boy with cerebellar haemangioblastoma, which started during the preoperative vertebral angiography and lasted for 5 days. CT performed 2 days after the sudden onset of bilateral visual loss showed multiple asymmetrical lesions within the brain parenchyma in the distribution of the posterior cerebral circulation. Even though the patient's vision was completely restored 5 days after angiography, repeat MRI performed 2 months after angiography showed improvement but with residual lesions in the thalami, cerebellum and occipital lobe.

  8. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and their correlation with production and reproductive traits in Brahman cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Souza Bertipaglia


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of visual scores of body structure, precocity and muscularity with production (body weight at 18 months and average daily gain and reproductive (scrotal circumference traits in Brahman cattle in order to determine the possible use of these scores as selection criteria to improve carcass quality. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using an animal model that included contemporary group as fixed effect. A total of 1,116 observations of body structure, precocity and muscularity were used. Heritability was 0.39, 043 and 0.40 for body structure, precocity and muscularity, respectively. The genetic correlations were 0.79 between body structure and precocity, 0.87 between body structure and muscularity, and 0.91 between precocity and muscularity. The genetic correlations between visual scores and body weight at 18 months were positive (0.77, 0.57 and 0.59 for body structure, precocity and muscularity, respectively. Similar genetic correlations were observed between average daily gain and visual scores (0.60, 0.57 and 0.48, respectively, whereas the genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and these scores were low (0.13, 0.02, and 0.13. The results indicate that visual scores can be used as selection criteria in Brahman breeding programs. Favorable correlated responses should be seen in average daily gain and body weight at 18 months. However, no correlated response is expected for scrotal circumference.

  9. PREVAIL: Predicting Recovery through Estimation and Visualization of Active and Incident Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan D. Dworkin


    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that by using only information from a single visit at incidence, we can predict how a new lesion will recover using relatively simple statistical techniques. The potential to visualize the likely course of recovery has implications for clinical decision-making, as well as trial enrichment.

  10. Estimating occupancy of rare fishes using visual surveys, with a comparison to backpack electrofishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albanese, Brett; Owers, Katharine A.; Weiler, Deborah A.; Pruitt, William


    There is an ongoing need to monitor the status of imperiled fishes in the southeastern United States using effective methods. Visual surveys minimize harm to target species, but few studies have specifically examined their effectiveness compared to other methods or accounted for imperfect species de

  11. Estimating Occupancy of Rare Fishes Using Visual Surveys, with a Comparison to Backpack Electrofishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albanese, Brett; Owers, Katharine A.; Weiler, Deborah A.; Pruitt, William


    There is an ongoing need to monitor the status of imperiled fishes in the southeastern United States using effective methods. Visual surveys minimize harm to target species, but few studies have specifically examined their effectiveness compared to other methods or accounted for imperfect species de

  12. Select Features of Diabetic Retinopathy on Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography Compared With Fluorescein Angiography and Normal Eyes (United States)

    Salz, David A.; de Carlo, Talisa E.; Adhi, Mehreen; Moult, Eric; Choi, WhooJhon; Baumal, Caroline R.; Witkin, Andre J.; Duker, Jay S.; Fujimoto, James G.; Waheed, Nadia K.


    IMPORTANCE Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) is a recently developed noninvasive imaging technique that can visualize the retinal and choroidal microvasculature without the injection of exogenous dyes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the potential clinical utility of OCTA using a prototype swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) device and compare it with fluorescein angiography (FA) for analysis of the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective, observational cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care academic retina practice from November 2013 through November 2014. A cohort of diabetic and normal control eyes were imaged with a prototype SS-OCT system. The stage of diabetic retinopathy was determined by clinical examination. Imaging was performed using angiographic 3 × 3-mm and 6 × 6-mm SS-OCT scans to generate 3-dimensional en-face OCT angiograms for each eye. Two trained Boston Image Reading Center readers reviewed and graded FA and OCTA images independently. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The size of the foveal nonflowzone and the perifoveal intercapillary area on OCTA were measured in both normal and diabetic eyes using Boston Image Reading Center image analysis software. RESULTS The study included 30 patients with diabetes (mean [SD] age, 55.7 [10] years) and 6 control individuals (mean [SD] age, 55.1 [6.4] years). A total of 43 diabetic and 11 normal control eyes were evaluated with OCTA. Fluorescein angiography was performed in 17 of 43 diabetic eyes within 8 weeks of the OCTA. Optical coherence tomographic angiography was able to identify a mean (SD) of 6.4 (4.0) microaneurysms (95% CI, 4.4–8.5), while FA identified a mean (SD) of 10 (6.9) microaneurysms (95% CI, 6.4–13.5). The exact intraretinal depth of microaneurysms on OCTA was localized in all cases (100%). The sensitivity of OCTA in detecting microaneuryms when compared with FA was 85% (95% CI, 53–97), while the specificity was 75% (95% CI, 21

  13. MR angiography of the head; Diagnostic capacity and availability for screening test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, Osamu; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Ito, Haruhide (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)


    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate MR angiography for diagnostic method and/or screening test of intracranial vascular lesions. MRA was performed in 128 cases. Three aneurysms suspected by MRA were all confirmed by angiography. Two additional aneurysms with diameter of approximately 3 mm were revealed by angiography. It seemed to suggest the limitation of the size of aneurysms visualized by MRA. Moyamoya vessels were well visualized and MRA was the best diagnostic modality of moyamoya diseases. In the patient with carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), dilated supraophthalmic veins were visible. In occlusive cerebrovascular diseases, occluded arteries were well recognized. The patency of STA-MCA anastomosis can be non-invasively followed up with MRA. (author).

  14. MR imaging compared with CT, angiography, and myelography supplemented with CT in the diagnosis of spinal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, Kanehiro; Uchino, Akira; Matsumoto, Shunichi; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Masashi; Masuda, Kouji (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    To clarify the significance of MR imaging and the present status of CT, angiography, and myelography supplemented by CT (M-CTM), the radiological findings of 50 spinal tumors were reviewed and analyzed. MR imaging was most effective for visualizing morphological features such as the margins and/or inner structures of the tumors. CT was also effective for imaging 'dumbbell' neurinomas and extradural tumors. Angiography was necessary in one hemangioblastoma and in cervical extradural tumors. M-CTM visualized the morphology of intradural extramedullary tumors and extradural tumors, but provided no new information in most of these cases. It was concluded that when using MR the indications for CT, angiography, and M-CTM are limited and that CT or angiography should be performed only in selected cases. M-CTM appeared to be unnecessary. (author).

  15. Giant fibroma in the left ventricle of an infant: imaging findings in magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, Matthias; Felix, Roland [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Stiller, Brigitte; Schubert, Ulf; Lange, Peter E. [Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum, Berlin (Germany); Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela [Department of Neuropathology, Free University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hetzer, Roland [Department of Cardio-, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (Germany)


    The diagnosis of a rare case of giant intraventricular fibroma in an infant by MRI in comparison with other imaging modalities, such as echocardiography and angiography, is discussed. For preoperative planning only MRI showed the myocardial infiltration. The myocardial blood supply of the tumor could be evaluated qualitatively by contrast-enhanced MRI, but the direct visualization of the distally located branches could only be assessed by coronary angiography. Magnetic resonance coronary angiography using the navigator technique failed to depict the distal part of the coronaries. The obstruction of the left ventricle outflow tract could be assessed and quantified by all imaging modalities. (orig.)

  16. The Visualization and Analysis of POI Features under Network Space Supported by Kernel Density Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wenhao


    Full Text Available The distribution pattern and the distribution density of urban facility POIs are of great significance in the fields of infrastructure planning and urban spatial analysis. The kernel density estimation, which has been usually utilized for expressing these spatial characteristics, is superior to other density estimation methods (such as Quadrat analysis, Voronoi-based method, for that the Kernel density estimation considers the regional impact based on the first law of geography. However, the traditional kernel density estimation is mainly based on the Euclidean space, ignoring the fact that the service function and interrelation of urban feasibilities is carried out on the network path distance, neither than conventional Euclidean distance. Hence, this research proposed a computational model of network kernel density estimation, and the extension type of model in the case of adding constraints. This work also discussed the impacts of distance attenuation threshold and height extreme to the representation of kernel density. The large-scale actual data experiment for analyzing the different POIs' distribution patterns (random type, sparse type, regional-intensive type, linear-intensive type discusses the POI infrastructure in the city on the spatial distribution of characteristics, influence factors, and service functions.

  17. Estimating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius: Comparing thermolimit respirometry with traditional visual methods. (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G


    Evaluating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in insects has provided a number of challenges. Visual observations of endpoints (onset of spasms, loss of righting response, etc.) can be difficult to measure consistently, especially with smaller insects. To resolve this problem, Lighton and Turner (2004) developed a new technique: thermolimit respirometry (TLR). TLR combines real time measurements of both metabolism (V·CO2) and activity to provide two independent, objective measures of CTmax. However, several questions still remain regarding the precision of TLR and how accurate it is in relation to traditional methods. Therefore, we evaluated CTmax of bed bugs using both traditional (visual) methods and TLR at three important metabolic periods following feeding (1d, 9d, and 21d). Both methods provided similar estimates of CTmax, although traditional methods produced consistently lower values (0.7-1°C lower than TLR). Despite similar levels of precision, TLR provided a more complete profile of thermal tolerance, describing changes in metabolism and activity leading up to the CTmax, not available through traditional methods. In addition, feeding status had a significant effect on bed bug CTmax, with bed bugs starved 9d (45.19[±0.20]°C) having the greatest thermal tolerance, followed by bed bugs starved 1d (44.64[±0.28]°C), and finally bed bugs starved 21d (44.12[±0.28]°C). Accuracy of traditional visual methods in relation to TLR is highly dependent on the selected endpoint; however, when performed correctly, both methods provide precise, accurate, and reliable estimations of CTmax.

  18. Thoracoscopic lung segmentectomy simulated by a tailor-made virtual lung: computed bronchography and angiography. (United States)

    Akiba, Tadashi; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Ohki, Takao


    We describe the benefits of simulating an anatomical lung segmentectomy using multidetector computed tomography bronchography and angiography (tailor-made virtual lung). Preoperative determination of the anatomical intersegmental plane is possible by visualizing the segmental bronchi and pulmonary vein branches. This advanced technique could be useful during thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy for lung cancer.

  19. Early Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Findings in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy. (United States)

    Nicolo, Massimo; Rosa, Raffaella; Musetti, Donatella; Musolino, Maria; Traverso, Carlo Enrico


    Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM) is a rare disorder presenting in young people with an acute onset of unilateral central visual loss often associated with a prodromal flu-like illness. The authors present the early anatomical findings of a 35-year-old man clinically diagnosed with UAIM using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and SS-OCT angiography.

  20. Value of MR angiography of Adamkiewicz artery as a preoperative investigation for thoracic-descending and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Retrospective study of 106 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Naoaki; Ogino, Hitoshi; Hanabusa, Yuji; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya Kenji [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)


    We reviewed 106 cases who underwent MR angiography to visualize the Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) as a preoperative evaluation of the thoracic descending and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. MR angiography depicted the AKA successfully in 68% of the patients. However, segmental artery that gives rise the AKA was occluded in 41% at its origin from the aorta. In one patient with postoperative paraplegia, broad infarction in the upper thoracic cord seems not to be related to the territory of the AKA that was visualized by MR angiography. Preoperative MR angiography serves planning of surgery, and can reduce time of aortic cross-clamping. However, our understanding of the value of MR angiography to prevent spinal cord ischemic injury requires further clinical investigation. (author)

  1. Photodynamic therapy monitoring with optical coherence angiography (United States)

    Sirotkina, M. A.; Matveev, L. A.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Zaitsev, V. Y.; Buyanova, N. L.; Elagin, V. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Kuznetsov, S. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Moiseev, A. A.; Gamayunov, S. V.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Feldchtein, F. I.; Vitkin, A.; Gladkova, N. D.


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modern approach for cancer therapy with low normal tissue toxicity. This study was focused on a vascular-targeting Chlorine E6 mediated PDT. A new angiographic imaging approach known as M-mode-like optical coherence angiography (MML-OCA) was able to sensitively detect PDT-induced microvascular alterations in the mouse ear tumour model CT26. Histological analysis showed that the main mechanisms of vascular PDT was thrombosis of blood vessels and hemorrhage, which agrees with angiographic imaging by MML-OCA. Relationship between MML-OCA-detected early microvascular damage post PDT (within 24 hours) and tumour regression/regrowth was confirmed by histology. The advantages of MML-OCA such as direct image acquisition, fast processing, robust and affordable system opto-electronics, and label-free high contrast 3D visualization of the microvasculature suggest attractive possibilities of this method in practical clinical monitoring of cancer therapies with microvascular involvement. PMID:28148963

  2. Posterior Chamber Hemorrhage during Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. P. Vilela


    Full Text Available This paper provides the first reported case of acute posterior chamber hemorrhage during fluorescein angiography (FA. This is a case review with serial color photographs of the anterior segment. A 76-year-old male was referred for angiographic control of age-related macular degeneration. He was pseudophakic OU, BCVA 20/40 OU. He had mild hypertension, but not diabetes. He had had two previous angiograms without adverse effects. Difficulty was experienced in obtaining the images owing to a progressive reduction in the transparency of the media. A dense hemorrhage in the posterior chamber of the right eye was found, involving the visual axis. Thorough biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and ultrasonic biomicroscopy showed that part of one of the haptics of the right intraocular lens (IOL was touching and tearing the posterior face of the iris, without any visible synechiae, iris, or angle neovascularization. Anterior segment FA and posterior ultrasonography were normal. No similar case has been described in the literature involving dense progressive bleeding located in the capsular bag and posterior chamber, without any detectable triggering ocular event other than mydriasis and fluorescein injection. Contact of the iris or sulcus with part of the intraocular lens, aggravated by the intense use of mydriatics during the FA procedure, probably caused bleeding to happen.

  3. Posterior encephalopathy with vasospasm: MRI and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidauer, S.; Gaa, J.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Frankfurt, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528, Frankfurt (Germany); Sitzer, M.; Hefner, R. [Department of Neurology, University of Frankfurt, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528, Frankfurt (Germany)


    Posterior encephalopathy is characterised by headache, impairment of consciousness, seizures and progressive visual loss. MRI shows bilateral, predominantly posterior, cortical and subcortical lesions with a distribution. Our aim was to analyse the MRI lesion pattern and angiographic findings because the pathophysiology of posterior encephalopathy is incompletely understood. We report three patients with clinical and imaging findings consistent with posterior encephalopathy who underwent serial MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and construction of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and four-vessel digital subtraction angiography (DSA). DWI revealed symmetrical subcortical and cortical parieto-occipital high signal. High and also low ADCs indicated probable vasogenic and cytotoxic oedema. On follow-up there was focal cortical laminar necrosis, while the white-matter lesions resolved almost completely, except in the arterial border zones. DSA revealed diffuse arterial narrowing, slightly more marked in the posterior circulation. These findings suggest that posterior encephalopathy may in some cases be due to diffuse, severe vasospasm affecting especially in the parieto-occipital grey matter, with its higher vulnerability to ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm due to digitoxin intoxication, resulting in posterior encephalopathy, has not yet been described previously. (orig.)

  4. Estimating cohesion in small groups using audio-visual nonverbal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Gatica-Perez, D.


    Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team traini

  5. Estimation of mental effort in learning visual search by measuring pupil response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuto Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual sensitivity and performance with training. In this study, we examined whether learning is accompanied by a release from mental effort on the task, leading to automatization of the learned task. For this purpose, we had subjects conduct a visual search for a target, defined by a combination of orientation and spatial frequency, while we monitored their pupil size. It is well known that pupil size reflects the strength of mental effort invested in a task. We found that pupil size increased rapidly as the learning proceeded in the early phase of training and decreased at the later phase to a level half of its maximum value. This result does not support the simple automatization hypothesis. Instead, it suggests that the mental effort and behavioral performance reflect different aspects of perceptual learning. Further, mental effort would be continued to be invested to maintain good performance at a later stage of training.

  6. Non-contrast-enhanced MR Angiography for Selective Visualization of the Hepatic Vein%非对比剂增强的磁共振血管成像技术对肝静脉显示的初步评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍兵; 孙家瑜; 夏春潮; 李昌宪


    目的 评价非对比剂增强的磁共振血管成像技术对肝静脉解剖变异的显示和诊断价值.方法 用同一磁共振设备,先后对10例肝硬化患者和12例肝移植供体进行对比剂强化的磁共振血管造影(CE-MRA)和非对比剂强化的磁共振血管造影(NCE-MRA),获取肝静脉血管的影像解剖图像.由2位医师独立对每例图像质量进行技术评分,评价两种方法对于血管显示的价值.结果 NCE-MRA组和CE-MRA组中,图像质量为3分以上的分别占86.4%(19/22)和90.9%(20/22);两种方法显示22例肝静脉血管的符合率为90.9%(20/22),均没有出现假阳性病例,NCE-MRA方法出现假阴性2例.两者优良率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),并且两位诊断医师的一致性较高,Kappa值均>0.75.结论 NCE-MRA是一种非侵入性、无需使用造影剂的磁共振血管成像技术,可以有效地用于肝静脉的评估.%Objective To evaluate the diagnostic performance of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (NCE-MRA) in the preoperative assessment of hepatic vein. Materials and Methods Contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA)and NCE-MRA were performed on ten patients with hepatic cirrhosis and twelve potential living liver donors with the same 1. 5T MR scanner. The anatomic angiographic images were reconstructed and reviewed by two radiologists independently. The quality of the images of hepatic vein vessels was rated with a four point scale. Results After consensus reading, 19 NCE-MRA images (86.4%) and 20 CE-MRA images (90. 9%)scored more than 3 point, respectively. The segmental branch vessels were visualized on MR angiography in the majority of cases. Both NCE-MRA and CE-MRA correctly characterized 20 out of 22 hepatic veins without false positive reporting. The NCE-MRA reported two false negative cases. There were no statistically significant differences between NCE-MRA and CE-MRA for the characterization of hepatic vasculature (P > 0. 05 ). High consistency was

  7. Improved quantitative visualization of hypervelocity flow through wavefront estimation based on shadow casting of sinusoidal gratings. (United States)

    Medhi, Biswajit; Hegde, Gopalakrishna M; Gorthi, Sai Siva; Reddy, Kalidevapura Jagannath; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan


    A simple noninterferometric optical probe is developed to estimate wavefront distortion suffered by a plane wave in its passage through density variations in a hypersonic flow obstructed by a test model in a typical shock tunnel. The probe has a plane light wave trans-illuminating the flow and casting a shadow of a continuous-tone sinusoidal grating. Through a geometrical optics, eikonal approximation to the distorted wavefront, a bilinear approximation to it is related to the location-dependent shift (distortion) suffered by the grating, which can be read out space-continuously from the projected grating image. The processing of the grating shadow is done through an efficient Fourier fringe analysis scheme, either with a windowed or global Fourier transform (WFT and FT). For comparison, wavefront slopes are also estimated from shadows of random-dot patterns, processed through cross correlation. The measured slopes are suitably unwrapped by using a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based phase unwrapping procedure, and also through iterative procedures. The unwrapped phase information is used in an iterative scheme, for a full quantitative recovery of density distribution in the shock around the model, through refraction tomographic inversion. Hypersonic flow field parameters around a missile-shaped body at a free-stream Mach number of ∼8 measured using this technique are compared with the numerically estimated values. It is shown that, while processing a wavefront with small space-bandwidth product (SBP) the FT inversion gave accurate results with computational efficiency; computation-intensive WFT was needed for similar results when dealing with larger SBP wavefronts.

  8. Onboard camera pose estimation in augmented reality space for direct visual navigation (United States)

    Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi


    This paper presents a dynamical solution of the registration problem for on-road navigation applications via 3D-2D parameterized model matching algorithm. Traditional camera"s three dimensional (3D) position and pose estimation algorithms always employ the fixed and known-structure models as well as the depth information to obtain the 3D-2D correlations, which is however unavailable for on-road navigation applications since there are no fixed models in the general road scene. With the constraints of road structure and on-road navigation features, this paper presents a 2D digital road map based road shape modeling algorithm. Dynamically generated multi-lane road shape models are used to match real road scene to estimate camera 3D position and pose data. Our algorithms successfully simplified the 3D-2D correlation problem to the 2D-2D road model matching on the projective image. The algorithms proposed in this paper are validated with the experimental results from real road test under different conditions and types of road.

  9. Impact of Scoring Single or Multiple Occlusal Lesions on Estimates of Diagnostic Accuracy of the Visual ICDAS-II System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Jablonski-Momeni


    differ in appearance and severity. This study aimed to evaluate how estimates of reproducibility and accuracy of ICDAS-II were affected when all lesions on occlusal surfaces, or only a representative lesion, were scored. 100 permanent teeth with 1–4 investigation sites on the occlusal surface were examined visually by four examiners. Serial sections of the teeth were assessed for lesion depth. Intra- and interexaminer reproducibility (weighted kappa values, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated for all investigation sites and for a randomly selected site per tooth. Comparing the kappa values for the whole sample and the independent sites, no effect or only a small effect was found. Comparing the areas under the ROC-curves no effect could be shown. Examining multiple sites on teeth leads to results comparable to when a single independent site is chosen per tooth.

  10. Proposal of a non-lethal visual census method to estimate freshwater stingray abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Andrea Morales-Betancourt


    Full Text Available There is not a current method to estimate South American freshwater stingray’s abundance. Therefore we designed a census method and tested it in the field. It consists of making nocturnal surveys by boat in large rivers (>25m width and floodplain lagoons of varying sizes, along transects of 100m x 10m (1000 m2. We applied this method in the Tomo River, a tributary of the Orinoco River in Colombia. 110 transects were surveyed in 200 runs. A total of 149 rays of four species were recorded: Potamotrygon motoro, Potamotrygon orbignyi, Potamotrygon schroederi and Paratrygon aiereba. P. motoro was the most abundant with a density of 0.31 individuals /1000 m2 (SD=0.5. This method gave optimal results when applied to habitats with high transparency and shallow depth (< 1m since it permitted the identification of both adults and juveniles present.

  11. Indocyanine green angiography in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (United States)

    Gajdzik-Gajdecka, Urszula; Dorecka, Mariola; Nita, Ewa; Michalska, Anna; Miniewicz-Kurkowska, Joanna; Romaniuk, Wanda


    Summary Background Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a condition that originates from alterations of the choroidal circulation. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in patients with chronic CSC. Material/Methods The analysis included 17 patients (34 eyes) with chronic CSC in at least 1 eye. The eye examination included: distance and near visual acuity, biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, fundus examination, colored and red-free fundus photography, evaluation of autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. Results In 34 eyes (100%) involved in the ICGA study the results revealed zones of transient increased choroidal vessels permeability. In 18 eyes (52.9%) choroidal changes were accompanied by a focal serous pigment epithelial detachment. In 4 eyes (11.8%) of 3 patients’ the ICGA examination confirmed the presence of occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In the patient with bilateral diffuse retinal pigment epitheliopathy, CNV was present in 1 eye, in the patient with unilateral chronic CSC it was also present in 1 eye, and in the third patient with bilateral chronic CSC it was detected in both eyes. Conclusions ICGA is a very useful examination that enables ophthalmologists to visualize choroidal changes due to chronic CSC, as well as to diagnose occult CNV in chronic CSC. PMID:22293877

  12. Computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napp, Adriane E; Haase, Robert; Laule, Michael


    OBJECTIVES: More than 3.5 million invasive coronary angiographies (ICA) are performed in Europe annually. Approximately 2 million of these invasive procedures might be reduced by noninvasive tests because no coronary intervention is performed. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate noninva...... angiography (ICA) is the reference standard for detection of CAD. • Noninvasive computed tomography angiography excludes CAD with high sensitivity. • CT may effectively reduce the approximately 2 million negative ICAs in Europe. • DISCHARGE addresses this hypothesis in patients with low...

  13. Qual o erro da angiografia na definição de isquemia miocárdica durante intervenções coronarianas percutâneas? What is the angiography error when defining myocardial ischemia during percutaneous coronary interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendes Sant'Anna


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A angiografia vem sendo utilizada como padrão de referência para definição de doença arterial coronariana (DAC, embora suas limitações sejam conhecidas. O valor da medida do fluxo fracionado de reserva do miocárdio (FFR na avaliação da DAC está bem estabelecido. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a acurácia da angiografia em definir as lesões isquêmicas e sua correlação com o FFR. MÉTODOS: Duzentos e cinqüenta pacientes foram incluídos no estudo (471 vasos. Todas as estenoses > 50% pela estimativa visual da angiografia (EVA foram avaliadas medindo-se o FFR. Se o FFR 0,75 a lesão não foi tratada. As lesões foram divididas em moderadas (BACKGROUND: The angiography has been used as a reference standard to define coronary artery disease (CAD, although its limitations are well-known. The significance of the myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR in the assessment of CAD is well established. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of angiography when defining ischemic lesions and its correlation with FFR. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty consecutive patients (471 arteries were included in this study. All stenoses > 50% at the angiography visual estimate (AVE were assessed by FFR measurements. When FFR was 0.75, no interventional treatment was carried out. Offline quantitative coronary angiography (QCA was performed in all stenoses, which were divided in intermediate (< 70% - 327 and severe (125. The correlation coefficients between the diameter of the stenosis (%DS and FFR and the accuracy of VA of the angiography when assessing ischemia were determined. RESULTS: FFR could be obtained in 452 lesions (96%. Mean %DS and FFR were 56 ± 8% and 0.74 and 76 ± 6% and 0.48 for moderate and severe stenoses, respectively. Concordance between QCA and FFR was poor, especially in intermediate stenoses (Spearman's rho = - 0.33, p<0.0001. Visual assessment resulted in an accuracy of 57% and 96% in

  14. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules. (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir


    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (, established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  15. Comparison of effective doses between computed tomography cardiac angiography and conventional angiography at Pantai Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (United States)

    Mohamed, Faizal; Moin, F. H. A.


    This research studies two types of cardiac angiography procedures, namely Computed Tomography Cardiac Angiography (CTCA) and Conventional Angiography (CA). The following research was executed to estimate the difference of mean effective doses that the patients received through both procedures. The mean dose-length-product (DLP) from CTCA and mean dose-area-product (DAP) from CA were utilized in calculating the effective doses. The result shows that the mean effective dose for CTCA and CA are 1.71±0.59 mSv and 53.25±14.22 mSv respectively. This proves that the mean effective dose received by patients undergoing CA is higher than patients undergoing CTCA. According to t-test, both procedures differ significantly, with a difference amounting to p<0.0001. The increases of the effective dose that the patients received through CA procedure were influenced by exposure time, the coronary anatomical condition, the operator's experience, and the operation methods.

  16. Parathyroid gland angiography with indocyanine green fluorescence to predict parathyroid function after thyroid surgery (United States)

    Vidal Fortuny, J.; Belfontali, V.; Sadowski, S. M.; Karenovics, W.; Guigard, S.


    Background Postoperative hypoparathyroidism remains the most common complication following thyroidectomy. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of intraoperative parathyroid gland angiography in predicting normal parathyroid gland function after thyroid surgery. Methods Angiography with the fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) was performed in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy, to visualize vascularization of identified parathyroid glands. Results Some 36 patients underwent ICG angiography during thyroidectomy. All patients received standard calcium and vitamin D supplementation. At least one well vascularized parathyroid gland was demonstrated by ICG angiography in 30 patients. All 30 patients had parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the normal range on postoperative day (POD) 1 and 10, and only one patient exhibited asymptomatic hypocalcaemia on POD 1. Mean(s.d.) PTH and calcium levels in these patients were 3·3(1·4) pmol/l and 2·27(0·10) mmol/l respectively on POD 1, and 4·0(1.6) pmol/l and 2·32(0·08) mmol/l on POD 10. Two of the six patients in whom no well vascularized parathyroid gland could be demonstrated developed transient hypoparathyroidism. None of the 36 patients presented symptomatic hypocalcaemia, and none received treatment for hypoparathyroidism. Conclusion PTH levels on POD 1 were normal in all patients who had at least one well vascularized parathyroid gland demonstrated during surgery by ICG angiography, and none required treatment for hypoparathyroidism. PMID:26864909

  17. Two-dimensional thick-slice MR digital subtraction angiography for assessment of cerebrovascular occlusive diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hori, M.; Ishigame, K.; Nambu, A.; Kumagai, H.; Araki, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Univ. (Japan)


    Although spatial resolution of current MR angiography is excellent, temporal resolution has remained unsatisfactory. We evaluated clinical applicability of 2D thick-slice, contrast-enhanced subtraction MR angiography (2D-MR digital subtraction angiography) with sub-second temporal resolution in cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. Twenty-five patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases (8 moyamoya diseases, 10 proximal internal carotid occlusions, and 2 sinus thromboses) were studied with a 1.5-T MR unit. The MR digital subtraction angiography (MRDSA) was performed per 0.97 s continuously just after a bolus injection of 15 ml of gadolinium chelates up to 40 s in sagittal (covering hemisphere) or coronal planes. Subtraction images were generated at a workstation. We evaluated imaging quality and hemodynamic information of MRDSA in comparison with those of routine MR imaging, non-contrast MR angiography, and X-ray intra-arterial DSA. Major cerebral arteries, all of the venous sinuses, and most tributaries were clearly visualized with 2D MRDSA. Also, pure arterial phases were obtained in all cases. The MRDSA technique demonstrated prolonged circulation in sinus thromboses, distal patent lumen of proximal occlusion, and some collateral circulation. Such hemodynamic information was comparable to that of intra-arterial DSA. Two-dimensional thick-slice MRDSA with high temporal resolution has a unique ability to demonstrate cerebral hemodynamics equivalent to that of intra-arterial DSA and may play an important role for evaluation of cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. (orig.)

  18. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA is a noninvasive test ... of the major blood vessels throughout your body. It may be performed with or without contrast material ...

  19. CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography. The view of the referring physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Martin H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Universitaetsspital Bern (Switzerland). Dept. fuer Diagnostische, Interventionelle und Paediatrische Radiologie; Zimmermann, E.; Hamm, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dewey, M.


    Assessment of experience gained by local referring physicians with the procedure of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in the everyday clinical routine. A 25-item questionnaire was sent to 179 physicians, who together had referred a total of 1986 patients for CCTA. They were asked about their experience to date with CCTA, the indications for coronary imaging, and their practice in referring patients for noninvasive CCTA or invasive catheter angiography. 53 questionnaires (30%) were assessable, corresponding to more than 72% of the patients referred. Of the referring physicians who responded, 94% saw a concrete advantage of CCTA in the treatment of patients, whereby 87% were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the reporting. For excluding coronary heart disease (CHD) where there was a low pre-test probability of disease, the physicians considered CCTA to be superior to conventional coronary diagnosis (4.2 on a scale of 1-5) and vice versa for acute coronary syndrome (1.6 of 5). The main reasons for unsuitability of CCTA for CT diagnosis were claustrophobia and the absence of a sinus rhythm. The level of exposure to radiation in CCTA was estimated correctly by only 42% of the referring physicians. 90% of the physicians reported that their patients evaluated their coronary CT overall as 'positive' or 'neutral', while 87% of the physicians whose patients had undergone both procedures reported that the patients had experienced CCTA as the less disagreeable of the two. CCTA is accepted by the referring physicians as an alternative imaging procedure for the exclusion of CHD and received a predominantly positive assessment from both the referring physicians and the patients.

  20. Emulating the visual receptive-field properties of MST neurons with a template model of heading estimation (United States)

    Perrone, J. A.; Stone, L. S.


    We have proposed previously a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to those of neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. These detectors, arranged within cortical-like maps, were designed to extract self-translation (heading) and self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer. We then postulated that heading from optic flow is directly encoded by individual neurons acting as heading detectors within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether individual MST neurons can perform this function because some of their receptive-field properties seem inconsistent with this role. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST responses with those of detectors from two different configurations of the model under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the characteristic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support self-motion estimation via a direct encoding of heading and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses that can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the superior temporal sulcus.

  1. Achievable Rate Estimation of IEEE 802.11ad Visual Big-Data Uplink Access in Cloud-Enabled Surveillance Applications. (United States)

    Kim, Joongheon; Kim, Jong-Kook


    This paper addresses the computation procedures for estimating the impact of interference in 60 GHz IEEE 802.11ad uplink access in order to construct visual big-data database from randomly deployed surveillance camera sensing devices. The acquired large-scale massive visual information from surveillance camera devices will be used for organizing big-data database, i.e., this estimation is essential for constructing centralized cloud-enabled surveillance database. This performance estimation study captures interference impacts on the target cloud access points from multiple interference components generated by the 60 GHz wireless transmissions from nearby surveillance camera devices to their associated cloud access points. With this uplink interference scenario, the interference impacts on the main wireless transmission from a target surveillance camera device to its associated target cloud access point with a number of settings are measured and estimated under the consideration of 60 GHz radiation characteristics and antenna radiation pattern models.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of 64 multislice CT angiography in the assessment of coronary in-stent restenosis: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhonghua [Discipline of Medical Imaging, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)], E-mail:; Almutairi, Abdulrahman Marzouq D. [Discipline of Medical Imaging, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice CT angiography for the detection of coronary in-stent restenosis in patients treated with coronary stents when compared to conventional coronary angiography. Materials and methods: A search of PUBMED/MEDLINE, ProQuest and Cochrane library databases for English literature was performed. Only studies comparing 64-slice CT angiography with conventional coronary angiography for the detection of coronary in-stent restenosis (more than 50% stenosis) were included for analysis. Sensitivity and specificity estimates pooled across studies were tested using a fixed effects model. Results: Fourteen studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the analysis. The mean value of assessable stents was 89%. Prevalence of in-stent restenosis following coronary stenting was 20% among these studies. Pooled estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of overall 64-slice CT angiography for the detection of coronary in-stent restenosis was 90% (95% CI: 86%, 94%) and 91% (95% CI: 90%, 93%), respectively, based on the evaluation of assessable stents. Diagnostic value of 64-slice CT angiography was found to decrease significantly when the analysis was performed with inclusion of nonassessable segments in five studies, with pooled sensitivity and specificity being 79% (95% CI: 68%, 88%) and 81% (95% CI: 77%, 84%). Stent diameter is the main factor affecting the diagnostic value of 64-slice CT angiography. Conclusion: Our results showed that 64-slice CT angiography has high diagnostic value (both sensitivity and specificity) for detection of coronary in-stent restenosis based on assessable segments when compared to conventional coronary angiography.

  3. Diagnostic yield and accuracy of CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography for detection of macrovascular causes of intracerebral haemorrhage: prospective, multicentre cohort study


    van Asch, Charlotte J. J.; Birgitta K Velthuis; Rinkel, Gabriël J E; Algra, Ale; de Kort, Gerard A. P.; Witkamp, Theo D.; de Ridder, Johanna C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M.; De Leeuw, Frank Erik; Schonewille, Wouter J.; de Kort, Paul L. M.; Dippel, Diederik W; Raaymakers, Theodora W M; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Wermer, Marieke J. H.


    Study question What are the diagnostic yield and accuracy of early computed tomography (CT) angiography followed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage? Methods This prospective diagnostic study enrolled 298 adults (18-70 years) treated in 22 hospitals in the Netherlands over six years. CT angiography was performed within seven days of haemorrhage. If the result was negative, MRI/MR...

  4. Computed tomographic angiography or conventional coronary angiography in therapeutic decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Lieuwe H.; Dikkers, Riksta; Willems, Tineke P.; de Smet, Bart J. G. L.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix; Tio, Rene A.


    To evaluate non-invasive angiography using dual-source computed tomography (CT) for the determination of the most appropriate therapeutic strategy in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). CT angiography (Dual Source CT, Somatom Definition, Siemens Medical Systems, Forchheim, Germany

  5. MR angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Prasad, Sreeram; Maurya, Pradeep K.; Misra, Usha K. (Dept. of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India)), Email:; Kumar, Sunil (Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India))


    Background: Infarctions in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are common but there is a paucity of studies on MR angiography (MRA). Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and predictors of MRA abnormality in patients with TBM. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were subjected to clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRA evaluation. The severity of meningitis, focal deficit, CSF findings, and stroke co-morbidities were recorded. Presence of exudates, infarction, hydrocephalous, and tuberculoma on MRI were noted. On intracranial MRA, occlusion or more than 50% narrowing of proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and basilar artery were considered abnormal. The MRA abnormality was correlated with clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings. Results: Sixty-seven patients, aged 3-75 years (median 34 years) were included. MRI was abnormal in 61 (91%) patients; basal exudates in 24, hydrocephalous in 23, tuberculoma in 33, and infarction in 40. MRA was abnormal in 34 (50.7%); MCA was most commonly involved (n = 21), followed by PCA (n = 14), ICA (n = 8), ACA (n 5), basilar artery (n = 5), and vertebral and superior cerebellar artery (1 each). One-fourth of the patients had abnormality in both anterior and posterior circulations. MRA abnormality was related to hydrocephalous and infarction; corresponding infarct was present in 61.8% patients; 41.7% patients with abnormal MRA developed infarct at 3 months but none with normal MRA. Conclusion: Half the patients with TBM had MRA abnormality involving both anterior and posterior circulations and 61.8% of them had corresponding infarcts

  6. Multidetector CT angiography for acute gastrointestinal bleeding: technique and findings. (United States)

    Artigas, José M; Martí, Milagros; Soto, Jorge A; Esteban, Helena; Pinilla, Inmaculada; Guillén, Eugenia


    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common reason for emergency department admissions and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Factors that complicate its clinical management include patient debility due to comorbidities; intermittence of hemorrhage; and multiple sites of simultaneous bleeding. Its management, therefore, must be multidisciplinary and include emergency physicians, gastroenterologists, and surgeons, as well as radiologists for diagnostic imaging and interventional therapy. Upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding is usually managed endoscopically, with radiologic intervention reserved as an alternative to be used if endoscopic therapy fails. Endoscopy is often less successful in the management of acute lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding, where colonoscopy may be more effective. The merits of performing bowel cleansing before colonoscopy in such cases might be offset by the resultant increase in response time and should be weighed carefully against the deficits in visualization and diagnostic accuracy that would result from performing colonoscopy without bowel preparation. In recent years, multidetector computed tomographic (CT) angiography has gained acceptance as a first-line option for the diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. In selected cases of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, CT angiography also provides accurate information about the presence or absence of active bleeding, its source, and its cause. This information helps shorten the total diagnostic time and minimizes or eliminates the need for more expensive and more invasive procedures.

  7. Visual information and expert’s idea in Hurst index estimation of the fractional Brownian motion using a diffusion type approximation (United States)

    Taheriyoun, Ali R.; Moghimbeygi, Meisam


    An approximation of the fractional Brownian motion based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is used to obtain an asymptotic likelihood function. Two estimators of the Hurst index are then presented in the likelihood approach. The first estimator is produced according to the observed values of the sample path; while the second one employs the likelihood function of the incremental process. We also employ visual roughness of realization to restrict the parameter space and to obtain prior information in Bayesian approach. The methods are then compared with three contemporary estimators and an experimental data set is studied.

  8. Best-Quality Vessel Identification Using Vessel Quality Measure in Multiple-Phase Coronary CT Angiography (United States)

    Liu, Jordan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella


    The detection of stenotic plaques strongly depends on the quality of the coronary arterial tree imaged with coronary CT angiography (cCTA). However, it is time consuming for the radiologist to select the best-quality vessels from the multiple-phase cCTA for interpretation in clinical practice. We are developing an automated method for selection of the best-quality vessels from coronary arterial trees in multiple-phase cCTA to facilitate radiologist's reading or computerized analysis. Our automated method consists of vessel segmentation, vessel registration, corresponding vessel branch matching, vessel quality measure (VQM) estimation, and automatic selection of best branches based on VQM. For every branch, the VQM was calculated as the average radial gradient. An observer preference study was conducted to visually compare the quality of the selected vessels. 167 corresponding branch pairs were evaluated by two radiologists. The agreement between the first radiologist and the automated selection was 76% with kappa of 0.49. The agreement between the second radiologist and the automated selection was also 76% with kappa of 0.45. The agreement between the two radiologists was 81% with kappa of 0.57. The observer preference study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed automated method for the selection of the best-quality vessels from multiple cCTA phases.

  9. En-face optical coherence tomography angiography of neovascularization elsewhere in hemicentral retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogawa K


    Full Text Available Kenji Sogawa, Taiji Nagaoka, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomofumi Tani, Akitoshi Yoshida Department of Ophthalmology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan Purpose: To evaluate how the growth of neovascularization elsewhere (NVE was delineated in an eye with hemicentral retinal vein occlusion (CRVO using optical coherence tomography (OCT angiography. Patients and methods: We examined a 64-year-old man diagnosed with hemi-CRVO. The area around the occluded vein was scanned using a spectral-domain OCT device (RTVue XR Avanti. Blood flow was detected using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA algorithm. Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA, and OCT angiography examinations were performed at the first visit and at 3 and 6 months postpresentation. Results: At the first visit, FA revealed delayed retinal venous filling and extensive areas of capillary nonperfusion. The patient underwent a trial of intravitreal ranibizumab injection (0.5 mg/0.05 mL for the treatment of macular edema. At 3 months postpresentation, there was no NVE around the occluded vein in the en-face SSADA image, but at 6 months, NVE appeared on the occluded veins. The en-face SSADA image showed the NVE structure in the fibrovascular membrane on the occluded vein more clearly than FA images. Conclusion: OCT angiography clearly visualized the sprouting of NVE in an eye with hemi-CRVO. New findings of the vascular structure of NVE in hemi-CRVO were revealed using the en-face SSADA algorithm. Keywords: OCT angiography, hemi-CRVO, NVE

  10. Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography. (United States)

    Alp, B N; Bozbuğa, N; Tuncer, M A; Yakut, C


    Transient cortical blindness is rarely encountered after angiography of native coronary arteries or bypass grafts. This paper reports a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred 72 h after coronary angiography in a 56-year old patient. This was the patient's fourth exposure to contrast medium. Neurological examination demonstrated cortical blindness and the absence of any focal neurological deficit. A non-contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed bilateral contrast enhancement in the occipital lobes and no evidence of cerebral haemorrhage, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no pathology. Sight returned spontaneously within 4 days and his vision gradually improved. A search of the current literature for reported cases of transient cortical blindness suggested that this is a rarely encountered complication of coronary angiography.

  11. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.


    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  12. Fluorine-19 magnetic resonance angiography of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud B van Heeswijk

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To implement and characterize a fluorine-19 ((19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique and to test the hypothesis that the (19F MRI signal in steady state after intravenous injection of a perfluoro-15-crown-5 ether (PCE emulsion may be exploited for angiography in a pre-clinical in vivo animal study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro at 9.4T, the detection limit of the PCE emulsion at a scan time of 10 min/slice was determined, after which the T(1 and T(2 of PCE in venous blood were measured. Permission from the local animal use committee was obtained for all animal experiments. 12 µl/g of PCE emulsion was intravenously injected in 11 mice. Gradient echo (1H and (19F images were obtained at identical anatomical levels. Signal-to-noise (SNR and contrast-to-noise (CNR ratios were determined for 33 vessels in both the (19F and (1H images, which was followed by vessel tracking to determine the vessel conspicuity for both modalities. RESULTS: In vitro, the detection limit was ∼400 µM, while the (19F T(1 and T(2 were 1350±40 and 25±2 ms. The (19F MR angiograms selectively visualized the vasculature (and the liver parenchyma over time while precisely coregistering with the (1H images. Due to the lower SNR of (19F compared to (1H (17±8 vs. 83±49, p<0.001, the (19F CNR was also lower at 15±8 vs. 52±35 (p<0.001. Vessel tracking demonstrated a significantly higher vessel sharpness in the (19F images (66±11 vs. 56±12, p = 0.002. CONCLUSION: (19F magnetic resonance angiography of intravenously administered perfluorocarbon emulsions is feasible for a selective and exclusive visualization of the vasculature in vivo.

  13. A High-Speed, Real-Time Visualization and State Estimation Platform for Monitoring and Control of Electric Distribution Systems: Implementation and Field Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, Blake; Gotseff, Peter; Giraldez, Julieta; Coddington, Michael


    Continued deployment of renewable and distributed energy resources is fundamentally changing the way that electric distribution systems are controlled and operated; more sophisticated active system control and greater situational awareness are needed. Real-time measurements and distribution system state estimation (DSSE) techniques enable more sophisticated system control and, when combined with visualization applications, greater situational awareness. This paper presents a novel demonstration of a high-speed, real-time DSSE platform and related control and visualization functionalities, implemented using existing open-source software and distribution system monitoring hardware. Live scrolling strip charts of meter data and intuitive annotated map visualizations of the entire state (obtained via DSSE) of a real-world distribution circuit are shown. The DSSE implementation is validated to demonstrate provision of accurate voltage data. This platform allows for enhanced control and situational awareness using only a minimum quantity of distribution system measurement units and modest data and software infrastructure.

  14. Assessment Of Coronary Arterial Stents By Multislice-CT Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maintz, D.; Fallenberg, E. M.; Heindel, W.; Fischbach, R. [Univ. of Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Grude, M. [Univ. of Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Angiology


    Purpose: To assess patency and lumen visibility of coronary artery stents by multislice-CT angiography (MSCTA) in comparison with conventional coronary angiography as the standard of reference. Material and Methods: 47 stents of 13 different types were evaluated in 29 patients. MSCTA was performed on a 4-slice scanner with a standard coronary protocol (detector collimation 4 x 1 mm; table feed 1.5 mm/rotation, 400 mAs, 120 kV). Image evaluation was performed by two readers who were blinded to the reports from the catheter angiography. MIP reconstructions were evaluated for image quality on a 4-point scale (1 = poor, 4 = excellent) and stent patency (contrast distal to the stent as an indirect patency sign). Axial images and multiplanar reformations through the stents were used for assessment of stent lumen visibility (measurement of the visible stent lumen diameter) and detection of relevant in-stent stenosis (50%). Results: Image quality was fair to good on average (score 2.64 {+-} 1.0) and depended on the heart rate (heart rate 45-60: average score 3.2, heart rate 61-70: average score 2.8, heart rate >71: average score 1.4). Thirty-seven stents were correctly classified as patent, 1 was correctly classified as occluded and 9 stents were not assessable due to insufficient image quality because of triggering artifacts. Parts of the stent lumen could be visualized in 30 cases. On average, 20-40% of the stent lumen diameter was visible. Twenty-five stents were correctly classified as having no stenosis, 1 was falsely classified as stenosed, 1 was correctly classified as occluded. In 20 stents lumen visibility was not sufficient for stenosis evaluation. Conclusion: Although the stent lumen may be partly visualized in most stents, a reliable evaluation of in-stent stenoses does not seem practical by 4-slice MSCT. Nevertheless, for stent patency evaluation, MS-CTA might provide valuable clinical information. With submillimeter MSCT (e.g. 16-slice scanners) and more

  15. Patient acceptance of noninvasive and invasive coronary angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schönenberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noninvasive angiography using multislice computed tomography (MSCT is superior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for detection of coronary stenoses. We compared patient acceptance of these two noninvasive diagnostic tests and invasive conventional coronary angiography (Angio. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 111 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent MSCT, MRI, and Angio. Subsequently, patient acceptance of the three tests was evaluated with questionnaires in all patients. The main acceptance variables were preparation and information prior to the test, degree of concern, comfort, degree of helplessness, pain (on visual analog scales, willingness to undergo the test again, and overall satisfaction. Preparation for each test was not rated significantly differently, whereas patients were significantly more concerned about Angio than the two noninvasive tests (p<0.001. No pain during MSCT, MRI, and Angio as assessed on visual analog scales (0 to 100 was reported by 99, 93, and 31 patients, respectively. Among the 82 patients who felt pain during at least one procedure, both CT (0.9+/-4.5 and MRI (5.2+/-16.6 were significantly less painful than Angio (24.6+/-23.4, both p<0.001. MSCT was considered significantly more comfortable (1.49+/-0.64 than MRI (1.75+/-0.81, p<0.001. In both the no-revascularization (55 patients and the revascularization group (56 patients, the majority of the patients (73 and 71% would prefer MSCT to MRI and Angio for future imaging of the coronary arteries. None of the patients indicated to be unwilling to undergo MSCT again. The major advantages patients attributed to MSCT were its fast, uncomplicated, noninvasive, and painless nature. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive coronary angiography with MSCT is considered more comfortable than MRI and both MSCT and MRI are less painful than Angio. Patient preference for MSCT might tip the scales in favor of this test provided that the diagnostic

  16. CT angiography and CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeters, T. van


    CT angiography and CT perfusion are used in patients with acute ischemic stroke for diagnostic purposes and to select patients for treatment. In this thesis, the reproducibility of CT angiography and CT perfusion is examined, the additional value of CT angiography and CT perfusion for stroke outcome

  17. Effects of Estimators on Ultrasound Nakagami Imaging in Visualizing the Change in the Backscattered Statistics from a Rayleigh Distribution to a Pre-Rayleigh Distribution. (United States)

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tai, Dar-In; Shu, Yu-Chen


    Ultrasound Nakagami imaging has recently attracted interest as an imaging technique for analyzing envelope statistics. Because the presence of structures has a strong effect on estimation of the Nakagami parameter, previous studies have indicated that Nakagami imaging should be used specifically for characterization of soft tissues with fewer structures, such as liver tissues. Typically, changes in the properties of the liver parenchyma cause the backscattered statistics to transform from a Rayleigh distribution to a pre-Rayleigh distribution, and this transformation can be visualized using a Nakagami imaging technique. However, different estimators result in different estimated values; thus, the performance of a Nakagami image may depend on the type of estimator used. This study explored the effects of various estimators on ultrasound Nakagami imaging to describe the backscattered statistics as they change from a Rayleigh distribution to a pre-Rayleigh distribution. Simulations and clinical measurements involving patients with liver fibrosis (n = 85) yielded image data that were used to construct B-mode and conventional Nakagami images based on the moment estimator (denoted as mINV images) and maximum-likelihood estimator (denoted as mML images). In addition, novel window-modulated compounding Nakagami images based on the moment estimator (denoted as mWMC images) were also obtained. The means and standard deviations of the Nakagami parameters were examined as a function of the backscattered statistics. The experimental results indicate that the mINV, mML and mWMC images enabled quantitative visualization of the change in backscattered statistics from a Rayleigh distribution to a pre-Rayleigh distribution. Importantly, the mWMC image is superior to both mINV and mML images because it simultaneously realizes sensitive detection of the backscattered statistics and a reduction of estimation variance for image smoothness improvement. We therefore recommend using m

  18. Non-enhanced MR angiography of renal arteries - Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeretti, M. G.; Lumia, D.; Cani, A.; Barresi, M.; Cardim, L Nocchi; Piacentino, F.; Genovese, E. A.; Fugazzola, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy)], e-mail:; Maresca, A. M. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy); Novario, R. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Insubria Univ., Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese (Italy)


    Background: The main causes of renal artery stenosis (RAS) are atherosclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia. Despite contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) being a safe and reliable method for diagnosis of RAS especially in young individuals, recently it has been possible to adopt innovative technologies that do not require paramagnetic contrast agents. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of steady-state free-precession (SSFP) non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NC-MRA) by using a 1.5 T MR scanner for the detection of renal artery stenosis, in comparison with breath-hold CE-MRA as the reference standard. Material and Methods: Sixty-three patients (33 men, 30 women) with suspected renovascular hypertension (RVHT) were examined by a 1.5T MR scanner; NC-MRA with an electrocardiography (ECG)-gated SSFP sequence was performed in 58.7% (37/63) of patients; in 41.3% (26/63) of patients a respiratory trigger was used in addition to cardiac gating. CE-MRA, with a three-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) T1-weighted sequence, was performed in all patients within the same session. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) image quality, number of renal arteries, and the presence of stenosis were assessed by two observers (independently for NC-MRA and together for CE-MRA). The agreement between NC-MRA and CE-MRA as well as the inter-observer reproducibility were calculated with Bland-Altman plots. Results: MIP image quality was considered better for NC-MRA. NC-MRA identified 143 of 144 (99.3%) arteries detected by CE-MRA (an accessory artery was not identified). Fourteen stenoses were detected by CE-MRA (11 atherosclerotic, 3 dysplastic) with four of 14 (28.5%) significant stenosis. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated an excellent concordance between NC-MRA and CE-MRA; particularly, the reader A evaluated correctly all investigated arteries, while over-estimation of two stenoses occurred for reader B. Regarding NC-MRA, inter-observer agreement was excellent

  19. Spinal angiography: vascular anatomy, technique, indications; Spinale Angiographie: Gefaessanatomie, Technik und Indikationsstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Thron, A. [Universitaetsklinik der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie


    The indication for spinal angiography has to be closely set as in case of inadequate handling this procedure bares the risk of paraplegia. In unclear spinal symptoms lasting over a longer periode of time, spinal vascular malformation have to be considered. Spinal vascular malformations are often reversibel, especially if diagnosed early. Diagnostic methods have to include spinal angiography if other non-invasive methods do not lead to results. The main point is to consider spinal vascular malformations in unclear cases. (orig.) [German] Die Indikation zu einer spinalen Angiographie muss streng gestellt werden, da bei unsachgemaesser Durchfuehrung dieser Untersuchung die Gefahr einer bleibenden Querschnittsymptomatik besteht. Bei unklarer spinaler Symptomatik, die ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum progredient ist, muss jedoch immer auch an eine spinale Gefaessfehlbildung gedacht werden. Die durch alle diagnostischen Moeglichkeiten einschliesslich der spinalen Angiographie diagnostizierten spinalen Gefaessfehlbildungen sind haeufig kurabel, insbesondere bei frueher Diagnosestellung. Der wichtigste Punkt ist jedoch, dass differenzialdiagnostisch auch an eine spinale Gefaessfehlbildung gedacht wird. (orig.)

  20. Post-mortem CT-coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhlsgaard, Camilla; Leth, Peter Mygind


    post-mortem coronary angiography and computerized tomography.  We describe how to prepare and inject the contrast medium, and how to establish a CT-protocol that optimizes spatial resolution, low contrast resolution and noise level. Testing of the method on 6 hearts, showed that the lumen...

  1. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications; Spinale Angiographie. Anatomie, Technik und Indikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Simgen, A.; Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.) [German] Indikationsstellung, Technik und Durchfuehrung der spinalen Angiographie erfordern detaillierte Kenntnisse der Gefaessversorgung des Spinalkanals und des Rueckenmarks. Die Gefaessversorgung des Rueckenmarks erfolgt im Bereich des Halsmarks aus den beiden Aa. vertebrales. Eine zusaetzliche arterielle Versorgung der Wirbelsaeule einschliesslich des Rueckenmarks wird ueber segmentale Arterien hergestellt, die im Bereich der Thorakal- und Lumbalregion aus der Embryonalphase als segmentale, interkostale und Lumbalarterien erhalten geblieben sind. Da die spinale Angiographie die Gefahr der Querschnittslaehmung birgt, ist eine strenge Indikation notwendig. Eine ueber laengere Zeit bestehende unklare klinische Symptomatik kann auch durch eine spinale Gefaessmalformation hervorgerufen werden. Ist durch die MRT-Bildgebung der Verdacht auf eine spinale Gefaessfehlbildung gegeben, sollte eine Angiographie durchgefuehrt werden, da diese Fehlbildungen oft kurabel sind. (orig.)

  2. The diagnostic accuracy of time-of-flight MR angiography in diagnosing Moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shono, Tadahisa; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Matsushima, Toshio; Inoue, Tooru; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine


    Conventional cerebral angiography is essential for achieving the diagnosis of Moyamoya disease. It is, however, an invasive examination, especially for the pediatric patients. In this paper, we report on the results of an investigation as to whether MRA is able to accurately visualize the steno-occlusive changes in the carotid fork and the basal moyamoya vessels less invasively. Twenty patients among them, 16 children who were diagnosed as having Moyamoya disease with conventional angiography underwent MRI and MRA using a 1.5T MR unit (Signa, G.E.). Angiographically, 37 sides were determined to be in stage 3. MRA was performed using two-dimensional time-of-flight (2D-TOF), 3D-TOF, and gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced 3D-TOF methods. The 3D-TOF MRAs showed almost equal sensitivity to that of conventional angiography for the detection of steno-occlusive changes in the carotid fork. However, it was difficult to visualize the moyamoya vessels clearly. Further, 3D-TOF, 2D-TOF, and Gd-enhanced 3D-TOF methods depicted the moyamoya vessels in 65%, 79%, and 80% of the examined sides, respectively. In contrast, MRI visualized the moyamoya vessels as multiple flow voids in the basal ganglia in 38 of 40 sides (95%). Based on the above findings, it was thus concluded that approximately 90% of the stage 3 Moyamoya disease cases could be diagnosed by a combination of 3D-TOF MRA and MRI without the use of conventional angiography. (author).

  3. Coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Sun


    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography is widely recognised as a reliable imaging modality for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography not only provides excellent visualisation of anatomical changes in the coronary artery with high diagnostic value in the detection of lumen stenosis or occlusion, but also offers quantitative characterisation of coronary plaque components. Furthermore, coronary CT angiography allows myocardial perfusion imaging with diagnostic value comparable to the reference standard method. Coronary CT angiography-derived haemodynamic analysis has the potential to evaluate functional significance of coronary lesions. This review article aims to provide an overview of clinical applications of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease.

  4. Quality of abdominal computed tomography angiography: hand versus mechanical intravenous contrast administration in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)


    Abdominal CT angiography has been increasingly used for evaluation of various conditions related to abdominal vasculature in the pediatric population. However, no direct comparison has evaluated the quality of abdominal CT angiography in children using hand versus mechanical administration of intravenous (IV) contrast agent. To compare hand versus mechanical administration of IV contrast agent in the quality of abdominal CT angiography in the pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical record to identify pediatric patients (≤18 years) who had abdominal CT angiography between August 2012 and August 2013. The information obtained includes: (1) type of administration of IV contrast agent (hand [group 1] versus mechanical [group 2]), (2) size (gauge) of IV catheter, (3) amount of contrast agent administered and (4) rate of contrast agent administration (ml/s). Two reviewers independently performed qualitative and quantitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality. Qualitative evaluation of abdominal CT angiography image quality was performed by visual assessment of the degree of contrast enhancement in the region of interest (ROI) based on a 4-point scale. Quantitative evaluation of each CT angiography examination was performed by measuring the Hounsfield unit (HU) using an ROI within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and the inferior mesenteric artery) for each child. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the F-test was applied to compare contrast enhancement within the abdominal aorta at two levels (celiac axis and inferior mesenteric artery) between hand administration and mechanical administration of IV contrast methods with adjustment for age. We identified 46 pediatric patients (24 male, 22 female; mean age 7.3 ± 5.5 years; range 5 weeks to 18 years) with abdominal CT angiography performed during the study period. Of these patients, 16 (35%; 1.7 ± 2.2 years; range 5 weeks to 5 years) had hand

  5. Coarctation of the aorta: comparison of aortic dimensions between conventional MR imaging, 3D MR angiography, and conventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godart, Francois; Rey, Christian [Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Cardiac Hospital, University of Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Labrot, Gabrielle; McFadden, Eugene; Beregi, Jean-Paul [Department of Radiology, Cardiac Hospital, University of Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Devos, Patrick [CERIM-Department of Biostatistics, University of Lille, 59037 Lille (France)


    Magnetic resonance angiography is increasingly used as a non-invasive method in the evaluation of coarctation of the aorta. The aim of this study was to compare aortic dimensions calculated by MR angiography and those obtained by more conventional MR sequences and conventional angiography. Twenty-six consecutive patients with coarctation underwent three-dimensional MR angiography. Two independent observers retrospectively evaluated three aortic segments, site of coarctation, presence of aneurysm and existence of collateral circulation. Three aortic segments were also compared with those obtained on classical MR sequences and conventional angiography. The MR angiography was successfully performed in all showing 1 aneurysm and collateral circulation in 8 patients. Almost perfect intraobserver (r{sup 2}>0.91) and excellent interobserver (r{sup 2}>0.80) reliabilities were obtained for each aortic segment no matter which MR sequence was employed. Similarly, mainly excellent (r{sup 2}>0.80) concordance analysis was observed between MR angiography measurements and those calculated by either spin-echo/gradient-echo sequences or conventional angiography. This study demonstrates that MR angiography is a fast, accurate and reproducible method in the evaluation of coarctation of the aorta. It provides excellent anatomic information and reliably detects collateral vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography could probably replace the conventional angiography and will provide an additional diagnostic value in combination with turbo spin-echo sequence. (orig.)

  6. [Intraoperative verification of a perforator flap vascularization by indocyanine green angiography]. (United States)

    Royer, E; Rausky, J; Binder, J-P; May, P; Virzi, D; Revol, M


    After Koshima and Soeda first described perforator flaps in 1988, Wei has improved the technique by describing the "free style perforator flap". These flaps have the advantage of being performed on all skin perforators and in reducing donor site morbidity. The disadvantage, however is that the size of their angiosome is not defined and the evaluation of their relay on the experience of the surgeon. An evaluation of the size of an angiosome by conducting intraoperative angiography is proposed. Intraoperative angiography is performed after injection of indocyanine green. Stimulation of the indocyanine green by infrared causes the emission of fluorescent radiation. This fluorescence is then detected by a specific camera that displays real-time visualization of the skin's perfusion. We present the case of a 39-year-old patient who had an open tibial pilon fracture, for which we performed a pedicled propeller flap based on a posterior tibial perforator. Angiography was used to determine accurately the optimal skin perfusion of the propeller flap, which was based on a perforator from the posterior tibial artery. Angiography identified several levels of skin perfusion with a high fluorescence, intermediate and absent. The non-vascularized part of the skin paddle was resected. Given the unreliability of this technique, hypoperfused area was retained. Debridment of this area, however was necessary at day 5 postoperative with repositionning of the flap. Indocyanine green angiography may be a useful decision-making tool for intraoperative surgeon. It allows to adjust the size of the propeller flap's skin paddle to it angiosome. However, this evaluation method needs to be improved with the introduction of a quantitative threshold.

  7. Meteor fluxes and visual magnitudes from EISCAT radar event rates: a comparison with cross-section based magnitude estimates and optical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pellinen-Wannberg

    Full Text Available Incoherent scatter radars (ISR are versatile instruments for continuous monitoring of ionisation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. EISCAT, The European Incoherent Scatter facility has proven effective also in meteor studies. The time resolution of the radar can be reduced to a few milliseconds, sufficient to resolve the passage of individual meteors through the narrow ISR beam. Methods for group and phase velocity determination of the meteoroids and the discrepancy between the results related to the target behaviour are presented. The radar cross sections of echoes associated with moving meteoroids ("meteor head echoes" are very small and increase with decreasing wavelength. The parent meteoroids are found to have visual magnitudes far below the detection limit of most optical observations. The equivalent visual magnitude limit of the smallest objects observed by EISCAT in the current experiments has been estimated by two different methods, both from the cross-section measurements and from the measured event rates. Both methods give a limit value of +10 for the smallest objects while the upper limit is +4. The lower limit of the visual magnitude for the collocated optical measurement system is +4. Thus the two detection systems observe two different meteor size ranges, with the radar almost reaching micrometeorite population. Meteor fluxes estimated from the event rates and the radar system parameters agree well with previous extrapolated values for this size range.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionization mechanisms. Radio science (ionospheric physics. Space plasma physics (ionization processes

  8. Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering for the dignosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Bing; LI Tie-lin; ZHANG Jian-min; DUAN Chuan-zhi; WANG Qiu-jing; ZAO Qing-ping


    Objective:To evaluate the importance of 3D-CTA with volume rendering for the diagnosis of multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Axial source images were obtained by helical CT scanning and reconstruction of 3D-CTA images was done by volume rendering technique in conjunction with multiplanar reformation. Results: In the past one year,there were 10 patients diagnosed as having multiple intracranial aneurysms by 3D-CTA and altogether 24 aneurysms were visualized,including 10 small aneurysms(≤5mm.Three dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering demonstrated aneurysms very well and provided useful information concerning the site,shape,size and spatial relationship with the surrounding vessels and bone anatomy. Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT angiography with volume rendering is a quick,reliable,and relatively noninvasive method for diagnosing multiple intracranial aneurysms.It delineates detailed aneurysmal morphology,and provides useful information for planning microsurgical approaches.

  9. Types of diaphragmatic motion during hepatic angiography. (United States)

    Katsuda, T; Kuroda, C; Fujita, M


    To determine the types and causes of diaphragmatic motion during hepatic angiography, the authors used transarterial cut-film portography (TAP) to study movement of the diaphragm during breath-holding. Thirty-three TAP sequences were studied, and the patients' diaphragmatic motions were classified into four categories according to the distance their diaphragms moved. Results showed that the diaphragm was stationary in 33% of the TAP studies, while perpetual motion occurred in 15% of the studies, early-phase motion occurred in 12% and late-phase motion occurred in 40%. Ten sequences showed diaphragmatic motion of more than 10 mm, with eight sequences showing caudal motion and two showing cranial motion. This article discusses the cause of diaphragmatic motion during breath-holding for hepatic angiography and presents suggestions to reduce motion artifacts during the exam.

  10. Estimating the relative weights of visual and auditory tau versus heuristic-based cues for time-to-contact judgments in realistic, familiar scenes by older and younger adults. (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Campos, Jennifer L; DeLucia, Patricia R; Oberfeld, Daniel


    Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background). Here we evaluated TTC estimates by using a traffic scene with an approaching vehicle to evaluate the weights of visual and auditory TTC cues under more realistic conditions. Younger (18-39 years) and older (65+ years) participants made TTC estimates in three sensory conditions: visual-only, auditory-only, and audio-visual. Stimuli were presented within an immersive virtual-reality environment, and cue weights were calculated for both visual cues (e.g., visual τ, final optical size) and auditory cues (e.g., auditory τ, final sound pressure level). The results demonstrated the use of visual τ as well as heuristic cues in the visual-only condition. TTC estimates in the auditory-only condition, however, were primarily based on an auditory heuristic cue (final sound pressure level), rather than on auditory τ. In the audio-visual condition, the visual cues dominated overall, with the highest weight being assigned to visual τ by younger adults, and a more equal weighting of visual τ and heuristic cues in older adults. Overall, better characterizing the effects of combined sensory inputs, stimulus characteristics, and age on the cues used to estimate TTC will provide important insights into how these factors may affect everyday behavior.

  11. The role of MR angiography in neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Ninety-nine patients suspected of having intracranial and cervical lesions were evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The time of flight technique was used with 3D FIPS, including flip angle of 15-25 degrees, TR 40 msec/TE 7 msec and acquisition matrix of 256 x 256 x 32-64 with slice thickness of 5 to 8 cm. The scan time was 5 minutes and 28 seconds for images of 32 partitions and 10 minutes and 56 seconds for images of 64 partitions. MR angiography was useful for diagnosing steno-occlusive disease, arteriovenous malformation, aneurysm, moyamoya disease, brain tumor, and facial or trigeminal compression. The method has disadvantages, including signal loss due to turbulent and complex flow, lower spatial resolution, and poor delineation of the periphery and slow blood flow. Useful information was obtained in 50 patients (53.2%), when used with spin echo methods. With the technical progress of MR angiography, it will become a promising noninvasive approach to neuroradiological diagnosis, providing the useful information on intracranial and cervical lesions. (N.K.).

  12. Blood Pool Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography with Correlation to Digital Subtraction Angiography: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha-Grace Knuttinen


    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA provides noninvasive visualization of the vascular supply of soft tissue masses and vascular pathology, without harmful radiation. This is important for planning an endovascular intervention, and helps to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the treatment. MRA with conventional extracellular contrast agents relies on accurate contrast bolus timing, limiting the imaging window to first-pass arterial phase. The recently introduced blood pool contrast agent (BPCA, gadofosveset trisodium, reversibly binds to human serum albumin, resulting in increased T1 relaxivity and prolonged intravascular retention time, permitting both first-pass and steady-state phase high-resolution imaging. In our practice, high-quality MRA serves as a detailed "roadmap" for the needed endovascular intervention. Cases of aortoiliac occlusive disease, inferior vena cava thrombus, pelvic congestion syndrome, and lower extremity arteriovenous malformation are discussed in this article. MRA was acquired at 1.5 T with an 8-channel phased array coil after intravenous administration of gadofosveset (0.03 mmol/kg body weight, at the first-pass phase. In the steady-state, serial T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient echo images were obtained with high resolution. All patients underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA and endovascular treatment. MRA and DSA findings of vascular anatomy and pathology are discussed and correlated. BPCA-enhanced MRA provides high-quality first-pass and steady-state vascular imaging. This could increase the diagnostic accuracy and create a detailed map for pre-intervention planning. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of BPCA and being familiar with the indications and technique of MRA are important for diagnosis and endovascular intervention.

  13. Utility estimation of the application of auditory-visual-tactile sense feedback in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jung Hun; KIm, Byeong Jin; Roh, Shi Won; Lee, Hyeon Chan; Jang, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Hoi Nam [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Hoon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwang Yang Health Collage, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to optimize the gated treatment delivery time and maintenance of stable respiratory by the introduction of breath with the assistance of auditory-visual-tactile sense. The experimenter's respiration were measured by ANZAI 4D system. We obtained natural breathing signal, monitor-induced breathing signal, monitor and ventilator-induced breathing signal, and breath-hold signal using real time monitor during 10 minutes beam-on-time. In order to check the stability of respiratory signals distributed in each group were compared with means, standard deviation, variation value, beam{sub t}ime of the respiratory signal. The stability of each respiratory was measured in consideration of deviation change studied in each respiratory time lapse. As a result of an analysis of respiratory signal, all experimenters has showed that breathing signal used both Real time monitor and Ventilator was the most stable and shortest time. In this study, it was evaluated that respiratory gated radiation therapy with auditory-visual-tactual sense and without auditory-visual-tactual sense feedback. The study showed that respiratory gated radiation therapy delivery time could significantly be improved by the application of video feedback when this is combined with audio-tactual sense assistance. This delivery technique did prove its feasibility to limit the tumor motion during treatment delivery for all patients to a defined value while maintaining the accuracy and proved the applicability of the technique in a conventional clinical schedule.

  14. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonino, Pim A L; De Bruyne, Bernard; Pijls, Nico H J


    BACKGROUND: In patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary angiography is the standard method for guiding the placement of the stent. It is unclear whether routine measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR; the ratio......-eluting stents guided by angiography alone or guided by FFR measurements in addition to angiography. Before randomization, lesions requiring PCI were identified on the basis of their angiographic appearance. Patients assigned to angiography-guided PCI underwent stenting of all indicated lesions, whereas those...

  15. Aneurysmal re-rupture during selective cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, Markus; Gossmann, Axel; Krueger, Karsten; Trenschel, Gertrud; Landwehr, Peter [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Wedekind, Christoph [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany)


    Two cases of aneurysmal re-rupture during intracranial angiography are presented. This event is accompanied by disastrous consequences with regard to the clinical condition of the patient, as is evident from the cases presented as well as from the literature. Acute alterations of intraluminal pressure as well as a time interval of less than 6 h seems to increase the risk of re-bleeding during angiography. The introduction of and the growing experience with CT and MR angiography may in the near future provide sufficient diagnostic information for surgical planning and thus help to overcome the risk of aneurysmal re-rupture during intra-arterial angiography. (orig.)

  16. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)


    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  17. Efficacy of Patient Selection for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography in Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flávio Costa Filho


    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Guidelines recommend that in suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD, a clinical (non-invasive evaluation should be performed before coronary angiography.Objective:We assessed the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography in suspected stable CAD.Methods:We prospectively selected consecutive patients without known CAD, referred to a high-volume tertiary center. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, symptoms and non-invasive test results were correlated to the presence of obstructive CAD. We estimated the CAD probability based on available clinical data and the incremental diagnostic value of previous non-invasive tests.Results:A total of 830 patients were included; median age was 61 years, 49.3% were males, 81% had hypertension and 35.5% were diabetics. Non-invasive tests were performed in 64.8% of the patients. At coronary angiography, 23.8% of the patients had obstructive CAD. The independent predictors for obstructive CAD were: male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.95; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 2.70 - 5.77, age (OR for 5 years increment, 1.15; CI 95%, 1.06 - 1.26, diabetes (OR, 2.01; CI 95%, 1.40 - 2.90, dyslipidemia (OR, 2.02; CI 95%, 1.32 - 3.07, typical angina (OR, 2.92; CI 95%, 1.77 - 4.83 and previous non-invasive test (OR 1.54; CI 95% 1.05 - 2.27.Conclusions:In this study, less than a quarter of the patients referred for coronary angiography with suspected CAD had the diagnosis confirmed. A better clinical and non-invasive assessment is necessary, to improve the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography.

  18. Preoperative evaluation of neurovascular relationship by using contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D time-of-flight MR angiography in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhou; Zhiling, Liu; Chuanfu, Li; Qingshi Zeng (Dept. of Radiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)), email:; Chuncheng, Qu (Dept. of Neurosurgery, the Second Hospital of Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)); Shilei, Ni (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong Univ., Jinan (China))


    Background Microvascular decompression is an etiological strategy for the therapy of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Preoperative identification of neurovascular compression, therefore, could have an impact on the determination of appropriate treatment for TN. Purpose To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced and unenhanced three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography in the visualization of neurovascular relationship in patients with TN. Material and Methods Thirty-seven patients with unilateral TN underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF MR angiography with a 3.0-T MR system. Images were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to clinical details. Vascular contact with the trigeminal nerve was identified, and the nature of the involved vessels (artery or vein) was determined. All patients underwent microvascular decompression. Results In 37 patients with TN, contrast-enhanced 3D TOF MR angiography identified surgically verified neurovascular contact in 35 of 36 symptomatic nerves, and there was no false-positive. Based on surgical findings, the sensitivity of MR imaging was 97.2% and specificity 100%. The nature of the offending vessel was correctly identified in 94.4% of the patients by using the combination of contrast-enhanced and unenhanced MR angiography. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced 3D TOF MR angiography is useful in the detection of vascular contact with the trigeminal nerve in patients with TN, and this MR imaging in combination with unenhanced MR angiography could help in the identification of the nature of the responsible vessels

  19. An automatic fuzzy-based multi-temporal brain digital subtraction angiography image fusion algorithm using curvelet transform and content selection strategy. (United States)

    Momeni, Saba; Pourghassem, Hossein


    Recently image fusion has prominent role in medical image processing and is useful to diagnose and treat many diseases. Digital subtraction angiography is one of the most applicable imaging to diagnose brain vascular diseases and radiosurgery of brain. This paper proposes an automatic fuzzy-based multi-temporal fusion algorithm for 2-D digital subtraction angiography images. In this algorithm, for blood vessel map extraction, the valuable frames of brain angiography video are automatically determined to form the digital subtraction angiography images based on a novel definition of vessel dispersion generated by injected contrast material. Our proposed fusion scheme contains different fusion methods for high and low frequency contents based on the coefficient characteristic of wrapping second generation of curvelet transform and a novel content selection strategy. Our proposed content selection strategy is defined based on sample correlation of the curvelet transform coefficients. In our proposed fuzzy-based fusion scheme, the selection of curvelet coefficients are optimized by applying weighted averaging and maximum selection rules for the high frequency coefficients. For low frequency coefficients, the maximum selection rule based on local energy criterion is applied to better visual perception. Our proposed fusion algorithm is evaluated on a perfect brain angiography image dataset consisting of one hundred 2-D internal carotid rotational angiography videos. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed fusion algorithm in comparison with common and basic fusion algorithms.

  20. Recent results and future prospects of dynamic intravenous coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Sadanori [Cardio Vascular Div., Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    We have developed a dynamic intravenous coronary angiography (IVCAG) by using synchrotron radiation (SR) as a less invasive and more easy examination in place of CAG. Twelve patients suspected to have angina pectoris underwent IVCAG at the clinic in the National Laboratory for High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The patients received an intravenous injection of 40m/of contrast agent, and then irradiation was performed with a wide (130 mm x 80 mm) and monochromatic (35 KeV) X-ray beam. Images were acquired with an image intensifier and recorded with a digital fluorography system as dynamic angiography at 30 or 10 images/sec. IVCAG was repeated in 2 or 3 projections. In all patients, the dynamic images permitted clear visualization of the coronary arteries and enabled evaluation of coronary anatomy. Two patients were diagnosed to have coronary stenosis by IVCAG and were confirmed by conventional CAG. The total irradiation doses used for IVCAG were less than those for conventional angiography. Although the image definition obtained with dynamic IVCAG was somewhat less than that of conventional CAG and needs to be improved, the IVCAG can be easily used for the evaluation of coronary arteries and may be clinically used for screening and follow-up of coronary artery disease. In future, the improvement of imaging system, such as increased intensity of synchrotron radiation and high sensitivity in imaging detector, will make more advance in image quality. (author)

  1. The role of preoperative angiography in the management of giant meningiomas associated to vascular malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Papacci


    Full Text Available Background: The role of preoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA in meningiomas is currently under discussion because of the introduction of noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI angiography to study vascular anatomy associated to the tumor. Preoperative DSA is mainly performed to obtain embolization of the lesion, although a number of complications have been reported after this procedure. Nonetheless, the coexistence of meningiomas with vascular malformations has previously been reported and it has been evidenced that this event could be underestimated because of neglect of preoperative DSA. Here, we report on two challenging cases of giant meningiomas associated to vascular malformations and we discuss the pertinent literature. Case Descriptions: In the first case: A large right temporal meningioma with erosion of the sphenoid greater wing and extension toward infratemporal fossa and right orbit - a large pseudoaneurysm of right middle cerebral artery branch was found end embolized during DSA. In the second case: A giant parieto-temporal meningioma - DSA permitted the full visualization of an abnormal drainage of superior sagittal sinus like a "sinus pericranii" that was respected during the following surgery. Conclusion: We think that MRI angiography is the exam of choice to study vascular anatomy in meningiomas. Nonetheless, DSA remains a useful tool in giant meningiomas not only to embolizate the lesion but also to treat tumor associated vascular malformation and to achieve the full knowledge of vascular anatomy. We think that a wide communication between interventionalist and surgeon is essential for the optimal management of these patients.

  2. The multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) in the diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Mallarini, Giorgio (Dept. of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (AOU), Cagliari (Italy)), email:; Anzidei, Michele; Lucatelli, Pierleone (Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Rome La Sapienza, Rome (Italy))


    Splenic artery aneurysm is the most frequent visceral artery aneurysm and rupture of the aneurysm is associated with a high mortality rate. It is important to discriminate between a true aneurysm and a pseudoaneurysm that may be caused by pancreatitis, iatrogenic and postoperative causes, trauma and peptic ulcer disease. Multidetector-row CT angiography (MDCTA) allows detailed visualization of the vascular anatomy and may allow identification of aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms that affect the splenic artery. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the general characteristics of splenic artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms and to describe the findings of MDCTA

  3. Quantification of choroidal neovascularization vessel length using optical coherence tomography angiography (United States)

    Gao, Simon S.; Liu, Li; Bailey, Steven T.; Flaxel, Christina J.; Huang, David; Li, Dengwang; Jia, Yali


    Quantification of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) as visualized by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) may have importance clinically when diagnosing or tracking disease. Here, we present an automated algorithm to quantify the vessel skeleton of CNV as vessel length. Initial segmentation of the CNV on en face angiograms was achieved using saliency-based detection and thresholding. A level set method was then used to refine vessel edges. Finally, a skeleton algorithm was applied to identify vessel centerlines. The algorithm was tested on nine OCTA scans from participants with CNV and comparisons of the algorithm's output to manual delineation showed good agreement.

  4. Acquisition-related motion compensation for digital subtraction angiography. (United States)

    Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Heigl, Benno; Hornegger, Joachim


    Subtraction methods in angiography are generally applied in order to enhance the visualization of blood vessels by eliminating bones and surrounding tissues from X-ray images. The main limitation of these methods is the sensitivity to patient movement, which leads to artifacts and reduces the clinical value of the subtraction images. In this paper we present a novel method for rigid motion compensation with primary application to road mapping, frequently used in image-guided interventions. Using the general concept of image-based registration, we optimize the physical position and orientation of the C-arm X-ray device, thought of as the rigid 3D transformation accounting for the patient movement. The registration is carried out using a hierarchical optimization strategy and a similarity measure based on the variance of intensity differences, which has been shown to be most suitable for fluoroscopic images. Performance evaluation demonstrated the capabilities of the proposed approach to compensate for potential intra-operative patient motion, being more resilient to the fundamental problems of pure image-based registration.

  5. Multi-section CT angiography compared with digital subtraction angiography in diagnosing major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyare, Harpreet [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Desigan, Sharmini [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Nicholl, Helen [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Guiney, Michael J. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Brookes, Jocelyn A. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Lees, William R. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: Major arterial hemorrhage is an uncommon but serious complication of pancreatitis with high morbidity and mortality. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been the gold standard for the detection of a visceral artery pseudoaneurysm or for the site of active bleeding in patients with pancreatitis. Multi-section CT angiography is a minimally invasive technique which can provide high-resolution and high-contrast images of the arterial lumen and wall, with a much lower risk of complication and morbidity compared to DSA. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of multi-section CT angiography for the diagnosis of arterial complications of inflammatory pancreatitic disease. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing visceral angiography for major bleeding as a complication of pancreatitis between 1998 and 2004 was performed. Twenty-nine studies in 25 patients (20 males, 5 females) with a mean age of 50.9 years (range 11-67 years) were identified where multi-section CT angiography was performed in the 24 h preceding the digital subtraction angiogram. Results: Digital subtraction angiography detected a pseudoaneurysm or contrast extravasation in 19 studies and no bleeding was demonstrated in 9 studies. CT angiography correctly identified the site and type of bleeding in 18 of the 19 positive studies. CT angiography detected extravasation of contrast in one study that was not demonstrated on digital subtraction angiography. The sensitivity and specificity for multi-section CT angiography for the detection of major arterial bleeding on a background of pancreatitis were 0.947 and 0.900, respectively. Conclusion: Multi-section CT angiography is a sensitive and accurate technique for the detection of major arterial hemorrhage in inflammatory pancreatic disease and should be considered as the first investigation in the management of these patients.

  6. Clinical applications of MR digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of intracranial vascular and tumorous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katase, Shichiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro; Hachiya, Junichi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine


    MR digital subtraction angiography (MR DSA), which is performed by a rapid two-dimensional T1-weighted sequence in combination with bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agent was applied to the evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), brain tumors (intraaxial and extraaxial tumors), and other vascular lesions. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of these lesions. We studied 19 cases of cerebral AVM, 36 cases of intraaxial tumor (metastatic brain tumors in 14, glioblastomas in five, astrocytomas in eight, malignant lymphomas in four, pineal tumors in two, and other tumors, in three), 34 cases of extraaxial tumor (meningiomas in 29, and pituitary adenomas in five), and 10 cases of other vascular lesions (cerebral aneurysms in five, venous thrombosis in two, and other lesion in three). For cerebral AVMs, the feeder, nidus, and drainer were evaluated on a 4 - point grading scale (0=poor, 1=fair, 2=good, 3=excellent), and the results obtained were compared with those of conventional cerebral angiography or MR angiography using the postcontrast three-dimensional time-of-flight method. Brain tumors were classified into six enhancement patterns, and were compared with the findings of conventional cerebral angiography. Other vascular lesions were assessed visually. All cases were evaluated independently by two radiologists, and inter-observer agreement was assessed using the {kappa}-test. In all cerebral AVM cases, the hemodynamics of the feeder, nidus, and drainer could be observed. In all but five brain tumor cases, tumor stain could be confirmed in MR DSA images. The findings of tumor stain corresponded to those of cerebral angiographic images. For other vascular lesions, results of lesion detection and lesion morphology were almost in congruence with other methods. MR DSA provides information on the hemodynamics of vascular and tumorous lesions. When used in conjunction with routine MR

  7. 3D-shaded surface rendering of gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, S.; Kikinis, R.; Dumanli, H. [Surgical Planning Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Geva, T.; Powell, A.J. [Department of Cardiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chung, T. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)


    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography is a useful imaging technique for patients with congenital heart disease. Objective. This study sought to determine the added value of creating 3D shaded surface displays compared to standard maximal intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reformatting (MPR) techniques when analyzing 3D MR angiography data. Materials and methods. Seventeen patients (range, 3 months to 51 years old) with a variety of congenital cardiovascular defects underwent gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR angiography of the thorax. Color-coded 3D shaded surface models were rendered from the image data using manual segmentation and computer-based algorithms. Models could be rotated, translocated, or zoomed interactively by the viewer. Information available from the 3D models was compared to analysis based on viewing standard MIP/MPR displays. Results. Median postprocessing time for the 3D models was 6 h (range, 3-25 h) compared to approximately 20 min for MIP/MPR viewing. No additional diagnostic information was gained from 3D model analysis. All major findings with MIP/MPR postprocessing were also apparent on the 3D models. Qualitatively, the 3D models were more easily interpreted and enabled adjacent vessels to be distinguished more readily. Conclusion. Routine use of 3D shaded surface reconstructions for visualization of contrast enhanced MR angiography in congenital heart disease cannot be recommended. 3D surface rendering may be more useful for presenting complex anatomy to an audience unfamiliar with congenital heart disease and as an educational tool. (orig.)

  8. Determination of Nutrient Intakes by a Modified Visual Estimation Method and Computerized Nutritional Analysis for Dietary Assessments (United States)


    reported that trained data collectors can estimate average energy intake at a meal with an accuracy of + 2%. 2 JPI%.V] It is generally agreed that weighing...GINGER ALE# PALE DRY 04070 1. 04090 1. CARBONATED, ARTIFICIALLY SWEETENED 04090 1. 10 V...information on population patterns of food consumption and not for metabolic studies, a small difference in reliability scores is not as critical

  9. Coronary CT angiography in symptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.R. [Inst. of Radiologic Diagnostic, Univ. of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)


    The currently best available spatial and temporal resolution for retrospectively ECG gated coronary multi-detector-row CT angiography is 0.4 mm and 165 ms, respectively. These acquisition parameters are already rather close to cardiac catheter. Studies so far compared non-invasive coronary CT and convention angiography for the detection of coronary artery stenoses. The most promising result reported by all authors was the high negative predictive value of the CTA. It now needs to be determined if CTA is a reliable tool to rule out coronary artery stenoses in a patient cohort with low likelihood of CAD, such as those with atypical chest pain or ambiguous stress test. CTA may furthermore establish as a rapid and widely available tool to detect vulnerable plaques or intracoronary thrombus in patients with acute coronary syndrome and unstable angina. In patients with chronic stable angina, tools that determine myocardial ischemia under stress such as SPECT and MRI are probably better suited to determine the relevance of coronary artery stenoses. In this particular cohort, by displaying the extent and morphology of coronary atherosclerosis, CTA may help to direct the therapy to either intervention or surgery. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance angiography in suspected cerebral vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, Philippe; De Ruyter, Nele; Wilms, Guido [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis, KU Leuven, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [Department of Medical Imaging Computing, Universitair Ziekenhuis, KU Leuven, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Velghe, Beatrijs [Department of Radiology, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Schiepse Bos 6, 3600, Genk (Belgium)


    The purpose of this study was to determine the technical capacity and diagnostic accuracy of 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in suspected cerebral vasculitis in a retrospective analysis of MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 14 young patients with clinical and/or radiological suspicion of cerebral vasculitis. A total of nine arteries were evaluated in each patient. Consensus review of DSA by three observers was the reference standard. The sensitivity for detecting a stenosis varied from 62 to 79% for MRA and from 76 to 94% for DSA, depending on the observer. The specificity for detecting a stenosis varied from 83 to 87% for MRA and from 83 to 97% for DSA. Using the criterion ''more than two stenoses in at least two separate vascular distributions'' to consider the examination as being true positive, the false-positive rates for MRA and DSA were comparable. MRA plays a role as the first angiographical examination in the diagnostic work-up of suspected cerebral vasculitis. When more than two stenoses in at least two separate vascular distributions are depicted on MRA, DSA is not expected to add a significant diagnostic contribution in a patient with suspected cerebral vasculitis. DSA remains necessary when MRA is normal or when less than three stenoses are seen. (orig.)

  11. Angiography with a multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Vazquez, Vanessa; Husain, Deeba


    A multifunctional line scanning ophthalmoscope (mLSO) was designed, constructed, and tested on human subjects. The mLSO could sequentially acquire wide-field, confocal, near-infrared reflectance, fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) retinal images. The system also included a retinal tracker (RT) and a photodynamic therapy laser treatment port. The mLSO was tested in a pilot clinical study on human subjects with and without retinal disease. The instrument exhibited robust retinal tracking and high-contrast line scanning imaging. The FA and ICGA angiograms showed a similar appearance of hyper- and hypo-pigmented disease features and a nearly equivalent resolution of fine capillaries compared to a commercial flood-illumination fundus imager. An mLSO-based platform will enable researchers and clinicians to image human and animal eyes with a variety of modalities and deliver therapeutic beams from a single automated interface. This approach has the potential to improve patient comfort and reduce imaging session times, allowing clinicians to better diagnose, plan, and conduct patient procedures with improved outcomes.

  12. Computed tomography angiography in acute stroke (revisiting the 4Ps of imaging). (United States)

    Varadharajan, Shriram; Saini, Jitender; Acharya, Ullas V; Gupta, Arun Kumar


    Imaging in acute stroke has traditionally focussed on the 4Ps-parenchyma, pipes, perfusion, and penumbra-and has increasingly relied upon advanced techniques including magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate such patients. However, as per European Magnetic Resonance Forum estimates, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging scanners for the general population in India (0.5 per million inhabitants) is quite low as compared to Europe (11 per million) and United States (35 per million), with most of them only present in urban cities. On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) is more widely available and has reduced scanning duration. Computed tomography angiography of cervical and intracranial vessels is relatively simpler to perform with extended coverage and can provide all pertinent information required in such patients. This imaging review will discuss relevant imaging findings on CT angiography in patients with acute ischemic stroke through illustrated cases.

  13. Moyamoya disease: diagnosis with three-dimensional CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K. (Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical Coll., Saitama (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Kyorin Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Makita, K. (Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical Coll., Saitama (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Social Health Insurance Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)); Furui, S. (Dept. of Radiology, National Defense Medical Coll., Saitama (Japan) Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Toranomon Kyosai Hospital, Tokyo (Japan))


    Our purpose was to assess the value of three-dimensional (3D) CT angiography in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease. We studied seven patients with moyamoya disease proved by conventional angiography. Three-dimensional (3D) CT angiography was performed using rapid sequence or helical (spiral) scanning in conjunction with a bolus injection of intravenous contrast medium. All seven patients could be diagnosed as having moyamoya disease on the basis of the following 3D CT angiographic findings: poor visualisation of the main trunks and/or major branches of anterior and middle cerebral arteries (7 patients); dilated leptomeningeal anastomotic channels from the posterior cerebral arteries (4); and demonstration of ''moyamoya vessels'' in the basal ganglia (2). Although conventional angiography remains the principal imaging technique for demonstrating anatomical changes in detail, less invasive 3D CT angiography provides a solid means of diagnosing moyamoya disease when it is suspected on CT, MRI, or clinical grounds. (orig.)

  14. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A. [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Vogl, W.D. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Computational Imaging Research Lab, Wien (Austria); Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Wien (Austria); Meyer-Baese, A. [State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Pinker, Katja [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Services, New York City, NY (United States)


    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography and conventional angiography in sickle cell disease: clinical significance and realibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandeel, A.Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Mansoura Univ. Hospital (Egypt); Zimmerman, R.A. [Dept. of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ohene-Frempong, K. [Div. of Hematology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and conventional angiograms of 21 patients with known sickle cell disease, who underwent a total of 50 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) studies. MRA and conventional angiography were assessed separately for evidence of stenosis or occulusion. Follow up MRI/MRA studies were also assessed for evidence of progression, regression or stability of the disease in these patients. In the carotid circulation, MRA made the correct diagnosis in 85% of the vessels evaluated with a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 94%. MRA was also found to show evidence of disease progression, more often than did MRI or the clinical condition of the patients. (orig.)

  16. Patient radiation dose from computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography of the brain (United States)

    Netwong, Y.; Krisanachinda, A.


    The 64-row multidetector computed tomography angiography (64-MDCTA) provides vascular image quality of the brain similar to digital subtraction angiography (DSA), but the effective dose of CTA is lower than DSA studied in phantom. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effective dose from 64-MDCTA and DSA. Effective dose (according to ICRP 103) from 64-MDCTA and DSA flat panel detector for cerebral vessels examination of the brain using standard protocols as recommended by the manufacturer was calculated for 30 cases of MDCTA (15 male and 15 female).The mean patient age was 49.5 (23-89) yrs. 30 cases of DSA (14 male and 16 female), the mean patient age was 46.8 (21-81) yrs. For CTA, the mean effective dose was 3.7 (2.82- 5.19) mSv. For DSA, the mean effective dose was 5.78 (3.3-10.06) mSv. The effective dose of CTA depends on the scanning protocol and scan length. Low tube current can reduce patient dose whereas the number of exposures and number of series in 3D rotational angiography (3D RA) resulted in increasing effective dose in DSA patients.

  17. The importance of peripheral angiography in elderly patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rigatelli; Giorgio Rigatelli


    Objectives Early and accurate diagnosis of peripheral atherosclerosis is of paramount importance for global managerment of patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD), especially in the elderly. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of significant abdominal vessel stenosis or aneurysm (AVA) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Medical records of consecutive > 75-year old patients who underwent coronary angiography at two public institutions over a 12-month period were evaluated. Angiographic results of patients who underwent coincident diagnostic abdominal aorta angiography to evaluate abdominal vessels on the basis of clinical and angiographic criteria were analyzed. Results During the study period, AVA was found in 90 (35.7% ) of 252 consecutive patients (185 males, mean age 79±5.8 years), renal artery stenosis in 13.1% of cases (33 patients), aortoiliac artery disease in 13.7 % (35 patients), and aortic aneurismal disease in 8.9% (22 patients). Logistic regression analyses revealed > 3-vessel CAD (odds ratio [OR] :9.917, P = 0.002), and > 3 risk factors (OR: 2.8, P =0. 048) as independent predictors of AVA. Conclusions Aged patients with multivessel CAD frequently have a high risk profile and multiple vascular atherosclerotic distributions, suggesting the usefulness of a mere global and comprehensive cardiovascular approach in aged patients.

  18. E-learn Computed Tomographic Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jens K;


    BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is widely available in emergency rooms to assess acute stroke patients. To standardize readings and educate new readers, we developed a 3-step e-learning tool based on the test-teach-retest methodology in 2 acute stroke scenarios: vascular...... occlusion and "spot sign" in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that an e-learning program enhances reading skills in physicians of varying experience. METHODS: We developed an HTML-based program with a teaching segment and 2 matching test segments. Tests were taken before and after...... sign correctly 69% before versus 92% after teaching (P = .009) and reported a median self-perceived diagnostic certainty of 50% versus 75% (P = .030). Self-perceived diagnostic certainty revealed no significant increase for vascular occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: The e-learning program is a useful educational...

  19. Multislice CT angiography of interrupted aortic arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Hyun; Goo, Hyun Woo [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Seo, Dong-Man; Yun, Tae-Jin; Park, Jeong-Jun [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Park, In-Sook; Ko, Jae Kon; Kim, Young Hwee [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Seoul (Korea)


    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined as complete luminal and anatomic discontinuity between the ascending and descending aorta. Because almost all patients with IAA become critically ill during the neonatal period, they should undergo urgent corrective surgery. This clinical urgency necessitates a fast and accurate noninvasive diagnostic method. Although echocardiography remains the primary imaging tool for this purpose, it is not always sufficient for planning surgical correction of IAA, principally due to a limited acoustic window and the inexperience of imagers. In this context, multislice CT angiography is regarded as an appropriate imaging technique complementary to echocardiography because it is fast, accurate, and objective for the diagnosis of IAA. In this article we describe what cardiac radiologists should know about IAA in their clinical practice, including clinicopathological features, CT features with contemporary surgical methods and postoperative complications, and differentiation from coarctation of the aorta and aortic arch atresia. (orig.)

  20. Radial pseudoaneurysm following diagnostic coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari


    Full Text Available The radial artery access has gained popularity as a method of diagnostic coronary catheterization compared to femoral artery puncture in terms of vascular complications and early ambulation. However, very rare complication like radial artery pseudoaneurysm may occur following cardiac catheterization which may give rise to serious consequences. Here, we report a patient with radial pseudoaneurysm following diagnostic coronary angiography. Adequate and correct methodology of compression of radial artery following puncture for maintaining hemostasis is the key to prevention.DOI: Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 48-50

  1. Self-Optical Coherence Tomography and Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour


    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a new concept of self-optical coherence tomography (OCT and self-OCT angiography. Methods: The operator sits in the patient seat and manipulates the instrument body via the joystick with the dominant hand, while the dominant index is ready to press the capture button and while focusing on the fixation target. One senior ophthalmologist judged various OCT machines for ease of self-scan during a major ophthalmic convention. Separately, self-scans were also captured using a single OCT machine by one senior ophthalmologist and 5 junior optometrists and the scans were analyzed for both centration and image quality value (IQV, and compared to regular scans done by an operator. Results: Ten available OCT machines were tested for their ability to allow self-OCT. Machines that had one or more features of auto-alignment, auto-focus, and auto-shoot were ideal for self-OCT or self-OCT angiography. Self-scans done by the ophthalmologist (total 27 scans of right eye, mean IQV = 32.6, and 24 left eyes, mean IQV = 37.3, done over 9 months and 5 optometrists (total 24 scans, mean 34.8 done in one session were comparable to scans (total 11, mean IQV = 38.1 done by an operator for image quality. Decentration was very common in self-scans of the macula (37% right eye and 46% left eye versus 0% for scans of the right eye done by an operator. Conclusions: Self-OCT scans of the macular region can be done with good image quality but are often decentered. Advantages include privacy, potential use by ophthalmic health professionals, airspace station officers, and possible future home self-imaging of macula.

  2. Transbrachial artery approach for selective cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Shishido, Hisashi; Morisako, Toshitaka; Numazawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Keisuke; Nagai, Shigeki; Shibamoto, Kenji (Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan))


    Transaxillary or transbrachial approaches to the cerebral vessels have been reported, but selective angiography of all four vessels has not been possible through one route. In this report, a new technique for selective cerebral angiography with transbrachial approach is described. One hundred and twenty three patients with cerebral infarction, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, intracerebral hemorrhage, epilepsy, or cerebral tumor were examined. Those patients consisted of 85 outpatients and 38 inpatients whose age ranged from 15 years old to 82 years old. The patients were examined via the transbrachial approach (97 cases via the right brachial, 29 cases via the left). Materials included a DSA system (Digital Fluorikon 5000, General Electric Co.), a 4 French tight J-curved Simmons 80-cm catheter, a 19-gauge extra-thin-wall Seldinger needle, and a J/Straight floppy 125-cm guide-wire. Generally, the volume of the contrast agent (300 mgI/ml iopamidol) used in the common carotid artery angiogram was 6 ml, while that used in the vertebral artery angiogram was 4 ml. If catheterization of the vertebral artery or right common carotid artery was unsuccessful, about 8 ml of the contrast agent was injected into the subclavian or branchiocephalic artery. Definitive diagnosis and a decision on proper treatment of the patients can be easily obtained, and the results were clinically satisfactory. Moreover, no complications were encountered in this study. This new technique making a transbrachial approach to the cerebral vessels using the DSA system is introduced here. Neurosurgeons can use this technique easily, and they will find that it provides them with all the information they need about the patient. (author).

  3. Multidetector CT angiography in Takayasu arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kalra, Naveen [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Garg, Mandeep Kumar, E-mail: [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Kang, Mandeep; Lal, Anupam [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Jain, Sanjay [Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Suri, Sudha [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)


    Objective: To analyse the spectrum of Takayasu's arteritis (TA) on multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA). Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of the MDCTA findings was performed on 15 patients clinically diagnosed as Takayasu's arteritis. The spectrum and incidence of imaging findings on CTA were compared to studies in literature on catheter angiography in Takayasu's arteritis. Laboratory parameters were available in nine patients. The disease was considered active if erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels were elevated and 'C' reactive protein (CRP) was positive. An attempt was made to correlate disease activity with the imaging findings. Results: Ascending aorta, arch of aorta and descending thoracic aorta were involved in 14 out of 15 (93%) patients. The wall thickness varied between 1 and 10 mm with maximal involvement in arch and descending thoracic aorta. Major neck vessels were involved in 11 (73%) patients with most pronounced changes seen in the brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery (CCA) and left subclavian artery (SCA). Abdominal aorta and its branches were involved in all the 11 (100%) patients in whom abdominal CTA was performed. Celiac axis and SMA were involved in 10 (91%) and seven (64%) patients, respectively while renal artery stenosis was present in five (45%) patients. In six patients, ESR was elevated and CRP was positive indicating active disease. All patients in whom the laboratory parameters were available showed mural thickening in the aorta and at least one of the neck vessels except for one patient with inactive disease who had aortic mural thickening only. Conclusion: MDCTA provides information about both the vessel wall and lumen in patients with Takayasu's disease.

  4. Assessment of coronary artery aneurysms in paediatric patients with Kawasaki disease by multidetector row CT angiography: feasibility and comparison with 2D echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.C.W.; Lam, W.W.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Mok, G.C.F.; Yam, M.; Sung, R.Y.T. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (China)


    Transthoracic ECHO is the locally accepted method for coronary surveillance of patients with Kawasaki disease but it may have limited visualization in the older child. To assess the feasibility of multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography in the follow-up of coronary artery aneurysms in children with previous Kawasaki disease. Six children (5 boys, 1 girl; mean age 11.5 years) with known Kawasaki disease and coronary artery involvement underwent CT coronary angiography using 16-detector MDCT. The visualized lengths and diameter of all coronary segments were measured. The number, size and location of coronary artery aneurysms were recorded and compared with recent ECHO. Twelve coronary artery aneurysms (seven saccular, five fusiform) were identified by MDCT angiography. One saccular aneurysm at the junction of the distal right coronary artery and posterior descending artery was not detected by ECHO while the remaining six in proximal segments were detected by both modalities. Two of five fusiform aneurysms were not detected by ECHO due to their small sizes. Excellent agreement was found between CT and ECHO for maximal diameter and length of the visualized aneurysms. MDCT angiography accurately defines coronary artery aneurysms. It is more sensitive for detecting aneurysms at distal coronary segments and fusiform aneurysms of small size.

  5. Experience with intravenous digital subtraction angiography following shunting in 4 cases of congenital heart diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashidate, Masafumi; Konno, Susumu; Sumitomo, Naokata; Ito, Sango; Kobayashi, Hiroshi


    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA) was performed in two patients with Fallot's tetralogy who underwent Blalock-Taussing operation, a patient with coarctation of the aortic arch who underwent extra-anastomic bypass between the ascending aorta and the descending aorta, and a patient with stenosis of the tricuspid valve who underwent Fontan type operation (anastomosis between the right atrium and the pulmonary artery). The conventional cardiac angiography was also performed for the comparison with IV-DSA in all patients. IV-DSA revealed the thickness of the subclavian artery anastomosed by Blaloch-Taussing operation, but failed to determine the accurate thickness of the pulmonary artery required for PA-index for radical surgery in cases of Fallot's tetralogy. Bypass from the ascending aorta to the descending aorta was well visualized by IV-DSA because the heart did not overlap on the image. In cases of Fontan type operation, IV-DSA permitted the visualization of blood flow from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery and the shape of the pulmonary artery. It is concluded that IV-DSA is a less invasive, simple technique to evaluate patients' condition following shunting for congenital heart diseases, as compared to the conventional method. (Namekawa, K.).

  6. Multidetector CT angiography in acute gastrointestinal bleeding: why, when, and how. (United States)

    Geffroy, Yann; Rodallec, Mathieu H; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Jullès, Marie-Christine; Fullès, Marie-Christine; Ridereau-Zins, Catherine; Zins, Marc


    Acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains an important cause of emergency hospital admissions, with substantial related morbidity and mortality. Bleeding may relate to the upper or lower GI tract, with the dividing anatomic landmark between these two regions being the ligament of Treitz. The widespread availability of endoscopic equipment has had an important effect on the rapid identification and treatment of the bleeding source. However, the choice of upper or lower GI endoscopy is largely dictated by the clinical presentation, which in many cases proves misleading. Furthermore, there remains a large group of patients with negative endoscopic results or failed endoscopy, in whom additional techniques are required to identify the source of GI bleeding. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) with its speed, resolution, multiplanar techniques, and angiographic capabilities allows excellent visualization of both the small and large bowel. Multiphasic multidetector CT allows direct demonstration of bleeding into the bowel and is helpful in the acute setting for visualization of the bleeding source and its characterization. Thus, multidetector CT angiography provides a time-efficient method for directing and planning therapy for patients with acute GI bleeding. The additional information provided by multidetector CT angiography before attempts at therapeutic angiographic procedures leads to faster selective catheterization of bleeding vessels, thereby facilitating embolization. Supplemental material available at

  7. Dual-energy direct bone removal CT angiography for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm or stenosis: comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki [National Cardiovascular Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Uotani, Kensuke; Nakazawa, Tetsuro; Higashi, Masahiro; Yamada, Naoaki; Hori, Yoshiro; Kanzaki, Suzu; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Naito, Hiroaki [National Cardiovascular Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Toshihide [Siemens Asahi Medical Technologies, Tokyo (Japan)


    Dual-energy CT can be applied for bone elimination in cerebral CT angiography (CTA). The aim of this study was to compare the results of dual-energy direct bone removal CTA (DE-BR-CTA) with those of digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twelve patients with intracranial aneurysms and/or ICA stenosis underwent a dual-source CT in dual-energy mode. Post-processing software selectively removed bone structures using the two energy data sets. Three-dimensional images with and without bone removal were reviewed and compared to DSA. Dual-energy bone removal was successful in all patients. For 10 patients, bone removal was good and CTA maximum-intensity projection (MIP) images could be used for vessel evaluation. For two patients, bone removal was moderate with some bone remnants, but this did not inhibit the three-dimensional visualization. Three aneurysms adjacent to the skull base were only partially visible in conventional CTA but were fully visible in DE-BR-CTA. In five patients with ICA stenosis, DE-BR-CTA revealed the stenotic lesions on the MIP images. The correlation between DSA and DE-BR-CTA was good (R {sup 2}=0.822), but DE-BR-CTA led to an overestimation of stenosis. DE-BR-CTA was able to eliminate bone structure using only a single CT data acquisition and is useful to evaluate intracranial aneurysms and stenosis. (orig.)

  8. Transient cortical blindness following vertebral angiography: a case report. (United States)

    Lo, Lai Wan; Chan, Ho Fung; Ma, Ka Fai; Cheng, Lik Fai; Chan, Tony Kt


    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but well-known complication of cerebral angiography. Its pathophysiology remains uncertain. We would like to report a case of TCB in a patient during a follow up vertebral angiogram for post-coil embolization of left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Patient's vision was resumed spontaneously within 24 hours after angiography, with no residual neurological deficit in subsequent clinical follow up. Multi-modality imaging evaluation including vertebral angiography, brain CT and MRI performed on same day are presented.

  9. 分频幅去相干血管成像%Optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩; 魏文斌


    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new method of analysis based on high-resolution imaging techniques whereby the retinal and choroidal circulation can be visualized without the need to injecting any contrast agent.OCTA operates on the principle that,all other elements remaining the same,the only difference between sequentially obtained OCT cross-sectional scans in a particular eye is attributed to motion of erythrocytes within the retinal and choroidal vasculature.Recently,a new algorithm——split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography (SSADA) has been used in OCTA.It can identify movement orthogonal or transversal to the OCT beam,quantifying flow independent of the Doppler angle.An additional advantage of the amplitude-based technology,in comparison with the phase-based,is that the latter is more significantly degraded by image noise and background tissue motion.OCTA with SSADA has been widely used in various kinds of ocular diseases,such as choroidal neovascularization,diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular occlusions and it is very important in the diagnosis and follow up in those diseases.%相干光断层扫描血管成像(optical coherence tomography angiography,OCTA)通过比较同一位置的不同扫描,去除不变的结构,即可在不使用造影剂的情况下观察到有红细胞流动的视网膜和脉络膜血管结构.目前,一种新的运算方法——分频幅去相干血管成像(split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography,SSADA)的应用,大大改善了OCTA的信噪比.与其他OCTA不同的是,SSADA OCT可获取与OCT光波平行或垂直的血流信号,不依赖多普勒角,并且图像噪音、组织运动等噪音较小.目前SSADA OCT已越来越多地应用于多种眼部疾病中,如脉络膜新生血管性疾病、糖尿病视网膜病变,视网膜血管阻塞等,在这些疾病的诊断、随访中均有重要意义.

  10. Cerebral Angiography combined Coronary Angiography Induced Cortical Blindness%脑血管造影联合冠脉造影术后致皮质盲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓霞; 王云甫; 刘光健


    Objective To investigate the etiology,clinical manifestations and treatments of cortical blindness after cerebral angiography combined coronary angiography. Methods The clinical manifestation, treatment and prognosis of one patient with cortical blindness induced by cerebral angiography were reported,the related literatures were retrospectively analyzed. Results The clinical characteristics of cortical blindness were abrupt onset and hazardous, and its possible etiology in most studies was that the toxicity of contrast media which may destruct the blood-brain barrier transiently, then specifically entered into visual cortex and induced cortex cells injury. The principles of treatment were dilating blood vessels, alleviating cerebral edema,glucocorticoids,nerve nutrition. Conclusion Cortical blindness is a rare clinical complication of cerebral angiography, which should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible,and take some preventive measures.%目的:探讨心脑血管造影术后皮质盲的病因、临床表现及处理方法.方法:报道1例心脑血管造影术后皮质盲的临床表现、治疗过程及治疗结果,并结合文献讨论.结果:脑血管造影术后皮质盲具有发病突然、凶险的临床特点,一般认为是术中造影剂的毒性作用,使血脑屏障一过性破坏,造影剂特异性进入视皮质,导致皮质细胞毒性损害.治疗原则为舒张血管、抗脑水肿、皮质激素、神经营养治疗.结论:心脑血管造影术后的皮质盲是一临床少见并发症,必须尽快确诊及治疗,并采取一定的预防措施防治.

  11. Evaluation of occupational and patient dose in cerebral angiography procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuri Antonio Lunelli


    Full Text Available Objective The present study was aimed at estimating the doses received by physicians and patients during cerebral angiography procedures in a public hospital of Recife, PE, Brazil. Materials and Methods The study sample included 158 adult patients, and during the procedures the following parameters were evaluated: exposure parameters (kV, mAs, number of acquired images, reference air kerma value (Ka,r and air kerma-area product (PKA. Additionally, the physicians involved in the procedures were evaluated as for absorbed dose in the eyes, thyroid, chest, hands and feet. Results The results demonstrated that the doses to the patients' eyes region were relatively close to the threshold for cataract occurrence. As regards the physicians, the average effective dose was 2.6 µSv, and the highest effective dose recorded was 16 µSv. Conclusion Depending on the number of procedures, the doses received by the physicians may exceed the annual dose limit for the crystalline lenses (20 mSv established by national and international standards. It is important to note that the high doses received by the physicians are due to the lack of radiation protection equipment and accessories, such as leaded curtains, screens and protective goggles.

  12. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography scan delay in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukosevicius Saulius


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA is widely applied in the evaluation of cerebral vessels. Contrast enhancement in cerebral CTA without care or test bolus is not always sufficient for high-quality images. AIMS: Evaluation of the possibilities of calculation of scan delay for cerebral CTA in case of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, based on clinical data of a patient and to find out prognostic error of the model. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study in Neurosurgery and Radiology departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scan delay in 53 patients suffering an acute SAH was measured employing test bolus technique. Cerebral CTA was performed afterwards. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SPSS for Windows v.10.1 software package was applied for dispersion analysis, including one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov′s test and Levene′s Test of Equality of Error Variances. RESULTS: A statistical model for the prediction of scan delay in SAH was developed. Cerebral CTA scan delay was dependent upon age, neurological status and impact of the latter factors together (P<0.05. The determined mean square error of prognosis of scan delay of the developed model equals 3.3 sec. CONCLUSION: Using our proposed model it is possible to estimate an optimal delay time for CTA in most patients with SAH with a determined error.

  13. Intravenous coronary angiography using electron beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, B J; Bongaerts, A H; van Geuns, R J; van Ooijen, P M; Oudkerk, M; de Feyter, P J


    Intravenous coronary angiography with electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) allows for the noninvasive visualisation of coronary arteries. With dedicated computer hardware and software, three-dimensional renderings of the coronary arteries, veins, and other cardiac structures can be constructed f

  14. Vascular hand-arm vibration syndrome--magnetic resonance angiography. (United States)

    Poole, C J M; Cleveland, T J


    The diagnosis of vascular hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) requires consistent symptoms, photographic evidence of digital blanching and sufficient exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV; A(8) > 2.5 m/s2). There is no reliable quantitative investigation for distinguishing HAVS from other causes of Raynaud's phenomenon and from normal individuals. Hypothenar and thenar hammer syndromes produce similar symptoms to HAVS but are difficult to diagnose clinically and may be confused with HAVS. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a safe and minimally invasive method of visualizing blood vessels. Three cases of vascular HAVS are described in which MRA revealed occlusions of the ulnar, radial and superficial palmar arteries. It is proposed that HTV was the cause of these occlusions, rather than blows to the hand unrelated to vibration, the assumed mechanism for the hammer syndromes. All three cases were advised not to expose their hands to HTV despite one of them being at Stockholm vascular stage 2 (early). MRA should be the investigation of choice for stage 2 vascular HAVS or vascular HAVS with unusual features or for a suspected hammer syndrome. The technique is however technically challenging and best done in specialist centres in collaboration with an occupational physician familiar with the examination of HAVS cases. Staging for HAVS should be developed to include anatomical arterial abnormalities as well as symptoms and signs of blanching. Workers with only one artery supplying a hand, or with only one palmar arch, may be at increased risk of progression and therefore should not be exposed to HTV irrespective of their Stockholm stage.

  15. Manifestations of hepatic cavernous hemangioma in carbon dioxidedigital subtraction angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; LI Yan-ha0; HE Xiao-feng; CHEN Yong; ZENG Qing-le


    Objective: To describe the characteristic appearance of cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL)presented in carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) and to evaluate the significance of CO2-DSA in the diagnosis of CHL. Methods: Both CO2-DSA and iodinated contrast DSA (IC-DSA) were performed in all 16 patients with CHL, and the angiographic manifestations in the same patients were compared. The image quality was rated by three experienced angiographers, and the complications were also assessed. Results; There was good correlation between angiographers on image quality (R=0. 73). Diagnostic images were obtained with both CO2-DSA and IC-DSA in all CHL patients. No difference was noted between IC-DSA and CO2-DSA in visualizing the proper hepatic arteries and its branches (P>0. 05). CO2-DSA produced better images that clearly described the tumor size, shape and margination than those by IC-DSA (P<0. 05), but both demonstrated characteristic appearances of early opacification and persistent contrast enhancement of the tumors. The portal vein branches near the tumors were constantly demonstrated by CO2-DSA in 15 cases (15/16) but only in 2 cases (2/16) by IC-DSA. Conclusion: CO2-DSA is sensitive in CHL diagnosis, and in patients with contraindications to IC or with unsatisfactory imaging results by IC-DSA,CO2-DSA is a good alternative. As show in most cases by CO2-DSA, the portal veins might act as the main drainage vein of CHLs.

  16. Digital subtraction angiography in pediatric cerebrovascular occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faerber, E.N.; Griska, L.A.B.; Swartz, J.D.; Capitanio, M.A.; Popky, G.L.


    While conventional angiography has been used to demonstrate cerebrovascular occlusive disease in the past, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is capable of showing progressive vascular involvement with ease, simplicity, and extremely low morbidity, making it particularly well suited for children and outpatients either alone or coordinated with computed tomography. The authors discuss the usefulness and advantages of DSA as demonstrated in 7 infants and children with hemiplegia, 4 of whom had sickle-cell disease.

  17. Diagnosing intracranial vasculitis: The roles of MR and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K.G.; Tran, D.D.; Sickels, W.J.; Cornell, S.H.; Yuh, W.T.C. (Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States))


    To describe our experience with MR and angiography in diagnosing intracranial vasculitis and to test the hypothesis that MR can be used to screen for patients unlikely to have vasculitis. Ninety-two patients who had angiography with [open quotes]exclude vasculitis[close quotes] as the indication or who had angiography and a clinical diagnosis of vasculitis were identified. Angiograms of all 92 patients and the MRs of the 70 patients who had both studies were reviewed. Eleven patients had intracranial vasculitis. Angiography showed characteristic changes in 8. MR performed in 9 of 11 vasculitis cases, was significantly abnormal in all 9. Among 70 patients who had both studies, 19 had MR that was completely normal or showed only incidental findings. None of these 19 was diagnosed with vasculitis. The diagnostic yield of angiography performed to exclude vasculitis was only 6%. Evaluation for intracranial vasculitis should include MR. A negative MR excludes intracranial vasculitis more definitively than does a negative angiogram and makes the likelihood of finding vasculitis with angiography negligible. 23 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The feasibility of left radial artery approach for coronary angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangbo Chen; Can Chen; Shian Huang


    Objective:To study the feasibility of the left radial approach for coronary angiography. Methods:195 patients diagnosed with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease were randomly divided for coronary angiography(CAG) into a left radial artery approach group(98 cases) and a fight radial artery approach group(97 cases) from Jan 2006 to Dec 2006. Selective coronary angiographies were performed with 5F TIG catheters. The time of puncturing, duration under X-ray fluoroscopy and of the operation, successful rates of puncturing and coronary angiography were recorded. Results:There was no difference in the time of puncturing(2.25 -F 1.58 min vs 2.19±1.62 min), duration under X-ray fluoroscopy(3.12±1.53 min vs 3.21±1.49 min) and the duration of the operation(12.87±2.52 rain vs 12.98±2.85 min), nor in the success rates of puncturing(95.91% vs 95.87%) and coronary angiography(94.90% vs 94.85%). Conclusion: Coronary angiography can be accomplished via the left radial artery approach, indicating that this is a worthwhile clinical approach.

  19. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography in patients after kidney transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, A.; Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Holzknecht, N.; Baur, A.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Stangl, M.; Theodorakis, J.; Illner, W.-D.; Land, W. [Dept. of Transplant Surgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany)


    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography in detecting postoperative vascular complications after kidney transplantation in comparison with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Forty-one patients who underwent a kidney transplantation were examined with MR angiography and DSA. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography was performed as a dynamic measurement with one precontrast and three postcontrast measurements. Maximum intensity projection reconstructions were performed for all postcontrast data sets after DSA. The results were evaluated by two independent observers who were unaware of the DSA results. Twenty-three hemodynamically significant arterial stenoses were identified with DSA in the iliac arteries (n=7), the renal allograft arteries (n=12), and in their first branches (n=4). For a patient-based analysis the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for observer 1 were 100 and 97%, and for observer 2, 100 and 93%. Respective data were 100 and 100% after a consensus evaluation by two observers. Complications involving the renal veins were detected in 2 cases and perfusion defects of the kidney parenchyma were detected in 4 cases. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography is a reliable method in identifying postoperative arterial stenoses after kidney transplantation. In addition, dynamic MR angiography can be helpful in detecting venous complications and perfusion defects in kidney allografts. (orig.)

  20. CT angiography versus 3D rotational angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechan, R.S.; Peluso, J.P.; Sluzewski, M.; Rooij, W.J. van [Sint Elisabeth Ziekenhuis Tilburg, Department of Radiology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Rooij, S.B. van [Medisch Centrum Alkmaar, Department of Radiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Sprengers, M.E.; Majoie, C.B. [Academisch Medisch Centrum, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    CT angiography (CTA) is increasingly used as primary diagnostic tool to replace digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) has substituted DSA as a reference standard. In this prospective observational study, we compare CTA with 3DRA of all cerebral vessels in a large cohort of patients with SAH. Of 179 consecutive patients with SAH admitted between March 2013 and July 2014, 139 underwent 64- to 256-detector row CTA followed by complete cerebral 3DRA within 24 h. In 86 patients (62 %), 3DRA was performed under general anesthesia. Two observers from outside hospitals reviewed CTA data. In 118 of 139 patients (85 %), 3DRA diagnosed the cause of hemorrhage: 113 ruptured aneurysms, three arterial dissections, one micro-arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and one reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. On CTA, both observers missed all five non-aneurysmal causes of SAH. Sensitivity of CTA in depicting ruptured aneurysms was 0.88-0.91, and accuracy was 0.88-0.92. Of 113 ruptured aneurysms, 28 were ≤3 mm (25 %) and of 95 additional aneurysms, 71 were ≤3 mm (75 %). Sensitivity of depicting aneurysms ≤3 mm was 0.28-0.43. Of 95 additional aneurysms, the two raters missed 65 (68 %) and 58 (61 %). Sensitivity in detection was lower in aneurysms of the internal carotid artery than in other locations. CTA had some limitations as primary diagnostic tool in patients with SAH. All non-aneurysmal causes for SAH and one in ten ruptured aneurysms were missed. Performance of CTA was poor in aneurysms ≤3 mm. The majority of additional aneurysms were not depicted on CTA. (orig.)

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: Meta analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gang, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Li, Min [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jiang, Zhi-wei [Department of Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 169, Changle West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Lin [Department of Medical Cardiology, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Peng, Zhao-hui; Ding, Juan; Li, Li [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jin, Zhi-tao [Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of the Second Artillery, Beijing 100088 (China)


    Rationale and objective: To synthesize the available data to underscore the diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Materials and methods: We searched in the electronic databases of PubMed for all published studies that examined patients with AF using DSCT. We used an exact binomial rendition of the bivariate mixed-effects regression model to synthesize the diagnostic data. Results: The positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) at the patient level were 6.0 (CI, 3.6–10.1) and 0.03(CI, 0.004–0.2), respectively. The negative predictive values higher than 90% were available for a CAD prevalence <78%. The pooled vessel- and segment-level estimates showed higher positive and negative LRs than the patient-level estimates (15.3 [CI, 9.8–23.9] and 0.1 [CI, 0.07–0.3]; 25.1 [CI, 10.8–58.5] and 0.2 [CI, 0.2–0.3], respectively). No statistically significant heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were found at the patient level estimate. A sensitivity analysis showed that no study influenced the pooled results larger than 0.02. Conclusions: Cardiac angiography with DSCT can be applied as an imaging test for ruling out CAD in patient with AF. However, DSCT angiography may be not an effective tool for risk stratification for the high negative LR at the artery and segment levels.

  2. The comparative study on diagnostic validity of cerebral aneurysm by computed tomography angiography versus digital subtraction angiography after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masih Saboori


    Full Text Available Background: In order to declare the preoperative diagnostic value of brain aneurysms, two radiological modalities, computed tomographic angiography and digital subtraction angiography were compared. Methods: In this descriptive analytic study, diagnostic value of computed tomographic angiography (CTA was com-pared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated and compared between the two modalities. All data were analyzed with SPSS software, version 16. Results: Mean age of patients was 49.5 ± 9.13 years. 57.9 % of subjects were female. CTA showed 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity whereas DSA demonstrated 74% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Positive predictive value of both methods was 100%, but negative predictive value of CTA and DSA was 85% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our data, CTA is a valuable diagnostic modality for detection of brain aneurysm and su-barachnoid hemorrhage.

  3. Comparative evaluation of 64-slice CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography in assessing the cervicocranial vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Klingebiel


    Full Text Available Randolf Klingebiel1, Max Kentenich3, Hans-Christian Bauknecht3, Florian Masuhr2, Eberhard Siebert1, Markus Busch2, Georg Bohner11Department of Neuroradiology, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Radiology, Charité Universitary Medicine Berlin, GermanyBackground: Noninvasive 64-slice computed tomography angiography (64-MSCTA closely approximates conventional catheter angiography (DSA in terms of detail resolution. Objective: Retrospective evaluation of cervicocranial (cc 64-MSCTA in comparison with DSA in patients with presumptive cc vascular disorders.Material and methods: Twenty-four 64-MSCTA studies (32 mm detector width, slice thickness 0.5 mm, 120 kv, 150 mAs, pitch 0.75 of patients with presumptive cc vascular pathology (13 men, 11 women, mean age 38.3 ± 11.3 yrs, range 19–54 yrs were assessed in comparison with DSA studies without abnormal findings in age-matched patients (11 men, 13 women, mean age 39.7 ± 11.9 yrs, range 18–54 yrs. Study readings were performed in a blinded manner by two neuroradiologists with respect to image quality and assessibility of various cc vascular segments by using a five-point scale. Radiation exposure was calculated for 64-MSCTA.Results: Each reader assessed 384/528 different vessel segments (64-MSCTA/DSA. Superior image quality was attributed to DSA with respect to the C1 ICA–C6 ICA, A3 ACA, and P3 PCA segments as well the AICA and SCA. 64-MSCTA was scored superior for C7 ICA and V4 VA segments. A significantly increased number of nonassessable V2- and V3 VA segments in DSA studies was noted. The effective dose for 64-MSCTA amounted to 2.2 mSv.Conclusions: 64-MSCTA provides near-equivalent diagnostic information of the cc vasculature as compared with DSA. According to our results, DSA should be considered primarily when peripheral vessels (A3/P3 or ICA segments close to the skull base (C2-5 are of interest, such as in primary angiitis or stenoocclusive ICA disease, respectively.Keywords: CT-angiography

  4. Patients' Views of Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography Compared With Conventional Coronary Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, Niels C F; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Petersen, Henrik;


    : For comparison of CTA and invasive coronary angiography (CA), a total of 127 patients referred for CA for the suspicion of coronary artery disease were included in the study. Three months later the patients received a simple structured questionnaire addressing their views and preferences with regard to CTA...... versus CA. RESULTS: A total of 122 of 127 patients agreed to participate in the study. Pain or bleeding at the puncture site the day after the procedure was significantly more prevalent after CA than CTA (pain, 53% vs 2%; bleeding, 75% vs 22%). More patients had to stay home from work after CA...

  5. Medical personnel and patient dosimetry during coronary angiography and intervention (United States)

    Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P.; Makrygiannis, Stamatis S.; Kottou, Sofia; Karvouni, Evangelia; Giazitzoglou, Eleftherios; Korovesis, Socrates; Tzanalaridou, Efthalia; Raptou, Panagiota D.; Katritsis, Demosthenes G.


    Percutaneous coronary interventions are associated with increased radiation exposure compared to most radiological examinations. This prospective study aimed at (1) measuring entrance doses for all in-room personnel, (2) performing an assessment of patient effective dose and intracoronary doses, (3) investigating the contribution of each projection to kerma-area product (KAP) and irradiation time, (4) comparing results with established DRL values in this clinical setting and (5) estimating the risk for fatal cancer to patients and operators. Measurements were performed during 40 consecutive procedures of coronary angiography (CA), half of which were followed by ad hoc coronary angioplasty (PTCA). KAP measurements were used for patients and thermoluminescent dosimetry for the in-room personnel. The mean KAP value per procedure for CA was 29 +/- 9 Gy cm2. Thirty four per cent of KAP was due to fluoroscopy, whereas the remainder (66%) was due to digital cine. Accordingly, the mean KAP value per PTCA procedure was 75 +/- 30 Gy cm2, and contribution of fluoroscopy is 57%. Effective dose per year was estimated to be 0.04-0.05 mSv y-1 for the primary operator, and 0.03-0.04 mSv y-1 for those assisting. Corresponding measurements for radiographer and nurse were below detectable level, implying minimal radiation hazards for them. Regarding radiation exposure, coronary intervention is considered a quite safe procedure for both patients and personnel in laboratories with modern equipment and experienced operators as long as standard safety precautions are considered. Exposure optimization though should be constantly sought through continuous review of procedures.

  6. Coherent bremsstrahlung used for digital subtraction angiography (United States)

    Überall, Herbert


    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA), also known as Dichromography, using synchrotron radiation beams has been developed at Stanford University (R. Hofstadter) and was subsequently taken over at the Brookhaven Synchrotron and later at Hamburg (HASYLAB) [see, e.g., W.R. Dix, Physik in unserer Zeit. 30 (1999) 160]. The imaging of coronary arteries is carried out with an iodine-based contrast agent which need not be injected into the heart. The radiation must be monochromatized and is applied above and below the K-edge of iodine (33.16 keV), with a subsequent digital subtraction of the two images. Monochromatization of the synchrotron radiation causes a loss of intensity of 10 -3. We propose instead the use of coherent bremsstrahlung [see, e.g., A.W. Saenz and H. Uberall, Phys. Rev. B25 (1982) 448] which is inherently monochromatic, furnishing a flux of 10 12 photon/sec. This requires a 10-20 MeV electron linac which can be obtained by many larger hospitals, eliminating the scheduling problems present at synchrotrons. The large, broad incoherent bremsstrahlung background underlying the monochromatic spike would lead to inadmissible overexposure of the patient. This problem can be solved with the use of Kumakhov's capillary optics [see e.g., S.B.Dabagov, Physics-Uspekhi 46 (2003) 1053]: the low-energy spiked radiation can be deflected towards the patient, while the higher energy incoherent background continues forward, avoiding the patient who is placed several meters from the source.

  7. MR imaging and angiography in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). MR Section; Gupta, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). MR Section; Singh, D. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Sharma, B. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Kohli, A. [King George Medical Coll., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Paediatrics; Gujral, R.B. [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). MR Section


    MRI was performed on 26 patients with tuberculous meningitis, with particular reference to document the cranial nerve abnormalities. MR angiography (MRA) was performed in 20 of the patients. Meningeal enhancement in the basal cisterns or over the convexity of brain was seen in all patients; two show ependymal enhancement. Tuberculomas, single (3), multiple (12) or military (2) were detected in 17 patients. Of the 9 patients with cranial nerve palsies, 7 showed contrast enhancement with or without thickening of the involved nerve. Abnormality signal intensity of the involved nerve was seen on proton density and T{sub 2}-weighted images in one of these patients. MRA revealed focal arterial narrowing in 10 patients, the vessels commonly affected being the terminal segment of the internal carotid artery and the proximal segments of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. One patient also had a small aneurysm of the proximal middle cerebral artery. Infarcts, haemorrhagic (8) or bland (6), were detected in 14 patients; most were the basal ganglia and internal capsules, large middle or anterior cerebral arterial territory infarcts being seen in only two cases. (orig.)

  8. Microfocal angiography of the pulmonary vasculature (United States)

    Clough, Anne V.; Haworth, Steven T.; Roerig, David T.; Linehan, John H.; Dawson, Christopher A.


    X-ray microfocal angiography provides a means of assessing regional microvascular perfusion parameters using residue detection of vascular indicators. As an application of this methodology, we studied the effects of alveolar hypoxia, a pulmonary vasoconstrictor, on the pulmonary microcirculation to determine changes in regional blood mean transit time, volume and flow between control and hypoxic conditions. Video x-ray images of a dog lung were acquired as a bolus of radiopaque contrast medium passed through the lobar vasculature. X-ray time-absorbance curves were acquired from arterial and microvascular regions-of-interest during both control and hypoxic alveolar gas conditions. A mathematical model based on indicator-dilution theory applied to image residue curves was applied to the data to determine changes in microvascular perfusion parameters. Sensitivity of the model parameters to the model assumptions was analyzed. Generally, the model parameter describing regional microvascular volume, corresponding to area under the microvascular absorbance curve, was the most robust. The results of the model analysis applied to the experimental data suggest a significant decrease in microvascular volume with hypoxia. However, additional model assumptions concerning the flow kinematics within the capillary bed may be required for assessing changes in regional microvascular flow and mean transit time from image residue data.

  9. Survival in patients without acute ST elevation after cardiac arrest and association with early coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankiewicz, J; Nielsen, N; Annborn, M


    PURPOSE: To investigate whether early coronary angiography (CAG) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of a presumed cardiac cause is associated with improved outcomes in patients without acute ST elevation. METHODS: The target temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM) trial...... the first 6 h after arrest. Primary outcome was mortality at the end of trial. A Cox proportional hazard model was created to estimate hazard of death, adjusting for covariates. In addition, a propensity score matched analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 252 patients (46 %) received early CAG...

  10. Use of optical coherence tomography to evaluate visual acuity and visual field changes in dengue fever. (United States)

    Rhee, Taek Kwan; Han, Jung Il


    Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and affects humans. In rare cases, dengue fever can cause visual impairment, which usually occurs within 1 month after contracting dengue fever and ranges from mild blurring of vision to severe blindness. Visual impairment due to dengue fever can be detected through angiography, retinography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, electroretinography, event electroencephalography (visually evoked potentials), and visual field analysis. The purpose of this study is to report changes in the eye captured using fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green, and OCT in 3 cases of dengue fever visual impairment associated with consistent visual symptoms and similar retinochoroidopathic changes. The OCT results of the three patients with dengue fever showed thinning of the outer retinal layer and disruption of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction. While thinning of the retina outer layer is an irreversible process, disruption of IS/OS junction is reported to be reversible. Follow-up examination of individuals with dengue fever and associated visual impairment should involve the use of OCT to evaluate visual acuity and visual field changes in patients with acute choroidal ischemia.

  11. Optimal image reconstruction intervals for non-invasive coronary angiography with 64-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschka, Sebastian; Husmann, Lars; Desbiolles, Lotus M.; Boehm, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Gaemperli, Oliver; Schepis, Tiziano; Koepfli, Pascal [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (Switzerland)


    The reconstruction intervals providing best image quality for non-invasive coronary angiography with 64-slice computed tomography (CT) were evaluated. Contrast-enhanced, retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated 64-slice CT coronary angiography was performed in 80 patients (47 male, 33 female; mean age 62.1{+-}10.6 years). Thirteen data sets were reconstructed in 5% increments from 20 to 80% of the R-R interval. Depending on the average heart rate during scanning, patients were grouped as <65 bpm (n=49) and {>=}65 bpm (n=31). Two blinded and independent readers assessed the image quality of each coronary segment with a diameter {>=}1.5 mm using the following scores: 1, no motion artifacts; 2, minor artifacts; 3, moderate artifacts; 4, severe artifacts; and 5, not evaluative. The average heart rate was 63.3{+-}13.1 bpm (range 38-102). Acceptable image quality (scores 1-3) was achieved in 99.1% of all coronary segments (1,162/1,172; mean image quality score 1.55{+-}0.77) in the best reconstruction interval. Best image quality was found at 60% and 65% of the R-R interval for all patients and for each heart rate subgroup, whereas motion artifacts occurred significantly more often (P<0.01) at other reconstruction intervals. At heart rates <65 bpm, acceptable image quality was found in all coronary segments at 60%. At heart rates {>=}65 bpm, the whole coronary artery tree could be visualized with acceptable image quality in 87% (27/31) of the patients at 60%, while ten segments in four patients were rated as non-diagnostic (scores 4-5) at any reconstruction interval. In conclusion, 64-slice CT coronary angiography provides best overall image quality in mid-diastole. At heart rates <65 bpm, diagnostic image quality of all coronary segments can be obtained at a single reconstruction interval of 60%. (orig.)

  12. Diabetic Macular Ischemia Diagnosis: Comparison between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescein Angiography (United States)

    Lima, Talita Toledo; Louzada, Ricardo Noguera; Rassi, Alessandra Thome; Isaac, David Leonardo Cruvinel; Avila, Marcos


    Purpose. To compare fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) with and without diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). Methods. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare area measurements and p values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. FA and OCTA images were independently graded by 2 observers that reached agreement regarding quantitative DMI according established protocols. The ischemic area was divided into “large” macular ischemia (superior to 0.32 mm2) and “small” (inferior to 0.32 mm2) groups. Quantitative analyses of the FAZ were performed using custom software. Results. Thirty-four eyes from 34 diabetic patients were enrolled. Subjects with DMI presented a mean area on FA and OCTA of 0.68 ± 0.53 mm2 and 0.58 ± 0.35 mm2, respectively (p = 0.1374). Patients without DMI presented a mean area on FA and OCTA of 0.19 ± 0.67 mm2 and 0.20 ± 0.79 mm2, respectively (p = 0.9594). The ICC for the FAZ measurements between the 2 observers on FA and OCTA was 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion. OCTA represents a novel technique for the diagnosis of DMI and it may become an alternative to FA for this purpose. PMID:27891250

  13. Subtraction CT angiography for evaluation of intracranial aneurysms: comparison with conventional CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qi; Li, Kewei; Xie, Peng [The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Department of Neurology, Chongqing (China); Lv, Fajin; Li, Yongmei; Luo, Tianyou [The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Chongqing (China)


    The purpose of our study was to compare the diagnostic performance of subtraction computed tomography angiography (CTA) with conventional nonsubtracted CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. A total of 76 patients underwent both subtraction CTA and conventional CTA for the detection and therapy planning of suspected intracranial aneurysms. Subtraction and conventional CTA images were independently assessed by two readers in a blinded manner. The possibility of endovascular treatment or surgical clipping was also assessed based on information provided by CT angiograms alone. In 64 patients, 75 aneurysms were present on DSA. On a per-aneurysm basis, the sensitivity of subtraction CTA was 98.6% for reader 1, and 100% for reader 2. However, sensitivity of conventional CTA was 94.6% for reader 1, and 93.3% for reader 2. Therapeutic decisions could be made regarding 63 patients based on information provided by subtraction CTA images. However, conventional CTA provided sufficient information to make this decision for 55 patients. Conventional CTA has limited sensitivity in detecting very small aneurysms as well as aneurysms adjacent to bone. Subtraction CTA performed on a 64-row multidetector CT is an accurate and promising diagnostic tool that seems to be equivalent to 2D DSA for the detection and pretreatment planning of intracranial aneurysms. (orig.)

  14. Coronary CT angiography for acute chest pain triage: Techniques for radiation exposure reduction; 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goitein, Orly; Eshet, Yael; Konen, Eli (Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), email:; Matetzky, Shlomi (Heart Inst., Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)); Goitein, David (Surgery C, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)); Hamdan, Ashraf; Di Segni, Elio (Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel); Heart Inst., Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel))


    Background. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is used daily in acute chest pain triage, although exposing patients to significant radiation dosage. CCTA using prospective ECG gating (PG CCTA) enables significant radiation reduction Purpose. To determine whether the routine use of 128 vs. 64 multidetector CT (MDCT) can increase the proportion of patients scanned using PG CCTA technique, lowering radiation exposure, without decreasing image quality. Material and Methods. The study comprised 232 patients, 116 consecutive patients scanned using 128 MDCT (mean age 49 years, 79 men, BMI 28) and 116 consecutive patients (mean age 50 years, 75 men, BMI 28) which were scanned using 64 MDCT. PG CCTA was performed whenever technically permissible by each type of scanner: 64 MDCT = stable heart rate (HR) <60/min and weight <110 kg; 128 MDCT = stable HR < 70/min and weight <140 kg. All coronary segments were evaluated for image quality using a visual scale of 1-5. An estimated radiation dose was recorded. Results. PC CCTA was performed in 84% and 49% of the 128 and 64 MDCT groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Average image quality score were 4.6 +- 0.3 and 4.7 +- 0.1 for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.08). The mean radiation dose exposure was 6.2 +- 4.8 mSv and 10.4 +- 7.5 mSv for the 128 and 64 MDCT, respectively (P = 0.008). Conclusion. The 128 MDCT scanner enables utilization of PG CCTA technique in a greater proportion of patients, thereby decreasing the related radiation significantly, without hampering image quality

  15. Cerebral angiography in patients with complicated migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, K.; Wessely, P.; Holzner, F.


    38 patients (mean age: 29 years) were investigated by means of complete 4-vessel angiography: all of them were suffering from complicated migraine without detectable vascular malformation. Stenoses of the great craniocervical vessels were found in 11 patients (28.9%), but there was not a single case of vascular occlusion. A correlation between the localization of the stenosis, the localization of the headache and the presumed region of the transient cerebral function disturbance was found only in a few patients. Concerning the morphological changes of the small intracranial arterial branches, there was hardly an difference between clinically affected and non-affected territories of the middle cerebral artery. The angiograms of the 38 cases of complicated migraine were compared with the angiograms of 40 patients suffering from strokes in the young and those of 49 patients with transient ischaemic attacks. There were remarkably fewer stenoses or occlusions in the great craniocervical arteries of patients suffering from complicated migraine (28.9%) than in the vessels of cases of stroke in the young (52.5%). However, the incidence was comparable with the results in patients with transient ischaemic attacks (34.7%). The degree of morphological changes in the small intracranial arterial branches is likely to depend primarily on the patient's age and less on the diagnosis. The results suggest that in almost 30% of patients with complicated migraine - even at juvenile age-stenoses of the great craniocervical vessels might be found. However, considering the fact that most of the stenoses are without haemodynamic significance and their localization is not in agreement with the clinical data, the pathogenetic value of these vessel wall changes is highly questionable. (Author).

  16. Digital subtraction angiography in cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sin Young; Kim, Ji Hun; Suh, Hong Kil; Kim, Hyo Heon; Kwack, Eun Young; Lee, Il Seong [College of Medicine Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The usefulness and radiographic findings of the angiography in cerebral infarction are well known. We attempted to evaluate the angiographic causes, findings, and the usefulness of DSA in cerebral infarction. The authors reviewed retrospectively DSA images of 51 patients who were diagnosed as having cerebral infarction by brain CT and/or MRI and clinical settings. DSA was performed in all 51 patients, and in 3 patients, conventional angiogram was also done. Both carotid DSA images were obtained in AP, lateral, oblique projections, and one or both vertebral DSA images in AP and lateral. The authors reviewed the patient's charts for symptoms, operative findings and final diagnosis, and analysed DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis with focus on 6 major cerebral arteries. Among the 51 patients of cerebral infarction 43 patients (84.3%) had cerebral atherosclerosis, 1 dissecting aneurysm, 1 moyamoya disease and 6 negative in angiogram. DSA findings of cerebral atherosclerosis were multiple narrowing in 42 patients (97.7%), tortuosity in 22 (51.2%), dilatation in 14, occlusion in 12, avascular region in 8, collaterals in 7, ulcer in 6, and delayed washout of contrast media in 3. In cerebral atherosclerosis, internal carotid artery was involved in 37 patients (86.0%), middle cerebral artery in 29 (67.4%) posterior cerebral artery in 28, anterior cerebral artery in 26, vertebral artery in 22, and basilar artery in 15. Intracranial involvement of cerebral atherosclerosis (64.9%) was more common than extracranial involvement (16.2%). In cerebral infarction MRA may be the screening test, but for more precise evaluation of vascular abnormality and its extent, DSA should be considered.

  17. Pre-chemotherapy values for left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj


    BACKGROUND: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using equilibrium radionuclide angiography is an established method for assessment of left ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data on left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fractio...

  18. Coexistent coronary artery disease or myocardial bridging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Chun, Eun Ju; Kim, Yeo Koon; Yoo, Jin Young; Choi, Sang Il; Choi, Dong Ju [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the prevalence of coexistent coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial bridging (MB) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and assess the role of CCTA. The prevalence of obstructive CAD (> 50% luminal reduction) and MB (partial and full encasement) were assessed in 150 patients with HCM diagnosed by clinical findings, electrocardiography, and echocardiography of 19588 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA for suspected CAD. The overall feasibility of coronary artery visualization was 98.9% with CCTA. In patients with HCM, the prevalence of obstructive CAD and MB (14.7% partial and 28.0% full encasement) were 23.3% and 42.7%, respectively. Age, hypertension, family history of premature CAD, Framingham risk score and severe chest pain were associated with CAD, whereas male gender and septal type were associated with MB (all p < 0.05). In comparison to invasive coronary angiography (n = 37), the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA for the detection of CAD and full encasement MB was 89.2% and 86.5%, respectively. One-quarter of patients with HCM had coexistent obstructive CAD or full encasement MB. CCTA can be a feasible and accurate noninvasive imaging modality for the detection of CAD and MB in patients with HCM.

  19. Remapping of digital subtraction angiography on a standard fluoroscopy system using 2D-3D registration (United States)

    Alhrishy, Mazen G.; Varnavas, Andreas; Guyot, Alexis; Carrell, Tom; King, Andrew; Penney, Graeme


    Fluoroscopy-guided endovascular interventions are being performing for more and more complex cases with longer screening times. However, X-ray is much better at visualizing interventional devices and dense structures compared to vasculature. To visualise vasculature, angiography screening is essential but requires the use of iodinated contrast medium (ICM) which is nephrotoxic. Acute kidney injury is the main life-threatening complication of ICM. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is also often a major contributor to overall patient radiation dose (81% reported). Furthermore, a DSA image is only valid for the current interventional view and not the new view once the C-arm is moved. In this paper, we propose the use of 2D-3D image registration between intraoperative images and the preoperative CT volume to facilitate DSA remapping using a standard fluoroscopy system. This allows repeated ICM-free DSA and has the potential to enable a reduction in ICM usage and radiation dose. Experiments were carried out using 9 clinical datasets. In total, 41 DSA images were remapped. For each dataset, the maximum and averaged remapping accuracy error were calculated and presented. Numerical results showed an overall averaged error of 2.50 mm, with 7 patients scoring averaged errors < 3 mm and 2 patients < 6 mm.

  20. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.


    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  1. Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Han, Sherry; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Mammo, Zaid; Wong, Kevin S K; Lee, Sieun; Cua, Michelle; Young, Mei; Kirker, Andrew; Albiani, David; Forooghian, Farzin; Mackenzie, Paul; Merkur, Andrew; Yu, Dao-Yi; Sarunic, Marinko V


    This report describes a novel, non-invasive and label-free optical imaging technique, speckle variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT), for visualising blood flow within human retinal capillary networks. This imaging system uses a custom-built swept source OCT system operating at a line rate of 100 kHz. Real-time processing and visualisation is implemented on a consumer grade graphics processing unit. To investigate the quality of microvascular detail acquired with this device we compared images of human capillary networks acquired with svOCT and fluorescein angiography. We found that the density of capillary microvasculature acquired with this svOCT device was visibly greater than fluorescein angiography. We also found that this svOCT device had the capacity to generate en face images of distinct capillary networks that are morphologically comparable with previously published histological studies. Finally, we found that this svOCT device has the ability to non-invasively illustrate the common manifestations of diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular occlusion. The results of this study suggest that graphics processing unit accelerated svOCT has the potential to non-invasively provide useful quantitative information about human retinal capillary networks. Therefore svOCT may have clinical and research applications for the management of retinal microvascular diseases, which are a major cause of visual morbidity worldwide.

  2. 3D brain MR angiography displayed by a multi-autostereoscopic screen (United States)

    Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Ribeiro, Fádua H.; Lima, Fabrício O.; Serra, Rolando L.; Moreno, Alfredo B.; Li, Li M.


    The magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) can be used to examine blood vessels in key areas of the body, including the brain. In the MRA, a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer produce the detailed images. Physicians use the procedure in brain images mainly to detect atherosclerosis disease in the carotid artery of the neck, which may limit blood flow to the brain and cause a stroke and identify a small aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation inside the brain. Multi-autostereoscopic displays provide multiple views of the same scene, rather than just two, as in autostereoscopic systems. Each view is visible from a different range of positions in front of the display. This allows the viewer to move left-right in front of the display and see the correct view from any position. The use of 3D imaging in the medical field has proven to be a benefit to doctors when diagnosing patients. For different medical domains a stereoscopic display could be advantageous in terms of a better spatial understanding of anatomical structures, better perception of ambiguous anatomical structures, better performance of tasks that require high level of dexterity, increased learning performance, and improved communication with patients or between doctors. In this work we describe a multi-autostereoscopic system and how to produce 3D MRA images to be displayed with it. We show results of brain MR angiography images discussing, how a 3D visualization can help physicians to a better diagnosis.

  3. Radiolucent retractor for operative coronary angiography. (United States)

    Collins, J J


    A new retractor has been designed for sternal separation during cardiac operations. This retractor has the advantage of radiolucent blades that allow visualization of the entire heart by roentgenographic techniques without compromise of surgical exposure during the course of operation. The retractor also has swivel blades that provide excellent conformity to the sternal edges without pressure points, which tend to produce fractures.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of CT angiography in acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (United States)

    Chua, A E; Ridley, L J


    The aim of the study was to carry out a systematic review determining the accuracy of CT angiography in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. A search of published work in Medline and manual searching of reference lists of articles was conducted. Studies were included if they compared CT angiography to a reference standard of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, angiography or surgery in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eight published studies evaluating 129 patients were included. Data were used to form 2 x 2 tables. Computed tomography angiography showed pooled sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval 78-92%) and specificity of 95% (95% confidence interval 76-100%), without showing significant heterogeneity (chi(2) = 3.5, P = 0.6) and (chi(2) = 5.4, P = 0.6), respectively. Summary receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.93. Computed tomography angiography is accurate in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and can show the precise location and aetiology of bleeding, thereby directing further management. Strong recommendations for use of CT cannot be made from this review because of the methodological limitations and further large prospective studies are needed to define the role of CT in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

  5. Visual Impairment (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  6. Visual field (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  7. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay [Tuerkiye Yueksek ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)


    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  8. Prognostic and therapeutic implications of statin and aspirin therapy in individuals with nonobstructive coronary artery disease: Results from the confirm (coronary CT angiography evaluation for clinical outcomes: An international multicenter registry) registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W. Chow (Benjamin); G.R. Small (Gary); Y. Yam (Yeung); L. Chen (Li); R. McPherson (Ruth); S. Achenbach (Stephan); M. Al-Mallah (Mouaz); D.S. Berman (Daniel); M.J. Budoff (Matthew J.); F. Cademartiri (Filippo); T.Q. Callister (Tracy); H.-J. Chang (Hyuk-Jae); V.Y. Cheng (Victor Y.); K. Chinnaiyan (Kavitha); R.C. Cury (Ricardo); A. Delago (Augustin); A. Dunning (Allison); G. Feuchtner (Gundrun); M. Hadamitzky (Martin); J. Hausleiter (Jörg); R.P. Karlsberg (Ronald); P.A. Kaufmann (Philipp A.); Y.-J. Kim (Yong-Jin); J. Leipsic (Jonathon); T.M. LaBounty (Troy); F.Y. Lin (Fay); E. Maffei (Erica); G.L. Raff (Gilbert); L.J. Shaw (Leslee J.); T.C. Villines (Todd); J.K. Min (James)


    textabstractObjective - We sought to examine the risk of mortality associated with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine the impact of baseline statin and aspirin use on mortality. Approach and Results - Coronary computed tomographic angiography permits direct visualization o

  9. Diabetic Macular Ischemia Diagnosis: Comparison between Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros Garcia


    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare fluorescein angiography (FA and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA images of foveal avascular zone (FAZ in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR with and without diabetic macular ischemia (DMI. Methods. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare area measurements and p values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. FA and OCTA images were independently graded by 2 observers that reached agreement regarding quantitative DMI according established protocols. The ischemic area was divided into “large” macular ischemia (superior to 0.32 mm2 and “small” (inferior to 0.32 mm2 groups. Quantitative analyses of the FAZ were performed using custom software. Results. Thirty-four eyes from 34 diabetic patients were enrolled. Subjects with DMI presented a mean area on FA and OCTA of 0.68 ± 0.53 mm2 and 0.58 ± 0.35 mm2, respectively (p=0.1374. Patients without DMI presented a mean area on FA and OCTA of 0.19 ± 0.67 mm2 and 0.20 ± 0.79 mm2, respectively (p=0.9594. The ICC for the FAZ measurements between the 2 observers on FA and OCTA was 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion. OCTA represents a novel technique for the diagnosis of DMI and it may become an alternative to FA for this purpose.

  10. Pseudoaneurysm after pancreatoduodenectomy: diagnosis and embolization on angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jun Yong [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Heon; Chung, Hye Won [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Byung Jae; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the efficacy of angiography in the diagnosis and treatment of pseudoaneurysm manifesting arterial hemorrhage as a significant complication following pancreatoduodenectomy. For 51 months, of a total of 298 patients who had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy, 19 patients (6.4%) developed clinically significant hemorrhage and nine patients proved to have a pseudoaneurysm of angiography. These nine patients (3.0%) were managed by transcatheter arterial embolization. We analyzed clinical feature, angiography findings and hemostatic effect of embolization retrospectively. In nine patients (3.0%), pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed on angiography (common hepatic artery in four, gastroduodenal artery in three, proper hepatic artery in one, and left gastroepoploic artery in on patient). The size ranged from 0.3 cm to 6.5 cm (mean 1.9 cm). And extravasation was noted in five patients (55.6%). The remained ten patients showed no evidence of bleeding on angiography. Those who manifested as early bleeding (within two weeks) or delayed bleeding ( later than two weeks) were five and four patients respectively. Before the onset of major bleeding, among the nine pseudoaneurysm patients, seven patients (77.8%) had experienced percutaneous drainage due to intra-abdominal fluid collection with or without abscess resulting from anastomotic leak, and all nine patients had preliminary minor bleeding. The angiogram demonstrated an exact site of bleeding as a pseucoaneurysm followed by transcatheter arterial embolization (microcoil in eight patients, gelfoam in one) and achieved complete hemostasis yielding a success rate of 100%. Overall, no patients experienced complications related directly to the transcatheter arterial embolization technique. During the follow-up period (72-1, 336days, mean 640), no recurrence of bleeding was note. Although pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication, it is important as a cause of hemorrhage after pancreatoduodenectomy. Angiography followed by

  11. Evaluation of magnetic resonance angiography in detection of gastric varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Suga, Toshihiro [Sapporo Kosei General Hospital (Japan)


    We evaluated the detection of gastric varices, inflowing blood vessels to gastric varices, and outflowing blood vessels from gastric varices via magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in 31 patients with gastric varices. Twenty-four patients had F{sub 2} type varices and 7 had F{sub 3} type, classified according to the Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension. Seventeen patients had cardiofornical varices, and 14 had fundal varices. All patients were examined with an MR system operating at 1.5 T. MR angiography was performed using the two-dimensional time-of-flight method. With MR angiography, the imaging of gastric varices was clearly delineated in 28 of the 31 patients (90.3%). From the images of MR angiography, flow direction itself cannot be determined. The outflowing blood vessels of gastric varices were reported to be the gastro-renal shunt and the subphrenic vein, and angiographic findings have shown the inflowing blood vessels to be the left gastric vein (LGV), the short gastric vein (SGV), and the posterior gastric vein (PGV). In 25 of the 31 patients (80.7%), the outflowing blood vessels from gastric varices were detected (gastro-renal shunt in 24; subphrenic vein in 1). MR angiography provided clear images of the inflowing blood vessels to gastric varices in 18 of the 31 patients (58.1%). These inflowing vessels were categorized as SGV in 7 patients, LGV in 5, LGV and SGV in 4, and LGV and PGV in 2. We suggest that MR angiography be used as a routine method for detecting and diagnosing collateral veins in patients with gastric varices. (author)

  12. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: Diagnosis with CT Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Oncel


    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA is a rare congenital anomaly. It is associated with early infant mortality and sudden death in adults. Traditionally, ALCAPA has been diagnosed by angiography or autopsy; however, the development of cardiac computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has allowed noninvasive evaluation of the coronary anatomy by direct visualization of the origin of the left coronary artery (LCA from the pulmonary artery. We report a case of 10-year-old girl who has been on follow up for dilated cardiomyopathy for 4 years. The definitive diagnosis of ALCAPA is reached by multislice computed tomography (MSCT. The MSCT scan showed an anomalous origin of LCA from the pulmonary trunk, with a tortuous and dilated right coronary artery and right-to-left collateralization. Consequently, the patient was successfully treated with surgery.

  13. A comparison of iopamidol and iohexol in cerebral angiography. (United States)

    Pelz, D M; Fox, A J; Viñuela, F; Lylyk, P


    Iopamidol and iohexol, the new nonionic low-osmolality contrast agents, have both been shown to be safe, effective, and better tolerated than conventional ionic agents for cerebral angiography. In this randomized, double-blind study involving 40 patients, these two agents were compared for adverse effects, radiographic quality, and patient tolerance. No significant differences were observed in 220 injections. Because we found iopamidol and iohexol to be equally safe and effective for cerebral angiography, the choice of which contrast agent to use should be based on other considerations.

  14. Technical innovation: Multidimensional computerized software enabled subtraction computed tomographic angiography. (United States)

    Bhatia, Mona; Rosset, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Didier, Dominique; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre


    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a frequent noninvasive alternative to digital subtraction angiography. We previously reported the development of a new subtraction software to overcome limitations of adjacent bone and calcification in CT angiographic subtraction. Our aim was to further develop and improve this fast and automated computerized software, universally available for free use and compatible with most CT scanners, thus enabling better delineation of vascular structures, artifact reduction, and shorter reading times with potential clinical benefits. This computer-based free software will be available as an open source in the next release of OsiriX at the Web site

  15. Digital subtraction angiography in head and neck radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, R.F.; Seeger, J.F.; Smith, R.L.; Horsley, W.W.; Miller, R.W.


    Intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) was used to evaluate 44 patients with suspected otolaryngologic abnormalities. Sixteen had IVDSA for pulsatile tinnitus or suspected glomus tumor of the petrous bone. Nine patients were evaluated because of pulsatile neck masses, and 12 others had suspected tumors of the neck, face, and paranasal sinuses. Seven had IVDSA following head and neck trauma. The technique of examination is described. The current indications of IVDSA in head and neck radiology are discussed. It is concluded that IVDSA is a suitable substitute for conventional angiography for many otolaryngologic conditions and, because of its safety, can be used more liberally.

  16. Diagnostic Pitfalls in Postinterventional Intraarterial Magnetic Resonance Angiography after Recanalization of Femoropopliteal Arterial Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huegli, R.W.; Aschwanden, M.; Kos, S.; Rasmus, M.; Jaeger, K.; Jacob, A.L.; Bilecen, D. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Angiology, Univ. Hospital of Basel, Basel (Switzerland))


    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided vascular interventions are of increasing interest, and, with the use of contrast-enhanced techniques, intraarterial contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ia-ce-MRA) competes with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (ia-DSA) for the diagnostic evaluation of the infrainguinal vessel tree. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value of ia-ce-MRA and high-resolution T1-weighted (hr-T1w) imaging compared to the gold-standard ia-DSA for residual stenosis and local dissections after femoropopliteal recanalization in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Material and Methods: Eight patients with PAOD and short vessel occlusion of their femoropopliteal arteries underwent recanalization and balloon positioning under DSA. Patients were transferred to a short-bore MR scanner. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was accomplished under MR fluoroscopy. Pre- and postinterventional ia-ce three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo MRA with gadopentate dimeglumine was performed using the intraarterial introducer sheath. Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) were calculated from the data set. High-resolution T1w images of the angioplasty region before and after dilatation were acquired. Control ia-DSA images were obtained. Results: The postinterventional angioplasty results for stenosis grading were comparable in ia-MRA and ia-DSA. Only two of five local dissections in ia-DSA were visualized with the ia-ce-MRA runs including MIPs and MPRs. To clearly depict dissection, hr-T1w images were needed. Conclusion: Grading of stenotic lesions with ia-ce-MRA after PTA is comparable to ia-DSA. Intraarterial ce-MRA with calculated MIPs and MPRs is only partially sufficient to visualize local dissections after PTA. High-resolution T1w images are required for precise diagnosis of dissections in magnetic resonance tomography

  17. Diagnostic Pitfalls in Postinterventional Intraarterial Magnetic Resonance Angiography after Recanalization of Femoropopliteal Arterial Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huegli, R.W.; Aschwanden, M.; Kos, S.; Rasmus, M.; Jaeger, K.; Jacob, A.L.; Bilecen, D. [Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Angiology, Univ. Hospital of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)


    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided vascular interventions are of increasing interest, and, with the use of contrast-enhanced techniques, intraarterial contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ia-ce-MRA) competes with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (ia-DSA) for the diagnostic evaluation of the infrainguinal vessel tree. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value of ia-ce-MRA and high-resolution T1-weighted (hr-T1w) imaging compared to the gold-standard ia-DSA for residual stenosis and local dissections after femoropopliteal recanalization in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Material and Methods: Eight patients with PAOD and short vessel occlusion of their femoropopliteal arteries underwent recanalization and balloon positioning under DSA. Patients were transferred to a short-bore MR scanner. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was accomplished under MR fluoroscopy. Pre- and postinterventional ia-ce three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo MRA with gadopentate dimeglumine was performed using the intraarterial introducer sheath. Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) were calculated from the data set. High-resolution T1w images of the angioplasty region before and after dilatation were acquired. Control ia-DSA images were obtained. Results: The postinterventional angioplasty results for stenosis grading were comparable in ia-MRA and ia-DSA. Only two of five local dissections in ia-DSA were visualized with the ia-ce-MRA runs including MIPs and MPRs. To clearly depict dissection, hr-T1w images were needed. Conclusion: Grading of stenotic lesions with ia-ce-MRA after PTA is comparable to ia-DSA. Intraarterial ce-MRA with calculated MIPs and MPRs is only partially sufficient to visualize local dissections after PTA. High-resolution T1w images are required for precise diagnosis of dissections in magnetic resonance tomography.

  18. Multi-detector Computed Tomography Angiography of the Hepatic Artery in Liver Transplant Recipients

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    Boraschi, P.; Donati, F.; Cossu, M.C.; Gigoni, R.; Vignali, C.; Filipponi, F.; Bartolozzi, C.; Falaschi, F. [Pisa Univ. Hospital (Italy). 2nd Dept. of Radiology


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of multi-detector row computed tomography angiography (CTA) in detecting hepatic artery complications in the follow-up of liver transplant patients, performing volume-rendering as reconstruction technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The anatomy of hepatic artery was studied in 27 liver transplant recipients with a four-row CT scanner using the following parameters: collimation, 1 mm; slice width, 1 mm; table feed, 6-8 mm/s; spiral reconstruction time, 0.5 s; reconstruction interval, 0.5 mm; mAs, 160; kVp, 120. Before the study, the patients received 1000 ml of water as oral contrast agent to produce negative contrast in the stomach and the small bowel. A non-ionic contrast medium was infused intravenously at a rate of 5 ml/s with a bolus tracking system. Volume-rendering of hepatic artery was performed with the 3D Virtuoso software. RESULTS: The celiac trunk, the hepatic artery, and the right and left hepatic arteries were successfully displayed in high detail in all patients. Side branches, including small collaterals, and hepatic artery anastomosis could also be readily visualized. Volume-rendered CTA detected six hepatic artery stenoses, two hepatic artery thromboses, and two intrahepatic pseudoaneurysms. In two cases, CT detected hepatic artery stenosis with a diameter reduction of less than 50%, while digital subtraction angiography showed a normal artery. CONCLUSION: Volume-rendered multi-detector CTA is a promising non-invasive technique, since it allows images of high quality to be generated with excellent anatomical visualization of the hepatic artery and its complications in liver transplant recipients.

  19. Usefulness of CT angiography in diagnosing acute gastrointestinal bleeding:A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: To analyze the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) angiography in the diagnosis of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancerlit, Cochrane Library database, Sciencedirect, Springerlink and Scopus, from January 1995 to December 2009, were searched for studies evaluating the accuracy of CT angiography in diagnosing acute GI bleeding. Studies were included if the ycompared CT angiography to a reference standard of upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy, angiography or surgery in ...

  20. Usefulness of helical CT angiography for diagnosis of anomalous origin of coronary artery. Comparison with coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozaki, Hitoshi; Kondo, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Emiko [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan)] [and others


    Usefulness of helical CT angiography with reconstruction image of diastolic phase synchronized with electrocardiogram was compared with that of coronary angiography for diagnosis of anomalous origin of coronary artery. Patients were 2 males and 3 females, and average age was 66.4 year. Three cardiologists judged images and did not confirmed the origin and direction of coronary artery in 60% of cases. Helical CT was carried out with heartbeat <60/min by oral administration of propranolol (10-20 mg) one hour before the test. Half image was reconstructed by using data of diastolic phase which is 600 msec back from R-wave of an electrocardiogram. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) image and 3D image were provided. Two radiologists judged these images. A judgment was completed with 4 cases among 5 cases, and two judgments agreed well. For diagnosis of anomalous origin of coronary artery, helical CT had good accuracy and was more sensitive than coronary angiography. (K.H.)

  1. Visualizing statistical models and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Farebrother, RW


    Examines classic algorithms, geometric diagrams, and mechanical principles for enhancing visualization of statistical estimation procedures and mathematical concepts in physics, engineering, and computer programming.

  2. Multimodality evaluation of dural arteriovenous fistula with CT angiography, MR with arterial spin labeling, and digital subtraction angiography: case report. (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew; McTaggart, Ryan; Santarelli, Justin; Fischbein, Nancy; Marks, Michael; Zaharchuk, Greg; Do, Huy


    Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are cerebrovascular lesions with pathologic shunting into the venous system from arterial feeders. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but advances in noninvasive imaging techniques now play a role in the diagnosis of these complex lesions. Herein, we describe the case of a patient with right-side pulsatile tinnitus and DAVF diagnosed using computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance with arterial spin labeling, and DSA. Implications for imaging analysis of DAVFs and further research are discussed.

  3. Optimal iodine dose for 3-dimensional multidetector-row CT angiography of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Tomoaki, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan); Motosugi, Utaroh; Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Sou, Hironobu; Onohara, Kojiro; Sano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Tsutomu [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan)


    Purpose: To clarify the optimal iodine dose of contrast material for 3-dimensional multidetector-row CT angiography (3D-MDCTA) of the venous vasculature of the liver using volume rendering technique. Materials and methods: This study included 103 patients who were randomly assigned to 5 contrast-enhanced MDCT protocol groups with different body-weight-tailored doses of contrast material: 500, 600, 630, 650, and 700 mgI/kg body weight. The arterial, portal, and hepatic parenchymal phases were obtained to evaluate enhancement values of the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic vein. Visualization of the portal and hepatic veins on the volume-rendering images of 3D-MDCTA was evaluated using a 5-point grade. Dunnett's test was used to compare the mean enhancement value and mean grades of image quality (700 mgI/kg dose group was control). Results: The mean enhancement values of portal and hepatic vein in the group with 500 and 600 mgI/kg were significantly lower than those of the control group. During visual assessment, a significantly lower mean grades were observed in 500 mgI/kg groups for the portal vein, and 500 and 600 mgI/kg groups for hepatic vein. There were no significant intergroup differences in mean enhancement values and visual assessment among the groups using 630 mgI/kg or more. Conclusion: Iodine doses of 630 mgI/kg was recommended for 3D-MDCTA.

  4. 4D phase contrast flow imaging for in-stent flow visualization and assessment of stent patency in peripheral vascular stents – A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunck, Alexander C., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Jüttner, Alena, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kröger, Jan Robert, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Burg, Matthias C., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kugel, Harald, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Niederstadt, Thomas, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Tiemann, Klaus, E-mail: [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schnackenburg, Bernhard, E-mail: [Philips Medical Systems DMC GmbH, Röntgenstraße 24, 22335 Hamburg (Germany); Crelier, Gerard R., E-mail: [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH and University of Zurich, ETZ F 95, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); and others


    Purpose: 4D phase contrast flow imaging is increasingly used to study the hemodynamics in various vascular territories and pathologies. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and validity of MRI based 4D phase contrast flow imaging for the evaluation of in-stent blood flow in 17 commonly used peripheral stents. Materials and methods: 17 different peripheral stents were implanted into a MR compatible flow phantom. In-stent visibility, maximal velocity and flow visualization were assessed and estimates of in-stent patency obtained from 4D phase contrast flow data sets were compared to a conventional 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) as well as 2D PC flow measurements. Results: In all but 3 of the tested stents time-resolved 3D particle traces could be visualized inside the stent lumen. Quality of 4D flow visualization and CE-MRA images depended on stent type and stent orientation relative to the magnetic field. Compared to the visible lumen area determined by 3D CE-MRA, estimates of lumen patency derived from 4D flow measurements were significantly higher and less dependent on stent type. A higher number of stents could be assessed for in-stent patency by 4D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 14) than by 2D phase contrast flow imaging (n = 10). Conclusions: 4D phase contrast flow imaging in peripheral vascular stents is feasible and appears advantageous over conventional 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D phase contrast flow imaging. It allows for in-stent flow visualization and flow quantification with varying quality depending on stent type.

  5. Slovenian experience from diagnostic angiography to interventional radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavcnik Dusan


    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of writing this article is to document the important events and people in the first 50 years of diagnostic angiography and interventional radiology in Slovenia. During this period not only did the name of the institutions and departments change, but also its governance.

  6. Evaluation of angiography performed by radiographers and nurses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmers, N.; Conway, B.; Andrew, H.; Parkinson, A.; Butterfield, J.S.; Fawcitt, R. A


    AIM: To evaluate out-patient angiography performed by nurses and radiographers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A protocol for out-patient angiography performed by nurses and radiographers was drawn up and approved by the Trust's Risk Management Committee. Following training, two experienced radiographers and one nurse undertook elective peripheral or renal angiography according to the protocol on 187 patients. Angiograms were performed using a 3F catheter introduced into the abdominal aorta from a femoral approach. Patients were discharged after 2 hours and contacted by telephone the following morning. RESULTS: No patient refused consent for the procedure. One hundred and seventy-two patients underwent successful catheterization without assistance from a radiologist. Radiologist assistance was required with femoral puncture or catheter/guidewire manipulation in 15 cases (8%). Images were considered diagnostic by the reporting radiologist in all but one case. This patient was recalled for further aortogram and pressure measurements. There was a single puncture site complication due to transient stenosis of the common femoral artery at the puncture site. This is thought to have been the result of subintimal injection of local anaesthetic, and it resolved spontaneously over 30 minutes. There were no delayed complications. CONCLUSION: Experienced nurses and radiographers can rapidly acquire the skills to perform diagnostic angiography safely and efficiently. Chalmers, N. et al. (2002)

  7. Clinical application of iopamidol (pamiray 300) for cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Ho; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jin Na; Kim, Eung Yeop; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Seung Koo; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical safety and efficacy of Pamiray 300 (Iopamidol; Dongkook Pharm, Seoul, Korea) as a nonionic contrast medium for cerebral angiography. One hundred patients undergoing cerebral angiography were randomly assigned to receive Pamiray 300 after written consent had been obtained. Patients with adverse reactions were divided into two groups. One group consisted of patients with minor adverse events such as heat sensation and pain, and the other group consisted of patients with major adverse events such as dyspnea, laryngeal edema and shock. The qualities of the radiographic images were stratified into five grades by three independent radiologists. No abnormality induced by Pamiray 300 was seen by a physical and neurological examination, blood pressure measurement, electrocardiogram, respiration rate measurement and partial fraction of arterial oxygen recording. No major and severe adverse events occurred throughout the study. Patient sex, age, disease category, underlying disease and administered contrast dosage showed no statistical significance with regards to the occurrence of adverse events. The opacification of blood vessels in all patients was 'good' or 'excellent'. Based on the results of this study, Pamiray 300 is a safe, efficacious and well-tolerated contrast medium for use in cerebral angiography. Thus, Pamiray 300 can be used as a competitive medium in cerebral angiography.

  8. Value of abdominal angiography in Turner's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, A.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Velasquez, G.; Zollikofer, C.; Amplatz, K.


    In patients with Turner's syndrome, there is a relatively high incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding due to telangiectasias of the intestine. Despite the importance of preoperative diagnosis of the lesion in planning surgical treatment. The related angiographic findings have never been reported. We have studied one patient in whom the diagnosis was established by preoperative angiography.

  9. [A man with vision problems after coronary angiography]. (United States)

    Salomé, Mariet E; Jansen, Ben P W


    A 71-year-old man underwent a coronary angiography (CAG). Afterwards he experienced vision loss. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral cortical blindness. A cerebral CT-scan showed occipital hyperdensity, due to contrast accumulation and oedema. There was complete recovery of vision within 2 days. Transient cortical blindness after CAG is a rare complication of iodinated contrast agents.

  10. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: CT angiography with multi-planar reformatting. (United States)

    Steiner, Kate; Gollub, Frank; Stuart, Sam; Papadopoulou, Anthie; Woodward, Nick


    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency, which carries a significant mortality. CT Angiography is an important non-invasive diagnostic tool, which can be used to plan subsequent endovascular or surgical management. The cases presented demonstrate that a meticulous and systematic approach to image interpretation is necessary, in particular, to detect focal sites of contrast extravasation and small pseudoaneurysms.

  11. Neurologic complications of cerebral angiography in childhood moyamoya syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.L.; Chavali, R.V.; Robson, C.D.; Barnes, P.D.; Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Eldredge, E.A. [Department of Anesthesia, Children`s Hospital Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Scott, R.M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Children`s Hospital Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose. To determine the incidence of neurologic complications of cerebral angiography in children with moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as compared to children without MMS. Materials and methods. One-hundred-ninety consecutive cerebral angiograms obtained in 152 children were evaluated. Sixty of these angiograms were obtained in 40 children with MMS. Patients underwent neurologic evaluation prior to and after the procedure. For this study, a neurologic complication was defined as any new focal neurologic deficit or alteration in mental status occurring during the procedure or within the ensuing 24 hours. Results. There were 2 neurologic complications within 24 hours of angiography, one in the MMS group and one in the non-MMS group. One patient with MMS became mute following angiography. The symptom resolved within 12 hours. One patient without MMS being examined postoperatively for residual arteriovenous malformation developed intracranial hemorrhage requiring reexploration 12 hours after the angiogram. Using a two-tail Fisher`s exact test, there was no significant statistical difference in the ischemic (P = 0.3) or hemorrhagic (P = 1.0) complication rates between the group of patients with MMS and the non-MMS groups. Conclusion. The risk of a neurologic complication from cerebral angiography in children with MMS is low and not statistically different from the risk in children with other cerebrovascular disorders. (orig.) With 8 tabs., 37 refs.

  12. In vivo flow cytometry and time-resolved near-IR angiography and lymphography (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brock, Robert W.; Zharov, Vladimir P.


    Integration of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques with high-speed, high-resolution transmission and fluorescence microscopy shows great potential for in vivo flow cytometry and indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared (IR) angiography of blood and lymph microvessels. In particular, the capabilities of in vivo flow cytometry using rat mesentery and nude mouse ear models are demonstrated for real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells in skin, mesentery, lymph nodes, liver, kidney; studying vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics; monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems; high-speed imaging of cell deformability in flow; and label-free real-time monitoring of single cell extravasation from blood vessel lumen into tissue. As presented, the advantages of ICG IR-angiography include estimation of time resolved dye dynamics (appearance and clearance) in blood and lymph microvessels using fluorescent and photoacoustic modules of the integrated technique. These new approaches are important for monitoring and quantifying metastatic and apoptotic cells; comparative measurements of plasma and cell velocities; analysis of immune responses; monitoring of circulating macromolecules, chylomicrons, bacteria, viruses and nanoparticles; molecular imaging. In the future, we believe that the integrated technique presented will have great potential for translation to early disease diagnoses (e.g. cancer) or assessment of innovative therapeutic interventions in humans.

  13. The usefulness of ICG video angiography in the surgical treatment of superior cluneal nerve entrapment neuropathy: technical note. (United States)

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Daijiro; Ohtsubo, Seiji; Kusano, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio


    Superior cluneal nerve (SCN) entrapment neuropathy is a known cause of low back pain. Although surgical release at the entrapment point of the osteofibrous orifice is effective, intraoperative identification of the thin SCN in thick fat tissue and confirmation of sufficient decompression are difficult. Intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) is simple, clearly demonstrates the vascular flow dynamics, and provides real-time information on vascular patency and flow. The peripheral nerve is supplied from epineurial vessels around the nerve (vasa nervorum), and the authors now present the first ICG-VA documentation of the technique and usefulness of peripheral nerve neurolysis surgery to treat SCN entrapment neuropathy in 16 locally anesthetized patients. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire before surgery and at the latest follow-up after surgery. Indocyanine green video angiography was useful for identifying the SCN in fat tissue. It showed that the SCN penetrated and was entrapped by the thoracolumbar fascia through the orifice just before crossing over the iliac crest in all patients. The SCN was decompressed by dissection of the fascia from the orifice. Indocyanine green video angiography visualized the SCN and its termination at the entrapment point. After sufficient decompression, the SCN was clearly visualized on ICG-VA images. Low back pain improved significantly, from a preoperative Roland-Morris Questionnaire score of 13.8 to a postoperative score of 1.3 at the last follow-up visit (p < 0.05). The authors suggest that ICG-VA is useful for the inspection of peripheral nerves such as the SCN and helps to identify the SCN and to confirm sufficient decompression at surgery for SCN entrapment.

  14. Case Report of Bullous Pemphigoid following Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goktug Demirci


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a first case of bullous pemphigoid (BP following intravenous fluorescein for fundus angiography. Clinical Features: A 70-year-old male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with BP and sepsis. He reported a history of fundus fluorescein angiography with a pre-diagnosis of senile macular degeneration 2 months prior to presentation. At that time, fluorescein extravasated at the antecubital region. Following the procedure, pruritus and erythema began at the wrists bilaterally, and quickly spread to the entire body. The patient also reported a history of allergy to human albumin solution (Plamasteril®; Abbott 15 years before, during bypass surgery. On dermatologic examination, erythematous patches were present on the scalp, chest and anogenital region. Vesicles and bullous lesions were present on upper and lower extremities. On day 2 of hospitalization, tense bullae appeared on the upper and lower extremities. The patient was treated with oral methylprednisolone 48 mg (Prednol®; Mustafa Nevzat, topical clobetasol dipropionate 0.05% cream (Dermovate®; Glaxo SmithKline, and topical 4% urea lotion (Excipial Lipo®; Orva for presumptive bullous pemphigoid. Skin punch biopsy provided tissue for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence examination, and salt extraction, which were all consistent with BP. After 1 month, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit with sepsis secondary to urinary tract infection; he died 2 weeks later from sepsis and cardiac failure. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BP following fundus fluorescein angiography in a patient with known human albumin solution allergy. Consideration should be made to avoid fluorescein angiography, change administration route, or premedicate with antihistamines in patients with known human albumin solution allergy. The association between fundus fluorescein angiography and BP should be further investigated.

  15. Magnitude contrast angiography in peripheral occlusive vascular disease of the lower limbs; Magnitude-Contrast-Angiographie bei peripherer arterieller Verschlusskrankheit der unteren Extremitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, M. [Radiologische Klinik im Klinikum Wuppertal-Barmen (Germany); Schlegel, E. [Radiologische Klinik im Klinikum Wuppertal-Barmen (Germany); Cramer, B.M. [Radiologische Klinik im Klinikum Wuppertal-Barmen (Germany)


    187 examinations were done in 105 patients with artheriosclerotic lesions of the femoropopliteal vessels. The MRA results were compared to DSA and conventional angiography. 36 patients were investigated before and after angioplasty. Occlusions were detected correctly in all cases. In mild and moderate stenoses there was 90% agreement. High-grade stenoses may simulate occlusions. All interruptions of the signal with a length of 1 to 10 mm have to be read as high-grade stenoses (MRA sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity 0.94). In patients with low cardiac output MRA may be advantageous in comparison to DSA: Collaterals and vessels distal to occlusions were visualized better in MRA. Axial scans show morphology of stenoses and occlusions and influenced the choice of treatment in 6 cases. In 3 cases, thrombotic material and calcified plaque were distinguished. After angioplasty vessel wall lesions such as dissection of the intima or compressed plaque inside the vessel wall were well visualized. Agreement was 92% with MRA as opposed to lesser values with DSA. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden 187 selektive MR-Angiogramme (MRA) bei 105 Patienten in der femoro-poplitealen Gefaessetage angefertigt und mit der i.a. DSA/Blattfilm-Angiographie verglichen. 36 Patienten wurden vor und nach Thrombolyse/perkutaner transluminaler Angioplastie (PTA) untersucht. Bei Verschluessen fand sich 100% Uebereinstimmung. Die Uebereinstimmung des Bildeindrucks war fuer <50%- und fuer 50-80%-Stenosen ca. 90%. Hochgradige und filiforme Stenosen (>80%) koennen Verschluesse vortaeuschen. Die 1-10 mm langen Signalunterbrechungen im MRA muessen als hochgradige, filiforme Stenosen interpretiert werden (Sensitivitaet 0,96, Spezifitaet 0,94). Bei Patienten mit eingeschraenkter Herzfunktion kann die MRA gegenueber der i.a. DSA im Vorteil sein, Kollateralen und Empfaengersegmente werden dann im MRA besser abgebildet. Zusaetzliche axiale Schichten zeigen die Morphologie der Gefaesswand und beeinflussen in 6

  16. The Prognosis of Patients With Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease Versus Normal Arteries Determined by Invasive Coronary Angiography or Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Huang, Fang-Yang; Huang, Bao-Tao; Lv, Wen-Yu; Liu, Wei; Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-Li; Wang, Peng-Ju; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Rui-Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Gui, Yi-Yue; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chen, Mao; Zhu, Ye


    Limited data exist regarding the outcomes of patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) detected by computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Our aim was to compare the prognosis of patients with nonobstructive coronary artery plaques with that of patients with entirely normal arteries. The MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched. Studies comparing the prognosis of individuals with nonobstructive CAD versus normal coronary arteries detected by CTCA or ICA were included. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization due to unstable angina or revascularization. A fixed effects model was chosen to pool the estimates of odds ratios (ORs). Forty-eight studies with 64,905 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Patients in the nonobstructive CAD arm had a significantly higher risk of MACE compared to their counterparts in the normal artery arm (pooled OR, 3.17, 95% confidence interval, 2.77-3.63). When excluding revascularization as an endpoint, hard cardiac composite outcomes were also more frequent among patients with nonobstructive CAD (pooled OR, 2.10; 95%CI, 1.79-2.45). All subgroups (age, sex, follow-up duration, different outcomes, diagnostic modality, and CAD risk factor) consistently showed a poorer prognosis with nonobstructive CAD than with normal arteries. When dividing the studies into a CTCA and ICA group for further analysis based on the indications for diagnostic tests, we also found nonobstructive CAD to be associated with a higher risk of MACE in both stable and acute chest pain. Patients with nonobstructive CAD had a poorer prognosis compared with their counterparts with normal arteries.

  17. Transient cortical visual impairment after video-assisted thoracic surgery: a case report


    Yang, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Jeong-Min


    Background Visual loss associated with thoracic surgery has been reported mostly after coronary angiography or bypass surgery. The position of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is usually lateral, thus not compressive to the globe. Visual loss after VATS has not been reported. Herein we report a patient without any cardiovascular risk factors who experienced transient cortical blindness after an uneventful VATS. Case presentation A 40-year-old man noticed a visual loss at the recovery ro...

  18. Effect of change in patient′s bed angles on pain after coronary angiography according to vital signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Amin Younessi Heravi


    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common and important diagnostic methods for the detection of heart diseases is coronary angiography. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum angle of the bed by using vital signals to optimize the patient′s position after the angiography. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial (RCT on participants after angiography who were divided into five groups. The first group was placed routinely in a supine position. In the other groups, all of the patients were placed in bed by angle 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° upward. In each group, vital signals were measured that included blood pressure, percent of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature. All of measured data compared with the pain score has been achieved from numerical pain scale. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics method, variance analysis, and post hoc tests in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software, version 16. Estimation of the relationship was done by MATLAB version 2011. The level of significance was considered to be 0.05. Results: In various groups, there was no significance difference in demographic variables such as gender, age, height, and weight. The mean of pain score, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate changed significantly (P 0.05. It showed linear changes between pain and systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate changes. A dramatic reduction was also seen in systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, and also pain at an angle of 45 ° . Conclusion: This study showed that, 45 ° was the best angle of the bed to optimize the patient′s position after the procedure, based on his/her vital signs and pain score. Thus, in order to relive pain, this change in bed angle is advised to be planned by postangiography nurses in patients after coronary angiography.

  19. The development and discussion of computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese characters structures - Concurrent estimation of the overall ability and the domain ability in item response theory approach. (United States)

    Wu, Huey-Min; Lin, Chin-Kai; Yang, Yu-Mao; Kuo, Bor-Chen


    Visual perception is the fundamental skill required for a child to recognize words, and to read and write. There was no visual perception assessment tool developed for preschool children based on Chinese characters in Taiwan. The purposes were to develop the computerized visual perception assessment tool for Chinese Characters Structures and to explore the psychometrical characteristic of assessment tool. This study adopted purposive sampling. The study evaluated 551 kindergarten-age children (293 boys, 258 girls) ranging from 46 to 81 months of age. The test instrument used in this study consisted of three subtests and 58 items, including tests of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Based on the results of model fit analysis, the higher-order item response theory was used to estimate the performance in visual perception, basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters simultaneously. Analyses of variance were used to detect significant difference in age groups and gender groups. The difficulty of identifying items in a visual perception test ranged from -2 to 1. The visual perception ability of 4- to 6-year-old children ranged from -1.66 to 2.19. Gender did not have significant effects on performance. However, there were significant differences among the different age groups. The performance of 6-year-olds was better than that of 5-year-olds, which was better than that of 4-year-olds. This study obtained detailed diagnostic scores by using a higher-order item response theory model to understand the visual perception of basic strokes, single-component characters, and compound characters. Further statistical analysis showed that, for basic strokes and compound characters, girls performed better than did boys; there also were differences within each age group. For single-component characters, there was no difference in performance between boys and girls. However, again the performance of 6-year-olds was better than

  20. Comparison of visual scoring and quantitative planimetry methods for estimation of global infarct size on delayed enhanced cardiac MRI and validation with myocardial enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewton, Nathan, E-mail: [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France); Revel, Didier [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France); Bonnefoy, Eric [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Ovize, Michel [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); INSERM Unite 886 (France); Croisille, Pierre [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France)


    Purpose: Although delayed enhanced CMR has become a reference method for infarct size quantification, there is no ideal method to quantify total infarct size in a routine clinical practice. In a prospective study we compared the performance and post-processing time of a global visual scoring method to standard quantitative planimetry and we compared both methods to the peak values of myocardial biomarkers. Materials and methods: This study had local ethics committee approval; all patients gave written informed consent. One hundred and three patients admitted with reperfused AMI to our intensive care unit had a complete CMR study with gadolinium-contrast injection 4 {+-} 2 days after admission. A global visual score was defined on a 17-segment model and compared with the quantitative planimetric evaluation of hyperenhancement. The peak values of serum Troponin I (TnI) and creatine kinase (CK) release were measured in each patient. Results: The mean percentage of total left ventricular myocardium with hyperenhancement determined by the quantitative planimetry method was (20.1 {+-} 14.6) with a range of 1-68%. There was an excellent correlation between quantitative planimetry and visual global scoring for the hyperenhancement extent's measurement (r = 0.94; y = 1.093x + 0.87; SEE = 1.2; P < 0.001) The Bland-Altman plot showed a good concordance between the two approaches (mean of the differences = 1.9% with a standard deviation of 4.7). Mean post-processing time for quantitative planimetry was significantly longer than visual scoring post-processing time (23.7 {+-} 5.7 min vs 5.0 {+-} 1.1 min respectively, P < 0.001). Correlation between peak CK and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.82 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.83 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Correlation between peak Troponin I and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.86 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.85 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Conclusion: A visual approach based on a 17-segment model allows a rapid

  1. Visual field asymmetries in visual evoked responses. (United States)

    Hagler, Donald J


    Behavioral responses to visual stimuli exhibit visual field asymmetries, but cortical folding and the close proximity of visual cortical areas make electrophysiological comparisons between different stimulus locations problematic. Retinotopy-constrained source estimation (RCSE) uses distributed dipole models simultaneously constrained by multiple stimulus locations to provide separation between individual visual areas that is not possible with conventional source estimation methods. Magnetoencephalography and RCSE were used to estimate time courses of activity in V1, V2, V3, and V3A. Responses to left and right hemifield stimuli were not significantly different. Peak latencies for peripheral stimuli were significantly shorter than those for perifoveal stimuli in V1, V2, and V3A, likely related to the greater proportion of magnocellular input to V1 in the periphery. Consistent with previous results, sensor magnitudes for lower field stimuli were about twice as large as for upper field, which is only partially explained by the proximity to sensors for lower field cortical sources in V1, V2, and V3. V3A exhibited both latency and amplitude differences for upper and lower field responses. There were no differences for V3, consistent with previous suggestions that dorsal and ventral V3 are two halves of a single visual area, rather than distinct areas V3 and VP.

  2. Clinical values of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence video angiography with Flow 800 software in cerebrovascular surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Xun; LIU Xing-ju; MA Li; LIU Ling-tong; WANG Wen-lei; WANG Shuo; CAO Yong


    Background Microscope-integrated near-infrared indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) has been used in neurosurgery for a decade.This study aimed to assess the value of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography with Flow 800 software in cerebrovascular surgery and to discover its hemodynamic features and changes of cerebrovascular diseases during surgery.Methods A total of 87 patients who received ICG-VA during various surgical procedures were enrolled in this study.Among them,45 cases were cerebral aneurysms,25 were cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs),and 17 were moyamoya disease (MMD).A surgical microscope integrating an infrared fluorescence module was used to confirm the residual aneurysms and blocking of perforating arteries in aneurysms.Feeder arteries,draining veins,and normal cortical vessels were identified by the time delay color mode of Flow 800 software.Hemodynamic parameters were recorded.All data were analyzed by SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS Inc.,USA).T-test was used to analyze the hemodynamic features of AVMs and MMDs,the influence on peripheral cortex after resection in AVMs,and superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass in MMDs.Results The visual delay map obtained by Flow 800 software had more advantages than the traditional playback mode in identifying the feeder arteries,draining veins,and their relations to normal cortex vessels.The maximum fluorescence intensity (MFI) and the slope of ICG fluorescence curve of feeder arteries and draining veins were higher than normal peripheral vessels (MFI:584.24±85.86 vs.382.94±91.50,slope:144.95±38.08 vs.69.20±13.08,P <0.05).The artefiovenous transit time in AVM was significantly shorter than in normal cortical vessels ((0.60±0.27) vs.(2.08±1.42) seconds,P <0.05).After resection of AVM,the slope of artery in the cortex increased,which reflected the increased cerebral flow.In patients with MMD,after STA-MCA bypass,cortex perfusion of

  3. Dynamic cone beam CT angiography of carotid and cerebral arteries using canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Weixing; Zhao Binghui; Conover, David; Liu Jiangkun; Ning Ruola [Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States); Department of Radiology, Shanghai 6th People' s Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Xuhui, Shanghai (China); Koning Corporation, Lennox Tech Enterprise Center, 150 Lucius Gordon Drive Suite 112, West Henrietta, New York 14586 (United States); Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States); Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States) and Koning Corporation, Lennox Tech Enterprise Center, 150 Lucius Gordon Drive Suite 112, West Henrietta, New York 14586 (United States)


    Purpose: This research is designed to develop and evaluate a flat-panel detector-based dynamic cone beam CT system for dynamic angiography imaging, which is able to provide both dynamic functional information and dynamic anatomic information from one multirevolution cone beam CT scan. Methods: A dynamic cone beam CT scan acquired projections over four revolutions within a time window of 40 s after contrast agent injection through a femoral vein to cover the entire wash-in and wash-out phases. A dynamic cone beam CT reconstruction algorithm was utilized and a novel recovery method was developed to correct the time-enhancement curve of contrast flow. From the same data set, both projection-based subtraction and reconstruction-based subtraction approaches were utilized and compared to remove the background tissues and visualize the 3D vascular structure to provide the dynamic anatomic information. Results: Through computer simulations, the new recovery algorithm for dynamic time-enhancement curves was optimized and showed excellent accuracy to recover the actual contrast flow. Canine model experiments also indicated that the recovered time-enhancement curves from dynamic cone beam CT imaging agreed well with that of an IV-digital subtraction angiography (DSA) study. The dynamic vascular structures reconstructed using both projection-based subtraction and reconstruction-based subtraction were almost identical as the differences between them were comparable to the background noise level. At the enhancement peak, all the major carotid and cerebral arteries and the Circle of Willis could be clearly observed. Conclusions: The proposed dynamic cone beam CT approach can accurately recover the actual contrast flow, and dynamic anatomic imaging can be obtained with high isotropic 3D resolution. This approach is promising for diagnosis and treatment planning of vascular diseases and strokes.

  4. A free-breathing non-contrast-enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography at 3 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WANG Wei; WANG Ya-rong; NIU Gang; JIN Chen-wang; WU Ed Xuekui


    Background The breathhold contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging sequence is the standard technique for MRA of the thorax. However, this technique is not desirable for certain patients with respiratory insufficiency, serious renal impairment, or allergy to contrast agents. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a non-contrast-enhanced free-breathing pulmonary MRA protocol at 3 Tesla.Methods The time-of-flight protocol was based on a two-dimensional T1-weighted turbo field echo sequence with slice-selective inversion recovery and magnetization transfer preparation together with respiratory navigator gating, cardiac gating, and parallel imaging. Optimal values for time of inversion delay, flip angle and slice thickness were experimentally determined and used for all subjects.Results Excellent pulmonary MRA images, in which the 7th order branches of pulmonary arteries could be reliably identified, were obtained in the 12 free-breathing healthy volunteers. TI of ~300 ms provides the best suppression of background thoracic and cardiac muscles and effective inflow enhancement. With increasing flip angle, the pulmonary vessels gradually brightened and exhibited optimal contrast at 20°-30°. The 2 mm slice thickness and 0.5 mm slice overlap is suitable for visualization of the peripheral pulmonary vessel.Conclusions The MRA protocol at 3 Tesla may have clinical significance for pulmonary vascular imaging in patients who are not available for contrast-enhanced 3D MRA and CT angiography examination or are unable to sustain a long breath-hold.

  5. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of abdominal vessels: Is there still a role for angiography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosshenrich, R.; Fischer, U. [Department of Radiology, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)


    The purpose of this review article is to describe recent advantages in contrast-enhanced (CE) three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in comparison with other vascular imaging techniques, and to discuss their current clinical applications for the imaging of abdominal vessels. Principles and technical considerations are presented and clinical applications are reviewed for different vascular diseases. In ruptured aortic aneurysms and acute dissections CT is the method of first choice. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA can be well used for therapeutic planning and follow-up in patients with stable disease. A comprehensive MR examination including CE 3D MRA, MR urography and MR nephrogram has the potential to replace the conventional studies for the evaluation of renal vascular disease. It is an accurate method for imaging the origins of coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries, although the image resolution is too low for reliable assessment of the inferior mesenteric artery. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA has emerged as the method of choice for studying the portal venous system in liver transplant recipients, in patients with portal hypertension and in cases with abdominal tumours for preoperative evaluation. Additional non-invasive flow measurements are useful in monitoring portal hypertension. The abdominal veins can be well imaged using unenhanced MR techniques. Imaging may be facilitated with intravascular contrast media. Contrast-enhanced 3D MRA can replace intra-arterial DSA for diagnosis, therapy planning and follow-up in patients with abdominal vascular disease. Catheter-based arteriography will still be used for interventional procedures such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, stent placement and embolisation. (orig.)

  6. Visual agnosia. (United States)

    Álvarez, R; Masjuan, J


    Visual agnosia is defined as an impairment of object recognition, in the absence of visual acuity or cognitive dysfunction that would explain this impairment. This condition is caused by lesions in the visual association cortex, sparing primary visual cortex. There are 2 main pathways that process visual information: the ventral stream, tasked with object recognition, and the dorsal stream, in charge of locating objects in space. Visual agnosia can therefore be divided into 2 major groups depending on which of the two streams is damaged. The aim of this article is to conduct a narrative review of the various visual agnosia syndromes, including recent developments in a number of these syndromes.

  7. Comprehensive vascular imaging using optical coherence tomography-based angiography and photoacoustic tomography (United States)

    Zabihian, Behrooz; Chen, Zhe; Rank, Elisabet; Sinz, Christoph; Bonesi, Marco; Sattmann, Harald; Ensher, Jason; Minneman, Michael P.; Hoover, Erich; Weingast, Jessika; Ginner, Laurin; Leitgeb, Rainer; Kittler, Harald; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul; Drexler, Wolfgang; Liu, Mengyang


    Studies have proven the relationship between cutaneous vasculature abnormalities and dermatological disorders, but to image vasculature noninvasively in vivo, advanced optical imaging techniques are required. In this study, we imaged a palm of a healthy volunteer and three subjects with cutaneous abnormalities with photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography with angiography extension (OCTA). Capillaries in the papillary dermis that are too small to be discerned with PAT are visualized with OCTA. From our results, we speculate that the PA signal from the palm is mostly from hemoglobin in capillaries rather than melanin, knowing that melanin concentration in volar skin is significantly smaller than that in other areas of the skin. We present for the first time OCTA images of capillaries along with the PAT images of the deeper vessels, demonstrating the complementary effective imaging depth range and the visualization capabilities of PAT and OCTA for imaging human skin in vivo. The proposed imaging system in this study could significantly improve treatment monitoring of dermatological diseases associated with cutaneous vasculature abnormalities.

  8. Carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography in percutaneous sclerotherapy of venous hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To investigate the usefulness of carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO{sub 2}-DSA) in direct puncture sclerotherapy of venous hemangiomas involving extremities. Direct puncture sclerotherapy was performed in 12 patients with venous hemangioma of extremities. After direct puncture of the venous hemangiomas, 30-50cc of CO{sub 2} was manually injected and digital subtraction angiograms were obtained. If draining vein was visualized, a tourniquet was applied at the proximal site to compress the draining veins. Thereafter, radiopaque embolic materials such as 1:3 mixture of Lipiodol and absolute ethanol or ethanolamine oleate-Lipiodol-Avitene(microfibrillar collagen hemostat) mixture were slowly injected under the fluoroscopic guidance. Rapid injection of large amount of CO{sub 2} enabled the visualization of wide areas of venous hemangiomas in 11 patients. Draining veins were reliably demonstrated in 10 patients and pulmonary embolism of embolic materials was effectively prevented by proximal tourniquet application. Because of radiolucent nature of CO{sub 2} retained in hemangiomas, we could clearly identify the distribution of radiopaque embolic materials under fluoroscopy. Retained CO{sub 2} also could be used as a guide for additional multiple puncture of hemangiomas. There was no systemic symptoms or complications related to CO{sub 2}-DSA. CO{sub 2}-DSA is a convenient, safe and useful angiographic technique in direct puncture sclerotherapy of hemangiomas involving extremities.

  9. Magnetic resonance tomographic angiography: diagnostic value in trigeminal neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umehara, F. [Third Dept. of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Kamishima, K. [Div. of Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Kashio, N. [Third Dept. of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Yamaguchi, K. [Div. of Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan); Sakimoto, T.; Osame, M. [Third Dept. of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima Univ. (Japan)


    A combination of MRI, MR angiography and MR tomographic angiography (MRTA) was used to study the relationship of the root exit zone of the trigeminal nerve to surrounding vascular structures in seven patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and ten patients with no evidence at a lesion in this region. MRTA is the technique for showing the relationship between vessels, cranial nerves and brain stem. MRTA clearly demonstrated the presence of a vessel at the root exit zone of the trigeminal nerve in all patients with TN. In the ten other patients, examination of 20 trigeminal nerves revealed that only one nerve (5%) was in contact with a vessel at the root exit zone. This study supports vascular compression of trigeminal nerves as a cause of TN, and demonstrates the value of MRTA as noninvasive technique for demonstrating compression. (orig.)

  10. Cranial computerized tomography and cerebral angiography in diagnosis of infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuelich, K.J.


    Discussion of the radiological means to further analysis of the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular alterations up to real stroke with infarction. Today in the first place computer-tomography even with contrast means, moreover in the form of 'angio-CT' are used. Localization, size, form, and the grade of tissue destruction may be analyzed. Furthermore perifocal edema and the stage as also the effect of vascular anastomoses for a collateral circulation may be evaluated. Invasive angiography with puncture of carotid and vertebral arteries is used only in special rare indications. Instead, digital computerized angiography (DSA) can be adopted if particular interest is in the study of intracranial arteries, even with an 'invasive' approach, e.g. by femoral catheter (Seldinger). In summarizing: For the analysis of particular problems radiological methods may assist diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular infarct.

  11. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Zentner, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)


    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs.

  12. Understanding the basic concepts of CO2 angiography (United States)

    Zannoli, Romano; Bianchini, David; Rossi, Pier Luca; Caridi, James G.; Corazza, Ivan


    The diagnostic quality of carbon dioxide angiography depends both on optimal setting of radiological aspects (X-ray emission and image post-processing) and on the mechanical behavior of the injected gas bubbles. The gas behavior differs in large cavities (d > 12 mm), medium sized vessels (d > 6 mm), and small diameter vessels (d cultural and practical intervention of a medical physicist is fundamental. Obtaining a good quality CO2 angiogram is not only a matter of medical operator experience or radiological system performance, but involves matching a wide knowledge of medical physics to particular pathophysiological conditions and to unusual measurement tests. Most medical physicists are used to dealing mainly with radiological problems, and other physical aspects are considered beyond their interest. In CO2 angiography, non-radiological aspects strongly interfere with radiological issues and an optimal result can only be obtained by tackling the two simultaneously.

  13. Evaluation of the lower limb vasculature before free fibula flap transfer. A prospective blinded comparison between magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Steven; Van Lienden, Krijn P; Van't Veer, Marcel; Smit, Jeroen M; Werker, Paul M N


    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the preoperative assessment of crural arteries and their skin perforators prior to free fibular transfer. Patients and methods Fifteen consecutive patients, scheduled

  14. [Affine transformation-based automatic registration for peripheral digital subtraction angiography (DSA)]. (United States)

    Kong, Gang; Dai, Dao-Qing; Zou, Lu-Min


    In order to remove the artifacts of peripheral digital subtraction angiography (DSA), an affine transformation-based automatic image registration algorithm is introduced here. The whole process is described as follows: First, rectangle feature templates are constructed with their centers of the extracted Harris corners in the mask, and motion vectors of the central feature points are estimated using template matching technology with the similarity measure of maximum histogram energy. And then the optimal parameters of the affine transformation are calculated with the matrix singular value decomposition (SVD) method. Finally, bilinear intensity interpolation is taken to the mask according to the specific affine transformation. More than 30 peripheral DSA registrations are performed with the presented algorithm, and as the result, moving artifacts of the images are removed with sub-pixel precision, and the time consumption is less enough to satisfy the clinical requirements. Experimental results show the efficiency and robustness of the algorithm.

  15. Numerical reconstruction of pulsatile blood flow from 4D computer tomography angiography data

    CERN Document Server

    Lovas, Attila; Csobo, Elek; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Sótonyi, Péter


    We present a novel numerical algorithm developed to reconstuct pulsatile blood flow from ECG-gated CT angiography data. A block-based optimization method was constructed to solve the inverse problem corresponding to the Riccati-type ordinary differential equation that can be deduced from conservation principles and Hooke's law. Local flow rate for 5 patients was computed in 10cm long aorta segments that are located 1cm below the heart. The wave form of the local flow rate curves seems to be realistic. Our approach is suitable for estimating characteristics of pulsatile blood flow in aorta based on ECG gated CT scan thereby contributing to more accurate description of several cardiovascular lesions.

  16. Waiting for coronary angiography: is there a clinically ordered queue? (United States)

    Hemingway, H; Crook, A M; Feder, G; Dawson, J R; Timmis, A


    Among over 3000 patients undergoing coronary angiography in the absence of a formal queue-management system, we found that a-priori urgency scores were strongly associated with waiting times, prevalence of coronary-artery disease, rate of revascularisation, and mortality. These data challenge the widely held assumption that such waiting lists are not clinically ordered; however, the wide variation in waiting times within urgency categories suggests the need for further improvements in clinical queueing.

  17. Time-resolved CT angiography in aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinel, Felix G., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Weidenhagen, Rolf, E-mail: [Department of Surgery, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Hellbach, Katharina, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Helck, Andreas, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Bamberg, Fabian, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Sommer, Wieland H., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)


    Objectives: We performed this study to assess feasibility and additional diagnostic value of time-resolved CT angiography of the entire aorta in patients with aortic dissection. Materials and methods: 14 consecutive patients with known or suspected aortic dissection (aged 60 {+-} 9 years) referred for aortic CT angiography were scanned on a dual-source CT scanner (Somatom Definition Flash; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using a shuttle mode for multiphasic image acquisition (range 48 cm, time resolution 6 s, 6 phases, 100 kV, 110 mAs/rot). Effective radiation doses were calculated from recorded dose length products. For all phases, CT densities were measured in the aortic lumen and renal parenchyma. From the multiphasic data, 3 phases corresponding to a triphasic standard CT protocol, served as a reference and were compared against findings from the time-resolved datasets. Results: Mean effective radiation dose was 27.7 {+-} 3.5 mSv. CT density of the true lumen peaked at 355 {+-} 53 HU. Compared to the simulated triphasic protocol, time-resolved CT angiography added diagnostic information regarding a number of important findings: the enhancement delay between true and false lumen (n = 14); the degree of membrane oscillation (n = 14); the perfusion delay in arteries originating from the false lumen (n = 9). Other additional information included true lumen collapse (n = 4), quantitative assessment of renal perfusion asymmetry (n = 2), and dynamic occlusion of aortic branches (n = 2). In 3/14 patients (21%), these additional findings of the multiphasic protocol altered patient management. Conclusions: Multiphasic, time-resolved CT angiography covering the entire aorta is feasible at a reasonable effective radiation dose and adds significant diagnostic information with therapeutic consequences in patients with aortic dissection.

  18. Angiography suite concept for an interdisciplinary centre for cardiovascular interventions


    Teichgräber, Ulf K. M.; Wintzer, Christian; Hamm, Bernd


    A permanently mounted angiography suite in an operating room (OR) is considered to be a hybrid OR. However, regular use for angiographic interventions is restricted with this setup. We introduce an alternative use of space for the efficient utilisation of an angiographic suite outside the surgical unit. This concept includes three scenarios that describe a modification of the catheter suite according to the specific clinical demands by adapting the workflow.

  19. 3D-CT angiography. Intracranial arterial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asato, Mikio; Tong, X.Q.; Tamura, Shozo [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)] [and others


    Since its introduction, three dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) on spiral (helical) CT has played an important role in clinical imaging. Initially it was reported to be useful in depicting aortic abnormalities, afterwards the merit in detecting intracranial aneurysm by 3D-CTA was also described. We have investigated the usefullness of 3D-CTA in detecting patients of intracranial aneurysm as well as arterio-venous malformation (AVM), Moyamoya disease and stenosis of middle cerebral artery, meanwhile the MR angiography (MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examination of these patients were also studied as comparison to the 3D-CTA results. The sensitivity and specificity on investigating intracranial aneurysm were similar with other reports so far. 3D-CTA was possible to identify the feeding artery, nidus and draining vein of AVM, although DSA showed higher detectability. Occlusion of internal carotid artery and post-operative anastomosis in Moyamoya disease were all demonstrated by 3D-CTA, however the Moyamoya collaterals were shown better on MRA. 3D-CTA revealed the site of stenosis of middle cerebral artery in all of our cases, but in general maximum intensity projection (MIP) images can provide more exact information about the degree of stenosis. Five years has passed since the emergence of spiral CT and utilizing of 3D-CTA in clinical applications. With the development of hard and soft ware in the near future, it is possible to delineate more small vessels by 3D-CTA. We predict that 3D-CTA would be widely used for detecting vasculature of the whole body, and may take the place of conventional angiography in many cases. (author)

  20. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.


    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  1. Imaging of cerebral flow dynamics via MR angiography and selective presaturation: Initial experiences. Darstellung zerebraler Flussdynamik mit MR-Angiographie und selektiver Vorsaettigung: Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, B.; Weidenmaier, W.; Vogel, J.; Bargon, G. (Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik)


    MR angiography with selective presaturation was applied in 5 normal volunteers, 22 patients with cerebrovascular disease, 3 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and one patient with thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus. The results were compared with Doppler ultrasound and conventional angiography. MR angiography reliably demonstrated the direction of blood flow and the presence or absence of collateral flow on the circle of Willis. Collateral flow via leptomeningeal vessels and the ophthalmic artery could not be demonstrated. In the patient with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, the absence of flow was well seen. MR angiography was able to demonstrate the major supplying arteries in the patients with AVMs. MR angiography is a valid noninvasive means to demonstrate direction of flow and blood supply of the major intracranial arteries. (orig.).

  2. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela


    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  3. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Cardia, P.P. [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. (author)

  4. CT Pulmonary Angiography and Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enden, T.; Kloew, N.E. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Cardiovascular Radiology


    Purpose: To evaluate the use and quality of CT pulmonary angiography in our department, and to relate the findings to clinical parameters and diagnoses. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 324 consecutive patients referred to CT pulmonary angiography with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). From the medical records we registered clinical parameters, blood gases, D-dimer, risk factors and the results of other relevant imaging studies. Results: 55 patients (17%) had PE detected on CT. 39 had bilateral PE, and 8 patients had isolated peripheral PE. 87% of the examinations showing PE had satisfactory filling of contrast material including the segmental pulmonary arteries, and 60% of the subsegmental arteries. D-dimer test was performed in 209 patients, 85% were positive. A negative D-dimer ruled out PE detected at CT. Dyspnea and concurrent symptoms or detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), contraceptive pills and former venous thromboembolism (VTE) were associated with PE. The presence of only one clinical parameter indicated a negative PE diagnosis (p < 0.017), whereas two or more suggested a positive PE diagnosis (p < 0.002). CT also detected various ancillary findings such as consolidation, pleural effusion, nodule or tumor in nearly half of the patients; however, there was no association with the PE diagnosis. Conclusion: The quality of CT pulmonary angiography was satisfactory as a first-line imaging of PE. CT also showed additional pathology of importance in the chest. Our study confirmed that a negative D-dimer ruled out clinically suspected VTE.

  5. Ectopic Origin of Coronary Arteries Diagnozed by Coronary Angiography (United States)

    Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Gorani, Daut; Sejdiu, Basri; Citaku, Hajdin


    Introduction: Anomalous origin of coronary arteries from opposite sinus of Valsalva is rare finding. The incidence of anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from right sinus is 0.15% and the right coronary artery from the left sinus is 0.92%. The ectopic origin of left coronary artery or right coronary artery from opposite sinus depending on pathways and considering atherosclerotic changes are manifested with different clinical significance. Case report: We report two cases, the first case the coronary angiography showed the left coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus, presenting with proximally and distally stenosed left anterior descending artery (LAD), associated with medial and distal stenosed right coronary artery (RCA). The second case the coronary angiography revealed the right coronary artery arising from the left coronary sinus, associated with tortuous medial and distal segments of left anterior descending artery (LAD), without atherosclerotic changes. The first case successfully underwent treatment procedures based on guidelines for revascularization. Conclusion: The coronary angiography of patients with coronary ischemia determines atherosclerotic disease with possibility of the presence of coronary artery anomalies that in cases with ectopic origin from opposite sinus continues to exist as a challenge during treatment in interventional cardiology. PMID:27482140

  6. Noninvasive coronary artery angiography using electron beam computed tomography (United States)

    Rumberger, John A.; Rensing, Benno J.; Reed, Judd E.; Ritman, Erik L.; Sheedy, Patrick F., II


    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT), also known as ultrafast-CT or cine-CT, uses a unique scanning architecture which allows for multiple high spatial resolution electrocardiographic triggered images of the beating heart. A recent study has demonstrated the feasibility of qualitative comparisons between EBCT derived 3D coronary angiograms and invasive angiography. Stenoses of the proximal portions of the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries were readily identified, but description of atherosclerotic narrowing in the left circumflex artery (and distal epicardial disease) was not possible with any degree of confidence. Although these preliminary studies support the notion that this approach has potential, the images overall were suboptimal for clinical application as an adjunct to invasive angiography. Furthermore, these studies did not examine different methods of EBCT scan acquisition, tomographic slice thicknesses, extent of scan overlap, or other segmentation, thresholding, and interpolation algorithms. Our laboratory has initiated investigation of these aspects and limitations of EBCT coronary angiography. Specific areas of research include defining effects of cardiac orientation; defining the effects of tomographic slice thickness and intensity (gradient) versus positional (shaped based) interpolation; and defining applicability of imaging each of the major epicardial coronary arteries for quantitative definition of vessel size, cross-sectional area, taper, and discrete vessel narrowing.

  7. Bayesian Visual Odometry (United States)

    Center, Julian L.; Knuth, Kevin H.


    Visual odometry refers to tracking the motion of a body using an onboard vision system. Practical visual odometry systems combine the complementary accuracy characteristics of vision and inertial measurement units. The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, used this type of visual odometry. The visual odometry algorithms in Spirit and Opportunity were based on Bayesian methods, but a number of simplifying approximations were needed to deal with onboard computer limitations. Furthermore, the allowable motion of the rover had to be severely limited so that computations could keep up. Recent advances in computer technology make it feasible to implement a fully Bayesian approach to visual odometry. This approach combines dense stereo vision, dense optical flow, and inertial measurements. As with all true Bayesian methods, it also determines error bars for all estimates. This approach also offers the possibility of using Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) inertial components, which are more economical, weigh less, and consume less power than conventional inertial components.

  8. Evaluation of preoperative computed tomography angiography in association with conventional angiography versus computed tomography angiography only, in the endovascular treatment of aortic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Novero, Eduardo Rafael; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Linhares, Frederico Augusto; Almeida, Bruno Lorencao de; Barbato, Heraldo Antonio; Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru; Kambara, Antonio Massamitsu, E-mail: [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Objective: to evaluate the association of conventional angiography (AG) with computed tomography angiography (CTA) as compared with CTA only, preoperatively, in the treatment of aortic diseases. Materials and methods: retrospective study involving patients submitted to endovascular treatment of aortic diseases, in the period from January 2009 to July 2010, with use of preoperative CTA + conventional AG or CTA only. The patients were divided into two groups, namely: G1 - thoracic aortic diseases; and G2 - abdominal aortic diseases. G1 was subdivided into 1A (preoperative AG + CTA) and 1B (preoperative CTA). G2 was subdivided into 2C (CTA + AG) and 2D (CTA only). Results: the authors evaluated 156 patients. In subgroups 1A and 1B, the rate of technical success was, respectively, 100% and 94.7% (p = 1.0); and the rate of therapeutic success was, respectively, 81% and 58% (p = 0.13). A higher number of complications were observed in subgroup 1B (p = 0.057). The accuracy in the calculation of the prosthesis was higher in subgroup 1A (p = 0.065). In their turn, the rate of technical success in subgroups 2C and 2D was, respectively, 92.3% and 98.6% (p = 0.17). The rate of therapeutic success was 73% and 98.6% (p = 0.79). Conclusion: preoperative conventional AG should be reserved for cases where CTA cannot provide all the information in the planning of a therapeutic intervention. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Anterior Ethmoidal Artery by 320-Slice CT Angiography with Comparison to Three-Dimensional Spin Digital Subtraction Angiography: Initial Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Juan; Sun, Gang; Yu, Bling Bing; Li, Min; Li, Guo Ying; Peng, Zhao Hui; Zhang, Xu Ping [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, Jinan (China); Lu, Yang [Dept. of Radiology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Illinois (United States)


    To explore the usefulness of 320-slice CT angiography (CTA) for evaluating the course of the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) and its relationship with adjacent structures by using three-dimensional (3D) spin digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as standard reference. From December 2008 to December 2010, 32 patients with cerebrovascular disease, who underwent both cranial 3D spin DSA and 320-slice CTA within a 30 day period from each other, were retrospectively reviewed. AEA course in ethmoid was analyzed in DSA and CTA. In addition, adjacent bony landmarks (bony notch in medial orbital wall, anterior ethmoidal canal, and anterior ethmoidal sulcus) were evaluated with CTA using the MPR technique oriented along the axial, coronal and oblique coronal planes in all patients. The dose length product (DLP) for CTA and the dose-area product (DAP) for 3D spin DSA were recorded. Effective dose (ED) was calculated. The entire course of the AEA was seen in all 32 cases (100%) with 3D spine DSA and in 29 of 32 cases (90.1%) with 320-slice CTA, with no significant difference (p = 0.24). In three cases where AEA was not visualized on 320-slice CTA, two were due to the dominant posterior ethmoidal artery, while the remaining case was due to diminutive AEA. On MPR images of 320-slice CT, a bony notch in the orbital medial walls was detected in all cases (100%, 64 of 64); anterior ethmoidal canal was seen in 28 of 64 cases (43.8%), and the anterior ethmoidal sulcus was seen in 63 of 64 cases (98.4%). The mean effective dose in CTA was 0.6 {+-} 0.25 mSv, which was significantly lower than for 3D spin DSA (1.3 {+-} 0.01 mSv) (p < 0.001). 320-slice CTA has a similar detection rate for AEA to that of 3D spin DSA; however, it is noninvasive, and may be preferentially used for the evaluation of AEA and its adjacent bony variations and pathologic changes in preoperative patients with paranasal sinus diseases.

  10. Quantifying the potential for dose reduction with visual grading regression. (United States)

    Smedby, O; Fredrikson, M; De Geer, J; Borgen, L; Sandborg, M


    Objectives To propose a method to study the effect of exposure settings on image quality and to estimate the potential for dose reduction when introducing dose-reducing measures. Methods Using the framework of visual grading regression (VGR), a log(mAs) term is included in the ordinal logistic regression equation, so that the effect of reducing the dose can be quantitatively related to the effect of adding post-processing. In the ordinal logistic regression, patient and observer identity are treated as random effects using generalised linear latent and mixed models. The potential dose reduction is then estimated from the regression coefficients. The method was applied in a single-image study of coronary CT angiography (CTA) to evaluate two-dimensional (2D) adaptive filters, and in an image-pair study of abdominal CT to evaluate 2D and three-dimensional (3D) adaptive filters. Results For five image quality criteria in coronary CTA, dose reductions of 16-26% were predicted when adding 2D filtering. Using five image quality criteria for abdominal CT, it was estimated that 2D filtering permits doses were reduced by 32-41%, and 3D filtering by 42-51%. Conclusions VGR including a log(mAs) term can be used for predictions of potential dose reduction that may be useful for guiding researchers in designing subsequent studies evaluating diagnostic value. With appropriate statistical analysis, it is possible to obtain direct numerical estimates of the dose-reducing potential of novel acquisition, reconstruction or post-processing techniques.

  11. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang


    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  12. Quantification of tumor vessels in glioblastoma patients using time-of-flight angiography at 7 Tesla: a feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Radbruch

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze if tumor vessels can be visualized, segmented and quantified in glioblastoma patients with time of flight (ToF angiography at 7 Tesla and multiscale vessel enhancement filtering. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were examined with ToF angiography (TR = 15 ms, TE = 4.8 ms, flip angle = 15°, FOV = 160 × 210 mm(2, voxel size: 0.31 × 0.31 × 0.40 mm(3 on a whole-body 7 T MR system. A volume of interest (VOI was placed within the border of the contrast enhancing part on T1-weighted images of the glioblastoma and a reference VOI was placed in the non-affected contralateral white matter. Automated segmentation and quantification of vessels within the two VOIs was achieved using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering in ImageJ. RESULTS: Tumor vessels were clearly visible in all patients. When comparing tumor and the reference VOI, total vessel surface (45.3 ± 13.9 mm(2 vs. 29.0 ± 21.0 mm(2 (p<0.035 and number of branches (3.5 ± 1.8 vs. 1.0 ± 0.6 (p<0.001 per cubic centimeter were significantly higher, while mean vessel branch length was significantly lower (3.8 ± 1.5 mm vs 7.2 ± 2.8 mm (p<0.001 in the tumor. DISCUSSION: ToF angiography at 7-Tesla MRI enables characterization and quantification of the internal vascular morphology of glioblastoma and may be used for the evaluation of therapy response within future studies.

  13. Quantitative myocardial perfusion PET combined with coronary anatomy derived from CT angiography. Validation of a new fusion and visualisation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Harald; Weise, Reiner; Burchert, Wolfgang; Fricke, Eva [Inst. of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Centre North Rhine-Westphalia, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Elsner, Andreas; Bolte, Matthias; Domik, Gitta [Research Group Computergraphics, Visualization and Image Processing, Univ. of Paderborn (Germany); Hoff, Joerg van den [PET Center, Inst. of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)


    Aim: Dynamic perfusion PET offers a clinical relevant advantage over myocardial perfusion scintigraphy due to its ability to measure myocardial blood flow quantitatively. This leads to an improved detection of multivessel disease and the possibility to assess not only the culprit lesion but lower grade stenoses as well. For appropriate revascularization, perfusion defects must be matched to coronary lesions. It has been shown that image fusion of morphological and functional images is superior to side-by-side analysis. Still, software for quantitative perfusion PET combined with CT angiography is rare. In this paper we present a new software tool for image fusion and visualization of quantitative perfusion PET and coronary morphology derived from CT angiography. Methods: In our software, a PET uptake image is used for manual co-registration. Co-registration results are then applied to the functional data derived from compartment modelling. To evaluate the reproducibility of the manual co-registration, we calculated the deviation between a series of manual co-registrations performed on nine pairs of unregistered PET and CT datasets by five trained participants. Two dimensional transfer functions were used to highlight the coronary arteries from the CT study in the combined data sets. Results: The average Euclidian distances for three references points were between 3.7 and 4.1 mm. The maximum distance was 10.6 mm. By the use of the two dimensional transfer functions, coronary anatomy could be easily visualised either by user-interaction or automatically by use of neuronal networks. Conclusions: With this approach it is possible to combine quantitative perfusion PET with coronary anatomy derived from CT angiography. Our first experiences indicate that manual image fusion with our tool is reproducible and that visualisation of the combined datasets is achieved within short time. (orig.)

  14. An Effect of Spatial Filtering in Visualization of Coronary Arteries Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G


    At present, coronary angiography is the well known standard for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Conventional coronary angiography is an invasive procedure with a small, yet inherent risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, potential arrhythmias, and death. Other noninvasive diagnostic tools, such as electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear imaging are now widely available but are limited by their inability to directly visualize and quantify coronary artery stenoses and predict the stability of plaques. Coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a technique that allows visualization of the coronary arteries by noninvasive means; however, it has not yet reached a stage where it can be used in routine clinical practice. Although coronary MRA is a potentially useful diagnostic tool, it has limitations. Further research should focus on improving the diagnostic resolution and accuracy of coronary MRA. This paper will helps to cardiologists to take the clear look of spatial filtered imaging o...

  15. Restricciones algebraicas epipolares para estimación visual eficiente de movimiento sin la estructura 3D = Algebraic epipolar constraints for efficient structureless multiview motion estimation.


    Rodríguez López, Antonio Leonardo


    1. Resumen En esta tesis proponemos GEA (Global Epipolar Adjustment), un método de corrección de movimiento para aplicaciones de Visual SLAM y SfM altamente eficiente basado en restricciones algebraicas epipolares, que no hace uso de la información sobre la estructura. Este método obtiene resultados muy cercanos, y en muchos casos equivalentes a los obtenidos mediante bundle adjustment (BA), a pesar de su naturaleza algebraica, requiriendo por contra un coste computacional mucho menor. ...

  16. Spontaneous occlusion of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula - the effect of angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfel, G.


    In two patients with a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula, permanent occlusion of the lesion was observed following cerebral angiography and confirmed by further angiography. A delay is therefore recommended between performing angiography and carrying out further treatment, which may carry some risk. Possibly the use of ionic contrast media, which irritate the vessels, compression of the carotid artery, which reduces flow through the fistula, and general anaesthesia, which may drop the blood pressure, initiate thrombosis in the cavernous sinus. 3 figs.

  17. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Amiri


    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  18. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography. (United States)

    Amiri, Leila; Movahed, Ali; Iranpour, Dariush; Ostovar, Afshin; Raeisi, Alireza; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Hajian, Najmeh; Dobaradaran, Sina


    In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES).

  19. Effectiveness of embolization for management of hemoptysis pulmonary tuberculosis: comparison of chest radiographic study and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Chul; Kim, Yong Ju; Park, Joong Wha; Lee Myeong Sub; Kim Dong Jin; Hong In Soo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the effectiveness of embolization of the bronchial artery embolization for the management of hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis cases with the severity of lung parenchymal injury and pleural infiltration, as seen on plain chest radiographs, and with the findings of angiography of the branchial artery. Among 265 patients with hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis, the findings of plain chest radiography and angiography of the bronchial artery were comparatively analyzed in the 206 for whom the results of follow up were available. The chest radiographin findings were classified as follows: Type I refers to simple pulmonary tuberculosis; Type II includes cases in which pulmonary tuberculosis is complicated by bronchiectasis, aspergillosis, or cavitation; Type III si either Types I or II acompainted by pleural in filtrates limited to the lung apex, and Type IV includes cases in which pleural infiltrates have extended beyond the apex in the whole the lung. Bronchial angiographic findings were divided into four groups: Group I consists of cases which show abnormalities of only the bronchial artery; Group II includes those in which abnormalities are seen in the bronchial artery and either the internal mammary or an intercostal artery; Group III comprises cases which belong to Group I or II and which a bronch of the subclavian artery is abnormal, and Group IV includes those in which abnormalities occur in at least two branches of the subclavian artery, or there is direct visualization of hypervascularity of this vessel. The initial post-embolic hemostatic effect and the results of follow up were studied over a six-month period. As compared with simple pulmonary tuberculosis (Type I), we found that as the severity of pleural infiltration and complications revealed by plain chest radiographs increased (Type II, III, IV), so did the severity of the manifestation of systemic collateral arteries other than the bronchial artery, as depicted by increased on

  20. Validation of Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Estimation In-Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Thomsen, Carsten


    method Transverse Oscillation (TO), which combines estimates of the axial and the transverse velocity components in the scan plane, makes it possible to estimate the vector velocity of the blood regardless of the Doppler angle. The present study evaluates the TO method with magnetic resonance angiography...

  1. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan [Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)


    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  2. In vitro comparison of different carotid artery stents: a pixel-by-pixel analysis using CT angiography and contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 1.5 and 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettau, Michael; Sauer, Annett; Heiland, Sabine; Rohde, Stefan; Reinhardt, Julia; Bendszus, Martin; Haehnel, Stefan [University of Heidelberg, Medical Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)


    CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) are increasingly used methods for evaluation of stented vessel segments. The purpose of this study was to compare CTA, contrast-enhanced MRA (CEMRA) at 1.5 T, and CEMRA at 3 T for the visualization of carotid artery stents and to define the best noninvasive imaging technique for each stent. CTA and CEMRA appearances of 18 carotid artery stents of different designs and sizes (4.0 to 10.0 mm) were investigated in vitro. The profile of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lumen of each stent was calculated semiautomatically by a pixel-by-pixel analysis using the medical imaging software OSIRIS {sup registered}. For each stent, artificial lumen narrowing (ALN) was calculated. In all but one stents, ALN was lower on CEMRA at 3 T than at 1.5 T. With CEMRA at 3 T and at 1.5 T, ALN in most nitinol stents was lower than in the groups of stainless steel and cobalt alloy stents. In most nitinol stents, ALN on CEMRA at 3 T was lower than on CTA. In all stainless steel stents and cobalt alloy stents, ALN was lower on CTA than on CEMRA. With CTA and CEMRA, in most stents ALN decreased with increasing stent diameter. CTA and CEMRA evaluation of vessel patency after stent placement is possible, but considerably impaired by ALN. Investigators should be informed about the method of choice for every stent. (orig.)

  3. Visual Servoing


    Chaumette, Francois; Hutchinson, Seth; Corke, Peter


    International audience; This chapter introduces visual servo control, using computer vision data in the servo loop to control the motion of a robot. We first describe the basic techniques that are by now well established in the field. We give a general overview of the formulation of the visual servo control problem, and describe the two archetypal visual servo control schemes: image-based and pose-based visual servo control. We then discuss performance and stability issues that pertain to the...

  4. Usefulness of 3D-CT angiography using multislice CT for diagnosing cardiovascular anomalies in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kani, Hiroyuki; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Masuda, Kiyohiro; Narabayashi, Isamu; Katayama, Hiroshi; Mori, Yasuhiko; Tamai, Hiroshi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)


    We compared three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography using multislice CT (3D-CTA) with echocardiography and angiography in terms of usefulness in the diagnosis of 13 infants with cardiovascular anomalies. 3D-CTA clearly depicted stenoses of the pulmonary artery and vein, and coarctation of the aorta in some cases, which could not be revealed by echocardiography and angiography. Moreover, it provided objectively more information on vascular morphologic characteristics and 3D anatomic relations than echocardiography and angiography. 3D-CTA is a noninvasive and convenient diagnostic technique for cardiovascular anomalies in infants. (author)

  5. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography coronary angiography (from the Prospective National Multicenter Multivendor EVASCAN Study). (United States)

    Gueret, Pascal; Deux, Jean-François; Bonello, Laurent; Sarran, Anthony; Tron, Christophe; Christiaens, Luc; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Bertrand, David; Leborgne, Laurent; Renard, Cedric; Caussin, Christophe; Cluzel, Philippe; Helft, Gerard; Crochet, Dominique; Vernhet-Kovacsik, Hélène; Chabbert, Valérie; Ferrari, Emile; Gilard, Martine; Willoteaux, Serge; Furber, Alain; Barone-Rochette, Gilles; Jankowski, Adrien; Douek, Philippe; Mousseaux, Elie; Sirol, Marc; Niarra, Ralph; Chatellier, Gilles; Laissy, Jean-Pierre


    Computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTCA) has been proposed as a noninvasive test for significant coronary artery disease (CAD), but only limited data are available from prospective multicenter trials. The goal of this study was to establish the diagnostic accuracy of CTCA compared to coronary angiography (CA) in a large population of symptomatic patients with clinical indications for coronary imaging. This national, multicenter study was designed to prospectively evaluate stable patients able to undergo CTCA followed by conventional CA. Data from CTCA and CA were analyzed in a blinded fashion at central core laboratories. The main outcome was the evaluation of patient-, vessel-, and segment-based diagnostic performance of CTCA to detect or rule out significant CAD (≥50% luminal diameter reduction). Of 757 patients enrolled, 746 (mean age 61 ± 12 years, 71% men) were analyzed. They underwent CTCA followed by CA 1.7 ± 0.8 days later using a 64-detector scanner. The prevalence of significant CAD in native coronary vessels by CA was 54%. The rate of nonassessable segments by CTCA was 6%. In a patient-based analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of CTCA were 91%, 50%, 68%, 83%, 1.82, and 0.18, respectively. The strongest predictors of false-negative results on CTCA were high estimated pretest probability of CAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, p <0.001), male gender (OR 1.5, p <0.002), diabetes (OR 1.5, p <0.0001), and age (OR 1.2, p <0.0001). In conclusion, in this large multicenter study, CTCA identified significant CAD with high sensitivity. However, in routine clinical practice, each patient should be individually evaluated, and the pretest probability of obstructive CAD should be taken into account when deciding which method, CTCA or CA, to use to diagnose its presence and severity.

  6. Importance of oral fluid intake after coronary computed tomography angiography: An observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Daiji [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Isobe, Satoshi, E-mail: [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Ohashi, Toshio [Division of Radiology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Fujiwara, Yuka; Ohyama, Hisato [Division of Nursing, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)


    Background: The prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is important because patients referred for CCTA often need further contrast exposure such as an invasive coronary angiography. We aimed to examine the effects of oral volume intake on renal function in patients with preserved renal function referred for CCTA. Methods: We enrolled 180 patients who were referred for CCTA. The serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels were measured before, 24 h, and a mean of 4.8 days after CCTA. The amount of unrestricted oral fluid intake for 24 h was checked. The patients were divided into two groups: 106 subjects with a rise in SCr after CCTA (group A); and 74 without (group B). Results: Significant correlations were observed between the amount of oral fluid intake and the percentage changes in SCr (%SCr) (r = -0.66, p < 0.0001) as well as the absolute changes in eGFR ({Delta}eGFR) (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001). The percentage of patients showing hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) {>=} 6.5% was greater in group A than in group B (29% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Patients with HbA1c {>=} 6.5% showed higher %SCr and lower {Delta}eGFR compared to those without it. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the amount of oral fluid intake was the only independent predictor for a rise in SCr ({beta} = -0.731, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Oral volume intake after CCTA is a very simple but important prophylactic procedure for contrast-induced AKI especially in diabetic patients.

  7. Extended Renal Outcomes with Use of Iodixanol versus Iohexol after Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Ruey Chua


    Full Text Available The impact of isoosmolar versus low-osmolar contrast media (CM administration on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI and extended renal dysfunction (ERD is unclear. We retrospectively examined incidences of CI-AKI and ERD in patients who received iodixanol (isoosmolar versus iohexol (low-osmolar during angiography for cardiac indications. Of 713 patients, 560 (cohort A, 190 (cohort B, and 172 (cohort C had serum creatinine monitored at 3 days, 30 days, and 6 months after angiography, respectively. 18% of cohort A developed CI-AKI, which was more common with iodixanol than iohexol (22% versus 13%, P=0.006. However, patients given iodixanol were older with lower baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR. On multivariate analysis, independent associations with higher CI-AKI risk include age >65 years, female gender, cardiac failure, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, intra-aortic balloon pump, and critical illness, but not CM type, higher CM load, or eGFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m2. 32% of cohort B and 34% of cohort C had ERD at 30 days and 6 months, while 44% and 41% of subcohorts had ERD at 90 days and 1 year, respectively. CI-AKI, but not CM type, was associated with medium- and longer-term ERD, with 3-fold higher risk. Advanced age, emergent cardiac conditions, and critical illness are stronger predictors of CI-AKI, compared with CM-related factors. CI-AKI predicts longer-term ERD.

  8. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek


    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  9. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography for differentiation between perigastric and submucosal gastric fundal varices; Kontrastmittelverstaerkte MR-Angiographie zur Differenzierung zwischen perigastrischen und submukoesen Fundusvarizen des Magens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmann, J.K.; Boehm, T.; Lutz, A.M.; Goepfert, K.; Marincek, B.; Weishaupt, D. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland); Bauerfeind, P. [Abt. fuer Gastroenterologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland)


    Purpose: To evaluate contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the distinction between perigastric and submucosal fundal varices. Materials and Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with clinically suspected fundal varices underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) within one week. Diagnostic confidence for the detection of perigastric and submucosal fundal varices was compared between MR angiography (two radiologists) and EUS (one gastroenterologist), and the agreement of size and location was evaluated. Results: Both MR angiography and EUS detected perigastric varices in all 19 patients and submucosal fundal varices in 14 of the 19 patients. The interobserver reliability of MR angiography was good for measuring the variceal diameter ({kappa} = 0.76) and excellent for localizing the varices ({kappa} = 1.0). EUS and MR angiography agreed in 12 of 14 patients (86%) in determining variceal diameter and location. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced MR angiography is comparable to endoscopic ultrasound in the detection and characterization of gastric fundal varices. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung: Das Ziel dieser Studie war es, die kontrastmittelverstaerkte MR-Angiographie bei der Diagnose von Fundusvarizen des Magens, insbesondere bei der Differenzierung von perigastrischen und submukoesen Fundusvarizen mit dem endoskopischen Ultraschall (EUS) zu vergleichen. Methoden: Neunzehn Patienten mit klinischem Verdacht auf Fundusvarizen wurden prospektiv in die Studie eingeschlossen und innerhalb einer Woche mittels kontrastmittelverstaerkter MR-Angiographie und EUS untersucht. Die Uebereinstimmungen zwischen MR-Angiographie (Radiologe 1 und 2) und EUS (1 Gastroenterologe) bei der diagnostischen Sicherheit bezueglich der Diagnose perigastrischer und submukoeser Fundusvarizen sowie bei der Groessen- und Lokalisationsbestimmung submukoeser Fundusvarizen wurden untersucht. Ergebnisse: Sowohl bezueglich der Diagnose perigastrischer (19/19 Patienten) als

  10. Reliability of myocardial perfusion quantification in angiography using a digital flat panel cardiac system (United States)

    Perrin, Muriel; Vaillant, Regis; Gavit-Houdant, Laurence; Lienard, Jean; Benali, Karim


    Discordance between lesion severity from angiocardiography and physiological effects has been reported elsewhere. Quantification of myocardial perfusion during the angiography procedure may supply additional information about short- and long-term outcomes and may be helpful for clinical decision making. In previous works, myocardial perfusion has been assessed using time density curves (TDC), which represent the contrast medium dilution over time in the myocardium. The mean transit time (MTT), derived from the TDC, has been reported as a good indicator of the regional myocardial perfusion. Our objective is to estimate the accuracy and reproducibility of MTT estimation on digital flat panel (DFP) images. We have simulated typical myocardium TDC obtained with a DFP cardiac system (Innova 2000, GE), taking into account scatter and noise. Logarithmic or linear subtractions have been applied to derive a contrast medium concentration proportional quantity from image intensity. A non-linear minimisation realises the model curve fitting. MTT estimates are more stable with linear subtraction in presence of scatter. However logarithmic subtraction presents smaller bias when scatter level is small. Both approaches are equally sensible to image noise. Linear subtraction should be preferred. Image noise has a high influence on MTT accuracy and we may reduce.

  11. Atorvastatin and prevention of contrast induced nephropathy following coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Bidram


    Full Text Available Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN is one of the most common complications after radiographic procedures using intravascular radiocontrast media. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of atorvastatin on prevention of CIN in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 200 patients referred for angiography were randomly divided into two groups of using 80 mg atorvastatin and placebo before the procedure. Furthermore, 100 patients who were under chronic treatment of statins were included as the third group. Serum creatinine (Scr levels before and after the procedure were evaluated and incidence of CIN (post-procedural Scr of >0.5 mg/dl or >25% from baseline was assessed. Results: Mean age of the participants was 60.06 ± 0.69 years and 276 (92% were male. There were no significant differences between group with respect to age and gender. In pre-operation atorvastatin, placebo and long term statin groups, the incidence of CIN was 1%, 2% and 1%, and mean changes of Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was 3.68 ± 1.32, −0.77 ± 1.21 and 1.37 ± 0.86; and mean changes of creatinine (Cr was −0.05 ± 0.02, 0.02 ± 0.02 and −0.01 ± 0.01 respectively. (P = 0.776, 0.026 and 0.041 respectively. In pre-operation atorvastatin group, Cr decreased, and GFR increased significantly (P = 0.019 and 0.007 respectively. Conclusion: pre-operation short term high dose atorvastatin use was associated with a significant decrease in serum Cr level and increase in GFR after angiography.

  12. [CT coronary angiography: indications, image acquisition, and interpretation]. (United States)

    Schoepf, U J; Thilo, C; Fernández, M J; Costello, P


    Intense scientific and clinical evaluation have brought about great improvements in cardiac CT. This is no longer merely an experimental technique, rather it has become a clinical application that is ready to fulfill its promise of replacing invasive cardiac catheterization in certain patient populations. Among the proven indications is the evaluation of patients with atypical chest pain, the morphological evaluation of the coronary arteries in cases of suspected congenital anomalies, and before surgical intervention, as well as the evaluation of coronary revascularizations. The use of CT angiography for the exhaustive evaluation of cardiac and non-cardiac pathology in patients with acute chest pain in the emergency department is currently being investigated. Because the heart is continuously moving, CT coronary angiography represents a greater technical challenge than other applications of CT. On the other hand, rapid technical development requires acquisition protocols to be adjusted constantly. However, users that know the general techniques of computed tomography can overcome these challenges. The aim of this article is to provide those interested and involved in CT angiography with a manual to enable them to follow our method step by step. We include considerations regarding the correct selection of patients, patient medication, radiological protection, contrast enhancement, acquisition and reconstruction parameters, image display, image analysis techniques, and the radiological report. Our recommendations are based on our experience, which runs from the evolution of multiple-row detector CT scanners for cardiac applications from its beginnings to the most modern presentations of advanced acquisition modalities, including dual-source CT, which we consider to be the precursor of this test in routine clinical practice.

  13. Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Internal Carotid Dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Mortzos, Panteleimon; Sørensen, Torben Lykke


    A 67-year-old female presented with post-ganglionic Horner's syndrome. In addition to the classical symptoms of Horner's syndrome, the patient reported experiencing frightening complex visual and auditory hallucinations on two different occasions. Magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum...

  14. VALIDEZ DE LA ESTIMACIÓN VISUAL COMO MÉTODO DIAGNÓSTICO DE LA HEMORRAGIA POSTPARTO SEVERA EN UN HOSPITAL UNIVERSITARIO. BOGOTÁ. 2007 Validity of visual estimation of blood loss as diagnostic tool in severe post partum hemorrhage in an university hospital. Bogotá. 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Rubio-Romero


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La dificultad para diagnosticar una hemorragia anormal postparto radica en la necesidad de esperar la presencia de signos clínicos de hipovolemia para confirmarla. Objetivo. Evaluar la exactitud diagnóstica de la estimación visual para el diagnóstico de hemorragia postparto severa inmediata (HPPI luego de parto vaginal. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de exactitud diagnóstica, aprobado por los comités de ética e investigaciones de las instituciones participantes, en una cohorte de embarazadas atendidas por parto vaginal en un hospital universitario. El gold estándar de referencia fue definido como un complejo de signos clínicos y de laboratorio: necesidad de maniobras terapéuticas para el control de la hemorragia, caída de más de 10% del hematocrito o necesidad de transfusión. Resultados. La incidencia de HPPI fue de 10,7% en 168 pacientes incluidas. La mediana de volumen estimado de sangrado fue de 375 mL mientras que la mediana del volumen real observado fue de 475 mL. Para el diagnóstico y manejo clínico de HPPI, el volumen estimado mayor de 500 mL tuvo una sensibilidad y especificidad de 77,8 y 73,3% respectivamente. Cuando el sangrado estimado superó los 800 mL, la sensibilidad y especificidad fueron 44,4 y 94% siendo este punto el que mejor clasificó las pacientes con necesidad de tratamiento para la hemorragia postparto severa inmediata. Conclusiones. La estimación visual del sangrado intraparto como prueba diagnóstica aislada es poco sensible y específica para diagnosticar hemorragia postparto severa inmediata por la tendencia a subestimar la magnitud real del sangrado.Background. The difficulty to diagnose an abnormal hemorrhage of the post partum period is related to the need to wait until the presence of clinical signs of hypovolemia to confirm it. Objetive. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of visual estimation of blood quantity for the diagnosis of severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPPH

  15. Fluorescein angiography: insight and serendipity a half century ago. (United States)

    Marmor, Michael F; Ravin, James G


    It has been 50 years since fluorescein angiography was developed as a clinical procedure by 2 medical students at Indiana University. The story of its discovery and the recognition of its value to ophthalmology involve a combination of insight and serendipity. Fluorescein had been in use clinically for more than half a century, but it took a pulmonary medicine laboratory to provide the stimulus for the development of flash and barrier filters that would make vascular photography practical. The first article was rejected by the ophthalmology literature, but several clinics heard about it and soon documented the enormous diagnostic value of the procedure.

  16. Transient Global Amnesia After Cerebral Angiography With Iomeprol (United States)

    Tiu, Cristina; Terecoasă, Elena Oana; Grecu, Nicolae; Dorobăţ, Bogdan; Marinescu, Andreea Nicoleta; Băjenaru, Ovidiu Alexandru


    Abstract Transient global amnesia is now considered a very rare complication of cerebral angiography. Various etiological mechanisms have been suggested to account for this complication, but no consensus has been reached yet. This case report documents one of the few reported cases of cerebral angiography-related transient global amnesia associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of unilateral hippocampal ischemia, most probably as a consequence of a transient reduction in regional hippocampal blood flow. However, the possibility of a direct neurotoxic effect of the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol on the Cornu ammonis – field 1 neurons cannot be firmly ruled out. We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman admitted to our department for left upper limb weakness with acute onset 8 days before. The brain computed tomography (CT) scan performed at admission revealed subacute ischemic lesions in the right watershed superficial territories and a right thalamic lacunar infarct. Diagnostic digital subtraction cerebral angiography was performed 4 days after admission with the nonionic contrast media Iomeprol. A few minutes after completion of the procedure, the patient developed symptoms suggestive for transient global amnesia. The brain MRI performed 22 hours after the onset of symptoms demonstrated increased signal within the lateral part of the right hippocampus on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences, associated with a corresponding reduction in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and increased signal on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences, consistent with acute hippocampal ischemia and several T2/FLAIR hyperintensities in the right watershed superficial territories and in the right thalamus, corresponding to the lesions already identified on the CT scan performed at admission. A follow-up MRI, performed 2 months later, demonstrated the disappearance of the increased signal within the right hippocampus on the DWI

  17. The conundrum of transient cortical blindness following coronary angiography. (United States)

    Borghi, Claudia; Saia, Francesco; Marzocchi, Antonio; Branzi, Angelo


    We report a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred after coronary angiography and angioplasty performed through the right radial artery. This is a very rare entity, the physiopathology of which remains largely speculative. The most likely mechanism appears to be the local disruption of the blood-brain barrier by the contrast agent, possibly favoured by predisposing factors, which may cause a direct neurotoxic effect. All contrast agents can be associated with this complication, which does not seem to be volume dependent. The outcome is generally favourable, with spontaneous return of sight within 24-48 h and no requirement for specific therapy. Recurrence has never been reported.

  18. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, N.; Becker, H. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schedlowski, M. [Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School (Germany); Schuermeyer, T.H. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School (Germany)


    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music. (orig.)

  19. Computed tomography angiography with pulmonary artery thrombus burden and right-to-left ventricular diameter ratio after pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Ouriel, Kenneth; Ouriel, Richard L; Lim, Yeun J; Piazza, Gregory; Goldhaber, Samuel Z


    Purpose Computed tomography angiography is used for quantifying the significance of pulmonary embolism, but its reliability has not been well defined. Methods The study cohort comprised 10 patients randomly selected from a 150-patient prospective trial of ultrasound-facilitated fibrinolysis for acute pulmonary embolism. Four reviewers independently evaluated the right-to-left ventricular diameter ratios using the standard multiplanar reformatted technique and a simplified (axial) method, and thrombus burden with the standard modified Miller score and a new, refined Miller scoring system. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for intra-observer variability was .949 and .970 for the multiplanar reformatted and axial methods for estimating right-to-left ventricular ratios, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was high and similar for the two methods, with intraclass correlation coefficient of .969 and .976. The modified Miller score had good intra-observer agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient .820) and was similar to the refined Miller method (intraclass correlation coefficient .883) for estimating thrombus burden. Inter-observer agreement was also comparable between the techniques, with intraclass correlation coefficient of .829 and .914 for the modified Miller and refined Miller methods. Conclusions The reliability of computed tomography angiography for pulmonary embolism was excellent for the axial and multiplanar reformatted methods for quantifying the right-to-left ventricular ratio and for the modified Miller and refined Miller scores for quantifying of pulmonary artery thrombus burden.

  20. Development and Application of Software to Estimate Ecological Baseflow Based on Visual Basic 6.0%基于VB 6.0的生态基流计算软件开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 徐宗学


    In order to solve the problem that there is no suitable platform to estimate ecological baseflow by using different methods,a software to estimate ecological baseflow with friendly interface,simplicity of operation,and integrated 12 hydrological and hydraulics methods is developed by using Visual Basic 6.0.It not only simplifies the estimation for ecological baseflow,but also easily makes comparison among different methods.A case study in the Weihe River basin was carried out by using this software.Results show that ecological baseflows estimated by using different methods are significantly different.Therefore,the average of various methods,13.7 m3/s,is selected as the ecological baseflow and the result of Texas method is regarded as the monthly ecological baseflow in the Weihe River.This software provides a great support for the development of the dynamic estimation of ecological baseflow in the future.%针对目前河流生态基流量尚无统一的计算平台,各种方法的计算和对比研究较为繁琐等问题,使用Visual Basic 6.0作为开发工具,开发出界面友好,操作简单,交互性强,包含12种水文学、水力学计算方法的河流生态基流量计算软件。该软件不仅简化了生态基流量计算步骤,而且便于不同方法之间的相互比较。使用该软件对渭河关中段进行了实例研究,结果发现不同方法的计算结果差别较大。选择8种单流量计算方法的平均值13.7m3/s作为渭河关中段的生态基流量,选择与研究区流量实际变化情况较为吻合的Texas法计算结果作为渭河关中段月生态基流量序列。该软件的开发与应用为今后河流生态基流量动态计算奠定了基础。

  1. Stereoscopic Vascular Models of the Head and Neck: A Computed Tomography Angiography Visualization (United States)

    Cui, Dongmei; Lynch, James C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Wilson, Timothy D.; Lehman, Michael N.


    Computer-assisted 3D models are used in some medical and allied health science schools; however, they are often limited to online use and 2D flat screen-based imaging. Few schools take advantage of 3D stereoscopic learning tools in anatomy education and clinically relevant anatomical variations when teaching anatomy. A new approach to teaching…

  2. Prospectively electrocardiogram-triggered high-pitch spiral acquisition coronary computed tomography angiography for assessment of biodegradable vascular scaffold expansion: Comparison with optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Alfonso, Maria Grazia [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Mattesini, Alessio, E-mail: [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Meucci, Francesco [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Acquafresca, Manlio [Radiology Unit 4, Radiology Department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy); Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina [Interventional Cardiology Unit University Of Florence, Heart and Vessels department, AOU Careggi, Florence (Italy)


    BVS polymeric struts are transparent to the light so that the vessel wall contour can be easily visualized using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Therefore OCT represents a unique tool for both the evaluation of the resorption process and for the assessment of acute BVS mechanical failure. Similarly, the metal-free struts allow unrestricted coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), thus this non invasive method might become the gold standard for a non invasive assessment of BVS. In this case we show the ability of CCTA, performed with a low X-Ray dose, to provide a good evaluation of scaffold expansion. The quantitative measurements were in agreement with those obtained with OCT.

  3. Variation in the use of coronary angiography in patients with unstable angina is related to differences in patient population and availability of angiography facilities, without affecting prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. van Miltenburg-van Zijl (Addy); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); T.R. Taylor (Thomas); M.J. Veerhoek


    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Examination of the difference in management strategies with respect to coronary angiography in patients with unstable angina pectoris, and the consequences of this difference on prognosis. DESIGN: Prospective registration of consecutive patients admitted to two different hosp

  4. Magnetic resonance angiography in the management of recurrent hemarthrosis after total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Hash, Thomas W; Maderazo, Alex B; Haas, Steven B; Saboeiro, Gregory R; Trost, David W; Potter, Hollis G


    Spontaneous hemarthrosis is an infrequent but disabling complication after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this case series is to demonstrate the utility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of hemarthrosis after total knee arthroplasty. Patients presenting with hemarthrosis unexplained by trauma, anticoagulation, or a bleeding diathesis were retrospectively identified. Eighteen patients were referred for MRA to evaluate recurrent hemarthrosis after failing conservative therapy (n = 16) or synovectomy (n = 2). Despite artifact caused by the metallic components, diagnostic evaluation of regional vessels was made. In 12 of 13 cases that underwent embolization or synovectomy, a hypertrophic feeding artery (or arteries) was visualized on MRA. One case of negative MRA did not have subsequent surgery, and we are unable to comment on the rate of false-positives because all patients in this case series had evidence of bleeding. By characterizing the vascular anatomy and identifying a dominant artery (or arteries) supplying the hypervascular synovium, MRA can serve as a guide for subsequent embolization or synovectomy, as indicated.

  5. CT Angiography for Revascularization of CTO: Crossing the Borders of Diagnosis and Treatment. (United States)

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Achenbach, Stephan


    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is increasingly used to diagnose and rule out coronary artery disease. Beyond stenosis detection, the ability of CTA to visualize and characterize coronary atherosclerotic plaque, as well as to obtain 3-dimensional coronary vessel trajectories, has generated considerable interest in the context of pre-procedural planning for revascularization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Coronary CTA can characterize features that influence the success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTOs such as the extent of calcification, vessel tortuosity, stump morphology, presence of multiple occlusions, and lesion length. Single features and combined scoring systems based on CTA may be used to grade the level of difficulty of the CTOs before PCI and have been shown to predict procedural success rates in several trials. In addition, the procedure itself may be facilitated by real-time integration of 3-dimensional CTA data and fluoroscopic images in the catheterization laboratory. Finally, the ability of coronary CTA to assess anatomy, perfusion, and viability in 1 single examination makes it a potential "one stop shop" that predicts not only the likelihood of successful PCI but also the clinical benefit of CTO revascularization. Further research is clearly needed, but many experienced sites have already integrated coronary CTA into the routine planning and guiding of CTO procedures.

  6. Repeatability and reproducibility of optic nerve head perfusion measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Bojikian, Karine D.; Xin, Chen; Wen, Joanne C.; Gupta, Divakar; Zhang, Qinqin; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Chen, Philip P.; Wang, Ruikang K.


    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has increasingly become a clinically useful technique in ophthalmic imaging. We evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of blood perfusion in the optic nerve head (ONH) measured using optical microangiography (OMAG)-based OCTA. Ten eyes from 10 healthy volunteers are recruited and scanned three times with a 68-kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5000-based OMAG prototype system (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California) centered at the ONH involving two separate visits within six weeks. Vascular images are generated with OMAG processing by detecting the differences in OCT signals between consecutive B-scans acquired at the same retina location. ONH perfusion is quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux within the ONH for the prelaminar, lamina cribrosa, and the full ONH. Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) are used to evaluate intravisit and intervisit repeatability, and interobserver reproducibility. ONH perfusion measurements show high repeatability [CV≤3.7% (intravisit) and ≤5.2% (intervisit)] and interobserver reproducibility (ICC≤0.966) in all three layers by three metrics. OCTA provides a noninvasive method to visualize and quantify ONH perfusion in human eyes with excellent repeatability and reproducibility, which may add additional insight into ONH perfusion in clinical practice.

  7. Angiography of the corpus cavernosum penis in the pony stallion during erection and quiescence. (United States)

    Bartels, J E; Beckett, S D; Brown, B G


    Serial arteriography was used to determine the vascular pattern and blood flow in the penis of the pony stallion. Ponies were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and catheters were surgically introduced into the internal pudendal and obturator arteries. The vascular anatomy was visualized by angiography via image-intensified fluoroscopy and was recorded on 70-mm film at 3 frames/s or by direct radiography. Blood flow into the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) was limited during quiescence because the blood was immediately shunted into the venous system. After vasodilation with mild stimulation from an electroejaculator, there was increased filling of the CCP and corpus spongiosum penis. Contrast medium injected into the internal pudendal artery entered the bulb of the penis during peak erection, but medium injected into the obturator artery could not enter the crus penis during peak erection. The contrast medium stopped in the obturator artery at the edge of the ischiocavernous muscles due to the occlusion of the deep arteries of the penis by contraction of these muscles. When contrast medium was injected directly into the CCP near the glans to outline the body of the penis, there was no evidence of venous outlets along the body.

  8. Swept-source OCT Angiography of the Retinal Vasculature using Intensity Differentiation Based OMAG Algorithms (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Zhang, Qinqin; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; An, Lin; Durbin, Mary; Laron, Michal; Sharma, Utkarsh; Gregori, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Wang, Ruikang K


    Background and Objective To demonstrate the feasibility of using a 1050 nm swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system to achieve noninvasive retinal vasculature imaging in human eyes. Materials and Methods Volumetric datasets were acquired using a ZEISS 1 µm SS-OCT prototype that operated at an A-line rate of 100 kHz. A scanning protocol designed to allow for motion contrast processing, referred to as OCT angiography or optical microangiography (OMAG), was used to scan ~3 mm × 3 mm area in the central macular region of the retina within ~4.5 seconds. Intensity differentiation based OMAG algorithm was used to extract 3-D retinal functional microvasculature information. Results Intensity signal differentiation generated capillary-level resolution en face OMAG images of the retina. The parafoveal capillaries were clearly visible, thereby allowing visualization of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in normal subjects. Conclusion The capability of OMAG to produce retinal vascular images was demonstrated using the ZEISS 1 µm SS-OCT prototype. This technique can potentially have clinical value for studying retinal vasculature abnormalities. PMID:25230403

  9. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Eric H. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Amigenics, Inc, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Roach, Cayce J. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Life Sciences, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, Erik N. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Psychology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wynn, Brad L. [Family Medicine Spokane, Spokane, WA (United States); DeChancie, Sean M.; Mann, Nathan D. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); Diamond, Alan S. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Orrison, William W. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Reno, NV (United States)


    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  10. Circumferential optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the swine esophagus using a micromotor balloon catheter. (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Liang, Kaicheng; Wang, Zhao; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Potsaid, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni; Fujimoto, James G


    We demonstrate a micromotor balloon imaging catheter for ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides wide area, circumferential structural and angiographic imaging of the esophagus without contrast agents. Using a 1310 nm MEMS tunable wavelength swept VCSEL light source, the system has a 1.2 MHz A-scan rate and ~8.5 µm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor balloon catheter enables circumferential imaging of the esophagus at 240 frames per second (fps) with a ~30 µm (FWHM) spot size. Volumetric imaging is achieved by proximal pullback of the micromotor assembly within the balloon at 1.5 mm/sec. Volumetric data consisting of 4200 circumferential images of 5,000 A-scans each over a 2.6 cm length, covering a ~13 cm(2) area is acquired in <18 seconds. A non-rigid image registration algorithm is used to suppress motion artifacts from non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD), cardiac motion or respiration. En face OCT images at various depths can be generated. OCT angiography (OCTA) is computed using intensity decorrelation between sequential pairs of circumferential scans and enables three-dimensional visualization of vasculature. Wide area volumetric OCT and OCTA imaging of the swine esophagus in vivo is demonstrated.

  11. Acute Retinal Pigment Epitheliitis: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography, Fluorescein Angiography, and Autofluorescence Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Aydoğan


    Full Text Available A 17-year-old presented with central and paracentral scotomas in his right eye for one week. There was no remarkable medical or ocular history. Blood analyses were within normal range. At presentation both eyes’ best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20. Slit-lamp examination result was normal. Fundus examination revealed yellow-white hypopigmented areas in the macula. Fluorescein angiography (FA showed hypofluorescence surrounded by ring of hyperfluorescence. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF was slightly increased. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT showed disruption of IS/OS junction with expansion of abnormal hyperreflectivity from retinal pigment epithelium to the outer nuclear layer (ONL. One month later fundus examination showed disappearance of the lesions. FA revealed transmission hyperfluorescence. FAF showed increased autofluorescence and pigment clumping. Hyperreflective band in SD-OCT disappeared. Loss of photoreceptor segment layers was observed in some of the macular lesions. The diagnosis of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis can be challenging after disappearance of fundus findings. FA, FAF, and SD-OCT are important tests for diagnosis after resolution of the disease.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of identifying aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arterial disease with angiography or duplex scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffi, S.B. [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ubbink, D.Th. [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Dijkgraaf, M.G.W. [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reekers, J.A. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Legemate, D.A. [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Objectives: Cost-effectiveness analysis of three diagnostic imaging strategies for the assessment of aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arteries in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The strategies were: angiography as the reference strategy, duplex scanning (DS) plus supplementary angiography (S1) and DS plus confirmative angiography (S2). Design, materials and methods: A decision model was built with sensitivity and specificity data from literature, supplemented with prospective hospital cost data in Euro ( Euro ). The probability of correctly identifying the status of a lesion was taken as the primary outcome. We compared strategies by assessing the extra costs per additional correctly identified case. Results: Assuming no false positive or false negative results, angiography is the most effective strategy if the prevalence of significant obstructive lesions in the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal tract exceeds 70%, or if the sensitivity of duplex scanning is lower than 83%. In case of lower prevalence, strategy S1 becomes equally or even more effective than angiography. At a prevalence of 75%, performing angiography costs Euro 8443 per extra correctly identified case compared with strategy S1. Conclusions: In most situations angiography is more effective than diagnostic strategy S1. However, if society is unwilling to pay more than Euro 8443 for knowing a patient's disease status, diagnostic strategy S1 is a cost-effective alternative to angiography, especially at lower prevalence values.

  13. Multislice computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Hua Sun; Yan Cao; Hua-Feng Li


    Multislice Cr angiography represents one of the most exciting technological revolutions in cardiac imaging and it has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.Rapid improvements in multislice CT scanners over the last decade have allowed this technique to become a potentially effective alternative to invasive coronary angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.High diagnostic value has been achieved with multisfice CT angiography with use of 64-and more slice CT scanners.In addition,multislice CT angiography shows accurate detection and analysis of coronary calcium,characterization of coronary plaques,as well as prediction of the disease progression and major cardiac events.Thus,patients can benefit from multislice CT angiography that provides a rapid and accurate diagnosis while avoiding unnecessary invasive coronary angiography procedures.The aim of this article is present an overview of the clinical applications of multislice CT angiography in coronary artery disease with a focus on the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease;prognostic value of coronary artery disease with regard to the prediction of major cardiac events; detection and quantification of coronary calcium and characterization of coronary plaques.Limitations of multislice Cr angiography in coronary artery disease are also briefly discussed,and future directions are highlighted.

  14. Digital subtraction angiography and intraarterial contrast medium injection for coronary examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobio, R.; Kallmeyer, C.; Castello, J.


    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is an established method of vasography, most extensively used as i.v. DSA. Intraarterial injection, however, applying selective or non-selective contrast medium injection, seems to be at least as important a technique although it has not yet met with corresponding interest. The article explains advantages of the technique for angiographic examinations, in particular of coronary angiography.

  15. Hemifacial spasm. Study by magnetic resonance angiography; Espasmo hemifacial: estudo pela angiografia por ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittar, Miriam Salvadori; Staut, Claudio Cesar Vilela; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Bacheschi, Luiz Alberto; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian de Almeida [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas


    Nine patients with idiopathic hemifacial spasm were evaluated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging and angiography. Alterations of the posterior fossa vasculature, possibly related to the facial nerve irritation, were found in 8 patients (88%). Magnetic resonance angiography is a noninvasive procedure and appears to be a sensitive method to evaluate hemifacial spasm etiology. (author) 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Comparison of Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy and Coronary Angiography Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Elboga


    Full Text Available Aim: Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the most frequent causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Coronary angiography is the gold standard for the anatomical diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis. Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy (MPS is a non-invasive imaging modality used for the diagnosis of CAD. In this study, we aimed to compare the findings of MPS and coronary angiogram. Material and Method: Eighty-one patients (37 males, 44 females; mean age 55 ± 10.95 years with angina and detected perfusion defects on MPS were included in this study. All of the patients underwent coronary angiogram. A narrowing %u2265 50% was considered pathological on the coronary angiography. Results: Findings of the coronary angiogram and MPS were compared and found consistent in 51 (63% patients. A coronary narrowing < 50% was detected by coronary angiogram in 4 (5% of the remaining patients. Coronary angiogram was found to be normal in the remaining 26 patients (32% and these patients were evaluated as cardiac syndrome X (CSX known as microvascular angina (MA. Discussion: The findings showed that MPS is superior to coronary angiogram in the early diagnosis of myocardial perfusion disorders at the microvascular level. Therefore, we concluded that MPS should be the primary diagnostic tool to begin treatment before an anatomically large narrowing occurs in the coronaries.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua; CHEN Zhi-ping; WU Zhi-yong


    Objective To compare magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with traditional angiography and doppler ultrasonography (DUS) in the assessment of portal venous anatomy and its hemodynamics. MethodsThree dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced (3D-DCE) MRA and two dimensional phase-contrast (2D-PC) MR were used for the study of portal venous system in the patients with portal hypertension and those without liver cirrhosis. The comparison of the portal blood flow (PBF) measured with 2D-PC MR and DUS was made. ResultsThe portal vein, splenic vein, superior mesenteric vein, cephalic collateral veins and anastomotic stoma of surgical shunting were clearly displayed in 3D-DCE MRA. There was no significant difference between PBF measured with 2D-PC MR and DUS. Conclusion The results of present study indicate that the anatomical imaging of the portal venous system can be clearly revealed in MRA and the PBF can be accurately measured with 2D-PC MR. It is believed that MRA is a useful tool in the management of the patients with portal hypertension.

  18. Prevalence of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm on MR Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Jeon, Pyoung; Kim, Keon Ha [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the prevalence of incidentally found unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) on the brain MR angiography (MRA) from a community-based general hospital. This was a prospectively collected retrospective study, carried out from January 2004 to December 2004. The subjects included 3049 persons from a community-based hospital in whom MRA was performed according to a standardized protocol in an outpatient setting. Age- and sex-specific prevalence of UIAs was calculated. The results by MRA were compared with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms were found in 137 (5%) of the 3049 patients (M:F 43:94; mean age, 60.2 years). The prevalence of UIAs was 5% (n = 94) in women and 4% (n = 43) in men, respectively (p = 0.2046) and showed no age-related increase. The most common site of aneurysm was at the distal internal carotid artery (n = 64, 39%), followed by the middle cerebral artery (n = 40, 24%). In total, 99% of aneurysms measured less than 12 mm, and 93% of aneurysms measured less than 7 mm. Direct comparisons between MRA and DSA were available in 70 patients with 83 UIAs; the results revealed two false positive and two false negative results. This community-hospital based study suggested a higher prevalence of UIAs observed by MRA than previously reported. These findings should be anticipated in the design and use of neuroimaging in clinical practice.

  19. Dynamic CT head phantom for perfusion and angiography studies (United States)

    Russell, K.; Blazeski, A.; Dannecker, K.; Lee, Q. Y.; Holscher, C.; Donahue, C.; van Kampen, W.


    Contrast imaging is a compelling enhancement for the portable, flat panel-based brain CT scanner currently under development at Xoran. Due to the relative low temporal resolution of flat panel detectors, enabling tomographic imaging on such platform requires optimizing the imaging and injection protocols. A dynamic CT head phantom was designed to facilitate this task. The Dynamic Perfusion and Angiography Model (PAM), mimics tissue attenuation in CT images, provides physiological timing for angiography and perfusion studies, and moves fluid with properties similar to those of blood. The design consists of an arterial system, which contains bifurcating vessels that feed into perfusion chambers, mimicking blood flow through capillaries and smaller vessels, and a venous system, which is symmetrical to the arterial side and drains the perfusion chambers. The variation of geometry and flow rate in the phantom provides the physiological total time that fluid spends in the head, and the difference in material densities correlates to CT numbers for biological tissues. This paper discusses the design of Dynamic PAM and shows experimental results demonstrating its ability to realistically simulate blood flow. Results of dynamic imaging studies of the phantom are also presented.

  20. MR-angiography with intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yoko; Yodono, Hiraku; Tarusawa, Koji; Sasaki, Taisuke; Akimura, Rumiko; Kanehira, Jiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Takekawa, S.D.


    We carried out phase contrast MR-angiography of the lower extremities with intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Five healthy male volunteers, 25 to 40 years of age, were examined with a 0.5T MRI unit. We used fast scan (gradient echo) technique and it took about 8 minutes for whole procedure. Images were obtained before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA. Injection dose was 0.1 mmol/kg. In two cases, we got images with variable flip angles. However angles of 30 or 40 degrees were thought to be best on the scan with Gd-DTPA. In three cases, we repeated short time procedures for about 4 minutes each time and continued to check the signal intensities of vessels for as long as one hour. The signal intensities greatly increased soon after administration of Gd-DTPA, and then they gradually decreased, but for as long as 60 minutes after administration they remained much higher than those before administration of Gd-DTPA. MR-angiography with Gd-DTPA was found very useful to demonstrate the peripheral femoral vessels clearly. No significant side effect was noticed in any case. Therefore, this method was thought to be very useful clinically. (author).

  1. CT angiography in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Shim, Joo Eun; Yi, Jeong Geun; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Choonchun (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of CT angiography (CTA) in patients with intracerebral hematoma. Eighteen patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma underwent CTA; 20-30 seconds after the onset of an injection of contrast media (100mL), with the use of a power injector, at a rate of 3mL/sec, scanning (30-second continuous exposure and 60-90mm length) was performed with a table speed of 2-3 mm/sec and section thickness of 2mm. The starting point selected was the floor of the sella turcica. The resulting data were reformatted by maximum intensity projection (MIP) after reconstruction at 1-mm intervals, and CTA findings were compared with those of conventional angiography (n=17), surgery (n=6), and postcontrast CT(n=10). The diagnostic findings of CTA included five arteriovenous malformations, two aneurysms, one venous angioma, and one venous sinus occlusion, while the remaining nine patients had no vascular lesion. In all cases, CTA findings correlated well with those of postcontrast CT. In one cases of arteriovenous malformation, however, the feeding artery and draining vein were not definite on CTA, and in one case of sinus occlusion, the full length of the superior sagittal sinus could not be delineated. In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma, CTA is a valuable screening method. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Detection of unruptured cerebral artery aneurysms by MRA at 3.0 tesla: comparison with multislice helical computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numminen, Jussi; Porras, Matti; Kangasniemi, Marko (Dept. of Radiology, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email:; Tarkiainen, Antti (Advanced Magnetic Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Niemelae, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland))


    Background: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has become the primary non-invasive method for detection of cerebral artery aneurysms in many neurovascular centers. Purpose: To compare MR-angiography at a 3.0 tesla (3T) scanner to CTA in the detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Material and Methods: CTA and 3T MRA data from 60 patients were evaluated. CTA was obtained with a 4-16-row helical CT-scanner after administration of 120 cc intravenous contrast agent, MRA was performed by a 3T MR-scanner using time-of-flight pulse sequence. Results: Fifty-five cerebral artery aneurysms were detected by MRA and 47 aneurysms by CTA. Most of the aneurysms detected by MRA but not by CTA were small internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. Bone structures and venous enhancement deteriorated CTA accuracy, especially in skull base. In one patient a fairly large anterior communicating artery aneurysm was not visible in MRA due to spin saturation, although it was clearly visualized in CTA. After contrast injection the aneurysm was also seen in MRA. Although the overall image quality of MRA and CTA were comparable, MRA was more susceptible to artifacts and thus re-formatted surface-shaded volume rendered 3-dimensional images of aneurysms from MRA were inferior compared to those from CTA. Conclusion: MRA at 3T appears to be at least as sensitive as CTA in the detection of unruptured cerebral artery aneurysms, however image quality control is crucial and contrast agent enhances visualization of complex and large aneurysms

  3. Visualization Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  4. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti;


    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  5. Quantitative Portal Vein Velocity of Liver Cancer Patients with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization on Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Jen Ho


    Full Text Available Objective. We applied optical flow method (OFM to quantify relative velocities of blood flow using digital subtraction angiography (DSA in the vascular analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE treatment. Methods. A total of 40 HCC patients treated by TACE were analyzed in this study. DSA imaging with a 12-inch field of view, 1024 × 1024 pixels and 4 frames/second was acquired. OFM developed for motion estimation is applied for blood flow estimation. Two acrylic phantoms were built to validate the method. Results. The relationship between the OFM and Doppler measurements was found linear with R2=0.99 for both straight and curved tube phantoms. Quantitative blood flow distribution images of the portal vein region were presented. After TACE, the minimum, maximum and mean velocities in the portal vein all decreased (P<0.05. Additionally, the velocity in the portal vein is significantly lower with a higher Child-Pugh score (P<0.01. Conclusions. The present technique provides add-on quantitative information of flows to DSA and the hemodynamic analysis in relative quantifications of blood flow in portal vein of hepatocellular carcinoma patients using DSA.

  6. Magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography of persistent primitive olfactory artery: Incidence and association rate with aneurysm in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Bo Ra; Yeo, Soo Hyun; Chang, Hyuk Won; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Ealmaan; Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Ho Chan; Kim, Hye Soon [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Japanese data indicates an incidence of persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) of 0.14%. We studied the incidence of PPOA and associated cerebral vascular variation or anomalies in Korea. We retrospectively reviewed cranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) images of a total of 9841 patients of our institution. The diagnostic criterion of PPOA is extreme anterioinferior course of the proximal anterior cerebral artery, with a hairpin turn of the lateral projection. We found 29 cases (0.29%) with PPOA. The PPOA location was on the left in 19 cases, bilateral in 3 cases, and on the right in 7 cases. An aneurysm was found at the hairpin turn in 2 patients. There were aneurysms in other sites in 3 cases. There were hypoplasia of anterior cerebral artery in 3 cases, and fenestration of intracranial artery in 1 case. In Korean populations, the incidence of PPOA found in MRA and CTA was twice as high as that shown in the previous Japanese data. Within Korea, left side laterality is more common than right side or bilalterality. Aneurysmal dilatations at the hairpin turning point and aneurysms at other sites were found, and other vascular variations were observed in several cases.

  7. Patient satisfaction with coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, myocardial perfusion MRI, SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and conventional coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, S.; Rief, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Richter, F.; Roehle, R. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Schoenenberger, E. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Medicine, Hannover (Germany)


    To evaluate patient acceptance of noninvasive imaging tests for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), including single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI), stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coronary CT angiography (CTA) in combination with CT myocardial stress perfusion (CTP), and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Intraindividual comparison of perception of 48 patients from the CORE320 multicentre multinational study who underwent rest and stress SPECT-MPI with a technetium-based tracer, combined CTA and CTP (both with contrast agent, CTP with adenosine), MRI, and CCA. The analysis was performed by using a validated questionnaire. Patients had significantly more concern prior to CCA than before CTA/CTP (p < 0.001). CTA/CTP was also rated as more comfortable than SPECT-MPI (p = 0.001). Overall satisfaction with CT was superior to that of MRI (p = 0.007). More patients preferred CT (46 %; p < 0.001) as a future diagnostic test. Regarding combined CTA/CTP, CTP was characterised by higher pain levels and an increased frequency of angina pectoris during the examination (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a higher degree of pain during SPECT-MPI with adenosine stress compared to physical exercise (p = 0.016). All noninvasive cardiac imaging tests are well accepted by patients, with CT being the preferred examination. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of 16-row multislice CT angiography with conventional angiography for detection and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donmez, Halil; Serifov, Elman; Kahriman, Guven [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Mavili, Ertugrul, E-mail: [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Durak, Ahmet Candan [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Menkue, Ahmet [University of Erciyes, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kayseri (Turkey)


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of 16-row computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms in patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH). Materials and methods: One-hundred and twelve consecutive patients with suspected intracranial aneurysm underwent both 16-row MDCTA and DSA. The MDCT angiograms were interpreted in a blinded fashion by using combination with VRI, MIP and MPR techniques. Sensitivity specificity and accuracy were calculated for the CTA and DSA. The results were compared with each other. The DSA reader's interpretation was accepted as the reference standard. Results: A total of 164 aneurysms were detected at DSA in 112 patients, no aneurysms were detected by DSA and MDCTA in 16 patients. Eight aneurysms were missed by MDCTA. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MDCTA on a per-aneurysm basis were 95.1%, 94.1%, and 95%, respectively. According to the size of the aneurysm less than 3 mm; sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of MDCTA were 86.1%, 94.1%, 88.6%, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that MDCTA is equally as sensitive as DSA in the detection of intracranial aneurysms of greater than 3 mm, and it also reveals 100% detection rate for ruptured aneurysms.

  9. Visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Bijl, P.


    Visual search, with or without the aid of optical or electro-optical instruments, plays a significant role in various types of military and civilian operations (e.g., reconnaissance, surveillance, and search and rescue). Advance knowledge of human visual search and target acquisition performance is

  10. Visual Thinking. (United States)

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  11. A comparison between magnetic resonance angiography at 3 teslas (time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced and flat-panel digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of embolized brain aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S. Nakiri


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced- magnetic resonance angiography techniques in a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance unit with digital subtraction angiography with the latest flat-panel technology and 3D reconstruction in the evaluation of embolized cerebral aneurysms. INTRODUCTION: Many embolized aneurysms are subject to a recurrence of intra-aneurismal filling. Traditionally, imaging surveillance of coiled aneurysms has consisted of repeated digital subtraction angiography. However, this method has a small but significant risk of neurological complications, and many authors have advocated the use of noninvasive imaging methods for the surveillance of embolized aneurysms. METHODS: Forty-three aneurysms in 30 patients were studied consecutively between November 2009 and May 2010. Two interventional neuroradiologists rated the time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography, the contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance angiography, and finally the digital subtraction angiography, first independently and then in consensus. The status of aneurysm occlusion was assessed according to the Raymond scale, which indicates the level of recanalization according to degrees: Class 1: excluded aneurysm; Class 2: persistence of a residual neck; Class 3: persistence of a residual aneurysm. The agreement among the analyses was assessed by applying the Kappa statistic. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement was excellent for both methods (K = 0.93; 95 % CI: 0.84-1. Inter-technical agreement was almost perfect between time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography (K = 0.98; 95 % CI: 0.93-1 and between time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography and contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance angiography (K = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.93-1. Disagreement occurred in only one case (2.3%, which was classified as Class I by time-of-flight-magnetic resonance angiography and Class II by digital subtraction angiography. The agreement between

  12. Clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of CT-angiography in the diagnosis of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbarli, Ramazan; Shah, Mukesch; Hippchen, Beate; Velthoven, Vera van [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg/Breisgau (Germany); Taschner, Christian [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kaier, Klaus [University Hospital of Freiburg, Institute for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany)


    CT-angiography gains an increasing role in the initial diagnosis of patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the implementation of CT-angiography does not always exclude the necessity of conventional angiography. Our objective was to determine the practical utility and cost-effectiveness of CT-angiography. All patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to our university hospital after implementation of CT-angiography between June 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012 were retrospectively analyzed in regard to factors of treatment flow, radiation exposure, harms of contrast medium loading, and diagnostic costs. A control group of the same size was assembled from previously admitted SAH patients, who did not undergo pretreatment CT-angiography. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. The final analysis consisted of 93 patients in each group. Of 93 patients with pretreatment CT-angiography, 74 had to undergo conventional angiography for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. CT-angiography had significant impact on the reduction of collective effective radiation dose by 4.419 mSv per person (p = 0.0002) and was not associated with additional harms. Despite the significantly earlier detection of aneurysms with CT-angiography (p < 0.0001), there were no significant differences in the timing of aneurysm repair and duration of ICU and general hospital stay. There was an increase of diagnostic costs - the cost-effectiveness analysis showed, however, that benefits of CT-angiography in respect to radiation exposure and risk of conventional angiography-related complications justify the additional costs of CT-angiography. Although the implementation of CT-angiography in SAH diagnosis cannot completely replace conventional angiography, it can be approved in regard to radiation hygiene and cost-effectiveness. (orig.)

  13. Utility of CT angiography in cervical spine trauma: analysis of radiation and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Shuaib


    Full Text Available Purpose: Vertebral artery injuries (VAIs can be seen in cervical injuries. This investigation was conducted to assess the impact of head and neck computed tomography (CT angiography (CTA on planning treatment of vertebral artery injuries, if these tests were ordered appropriately, and to estimate cost and associated exposure to radiation and contrast material. Methods: This retrospective review included all patients who underwent CT of the cervical spine and CTA of the head and neck from March 2011 to October 2012 at a single institution. Patients were divided into two groups, those with and those without cervical spine fracture appreciated on CT of the cervical spine. The frequency of vascular injury on CTA in those with a cervical fracture was assessed. The frequency of vascular injury treatment and modifications owed to a positive CTA of head and neck were also assessed. A study was considered appropriate if it was ordered in accordance with the modified Denver Screening criteria. Effective radiation dose (mSv was calculated by multiplying dose length product (DLP from the scanner with the standard conversion coefficient (k (k = 0.0021 mSv/mGy x cm.Results: In the 387 CTAs of head and neck, a cervical injury was recorded in 128 patients. Twenty CTA scans were correctly ordered for non-spinal indications, and 19 were ordered off protocol. CTA was found positive in 1 patient for whom the imaging was off protocol and 1 for whom the clinical indication was non-cervical. There were 19 positive CTA cases of head and neck, none of which underwent surgical intervention. CTA was positive in 13 of 48 patients who had suffered a C2 fracture; this accounted for 13 of the 19 positive CTA studies (p < 0.01. Estimated fee for CTA was $3783, and radiation exposure was 4 mSv with a standard deviation (±1.3. Conclusion: CTA of head and neck ordered off an institutional imaging protocol has a low probability of being positive. Adherence to protocols for CTA of

  14. Correlation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and coronary angiography; Korrelation der Myokardszintigraphie mit der Koronarangiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, T. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Klinische Nuklearmedizin


    Discrepancy in findings of coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion-SPECT mostly reflect the hemodynamic effect of the pathological coronary morphology rather than misinterpretation by welltrained nuclear medicine physicians. Thus, perfusion scintigraphy gives a valuable completion of the angiographic findings. Consequently, forecast of coronary stenoses loses importance. The intention of cardiovascular medicine focuses more and more on functional statements. The detection of ischemia is not enough for correlated evaluation of SPECT/PET and coronary angiography. At least, assignment of perfusion defects and vascular territories is necessary. Quantitative evaluation and display of bull's eye are helpful and superior to visual interpretation. Due to the variability of the coronary vascular tree, assignment of angiographic and scintigraphic findings may sometimes remain ambiguous. Moreover, in patients with multivessel disease the detection of less stenosed vessels can be hidden if the stress tolerance is limited by the most severe stenosis. Other factors like morphology, length, and location of a stenosis, collaterals and endothelial dysfunction may also modify myocardial perfusion. Thus 'sensitivity' and 'specificity' of assignment of ischemia to a vascular territory ranges between 62% and 86%. With respect to a high-quality standard of the examinations and to the methodical limitations, head to head comparison of scintigraphic and angiographic images enable evaluation of the hemodynamic consequences of stenoses of a distinct coronary artery. The discrepancy of scintigraphic and angiographic findings in particular can lead to more reliable conclusions than the single examination does with direct impact on decision-making regarding medical or invasive therapy, complete or partial revascularization, and the selection of the vessel which has to be revascularized. Correlation of scintigraphy and angiography enables an individual planning of

  15. Computed tomography coronary angiography accuracy in women and men at low to intermediate risk of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharampal, Anoeshka S.; Papadopoulou, Stella L.; Rossi, Alexia; Weustink, Annick C.; Mollet, Nico R.A.; Meijboom, W. Bob; Neefjes, Lisan A.; Nieman, Koen; Feijter, Pim J. de [Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boersma, Eric [Erasmus MC, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in women at low to intermediate pre-test probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with men. In this retrospective study we included symptomatic patients with low to intermediate risk who underwent both invasive coronary angiography and CTCA. Exclusion criteria were previous revascularisation or myocardial infarction. The pre-test probability of CAD was estimated using the Duke risk score. Thresholds of less than 30 % and 30-90 % were used for determining low and intermediate risk, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of CTCA in detecting obstructive CAD ({>=}50 % lumen diameter narrowing) was calculated on patient level. P < 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 570 patients (46 % women [262/570]) were included and stratified as low (women 73 % [80/109]) and intermediate risk (women 39 % [182/461]). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were not significantly different in and between women and men at low and intermediate risk. For women vs. men at low risk they were 97 % vs. 100 %, 79 % vs. 90 %, 80 % vs. 80 % and 97 % vs. 100 %, respectively. For intermediate risk they were 99 % vs. 99 %, 72 % vs. 83 %, 88 % vs. 93 % and 98 % vs. 99 %, respectively. CTCA has similar diagnostic accuracy in women and men at low and intermediate risk. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Pig using Hyperpolarized Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    , the acquisition time is several minutes, and conventional MRA methods thus fail to image within a single respiration or heartbeat and therefore suffers from motion artefacts. We demonstrate that hyperpolarized (HP) water can be used as an imaging agent to provide subsecond angiographies in pigs. Previous work...... sequence with 5 ° flip angle, slice thickness of 40 mm, TR = 3.4 ms, TE = 0.9840 ms, 256x256 matrix, FOV = (140 mm)2. The acquisition time is 870 ms. 15 mL HP substance is injected over 5 s, initiated 15 s after dissolution through a catheter in the right renal artery of a 40 kg pig. Results The protons...

  17. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in brain death (United States)

    Luchtmann, M.; Beuing, O.; Skalej, M.; Kohl, J.; Serowy, S.; Bernarding, J.; Firsching, R.


    Confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of brain death in addition to clinical findings may shorten observation time required in some countries and may add certainty to the diagnosis under specific circumstances. The practicability of Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to confirm cerebral circulatory arrest was assessed after the diagnosis of brain death in 15 patients using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. In all 15 patients extracranial blood flow distal to the external carotid arteries was undisturbed. In 14 patients no contrast medium was noted within intracerebral vessels above the proximal level of the intracerebral arteries. In one patient more distal segments of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (A3 and M3) were filled with contrast medium. Gadolinium-enhanced MRA may be considered conclusive evidence of cerebral circulatory arrest, when major intracranial vessels fail to fill with contrast medium while extracranial vessels show normal blood flow.

  18. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.


    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images.

  19. Statistical analysis of motion contrast in optical coherence tomography angiography

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Yuxuan; Pan, Cong; Lu, Tongtong; Hong, Tianyu; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng


    Optical coherence tomography angiography (Angio-OCT), mainly based on the temporal dynamics of OCT scattering signals, has found a range of potential applications in clinical and scientific researches. In this work, based on the model of random phasor sums, temporal statistics of the complex-valued OCT signals are mathematically described. Statistical distributions of the amplitude differential (AD) and complex differential (CD) Angio-OCT signals are derived. The theories are validated through the flow phantom and live animal experiments. Using the model developed in this work, the origin of the motion contrast in Angio-OCT is mathematically explained, and the implications in the improvement of motion contrast are further discussed, including threshold determination and its residual classification error, averaging method, and scanning protocol. The proposed mathematical model of Angio-OCT signals can aid in the optimal design of the system and associated algorithms.

  20. Dose reduction with adaptive bolus chasing computed tomography angiography. (United States)

    Cai, Zhijun; Bai, Er-Wei; Wang, Ge; Sharafuddin, Melhem J; Abada, Hicham T


    Computed Tomography (CT) has become an effective diagnosis and evaluating tool in clinical; however, its radiation exposure has drawn great attention as more and more CT scans are performed every year. How to reduce the radiation dose and meanwhile keep the resultant CT images diagnosable becomes an important research topic. In this paper, we propose a dose reduction approach along with the adaptive bolus chasing CT Angiography (CTA) techniques, which are capable of tracking the contrast bolus peak over all the blood vessel segments during the CTA scan. By modulating the tube current (and collimator width) online, we can reduce the total radiation dose and maintain the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the blood vessel. Numerical experiments on reference DSA data sets show that by using the proposed dose reduction method, the effective radiation dose can be saved about 39%.

  1. Didactics and training in cardiovascular computed tomography angiography. (United States)

    Bhojraj, Sanjay D; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H


    As the role of cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is further expanded through research, the use of this technology will expand as a result of demand both from medical professionals and the public. To ensure a standardized quality of interpretation of these scans in the face of an increased demand for physicians qualified to interpret these studies, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, along with several other professional societies, has proposed a didactic curriculum for the study of CCTA. This review highlights the currently proposed didactic curriculum for the study of CCTA, examines current trends in training for both medical trainees and physicians in practice, and proposes future directions for the study of CCTA.

  2. Cardiac CT angiography in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siripornpitak, Suvipaporn, E-mail: [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Pornkul, Ratanaporn [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Khowsathit, Pongsak [Pediatric Cardiac Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Layangool, Thanarat; Promphan, Worakan [Pediatric Cardiology Unit, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok (Thailand); Pongpanich, Boonchob [Pediatric Cardiac Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand)


    Cardiac imaging plays an important role in both congenital and acquired heart diseases. Cardiac computed tomography (angiography) cCT(A) is a non-invasive, increasingly popular, complementary modality to echocardiography in evaluation of congenital heart diseases (CHD) in children. Despite radiation exposure, cCT(A) is now commonly used for evaluation of the complex CHD, giving information of both intra-cardiac and extra-cardiac anatomy, coronary arteries, and vascular structures. This review article will focus on the fundamentals and essentials for performing cCT(A) in children, including radiation dose awareness, basic techniques, and strengths and weaknesses of cCT(A) compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI), and applications. The limitations of this modality will also be discussed, including the CHD for which cMRI may be substituted.

  3. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Mitsue, E-mail: [Toshiba Medical Research Institute, USA, 706N. Deerpath Dr., Vernon Hills, IL 60061 (United States); Isoda, Hiroyoshi [Toshiba Medical Research Institute, USA, 706N. Deerpath Dr., Vernon Hills, IL 60061 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) techniques have experienced a resurgence of interest in the MR community, in part because of safety concerns related to the possible link between gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). In abdominal MRA, NSF is of particular concern, given that many of the patients may have renal disease. After introducing various non-contrast-enhanced MRA techniques, this article focuses on MRA applications in the abdomen, specifically the renal arteries and portal and hepatic veins. Developments on the horizon are discussed, including techniques that provide standardization of renal artery imaging, challenges in imaging of the hepatic arteries, and further advancement at 3 T.

  4. K-Edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, J C


    The purpose of this project was to utilize dual energy, monochromatic X-rays produced from synchrotrons radiation in order to obtain noninvasive medical imaging. The application of synchrotrons radiation to medical imaging is based on the principle of iodine dichromography, first described by Bertil Jacobson of the Karolinska Institute in 1953. Medical imaging using synchrotrons radiation and K-edge dichromography was pioneered at Stanford University under the leadership of Dr. Ed Rubenstein, and the late Nobel Laureate in Physics, Dr. Robert Hofstadter. With progressive refinements in hardware, clinical-quality images were obtained of human coronary arteries utilizing peripheral injections of iodinated contrast agent. These images even now are far superior to those being presented by investigators using MRI as an imaging tool for coronary arteries. However, new supplies and instruments in the cardiac catheterization laboratory have served to transform coronary angiography into an outpatient procedure, with r...

  5. MRI and MR angiography of persistent trigeminal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotin, M. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Miralbes, S. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Cattin, F. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Marchal, H. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Amor-Sahli, M. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France); Moulin, T. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Besancon (France); Bonneville, J.F. [Departments of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz University Hospital, Besancon (France)


    We describe the MRA and MR angiography (MRA) features of persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) found incidentally in eight patients, with special attention to its origin, site and course. The different patterns of posterior communicating arteries were also noted. The PTA were shown on sagittal, coronal and axial MRI and on MRA. In four cases, the PTA arose from the lateral aspect of the intracavernous internal carotid artery, ran caudally, passing round the bottom of the dorsum sellae to join the basilar artery. In the other four cases, it arose from the medial aspect, ran caudally through the sella turcica and pierced the dorsum sellae to join the basilar artery. The posterior communicating arteries were present unilaterally in five cases and bilaterally in one, and absent bilaterally in two. Identification of a PTA with a trans-sellar course is crucial if a trans-sphenoidal surgery is planned. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  6. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography for the investigation of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysms--two case reports--. (United States)

    Higashino, Takuya; Kawashima, Masatou; Mannoji, Hiromichi


    An 89-year-old man and a 60-year-old man presented with superficial temporal artery (STA) pseudoaneurysms which developed secondary to trauma. Conventional cerebral angiography and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) angiography clearly demonstrated the STA pseudoaneurysms. The patients underwent surgical excision of the aneurysms based on the conventional cerebral angiography findings in one patient and 3D CT angiography findings in other patient. 3D CT angiography is an excellent noninvasive diagnostic method for detecting extracranial aneurysms such as STA pseudoaneurysm, especially the relationship between the aneurysm and surrounding structures, including the calvarium.

  7. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail:; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail:; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail:; Yamasaki, Motoshige, E-mail: [Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)


    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu-hua Zhang; Wen-min Zhao; Wen-bin Mou; Li-ren Zhang; Wen-ling Zhu; Qi Miao; Qi Fang; Zheng-yu Jin; Shu-yang Zhang; Song-bai Lin; Dong-jing Li; Ling-yan Kong; Yi-ning Wang; Lan Song; Yun Wang


    To explore the scan technique and image quality of coronary angiography with dual source computed tomography (CT) without oral metoprolol preparation.Methods Plain and enhanced dual source CT coronary angiography without oral metoprolol preparation was prospectively performed in 600 patients. Calcium scoring with plain scan images as well as multi-planar reconstruction( MPR ), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and volume rendering technique (VRT) reconstruction with enhanced scan images were performed in all cases. The scan technique and post-reconstruction experience was summarized. The image quality was classified as 1 to 4 points, and coronary segments classified according to the American Heart Association standards were evaluated.Results The average calcium score of the 600 cases was 213.6 ± 298.7 (0-3 216. 5). The average heart rate of the enhanced scan was 82.1 ± 16.2 (47-139) bpm. The post-reconstruction methods with which coronary segments could be shown as best as possible consisted of single phase reconstruction method, two or more phases supplemented method, and electrocardiogram editing method. Altogether 8 457 coronary segments were evaluated, among which 97.2% were evaluated as point 1, 1.7% point 2, 0.5% point 3, and0.6% point 4. The coronary segments in 261 cases were completely normal, while 360 segments were diagnosed with < 50% stenosis and 625 segments with ≥50%stenosis.Conclusions Excellent coronary artery image can be obtained with dual source CT in patients with any heart rate without oral metoprolol preparation. Heart rate is not a major source of the artifact, coronary segments can be well shown with single or multiple-phase reconstruction method.

  9. Swept Source OCT Angiography of Neovascular Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 (United States)

    Zhang, Qinqin; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Chieh-Li; Legarreta, Andrew D.; Durbin, Mary K.; An, Lin; Sharma, Utkarsh; Stetson, Paul F.; Legarreta, John E.; Roisman, Luiz; Gregori, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Philip J.


    Objective To image subretinal neovascularization in proliferative macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel2) using swept source optical coherence tomography based microangiography (OMAG). Study Design Patients with MacTel2 were enrolled in a prospective, observational study known as the MacTel Project and evaluated using a high-speed 1050nm swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) prototype system. The OMAG algorithm generated en face flow images from three retinal layers, as well as the region bounded by the outer retina and Bruch’s membrane, the choriocapillaris, and the remaining choroidal vasculature. The en face OMAG images were compared to images from fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Results Three eyes with neovascular MacTel2 were imaged. The neovascularization was best identified from the en face OMAG images that included a layer between the outer retinal boundary and Bruch’s membrane. OMAG images identified these abnormal vessels better than FA and were comparable to the images obtained using ICGA. In all three cases, OMAG identified choroidal vessels communicating with the neovascularization, and these choroidal vessels were evident in the two cases with ICGA imaging. In one case, monthly injections of bevacizumab reduced the microvascular complexity of the neovascularization, as well as the telangiectatic changes within the retinal microvasculature. In another case, less frequent bevacizumab therapy was associated with growth of the subretinal neovascular complex. Conclusions OMAG imaging provided detailed, depth-resolved information about subretinal neovascularization in MacTel2 eyes demonstrating superiority to FA imaging and similarities to ICGA imaging for documenting the retinal microvascular changes, the size and extent of the neovascular complex, the communications between the neovascular complex and the choroidal circulation, and the response to monthly bevacizumab therapy. PMID:26457402

  10. The Hunter pulmonary angiography catheter for a brachiocephalic vein approach. (United States)

    Rosen, Galia; Kowalik, Karen J; Ganguli, Suverano; Hunter, David W


    The purpose of this work was to describe our experience in performing pulmonary angiography using the Hunter pulmonary catheter, manufactured by Cook, Inc., which is a modified 6F pigtail catheter with a "C-shaped" curve, designed for a brachiocephalic vein approach. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent pulmonary angiograms using the Hunter catheter between August 1997 and January 2002. Operator comments were gathered in 86 (70%) of the cases. The operator was, if possible, the most junior resident on the service. Thirty-nine operators participated in the survey. Efficacy, safety, and ease of use of the catheter were determined by operators' comments and ECG observations during the procedure. Corroborating clinical data were gathered from medical records. In 68 (79%) of the procedures that were commented upon, the operator described insertion into the pulmonary artery (PA) as easy; only 2 (2%) indicated difficulty in accessing the PA. In 41 (63%) of the bilateral angiograms that were commented upon, the operator described accessing the left PA from the right PA as easy; only 6 (9%) rated it as difficult and all were with an older technique in which the catheter was withdrawn to the pulmonary bifurcation without a wire or with only the soft tip of the wire in the pigtail and then rotated to the left main pulmonary artery. Thirty-one of the 41 patients who demonstrated premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) had a previous history of heart disease. Nineteen of the 39 patients who did not have PVCs had a history of heart disease (p = 0.018). The maneuverability and shape of the Hunter catheter make pulmonary angiography an easy procedure, even for operators with minimal experience and limited technical proficiency. PVCs demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with a positive patient history for cardiac disease, rather than being a universal risk.

  11. Stereo Visual Localization Based on Motion Estimation in Disparity Space%基于视差空间运动估计的高精度立体视觉定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许允喜; 陈方


    The motion estimation in stereo visual localization is usually carried out in 3D Euclidean space. 3D points are corrupted with heteroscedastic and anisotropic noise, and the depth direction of 3D reconstruction is less accurate than the two other direction. And therefore, the accuracy of motion estimation in 3D Euclidean space is low. We propose a new high-precision stereo visual localization algorithm based on motion estimation in disparity space. Initial robust motion parameters and matching inliers are obtained by four points closed-form linear motion estimation in disparity space combined with RANSAC algorithm. Then, we propose nonlinear motion optimization method based on L-M algorithm in the new disparity space re-projection error function. The mothod is appied to optimise the initial motion parameters. The noise in disparity space is homogeneous and isotropic, and our initial linear motion estimation and nonlinear optimization method all are carried out in disparity space and can achive globally minimum. Simulated and real experimental result show that our method can achive higher localization accuracy than traditional motion estimation method in 3D Euclidean space.%立体视觉定位算法的运动估计通常在3D欧式空间中进行,但由于特征点3D坐标的噪声各向异性且分布不均匀,3D重建在深度方向上比另两个方向上的准确性差,从而导致3D欧式空间运动估计精确不高.本文提出了一种新的基于视差空间运动估计的高精度立体视觉定位算法.算法首先采用视差空间4点闭环线性解法和RANSAC算法得到初始鲁棒运动估计和匹配内点.接着,利用新的视差空间再投影误差函数提出了基于LM算法的视差空间运动参数非线性优化方法,对初始运动参数进一步优化.视差空间噪声分布均匀且各向同性,本文的初始运动参数线性估计和非线性优化都在视差空间中进行且能达到全局最小.仿真实验和真实实验结

  12. Value of high spatial and high temporal resolution magnetic resonance angiography for differentiation between idiopathic and thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Sebastian; Eichinger, Monika [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Fink, Christian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Borst, Mathias M.; Meyer, F. Joachim; Gruenig, Ekkehard [University Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Mainz, Mainz (Germany)


    Differentiation between different forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is essential for correct disease management. The goal of this study was to elucidate the clinical impact of high spatial resolution MR angiography (SR-MRA) and time-resolved MRA (TR-MRA) to differentiate between patients with chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Ten PH patients and five volunteers were examined. Twenty TR-MRA data sets (TA 1.5 s) and SR-MRA (TA 23 s) were acquired. TR-MRA data sets were subtracted as angiography and perfusion images. Evaluation comprised analysis of vascular pathologies on a segmental basis, detection of perfusion defects, and bronchial arteries by two readers in consensus. Technical evaluation comprised evaluation of image quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements, and contrast-media passage time. Visualization of the pulmonary arteries was possible down to a subsegmental (SR-MRA) and to a segmental (TR-MRA) level. SR-MRA outperformed TR-MRA in direct visualization of intravascular changes. Patients with IPAH predominantly showed tortuous pulmonary arteries while in CTEPH wall irregularities and abnormal proximal-to-distal tapering was found. Perfusion images showed a diffuse pattern in IPAH and focal defects in CTEPH. TR-MRA and SR-MRA resulted in the same final diagnosis. Both MRA techniques allowed for differentiation between IPAH and CTEPH. Therefore, TR-MRA can be used in the clinical setting, especially in dyspneic patients. (orig.)

  13. Procedures for imaging of hemodialysis fistulas with particular reference to digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Erasmi-Koerber, H.; Wimmer, G.


    All angiographic procedures established for imaging of hemodialysis fistulas, such as direct venous angiography, intravenous subtraction angiography and arteriography by direct puncture of the brachial artery by Seldinger's transfemoral technique, can also be effected with digital image processing. Depending on the angiographic technique, the use of digital subtraction angiography has several advantages: lower doses and concentrations of the contrast agent, lower risk of complications (thrombosis of the fistula, vasospasm) and freedom from pain. In addition, there is a marked reduction of examination time and film cost.

  14. Patient Selection for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography and Hospital-Level PCI Appropriateness: Insights from the NCDR® (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M.; Spertus, John A.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Chan, Paul S.; Patel, Manesh R.; Bryson, Chris L.; Malenka, David J.; Rumsfeld, John S.


    Importance Diagnostic coronary angiography in asymptomatic patients may lead to inappropriate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to a diagnostic to therapeutic cascade. Understanding the relationship between patient selection for coronary angiography and PCI appropriateness may inform strategies to minimize inappropriate procedures. Objective To determine if hospitals that frequently perform coronary angiography in asymptomatic patients, a clinical scenario wherein the benefit of angiography is less clear, are more likely to perform inappropriate PCI. Design, Setting and Participants Multicenter observational study of 544 hospitals participating in the CathPCI Registry® between July 2009 and September 2013. Measures Hospital proportion of asymptomatic patients at diagnostic coronary angiography and a hospital's rate of inappropriate PCI, as defined by 2012 Appropriate Use Criteria for coronary revascularization. Results Of 1,225,562 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography, 308,083 (25.1%) were asymptomatic. The hospital proportion of angiograms in asymptomatic patients ranged from 1.0% to 73.6% (median 24.7%, interquartile range 15.9% to 35.9%). By hospital quartiles of asymptomatic patients at angiography, hospitals with higher rates of asymptomatic patients at angiography had higher median rates of inappropriate PCI (14.8% vs. 20.2% vs. 24.0 vs. 29.4% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). This was attributable to more frequent use of PCI in asymptomatic patients at hospitals with higher rates of angiography in asymptomatic patients (inappropriate and asymptomatic PCI; 5.4% vs. 9.9% vs. 14.7% vs. 21.6% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). Hospitals with higher rates of asymptomatic patients at angiography also had lower rates of appropriate PCI (38.6% vs. 33.0% vs. 32.3% vs. 32.9%% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance In a national sample of hospitals, performing coronary

  15. Computational fluid dynamics comparisons of wall shear stress in patient-specific coronary artery bifurcation using coronary angiography and optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Poon, Eric; Thondapu, Vikas; Chin, Cheng; Scheerlinck, Cedric; Zahtila, Tony; Mamon, Chris; Nguyen, Wilson; Ooi, Andrew; Barlis, Peter


    Blood flow dynamics directly influence biology of the arterial wall, and are closely linked with the development of coronary artery disease. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers may be employed to analyze the hemodynamic environment in patient-specific reconstructions of coronary arteries. Although coronary X-ray angiography (CA) is the most common medical imaging modality for 3D arterial reconstruction, models reconstructed from CA assume a circular or elliptical cross-sectional area. This limitation can be overcome with a reconstruction technique fusing CA with intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT scans the interior of an artery using near-infrared light, achieving a 10-micron resolution and providing unprecedented detail of vessel geometry. We compared 3D coronary artery bifurcation models generated using CA alone versus OCT-angiography fusion. The model reconstructed from CA alone is unable to identify the detailed geometrical variations of diseased arteries, and also under-estimates the cross-sectional vessel area compared to OCT-angiography fusion. CFD was performed in both models under pulsatile flow in order to identify and compare regions of low wall shear stress, a hemodynamic parameter directly linked with progression of atherosclerosis. Supported by ARC LP150100233 and VLSCI VR0210.

  16. Visual Impairment (United States)

    ... What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen years. When they do, it's ... inflammation in the eye. It's often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and ...

  17. Radiation dose in cerebral angiography and flat detector CT applications in neuroradiology; Strahlendosis bei zerebraler Angiographie und Flachdetektor-CT-Applikationen in der Neuroradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Lang, S.; Doerfler, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Erlangen (Germany); Scholz, R. [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Hauer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Nuernberg (Germany)


    Flat detectors (FD) have completely replaced image intensifiers in angiography. Due to this development not only the image quality of 2D digital subtraction angiography series (2-D-DSA) could be improved but also the acquisition of computed tomography (CT)-like cross-sectional images (FD-CT) within the angio suite became feasible. These techniques are now being used in daily clinical routine. Only little information about effective doses of these applications to patients has been published in the literature. We describe the effective patient dose of current applications in the field of angiography and demonstrate strategies to minimize the dose to the patient. In addition, we compare FD-CT applications to standard multislice CT applications. (orig.) [German] Flachdetektoren haben Bildverstaerker in der Angiographie vollstaendig abgeloest. Mit dieser Entwicklung verbesserte sich nicht nur die Bildqualitaet subtrahierter 2-D-Angiographieserien (2-D-DSA), sondern auch die Akquisition CT-aehnlicher Schnittbilder (FD-CT) mit unterschiedlichen Indikationen wurde moeglich. Diese Techniken werden nun in der taeglichen klinischen Routine eingesetzt. Angaben zur effektiven Patientendosis dieser Applikationen sind bis jetzt in der Literatur nur wenige publiziert worden. Wir beschreiben die effektive Patientendosis aktueller Anwendungen im Bereich der Angiographie und zeigen Strategien zur Minimierung der Dosis fuer den Patienten auf. Zudem vergleichen wir FD-CT-Applikationen mit Standard-Multislice-CT-Anwendungen. (orig.)

  18. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.


    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  19. 16-Detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography in patients undergoing evaluation for aortic valve replacement: comparison with catheter angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manghat, N.E.; Morgan-Hughes, G.J.; Broadley, A.J.; Undy, M.B.; Wright, D.; Marshall, A.J.; Roobottom, C.A


    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 16-detector row computed tomography (CT) in assessing haemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses in patients under evaluation for aortic stenosis pre-aortic valve replacement. Subjects and methods: Forty consecutive patients under evaluation for severe aortic stenosis and listed for cardiac catheterization before potential aortic valve replacement underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector row computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCTA) using a GE Lightspeed 16-detector row CT within 1 month of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) for comparative purposes. All 13 major coronary artery segments of the American Heart Association model were evaluated for the presence of {>=}50% stenosis and compared to the reference standard. Data were analysed on a segment-by-segment basis and also in 'whole patient' terms. Results: A total of 412/450 segments from 35 patients were suitable for analysis. The overall accuracy of MDCTA for detection of segments with {>=}50% stenosis was high, with a sensitivity of 81.3%, specificity 95.0%, positive predictive value (PPV) 57.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.4%. On a 'whole-patient' basis, 100% (19/19) of patients with significant coronary disease were correctly identified and there were no false-negatives. Excluding patients with CAC >1000 from the analysis improved the accuracy of MDCTA to: sensitivity 90%, specificity 98.1%, PPV 60%, NPV 99.7%. Conclusion: Non-invasive 16-detector row MDCTA accurately excludes significant coronary disease in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing evaluation before aortic valve replacement and in whom ICA can therefore be avoided. Its segment-by-segment accuracy is improved further if CAC > 1000 is used as a gatekeeper to MDCTA.

  20. 基于2D-3D双目运动估计的立体视觉定位算法%Stereo Visual Localization Algorithm Based on 2D-3D Binocular Motion Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许允喜; 蒋云良; 陈方


    Motion estimation algorithm of stereo vision is one of the important factors which affect the accuracy of stereo visual localization. The traditional 3D-3D motion estimation is greatly affected by noise, so the accuracy of algorithm is not high. We propose a new stereo visual localization algorithm based on 2D-3D binocular motion estimation. In our method, 2D image projection coordinates is directly used instead of 3D coordinates of feature after motion. Firstly, EPnP motion estimation is applied to determine matching inliers and initial motion parameters. We propose 2 x 2D-3D motion parameters optimization method based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and geometric constraints between the 2D projection of binocular cameras. Optimal 2D-3D motion estimation is achieved by minimizing the error between the observed 2×2D image points and the re-projected 2×2D image points of stereo cameras from the reconstructed 3D features. Simulated experiment and outdoor real experiment show that our method performs well in accuracy and robustness, and are better than traditional 3D-3D methods.%运动估计算法是影响立体视觉定位精度的重要因素,传统的3D-3D运动估计算法受噪声影响很大,计算精度不高.本文提出了一种基于2D-3D双目运动估计的立体视觉定位算法.算法不使用运动后的特征点3D坐标,而直接利用其2D图像投影坐标.首先,利用EPnP运动估计算法确定匹配内点和初始运动参数.接着,利用双目相机之间的2D投影几何约束,提出了基于Levenberg-Marquardt算法的2×2D-3D运动参数优化算法,利用确定的匹配内点和初始运动参数,使特征点在立体相机左右图像上的再投影误差最小,从而达到最优的立体相机2D-3D运动估计.仿真实验和户外真实实验表明:本文算法获得了很高的计算精度、鲁棒性,大大优于传统的基于3D-3D运动估计的立体视觉定位算法.

  1. Histologic grade in penile squamous cell carcinoma: visual estimation versus digital measurement of proportions of grades, adverse prognosis with any proportion of grade 3 and correlation of a Gleason-like system with nodal metastasis. (United States)

    Chaux, Alcides; Torres, José; Pfannl, Rolf; Barreto, Jose; Rodriguez, Ingrid; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L


    Histologic grade has been reported as an important pathologic parameter predictive of nodal metastases and outcome in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. There is no consensus about the criteria for grading and the proportion of anaplastic cells required to classify a tumor as high grade. The incidence and management of heterogeneous tumors (tumors harboring more than 1 histologic grade) are not well established. The purposes of this study were to present a grading model for penile cancer, to test the practicality of the system by comparing a visual ("naked-eye") estimation of the proportions of grades with a digitally guided measuring system and to determine the influence on nodal metastasis of the various proportions of grades. A total of 117 penectomy and circumcision specimens with bilateral inguinal lymph node dissections were studied and 62 heterogeneous tumors were identified (53%). The following steps were taken: (1) design of a grading system model; (2) determination of proportions of histologic grades by naked-eye evaluation and by digital measurement; (3) evaluation of metastasis according to proportions of grades; (4) determination of the influence of site of grade 3 in nodal metastasis; (5) design of a Gleason-like scoring system; and (6) statistical evaluation. We designed a 3-tier grading system. Grade 1: well-differentiated cells, almost undistinguishable from normal squamous cells except for the presence of minimal basal/parabasal cell atypia. Grade 3: tumors predominantly composed of anaplastic cells. Grade 2: all tumors not fitting into criteria described for grade 1 or 3. A visual and digital-based (slides scanned and the corresponding areas measured with an image-editing software) proportions of grades were estimated and the metastatic rate between them were confronted using different proportions of grade 3. To evaluate the influence of site of grade 3 on nodal metastasis, we selected 20 heterogeneous tumors. We established 3 sites

  2. Intracranial aneurysm segmentation in 3D CT angiography: method and quantitative validation (United States)

    Firouzian, Azadeh; Manniesing, R.; Flach, Z. H.; Risselada, R.; van Kooten, F.; Sturkenboom, M. C. J. M.; van der Lugt, A.; Niessen, W. J.


    Accurately quantifying aneurysm shape parameters is of clinical importance, as it is an important factor in choosing the right treatment modality (i.e. coiling or clipping), in predicting rupture risk and operative risk and for pre-surgical planning. The first step in aneurysm quantification is to segment it from other structures that are present in the image. As manual segmentation is a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a need for an automated method which is accurate and reproducible. In this paper a novel semi-automated method for segmenting aneurysms in Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) data based on Geodesic Active Contours is presented and quantitatively evaluated. Three different image features are used to steer the level set to the boundary of the aneurysm, namely intensity, gradient magnitude and variance in intensity. The method requires minimum user interaction, i.e. clicking a single seed point inside the aneurysm which is used to estimate the vessel intensity distribution and to initialize the level set. The results show that the developed method is reproducible, and performs in the range of interobserver variability in terms of accuracy.

  3. Monocular visual ranging (United States)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn


    The vision system of a mobile robot for checkpoint and perimeter security inspection performs multiple functions: providing surveillance video, providing high resolution still images, and providing video for semi-autonomous visual navigation. Mid-priced commercial digital cameras support the primary inspection functions. Semi-autonomous visual navigation is a tertiary function whose purpose is to reduce the burden of teleoperation and free the security personnel for their primary functions. Approaches to robot visual navigation require some form of depth perception for speed control to prevent the robot from colliding with objects. In this paper present the initial results of an exploration of the capabilities and limitations of using a single monocular commercial digital camera for depth perception. Our approach combines complementary methods in alternating stationary and moving behaviors. When the platform is stationary, it computes a range image from differential blur in the image stack collected at multiple focus settings. When the robot is moving, it extracts an estimate of range from the camera auto-focus function, and combines this with an estimate derived from angular expansion of a constellation of visual tracking points.

  4. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT angiography of thoracic aortic coarctation in pediatric patients: Pre-operative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zakaryia Al-Azzazy


    Conclusion: We concluded that MDCT angiography with multiplanar and three dimensional techniques can be considered the modality of choice for pre-operative assessment of coarctation of the thoracic aorta in pediatric patients.

  5. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Derived Fractional Flow Reserve and Plaque Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Leipsic, Jonathon; Koo, Bon-Kwon;


    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is an independent prognosticator in patients with coronary artery disease and the gold standard for decision making in coronary revascularization. The integration of computational fluid dynamics and quantitative anatomic...

  6. Anatomic distribution of embolus at CT pulmonary angiography in patients suspected acute pulmonary embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To summarize and analyze the morphology and distribution of embolus in patients suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Methods The CT pulmonary angiography(CTPA) imagings of 279 patients suspected acute pulmonary embolism were analyzed retrospectively in

  7. The value of RI scintigraphy and angiography in small intestinal bleeding; Report of eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Susumu; Kuwata, Hajime; Kushibiki, Kyoko; Akimoto, Kimihiko; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Toshiya (Showa General Hospital, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan))


    We retrospectively reviewed eight cases of small intestinal bleeding and assessed the value of RI scintigraphy and angiography in diagnosing the bleeding site. The patients' average age was 56.2 years. Chief complaint was melena of variable degree. In most cases neither upper endoscopy nor colonoscopy was diagnostic. RI scientigraphy (Tc-99 labeled human serum albumin) showed 75% of positive rate whereas angiography showed 66.7% (4/6) of positive rate. All four cases of leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma demonstrated hypervascular stain and/or extra-vasation in angiography whereas RI scintigraphy failed to detect active gastrointestinal bleeding in 2 of the 4 cases. Therefore angiography was considered useful for the detection of bleeding from leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma which are often hypervascular. Scintigraphy is thought of most value in the demonstration of small amount of bleeding with minimum vascular abnormality. (author).

  8. Non-invasive coronary angiography with multislice spiral computed tomography: impact of heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan); J. Vos (Jeroen); P.M.T. Pattynama (Peter); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); K. Nieman (Koen)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of heart rate on the diagnostic accuracy of coronary angiography by multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). DESIGN: Prospective observational study. PATIENTS: 78 patients who underwent both conventional and MSCT coronary angiograp

  9. Outcome after emergency surgery without angiography in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage after aneurysm rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdal, Ove; Springborg, Jacob; Hauerberg, John;


    and aneurysm occlusion without preoperative angiography. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 13 consecutive patients. We recorded clinical data and evaluated mortality and morbidity with the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) and Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS). FINDINGS: At follow up seven...

  10. Angiography of a hand with symptoms of an ulnar nerve entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Rindell, K.; Tervahartialla, P.; Slatis, P.


    An angiography of the hand was performed on a pianist suffering from symptoms of an ulnar nerve entrapment syndrome. The examination revealed in the hand a rare anomalous arterial pattern, which explains the patient's symptoms.

  11. Image analysis of seafloor photographs for estimation of deep-sea minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Jaisankar, S.; Samanta, S.; Sardar, A.A.; Gracias, D.G.

    .98) recorded between visual and computed estimates shows that both methods of estimation are highly reliable. The digitally computed estimates were approx. 10% higher than the visual estimates of the same photographs; the latter have a conservative operator...

  12. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.


    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  13. CT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation; CT-Koronarangiographie bei Patienten mit Vorhofflimmern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, A.; Sommer, T.; Leiss, A.; Naehle, P.; Schild, H.; Flacke, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Radiologische Klinik (Germany); Probst, C.; Welz, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Klinik fuer Herzchirurgie (Germany)


    Purpose: Reliable visualization of the coronary arteries with multislice spiral CT angiography (MSCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a challenge despite retrospective ECG gating. A recently developed new algorithm automatically compensates dynamic changes in the heart rate during the scan, thus reducing misregistration and motion artifacts. The HeartBeat-RT algorithm combines a fixed percent delay determined from the first R wave and the fixed offset delay based on the second R wave in the ECG cycle. The purpose of this study was to find out the optimal reconstruction window in MSCTA in patients with AF for each of the three major coronary arteries during the cardiac cycle. Materials and methods: 20 patients with permanent AF were imaged on a 16-slice scanner (slice collimation: 16 x 0.75 mm; rotation time 0.42 s; 140 kV; 380 mAs; 120 ml Ultravist 370 {sup registered} i.v.). The patients had not received any previous drugs for heart frequency regulation. Acquisition was started after bolus tracking of a biphasic bolus of 120 ml Ultravist 370 injected intravenously. Each coronary segment was reconstructed at 0%-90% of the cardiac cycle in increments of 10%. For image analysis we used coronary segments as defined by the American Heart Association. Two blinded independent readers assessed the image quality in terms of visibility and artifacts (five-point rating scale 1=very poor, 2=poor, 3=fair, 4=good and 5=excellent) and the degree of stenosis (five-point rating scale 1=0%, 2=1%-49%, 3=50%-74%, 4=75%-99%, 5=100%) on axial slices, multiplanar reconstructions and three-dimensional volume-rendered images. (orig.)

  14. Dual-energy CT angiography of the lung in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C.; Michaely, H.J. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Campus Grosshadern, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Johnson, T.R.; Morhard, D.; Becker, C.; Reiser, M.; Nikolaou, K. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Campus Grosshadern, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)


    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT angiography (CTA) of the lung in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). 24 patients with suspected PE were examined with a single-acquisition, dual-energy CTA protocol (A-system: 140 kV/65 mAsref, B-system: 80 kV/190 mAsref) on a dual-source CT system. Lung perfusion was visualized by color-coding voxels containing iodine and air using dedicated dual-energy post-processing software. Perfusion defects were classified by two blinded radiologists as being consistent or non-consistent with PE. Subjective image quality of perfusion maps and CTA was rated using a 5-point scale (1: excellent, 5: poor). The reading of a third independent radiologist served as the standard of reference for the diagnosis of PE. In all patients with PE (n = 4), perfusion defects classified as being consistent with PE were identified in lung areas affected by PE. Both readers did not record perfusion defects classified as being consistent with PE in any of the patients without PE. Thus, on a per patient basis the sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of PE was 100% for both readers. On a per segment basis the sensitivity and specificity ranged between 60 - 66.7% and 99.5 - 99.8%. The interobserver agreement was good (k = 0.81). Perfusion defects rated as non-consistent with PE were most frequently caused by streak artifacts from dense contrast material in the great thoracic vessels. The median score of the image quality of both the perfusion maps and CTA was 2. In conclusion, dual-energy CTA of pulmonary embolism is feasible and allows the assessment of perfusion defects caused by pulmonary embolism. Further optimization of the injection protocol is required to reduce artifacts from dense contrast material. (orig.)

  15. 256-Slice coronary computed tomographic angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: optimal reconstruction phase and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro; Yuki, Hideaki; Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Honda, Keiichi; Yoshimura, Akira; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan); Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi [Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Minami-ku, Kumamoto (Japan)


    To assess the optimal reconstruction phase and the image quality of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed CCTA in 60 patients with AF and 60 controls with sinus rhythm. The images were reconstructed in multiple phases in all parts of the cardiac cycle, and the optimal reconstruction phase with the fewest motion artefacts was identified. The coronary artery segments were visually evaluated to investigate their assessability. In 46 (76.7 %) patients, the optimal reconstruction phase was end-diastole, whereas in 6 (10.0 %) patients it was end-systole or mid-diastole, and in 2 (3.3 %) patients it was another cardiac phase. In 53 (88.3 %) of the controls, the optimal reconstruction phase was mid-diastole, whereas it was end-systole in 4 (6.7 %), and in 3 (5.0 %) it was another cardiac phase. There was a significant difference between patients with AF and the controls in the optimal phase (p < 0.01) but not in the visual image quality score (p = 0.06). The optimal reconstruction phase in most patients with AF was the end-diastolic phase. The end-systolic phase tended to be optimal in AF patients with higher average heart rates. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance angiography virtual endoscopy in the assessment of pulmonary veins before radiofrequency ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, S.; Tosetti, Irene; Giuseppe, M.De; Longo, M.; Regge, D. [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), Unit of Radiology, Candiolo (Torino) (Italy); Bonamini, R. [University of Torino, Department of Cardiology, Torino (Italy); Gaita, F.; Bianchi, F.; Vivalda, L. [Ospedale Mauriziano Umberto I, Department of Cardiology, Torino (Italy)


    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a safe and non-invasive imaging method that can readily depict the pulmonary veins (PV), whose imaging has acquired momentum with the advent of new techniques for radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated whether virtual endoscopy from 3D MRA images (MRA-VE) is feasible in studying the morphology of PV. Fifty patients with AF underwent pre-ablative MRA (1.5 T). Images were acquired with axial T-2 weighted and 3D-SPGR sequences after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA and automatic triggering. Postprocessing was performed by an experienced radiologist with maximum intensity projection (MIP) and virtual endoscopy software (Navigator, GEMS). The venoatrial junction was visualized with MRA-VE in 49 of 50 patients (98.0%). Twenty-seven patients (55.1%) had two ostia on both sides, 13 patients (26.5%) had two ostia on the right and a single common ostium on the left, 5 patients (10.2%) had accessory PV and 4 patients (8.2%) had both an accessory right PV and a single common ostium on the left. Flythrough navigation showed the number and spatial disposition of second-order PV branches in 48 out of 49 patients (98.0%). MRA-VE is an excellent tool for at-a-glance visualization of ostia morphology, navigation of second-generation PV branches and easy endoluminal assessment of left atrial structures in pre-ablative imaging. (orig.)

  17. Digital subtraction angiography for tumours of the ear, nose and throat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, M.; Zwicker, C.; Eichstaedt, H.; Maeurer, J.


    Intravenous and intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography is able to demonstrate hypervascular tumours in the ear, nose and throat territory. Direct puncture of a venous bypass used for intra-arterial chemotherapy, within the external carotid artery territory, is devoid of risk and can be used for assessing the accessibility of the tumour. Lesions of low vascularity can only be recognised by DSA on the basis of vessel displacement. These lesions are not a primary indication for examination by digital angiography. (orig).

  18. Balloon-Assisted Tracking to Overcome Radial Spasm during Transradial Coronary Angiography: A Case Report


    Verouden, N. J. W.; Kiemeneij, F.


    Spasm of the radial artery is the most important cause of failure to perform coronary angiography via the transradial approach. Spasmolytic cocktail may prevent radial artery spasm but is relatively contraindicated in patients with aortic stenosis or diminished left ventricular function. In this case report we describe a recently published technique to overcome severe radial spasm during transradial coronary angiography in a patient with moderate aortic valve stenosis.

  19. Balloon-Assisted Tracking to Overcome Radial Spasm during Transradial Coronary Angiography: A Case Report. (United States)

    Verouden, N J W; Kiemeneij, F


    Spasm of the radial artery is the most important cause of failure to perform coronary angiography via the transradial approach. Spasmolytic cocktail may prevent radial artery spasm but is relatively contraindicated in patients with aortic stenosis or diminished left ventricular function. In this case report we describe a recently published technique to overcome severe radial spasm during transradial coronary angiography in a patient with moderate aortic valve stenosis.

  20. Balloon-Assisted Tracking to Overcome Radial Spasm during Transradial Coronary Angiography: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. W. Verouden


    Full Text Available Spasm of the radial artery is the most important cause of failure to perform coronary angiography via the transradial approach. Spasmolytic cocktail may prevent radial artery spasm but is relatively contraindicated in patients with aortic stenosis or diminished left ventricular function. In this case report we describe a recently published technique to overcome severe radial spasm during transradial coronary angiography in a patient with moderate aortic valve stenosis.

  1. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise


    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... the functions of the images and visuality in new forms of knowledge-building beyond traditional boundaries of school subjects. New learning cultures emerge and place the visual skills of decoding and meaning-making in the centre of future competences for citizens in a globalised world.   This paper discusses...... the learning potential of images and visuality from two perspectives: 1) The perspective of digital media which are assumed to form an increasing part of experience and communication from the use of internet, tv and mobile devices. 2) The perspective of culture where images and visualisations are assumed...

  2. Registration of 3D+t coronary CTA and monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography. (United States)

    Metz, Coert T; Schaap, Michiel; Klein, Stefan; Baka, Nora; Neefjes, Lisan A; Schultz, Carl J; Niessen, Wiro J; van Walsum, Theo


    A method for registering preoperative 3D+t coronary CTA with intraoperative monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography images is proposed to improve image guidance during minimally invasive coronary interventions. The method uses a patient-specific dynamic coronary model, which is derived from the CTA scan by centerline extraction and motion estimation. The dynamic coronary model is registered with the 2D+t X-ray sequence, considering multiple X-ray time points concurrently, while taking breathing induced motion into account. Evaluation was performed on 26 datasets of 17 patients by comparing projected model centerlines with manually annotated centerlines in the X-ray images. The proposed 3D+t/2D+t registration method performed better than a 3D/2D registration method with respect to the accuracy and especially the robustness of the registration. Registration with a median error of 1.47 mm was achieved.

  3. Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, L.N.


    Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

  4. Comparison of Video & Verbal Education on Satisfaction and Post Operative Complications of Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jamshidi


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Coronary angiography is one of definitive diagnostic tests for coronary artery disease. Patients' education is one of the most interventions before coronary Angiography. The objective of this study is to compare two patients' education method (Video & Verbal on patients' satisfaction and complications after coronary angiography. Materials & Methods: In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 128 patients randomly assigned to either control or experimental group. Control group received verbal routine education by nurses and experimental group received an informative video about coronary angiography procedure as well as pre and post angiography interventions. Complications of patients were assessed by observation of researcher and satisfaction measured by a 4-state scale. The date analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics. Results: Analysis of data showed that the satisfaction of patients in experimental group was higher than control group. This difference was statistically significant (P0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study confirmed the application of multi-media education in increasing patients' satisfaction. It is recommended that video education used as a substitute for verbal education before coronary angiography.

  5. Dynamic magnetic resonance angiography for localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in the reoperative neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbach, R., E-mail: [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Tuda, S. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Lamster, E.; Meyer, A. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Endocrinology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Roediger, H.; Stier, A. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Visceral Surgery, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Conrad, E. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Basche, S.; Klisch, J. [HELIOS Hospital Erfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Nordhaeuser Str. 74, 99089 Erfurt (Germany); Vogl, T.J. [University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Center of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)


    Objectives: To evaluate the use of dynamic magnetic resonance angiography for localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands in the reoperative neck. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the head-neck MRIs of 30 patients with a history of hyperparathyroidism, prior head-neck surgery, and intraoperative proven adenomas. The protocol included conventional imaging with T2-weighted STIR sequences, T1w axial and coronal prior to and after contrast media administration, and dynamic magnetic resonance angiography. We compared the results from MRI, dynamic magnetic resonance angiography with 99m-Tc-Sestamibi with intraoperative findings as the gold standard. Results: In conventional MRI 19/30 true positives were detected with a sensitivity and specificity of 63.3% and 100%, respectively. However, by adding dynamic magnetic resonance angiography the detection rate increased to 28/30 true positives. Based on intraoperative findings, the sensitivity and specificity of dynamic magnetic resonance angiography were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. 99m-Tc-Sestamibi detected 24/30 true positives, sensitivity was 80%. Conclusion: The diagnostic value of MRI including dynamic magnetic resonance angiography is superior to MRI alone and superior to that of 99m-Tc-Sestamibi in the diagnostic workup of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands when compared against intraoperative findings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafirovska Biljana


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the incidence of arterial anomalies of the radial artery in the Macedonian population registered during transradial access (TRA angiography procedures in a large series of patients. Background: Transradial angiography (TRA is now the recommended access for percutaneous coronary intervention, but technically is a more challenging approach for angiography procedures mostly due to the anatomic anomalies on the radial artery, which may influence the success rate of transradial angiographic procedures. Methods: All consecutive 19292 patients from our Center, in the period from March 2011 until December 2014 were examined. Preprocedural radial artery angiography was performed in all patients. Clinical and procedure characteristics, type and incidence of vascular anatomy variants and access site complications were analyzed. Results: Anatomical variants were present in 1625 (8.8% patients. The most frequent was high-bifurcating radial artery origin from the axillary and brachial arteries in 1017(5.5% patients, 227 (1.2% had extreme radial artery tortuosity, 176(0.95% had a full radial loop, 32(0.17% with hypoplastic radial artery and 173(0.9% had tortuous brachial, subclavian and axillary arteries. Radial artery spasm was very common in patients with present radial artery anomalies. Conclusion: Radial artery anomalies are very common in the general population. Knowing the anatomy of the radial artery helps the interventional cardiologist in successfully planning and performing this procedure. Radial artery angiography is strongly encouraged in every patient before the begining of the transradial angiography procedures.

  7. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia


    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project...

  8. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.


    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  9. Clinical implication of parameteroptimized 3D-FISP MR angiography (MRA) in children with aortic coarctation: comparison with catheter angiography; Stellenwert einer parameteroptimierten 3D-FISP-MR-Angiographie bei Kindern mit Aortenisthmusstenose im Vergleich zur Katheterangiographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, U.; Dammann, F.; Miller, S.; Fenchel, M.; Claussen, C.D. [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany). Abteilung Radiologische Diagnostik; Greil, G.; Sieverding, L. [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany). Abteilung Kinderkardiologie; Schick, F. [Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany). Sektion Experimentelle Radiologie


    Purpose: To implement parameter-optimized 3D-FISP MR angiography (MRA) with interleaved double-slab excitation and to compare the result with catheter angiography in children with aortic coarctation. Materials and Methods: Eighteen children aged 2-15 years (mean 9.1 years) underwent MR imaging on a 1.5 T body scanner (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany). All patients had undergone correlative catheter angiography. T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) images (TR 600 ms, TE 17 ms, flip 160 , slice thickness 2-4 mm) were obtained in axial and parasagittal orientation, followed by an optimized 3D-FISP MR angiography in a sagittal plane (TR 12.5 ms, TE 5.5 ms, flip 22 , matrix 256 x 256, slice thickness 1.25 mm). All children were sedated but on spontaneous breathing. Image quality was graded by two experienced reviewers using a 4-point scoring system. Source images and reformatted maximum intensity projections (MIP) were analyzed for blood-tissue contrast as well as size and focal stenoses of the aortic arch. Results: Aortic coarctation was found in 13 of 18 patients, using the 3D-FISP MRA. A high correlation value (r=0.96) was found compared to catheter angiography. Image quality was high in 94% with well defined blood-tissue contrast in all cases. The sensitivity of flow and breathing motion was low. Examination time was about 15 minutes depending on volume of interest and heart rate. Diagnostic accuracy has shown improvement using a combined analysis of source and MIP images. The mentioned technique has provided an excellent display of thoracic vasculature. (orig.)

  10. Computed tomography angiography in the evaluation of carotid artery bifurcation stenosis: comparison with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography; Angio-TC en la evaluacion de estenosis de la bifurcacion arterial carotidea: comparacion con arteriografia por sustraccion digital intraarterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A. L.; Ramos, M.; Delgado, F.; Cano, A.; Bravo, F. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)


    To determine the value of computed tomography (CT) angiography in grading cervical carotid artery stenosis, comparing it with that of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA), and to demonstrate the utility of CT angiography, under certain circumstances, as an alternative to carotid angiography in the diagnosis of arterial disease. Of the 428 patients who underwent CT andiography of the supraaortic trunk in our hospital between lily 1998 and September 2000, the results in the first 55 in whom Id's was performed concomitantly were reviewed, and the findings with two techniques compared. In the discrimination of stenosis >70%, CT angiography showed a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 98% and an overall precision of 95% with respect to IADSA. The good correlation of the grading of carotid artery stenosis by CT angiography with that of IADSA suggests its high diagnostic reliability. (Author) 38 refs.

  11. Changes in Medical Management after Coronary CT Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Mairi Naue


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA allows for non-invasive coronary artery disease (CAD phenotyping. There are still some uncertainties regarding the impact this knowledge has on the clinical care of patients. Objective: To determine whether CAD phenotyping by CCTA influences clinical decision making by the prescription of cardiovascular drugs and their impact on non-LDL cholesterol (NLDLC levels. Methods: We analysed consecutive patients from 2008 to 2011 submitted to CCTA without previous diagnosis of CAD that had two serial measures of NLDLC, one up to 3 months before CCTA and the second from 3 to 6 months after. Results: A total of 97 patients were included, of which 69% were men, mean age 64 ± 12 years. CCTA revealed that 18 (18% patients had no CAD, 38 (39% had non-obstructive (< 50% lesions and 41 (42% had at least one obstructive ≥ 50% lesion. NLDLC was similar at baseline between the grups (138 ± 52 mg/dL vs. 135 ± 42 mg/dL vs. 131 ± 44 mg/dL, respectively, p = 0.32. We found significative reduction in NLDLC among patients with obstrctive lesions (-18%, p = 0.001. We also found a positive relationship between clinical treatment intensification with aspirin and cholesterol reducing drugs and the severity of CAD. Conclusion: Our data suggest that CCTA results were used for cardiovascular clinical treatment titration, with especial intensification seen in patients with obstructive ≥50% CAD.

  12. Changes in Medical Management after Coronary CT Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naue, Vânia Mairi, E-mail:; Camargo, Gabriel; Sabioni, Letícia Roberto; Lima, Ronaldo de Souza Leão; Derenne, Maria Eduarda; Lorenzo, Andréa Rocha de; Freire, Monica Di Calafiori; Azevedo Filho, Clério Francisco; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Gottlieb, Ilan [CDPI - Clínica de Diagnóstico por Imagem (Brazil)


    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) allows for non-invasive coronary artery disease (CAD) phenotyping. There are still some uncertainties regarding the impact this knowledge has on the clinical care of patients. To determine whether CAD phenotyping by CCTA influences clinical decision making by the prescription of cardiovascular drugs and their impact on non-LDL cholesterol (NLDLC) levels. We analysed consecutive patients from 2008 to 2011 submitted to CCTA without previous diagnosis of CAD that had two serial measures of NLDLC, one up to 3 months before CCTA and the second from 3 to 6 months after. A total of 97 patients were included, of which 69% were men, mean age 64 ± 12 years. CCTA revealed that 18 (18%) patients had no CAD, 38 (39%) had non-obstructive (< 50%) lesions and 41 (42%) had at least one obstructive ≥ 50% lesion. NLDLC was similar at baseline between the grups (138 ± 52 mg/dL vs. 135 ± 42 mg/dL vs. 131 ± 44 mg/dL, respectively, p = 0.32). We found significative reduction in NLDLC among patients with obstrctive lesions (-18%, p = 0.001). We also found a positive relationship between clinical treatment intensification with aspirin and cholesterol reducing drugs and the severity of CAD. Our data suggest that CCTA results were used for cardiovascular clinical treatment titration, with especial intensification seen in patients with obstructive ≥50% CAD.

  13. Use of digital subtraction angiography for assessment of digital replantatlon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-hong WANG; Guang-qiang ZHANG


    Objective:To assess the blood flow of the proper digital artery using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the early stage after replantation.Methods:From January 2006 to October 2010,27 anastomosed arteries in 27 replanted digits were included in the study.The patients included nine males and four females.The patients received DSA at 48 to 96 h after digital replantation.Based on DSA image,the blood flow was classified into normal,slow-running,and flow-stopping types.The patients with normal digital blood flow were given continuous routine treatments; the patients with slow-running flow were given the conservative treatments,such as release of the tight dressings,removal of stitches,keeping warm,the use of massage,and the use of anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs; the patients with flow-stopping received immediate surgical re-exploration.Results:In this series,23 digits in 11 patients showed a normal blood flow,and these digits all survived.In one of 13 patients,two digits which displayed slow-running flow also survived after conservative treatments.In two of 13 patients,two digits showed flow stopping,with one surviving and one failing after re-exploration and arterial revision.Conclusions:The DSA can be used to assess the blood flow of the proper digital artery in the early stage after replantation.It provides essential information for salvaging the replanted finger.

  14. Time-resolved MR angiography with limited projections. (United States)

    Huang, Yuexi; Wright, Graham A


    A method for reconstruction of time-resolved MRI called highly-constrained backprojection (HYPR) has been developed. To evaluate the HYPR reconstruction in relation to data sparsity and temporal dynamics, computer simulations were performed, investigating signal modulations under different situations that reflect dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA). In vivo studies were also performed with gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) for abdominal MRA in a canine model to demonstrate the application of HYPR for three-dimensional (3D) time-resolved MRA. When contrast dynamics vary over space, large vessels (e.g., veins) tend to introduce signal interference to small vessels (e.g., arteries) in HYPR, particularly when the vessels are in close proximity. The enhancement of background tissue signals may also alter the arterial and venous temporal profiles in HYPR. However, the artifacts are manifest as intensity modulation rather than structural interference, and therefore have little impact on structural diagnosis. Increasing the number of projections per time point increases temporal blur while reducing corruption of temporal behavior from adjacent tissues. Uniformly interleaved acquisition order, such as the bit-reversed order, is important to reduce artifacts. With high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and limited artifacts, HYPR reconstruction has potential to greatly improve time-resolved MRA in clinical practice.

  15. Recurrent contrast-induced encephalopathy following coronary angiography. (United States)

    Spina, Roberto; Simon, Neil; Markus, Romesh; Muller, David W M; Kathir, Krishna


    Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is an acute and reversible neurological disturbance associated with the intra-arterial administration of iodinated contrast medium during cardiac catheterisation. It may manifest with encephalopathy, motor and sensory disturbances; vision disturbances, including cortical blindness, ophthalmoplegia, aphasia; and seizures. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier and direct neuronal toxicity are believed to be implicated in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Symptoms appear soon after contrast administration and resolve completely within 24-48 h. Risk factors may include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, the administration of large volumes of iodinated contrast, percutaneous coronary intervention or selective angiography of internal mammary grafts and previous adverse reaction to iodinated contrast. On cerebral imaging, CIE may mimic subarachnoid haemorrhage or cerebral ischaemia, but imaging may be normal. Prognosis is excellent with supportive management alone. CIE may recur, but re-challenge with iodinated contrast without adverse effects has been documented. CIE is a diagnosis of exclusion and is an important clinical entity to consider in the differential diagnosis of stroke following cardiac catheterisation. Physicians should be aware of it and consider it prior to initiating thrombolysis.

  16. Angiography Diagnosis and Treatment of Traumatic Artery Bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; WANG Yan; LIU Jingzhang


    Objective After angiography and embolization of three cases suffering from traumatic artery bleeding we summarized the selective embolization of different artery bleeding cases and their treatment analysis. Methods The three cases were all female,among them,one suffering from hepatic artery bleeding by a traffic accident, the other two caused by iatrogenic damage. Of the two, one suffered from bleeding after the gall bladder removal, the other from bleeding after puncture biopsy through the kidney.Seldinger technique was used on the three cases, and puncture intubation was superselected and put through arterial femoralis. Catheters were put separately inside the target blood vessels to have radiography and contrast medium was found to have out flowed out to the bleeding artery. And then the mixed gelatin sponge particles were put into, Ultravist contrast medium to make suspension. Through fluoroscopy the suspension was injected into bleeding artery until no contrast medium out flowed. After that radiography was used to watch the result. Results After the embolization the three cases stopped bleeding at once with remarkable effects. Conclusion Therefore we conclude the embolization is the best method for treating artery bleeding.

  17. Diagnosis of carotid body tumor by digital subtraction angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚跃勇; 邹利光; 孙清荣; 徐健; 周政; 谭颖徽


    Objective: To make a further understanding of the features of the carotid body tumor (CBT) by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) so as to explore the clinical value of DSA diagnosis and interventional therapy for CBT. Methods: DSA data from 12 cases of CBT were analyzed retrospectively. A consensus interpretation of the DSA appearances in all of the patients was reached after dynamic observation by 2 experienced radiologists in a double-blind manner. Results: Definite diagnosis in all cases could be made by DSA. The DSA features of the CBT included bigger bifurcation angles of the internal and external carotid arteries, displacement of internal and external carotid arteries, CBT supplied by external carotid arteries in most cases and the significant increase of tumor blood vessels in bifurcation. Invasion of internal or external carotid arteries was found in 6 cases. Smaller stained area of the tumor and significantly reduced intraoperative bleeding were found after embolization of the supplying arteria in 2 cases. Conclusion: DSA is the effective method for the diagnosis and preoperative assessment of CBT. Preoperative embolization of CBT may contribute to the reduced intraoperative bleeding.

  18. Middle cerebral artery variations detected by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Radiology


    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) variations are found incidentally on cranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Our goal was to examine the incidence and types of MCA variations detected by MRA. Between April 1996 and March 1999, cranial MRA was performed in 432 cases at our institution. Most of the patients examined had or were suspected to have cerebrovascular disease. After excluding 7 patients with moyamoya disease, we retrospectively reviewed 425 MRA results. A 1.5-T scanner was used in all studies, and maximum-intensity projection images obtained using the three-dimensional time-of-flight technique were displayed stereoscopically. In the 425 patients MRA revealed 16 anomalous MCAs, including 9 duplicated MCAs, 5 accessory MCAs, and 2 fenestrated MCAs, which is a rate of 3.8%. Thus, although the clinical significance is not great, we found a relatively high incidence of anomalous MCAs on MRA. We stress that knowledge and recognition of these variations are useful and important during the interpretation of cranial MRA. (orig.)

  19. Comparative Study on 16-slice CT Coronary Angiography vs Conventional Coronary Angiography-A Report of 38 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan CHEN; Ping HAN; Bo LIANG; Huimin LIANG; Ziqiao LEI; Zhiliang TIAN; Gansheng FENG; Jie XIAO


    The clinical application of 16-slice CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and the impact of plaques differently characterized on assessing coronary artery stenosis were evaluated. Thirty-eight patients with coronary artery disease diagnosed by conventional coronary angiography (CAG) un- derwent 16-slice CTCA (collimation: 16×0.75 mm; rotation time: 420 msec; kernel: 35f; effective current: 500 mAs; tube voltage: 120 kV). The interval between CTCA and CAG was within one month. CTCA was evaluated by consensus of two independent experienced radiologists unknowing CAG findings. Original images, maximum intensity projections and multiplanar reconstructions were used to assess coronary artery stenosis. For a determined plaque an attenuation value≥130 HU was considered as calcified, and <130 HU noncalcified. The plaques were then classified into significant calcification (extensive calcification), medium calcification (small isolated calcification) and noncal- cification. The diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice CTCA findings as well as to detect ≥50% stenoses caused by plaques was evaluated respectively regarding CAG as the standard of reference. In com- parison with CAG findings, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value derived from CTCA for mild stenosis (<50%) were 72.7%, 38.5%, 50%, 62.5%, respectively; for moderate stenosis (50%-75%) 82.4%, 72.7%, 70%, 84.2%, resepctively; and for severe coronary stenosis (>75%) 85%, 90.5%, 81%, 92.7% respectively. With the increase of stenoses degree, the value of CTCA was greater. For the classification of the plaque calcification with ≥50% stenosis CTCA at- tained the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for severe calcificatoin 73.3%, 22.2%, 61.1% and 33.3%, respectively; for moderate calcification 70%, 55.6%, 63.6% and 62.5%, respectively; for noncalcification 93.8%, 85.7%, 93.8% and 85.7% respectively. CTCA was restricted in assessing coronary artery stenosis in the

  20. Visual SLAM using straight lines


    Mees Martínez, Oier


    The present thesis is focuses on the problem of Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) using only visual data (VSLAM). This means to concurrently estimate the position of a moving camera and to create a consistent map of the environment. Since implementing a whole VSLAM system is out of the scope of a degree thesis, the main aim is to improve an existing visual SLAM system by complementing the commonly used point features with straight line primitives. This enables more accurate...

  1. Usefulness of thin axial images of computerized tomography angiography for surgery on paraclinoid carotid artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Shiro; Deguchi, Jun; Arai, Motohiro; Tanaka, Hideo; Ohta, Tomio [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)


    Ten cases involving a total of 13 aneurysms located in the clinoid portion of the carotid artery were included in this study according to Al-Radham`s classification. Non-ionic, iodinated contrast solution, a total of 2 ml/ kg, was intravenously infused at a rate of 2 ml/sec. Helical scanning was begun 30 seconds after initiating the infusion, 1 mm pitch/1.5 second/rotation. 3-D images and original images of axial slices were compared to conventional angiography, DSA and surgical findings. The 3-D images of 3-D-CT-A were able to demonstrate both aneurysms located in the C2 segment of the carotid artery (groups I and II), and five of nine carotid cave aneurysms (group III). The aneurysms located more proximally (group IV or V) could not be visualized. Original axial images of 3-D-CT-A, on the other hand, clearly demonstrated the C2, C3 and C4 segment of the carotid artery, dome and neck of the aneurysm and bone structures such as the anterior clinoid process (ACP) and sella turcica in all cases. 3-D-CT-A is known to have several advantages in cases involving common locations around the Willis ring: multiple aneurysms on a single approach line, a giant aneurysm whose neck is not clearly demonstrated, or bony structures disturbing the access to aneurysms. However, it has been generally regarded that 3-D-CT-A is of little value for diagnosing paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms. This study demonstrated that a series of original axial images of 3-D-CT-A provides excellent information regarding surgical anatomy; each segment of the carotid artery, neck and dome of the aneurysms, the ACP and its topographic relations to the aneurysm, calcification, and so forth. Since aneurysms can be visualized even in the presence of clips applied to adjacent aneurysms, original images are useful for the follow-up of these specific untreated aneurysms. (J.P.N.).

  2. Visualizing inequality (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo


    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.

  3. Non-contrast-enhanced 4D MR angiography with STAR spin labeling and variable flip angle sampling: a feasibility study for the assessment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jinhee; Kim, Bom-yi; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Schmitt, Peter [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Kim, Inseong; Paek, Munyoung [Siemens AG, Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of non-contrast-enhanced 4D magnetic resonance angiography (NCE 4D MRA) with signal targeting with alternative radiofrequency (STAR) spin labeling and variable flip angle (VFA) sampling in the assessment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in the transverse sinus. Nine patients underwent NCE 4D MRA for the evaluation of DAVF in the transverse sinus at 3 T. One patient was examined twice, once before and once after the interventional treatment. All patients also underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and/or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA). For the acquisition of NCE 4D MRA, a STAR spin tagging method was used, and a VFA sampling was applied in the data readout module instead of a constant flip angle. Two readers evaluated the NCE 4D MRA data for the diagnosis of DAVF and its type with consensus. The results were compared with those from DSA and/or CEMRA. All patients underwent NCE 4D MRA without any difficulty. Among seven patients with patent DAVFs, all cases showed an early visualization of the transverse sinus on NCE 4D MRA. Except for one case, the type of DAVF of NCE 4D MRA was agreed with that of reference standard study. Cortical venous reflux (CVR) was demonstrated in two cases out of three patients with CVR. NCE 4D MRA with STAR tagging and VFA sampling is technically and clinically feasible and represents a promising technique for assessment of DAVF in the transverse sinus. Further technical developments should aim at improvements of spatial and temporal coverage. (orig.)

  4. Correlation of 64 row MDCT, echocardiography and cardiac catheterization angiography in assessment of pulmonary arterial anatomy in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekhar, Guruprasadh, E-mail: [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh, E-mail: [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Saxena, Akshay Kumar, E-mail: [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Rohit, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: [Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: [Departments of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)


    Objective: To study the correlation of low-dose 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with echocardiography and cardiac catheterization angiography (CCA) in the assessment of pulmonary arterial anatomy in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). Materials and methods: This prospective study included 105 children (74 males, 31 females) with CCHD, in the age group of 2 months to 20 years, who underwent 64-row MDCT examination (low-dose CT protocol), echocardiography and CCA for the assessment of pulmonary arteries, including visualization, presence of confluence, stenosis and collaterals. Statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric statistical analysis test to evaluate the concordance or discordance between echocardiography, MDCT and CCA. Results: 64-row MDCT detected significantly more main and branch pulmonary arteries, patent pulmonary confluences, and more cases of pulmonary artery stenosis. CCA detected more major aorto-pulmonary collaterals than MDCT, whereas echocardiography failed to identify these major aorto-pulmonary collaterals. The effective CT radiation dose to patients less than 2 years of age was in the range of 0.7–2.5 mSv, where as the dose in patients more than 2 years of age ranged from that of 2.1 to 4.2 mSv, which is much less than the radiation dose reported in cardiac catheterization angiography. Conclusion: In cases where cardiac MRI cannot be performed, or is not sufficiently informative, low-dose 64-row MDCT correlates well with CCA and can provide adequate information about pulmonary arterial anatomy in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease, and can replace invasive cardiac catheterization angiography with markedly reduced radiation dosage to the patient.

  5. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography; Alteracoes parenquimatosas na trombose venosa cerebral: aspectos da ressonancia magnetica e da angiorressonancia

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    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Boasquevisque, Edson [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de [Hospital da Beneficencia Portuguesa do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Imagem. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica


    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  6. Kendall-Theil Robust Line (KTRLine--version 1.0)-A Visual Basic Program for Calculating and Graphing Robust Nonparametric Estimates of Linear-Regression Coefficients Between Two Continuous Variables (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.


    The Kendall-Theil Robust Line software (KTRLine-version 1.0) is a Visual Basic program that may be used with the Microsoft Windows operating system to calculate parameters for robust, nonparametric estimates of linear-regression coefficients between two continuous variables. The KTRLine software was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, for use in stochastic data modeling with local, regional, and national hydrologic data sets to develop planning-level estimates of potential effects of highway runoff on the quality of receiving waters. The Kendall-Theil robust line was selected because this robust nonparametric method is resistant to the effects of outliers and nonnormality in residuals that commonly characterize hydrologic data sets. The slope of the line is calculated as the median of all possible pairwise slopes between points. The intercept is calculated so that the line will run through the median of input data. A single-line model or a multisegment model may be specified. The program was developed to provide regression equations with an error component for stochastic data generation because nonparametric multisegment regression tools are not available with the software that is commonly used to develop regression models. The Kendall-Theil robust line is a median line and, therefore, may underestimate total mass, volume, or loads unless the error component or a bias correction factor is incorporated into the estimate. Regression statistics such as the median error, the median absolute deviation, the prediction error sum of squares, the root mean square error, the confidence interval for the slope, and the bias correction factor for median estimates are calculated by use of nonparametric methods. These statistics, however, may be used to formulate estimates of mass, volume, or total loads. The program is used to read a two- or three-column tab-delimited input file with variable names in the first row and

  7. CRosser As First choice for crossing Totally occluded coronary arteries (CRAFT Registry): Focus on conventional angiography and computed tomography angiography predictors of success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); S. Brugaletta (Salvatore); C.A.G. van Mieghem (Carlos); N. Gonzalo (Nieves); R. Diletti (Roberto); J. Gomez-Lara (Josep); F. Airoldi (Flavio); M. Carlino (Mauro); D. Tavano (Davide); A. Chieffo (Alaide); M. Montorfano (Matteo); I. Michev (Iassen); A. Colombo (Antonio); M. van der Ent (Martin); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)


    textabstractAims: We investigated the use of the CROSSER catheter, a CTO crossing device based upon high frequency mechanical vibration, as a first resort to treat patients with chronic total occlusions (CTO) while describing angiographic and computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) serving a

  8. Development of a theory for generating regional cardiac perfusion images during coronary angiography in the coronary angiography lab. (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Takuya; Ichihara, Takashi; Trost, Jeffrey C; Yousuf, Omair; Lima, Joao A C; Yao, Jingwu; George, Richard T


    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel theory and method for generating regional myocardial perfusion images using fluoroscopy in the coronary angiography lab. We modified the Kety model to introduce the Patlak plot method for two-dimensional fluoroperfusion (FP) imaging. For evaluation, seven porcine models of myocardial ischemia with stenosis in the left coronary artery were prepared. Rest and stress FP imaging were performed using cardiovascular X-ray imaging equipment during the injection of iopamidol via the left main coronary artery. Images were acquired and retrospectively ECG gated at 80 % of the R-R interval. FP myocardial blood flow (MBF) was obtained using the Patlak plot method applied to time-intensity curve data of the proximal artery and myocardium. The results were compared to microsphere MBF measurements. Time-intensity curves were also used to generate color-coded FP maps. There was a moderate linear correlation between the calculated FP MBF and the microsphere MBF (y = 0.9758x + 0.5368, R² = 0.61). The color-coded FP maps were moderately correlated with the regional distribution of flow. This novel method of first-pass contrast-enhanced two-dimensional fluoroscopic imaging can quantify MBF and provide color coded FP maps representing regional myocardial perfusion.

  9. Arterial Obstruction on Computed Tomographic or Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Response to Intravenous Thrombolytics in Ischemic Stroke (United States)

    Mair, Grant; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Adami, Alessandro; White, Philip M.; Adams, Matthew E.; Yan, Bernard; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Farrall, Andrew J.; Sellar, Robin J.; Sakka, Eleni; Palmer, Jeb; Perry, David; Lindley, Richard I.; Sandercock, Peter A.G.


    Background and Purpose— Computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are used increasingly to assess arterial patency in patients with ischemic stroke. We determined which baseline angiography features predict response to intravenous thrombolytics in ischemic stroke using randomized controlled trial data. Methods— We analyzed angiograms from the IST-3 (Third International Stroke Trial), an international, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial of intravenous alteplase. Readers, masked to clinical, treatment, and outcome data, assessed prerandomization computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography for presence, extent, location, and completeness of obstruction and collaterals. We compared angiography findings to 6-month functional outcome (Oxford Handicap Scale) and tested for interactions with alteplase, using ordinal regression in adjusted analyses. We also meta-analyzed all available angiography data from other randomized controlled trials of intravenous thrombolytics. Results— In IST-3, 300 patients had prerandomization angiography (computed tomographic angiography=271 and magnetic resonance angiography=29). On multivariable analysis, more extensive angiographic obstruction and poor collaterals independently predicted poor outcome (PHandicap Scale (P≥0.075) in IST-3. In meta-analysis (5 trials of alteplase or desmoteplase, including IST-3, n=591), there was a significantly increased benefit of thrombolytics on outcome (odds ratio>1 indicates benefit) in patients with (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–3.64; P=0.011) versus without (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–1.35; P=0.566) arterial obstruction (P for interaction 0.017). Conclusions— Intravenous thrombolytics provide benefit to stroke patients with computed tomographic angiography or magnetic resonance angiography evidence of arterial obstruction, but the sample was underpowered to demonstrate significant

  10. A Randomized-Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Reflexology on Anxiety of Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography


    Molavi Vardanjani, Mehdi; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Razavi, Narges Sadat; Aghajani, Mohammad; Azizi-Fini, Esmail; Vaghefi, Seied Morteza


    Background: The anxiety reduction before coronary angiography has clinical advantages and is one of the objectives of nursing. Reflexology is a non-invasive method that has been used in several clinical situations. Applying reflexology might have effect on the reduction of anxiety before coronary angiography. Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate the effect of reflexology on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: This t...

  11. Angiography-based C-arm CT for the assessment of extrahepatic shunting before radioembolization

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    Heusner, Till Alexander; Hahn, S.; Forsting, M.; Antoch, G. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany); Hamami, M.E.; Poeppel, T.; Bockisch, A. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany); Ertle, J.; Hilgard, P. [Klinik fuer Gastroenterologie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany)


    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the accuracy of angiography-based C-arm CT for the detection of extrahepatic shunting before SIRT. Materials and methods: 30 patients (mean age: 64 {+-} 12 years) with hypervascularized hepatic tumors underwent hepatic angiography, coil embolization of gastrointestinal collaterals and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) SPECT/CT before SIRT. Before MAA injection via a microcatheter from the intended treatment position, an angiography and angiography-based C-arm CT (XperCT trademark, Philips Healthcare) were acquired. Angiographies and XperCT trademark were performed from 48 microcatheter positions followed by MAA injections and MAA-SPECT/CT. MAA-SPECT/CT served as the reference standard for determining the accuracy of hepatic arteriography and C-arm CT for the detection of extrahepatic shunting. Results: MAA-SPECT/CT revealed extrahepatic shunting in 5 patients (17%). Hepatic arteriography yielded a true negative in 22 (73%), a false negative in 5 (17%), and an unclear result in 3 patients (10%). C-arm CT yielded a true positive in 3 (10%), true negative in 24 (80%), false positive in 1 (3%), and false negative in 2 patients (7%). The specificity and the NPV of hepatic arteriography for the detection of extrahepatic shunting were 88% and 81%, respectively. For C-arm CT the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for the detection of extrahepatic shunting were 60%, 96%, 75%, 92%, and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: C-arm CT offers additional information to angiography when assessing SIRT patients for extrahepatic shunting. More accurate detection of extrahepatic shunting may optimize the workflow in SIRT preparations by avoiding unnecessary repeat angiographies. (orig.)

  12. Feasibility and utility of transradial cerebral angiography: experience during the learning period

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    Kim, Ji Hyung; Park, Yong Sung; Chung, Chul Gu; Park, Kyeong Sug; Chung, Dong Jin; Kim, Hyun Jin [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    We wanted to present our experiences for performing transradial cerebral angiography during the learning period, and we also wanted to demonstrate this procedure's technical feasibility and utility in various clinical situations. Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the study. All of them had unfavorable situations for performing transfemoral angiography, i.e., IV lines in the bilateral femoral vein, a phobia for groin puncture, decreased blood platelet counts, large hematoma or bruise, atherosclerosis in the bilateral femoral artery and the insistence of patients for choosing another procedure. After con firming the patency of the ulnar artery with a modified Allen's test and a pulse oximeter, the procedure was done using a 21-G micorpuncture set and 5-F Simon II catheters. After angiography, hemostasis was achieved with 1-2 minutes of manual compression and the subsequent application of a hospital-made wrist brace for two hours. The technical feasibility and procedure-related immediate and delayed complications were evaluated. The procedure was successful in 30/32 patients (93.8%). Failure occurred in two patients; one patient had hypoplasia of the radial artery and one patient had vasospasm following multiple puncture trials for the radial artery. Transradial cerebral angiography was technically feasible without significant difficulties even though it was tried during the learning period. Pain in the forearm or arm developed in some patients during the procedures, but this was usually mild and transient. Procedure-related immediate complications included severe bruising in one patient and a small hematoma in one patient. Any clinically significant complication or delayed complication such as radial artery occlusion was not demonstrated in our series. Transradial cerebral angiography is a useful alternative for the patients who have unfavorable clinical situations or contraindications for performing transfemoral cerebral angiography. For the experienced

  13. Radiological findings of dissecting aneurysm -a correlative study of CT with angiography-

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    Bae, Tae Yeong; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study comprised 16 patients with aortic dissecting aneurysm who were admitted to Seoul National University Hospital from May 1984 to January 1987. CT findings in 16 cases of aortic dissecting aneurysm were correlated with angiographic findings retrospectively. The results were analysed. 1. Number of male was 11 and that of female was 5. Male patients in fifties were most common and 4 in number. 13 patients had hypertension or history of hypertension among 14 patients. There were one case of Marfan's syndrome, preeclampsia and Takayasu's arteritis respectively. 2. There were 5 cases of DeBakey type I, 1 case of type II and 9 cases of types III dissecting aneurysm. Type III was most common. 3. CT confirmed as superior vena cava which was not identified whether it was superior vena cava or unopacified false lumen by angiography in one case. Regarding distal extent, authors defined A whose extent was proximal to diaphragm and B beyond it for convenience sake. There was one false negative case in CT among 16 cases which was diagnosed as dissecting aneurysm type IIIB by angiography and confirmed as type III surgically. One case was diagnosed as type IB by CT and as type IIIB by angiography and confirmed as type I surgically. Extent was more accurate in CT than angiography. One case was diagnosed as type II by CT but misdiagnosed as right atrial tumor by angiography. 4. Diagnostic sensitivities of CT and angiography in this study were 94% (15/16) respectively. CT was more advantageous in hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemomediastinum, unopacified false lumen, aortic wall calcification and getting information about mediastinum. In angiography aortic regurgitation and tear site and involvement of abdominal vessels could be observed.

  14. The Impact of Aromatherapy on the Anxiety of Patients Experiencing Coronary Angiography

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    Homeyra Tahmasbi


    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety among patients experiencing coronary angiography increases within invasive studies including angiography. Anxiety as an intensifier at cardiovascular reactions can endanger patients in angiography clinics. Studies indicate that lavendula spica L. inhalation can decrease anxiety. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of aromatherapy on the anxiety level of patients experiencing coronary angiography. Materials and Methods: This research is a clinical trial study performed on a group of 96 patients hospitalized in Sari Fatemeh-Zahra Hospital for coronary angiography who were randomly selected. They were divided in two subject (45 patients and control (46 patients groups. Demographic data sheets, recording sheet of homodynamic variables and Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory were distributed among the two groups before and after aromatherapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS-16 as well as statistical T-test and chi-square test. Results: The two groups were homogenous in terms of gender, marital status, level of education, sickness background, age and health insurance. The data indicated that anxiety level decreased significantly in the subject group compared with the control group after aromatherapy (P < 0.0001. There was also a significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and respiratory rate as well as heartbeat parameters in these two groups. (P<0.05 Conclusion: Lavendula aroma inhalation can decrease anxiety level of patients before coronary angiography and accordingly aromatherapy can be used as health care intervention and mental support, without any side effects, for the patients before invasive interventions such as angiography.

  15. Effect of Benson Relaxation Techniques on Hemodynamic Variables of Patient Undergoing Coronary Angiography

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    M khani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Invasive diagnostic procedures such as coronary angiography, in most cases, are accompanied by stress and anxiety for patients,which may effect on hemodynamic signs. Materials and Methods:This research, as a quasi experimental study, has the objective to determine the influence of applying methods of relaxation on hemodynamic signs in hospitalized 40 patients, experienciny coronary angiography (CA,, has been studied, in regard to existing conditions and methods of sampling and random allocation to two groups of control and relaxation at 2003 . Data collection tool included demographic and disease related information sheet, as well as record sheets for hemodynamic parameters at intervals of 8-12 and ½ hrs before, during and after the angiography. For relaxation group, the researcher would speak individually about the influence of relaxation, the day before angiography; Then with the aid of client himself/herself, performed relaxation instances in a single bout, and eventually asked client to perform relaxation technique 2-3 times before going for angiography. In control group was attended in the usual manner preangiographically. Homodynamic parameters were measured in both groups 8-12 and ½ hrs, before during and after CA. Afterward, resulted data were analyzed statistically by T-Test Chi-squre. Results: With T-Test, respiratory rates½ hrs, beforeAngiography, diastolic blood pressure and Respiratory Rate after Angiography showed statisticaly significant difference between two groups (P0.05.but most of parameters showed clinically significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: Therfore it is offered that relaxation method is applied after invasive procedures.